Was first known as The Nome Cult Farm, an administrative extension of the Nome Lackee Reservation Located one mile North of Covelo, Ca in Northern Mendocino county and a piece runs into Tehama county It is made up of six tribes: Yuki, Pit River, Nomlacki, Concow, Pomo, and Wailacki The land originally belonged to the Yuki tribe Many of the other tribes forced onto the Yuki tribes land were once their enemies
The Yuki tribe lived along the middle fork of the Eel river, where they hunted deer and quail. They also fished for salmon and trout and gathered acorns to make soup, mush, and bread. The Yuki people made baskets to make everyday life easier as well. The Yuki people got their name from the Nomlaki tribe that lived on the other side of the mountains. In the Wintu language Yuki means enemy or thief and the European settlers quickly adopted it. However the Yuki people called them selves Ukomno’m or Valley People probably because they were the original tribe of Round Valley.
The Yuki people were treated very poorly and unfairly. They were forced into slaves by the local ranchers and authority and suffered death raids as well. In 1850 the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians allowed whites to enslave Yuki women and children and pay $50 to $100 for them. As a result of the Yuki tribe and other local tribes being forced onto the same land the Mendocino War of 1859 occurred, where US forces killed hundreds of Yuki people and again forced other Native Americans on the land as well.
The first encounter the Yuki people had with a white person was that of Frank Asbill and his people or so goes the Yuki legend. According to the legend Asbill and his people first met the Nomlaki people who told them that the Yuki tribe lived on the other side of the mountains. Later Asbill and the other rode their horses over the coast range finding Round Valley that they thought was beautiful. They then ran into the Yuki people and proceeded to kill 45 of them. It is said that there was a bronze plaque to mark the spot Asbill “discovered” Round Valley, but it fails to mention the 45 Yuki Indians that were killed in the process.
Yuki Tribe MusicI was unable to find any music forthe Yuki tribe. However while I wasdoing my research I did notice thatthe Pomo tribe and the Yuki tribesheaddress and feathers are verysimilar. The only difference I couldtell was that the Pomo people wearthe feathers around their waistinstead of over their shoulders.
The Pit River tribe is made up of 11 different bands. Of that 11 bands I was unable to find a definite answer on which one belongs to the Round Valley Reservation. However I did find that the Pit River territory ranges from Mt. Shasta, Lassen Peak, and the Warner Range in Modoc county. Making it confusing on exactly why they are part of the Round Valley Reservation. My only thought is that when the European settlers came to California, they forced the Pit River tribe onto the reservation as well to use the tribe’s land for farming.
Like the Yuki tribe the Pit River Indians were known for their fishing, hunting, and gathering. They were also known for their basket weaving, that helped to make everyday task easier, i.e. harvesting seeds and cooking. As far as the musical instruments they used its unclear on exactly what they used. However I do know that they made rattles and drums from deer hide. Today if you are present at one of their powwows you will find them wear bright colors with bells attached to they, but I’m not sure if this is part of their ancestors culture or not.
Pit River Tribe http://www.youtube.com/wat Music ch?v=yutmWExqoV8&featur e=related http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=Qsz69FloAA4&feature =related
Throughout my research I found that many spelled Nomlacki without the “c”, but the reservation spells it the “c”. So I’m not really sure which one is the correct way to spell it. I found that the Nomlacki tribe is broken into two major divisions, the River Nomlacki and the Hill Nomlacki. The River Nomlacki originate from the Sacramento River Valley while the Hill Nomlacki came from the foothills of the Coast Range. It never specifically says which ones were originally forced onto the Round Valley Reservation. However according to other research I did, the Nomlacki people from the other side of the “Coast Range” were the ones who gave Yuki people their name.
Like the others tribes I have already mentioned the Nomlacki tribe survived on acorns, grass seeds, deer, elk, birds, other small game, and fish. The Nomlacki people were basket weavers as well and used them for the same daily purposes as the other tribes. As far as the Nomlacki music it is unclear on what instruments they might have played, but I feel that it was very similar to that of the Wintu tribe because its stated many times that the tribes are closely related. I had a very hard time finding information about the Nomlacki people because a lot of the information on different websites didn’t match up and when I asked the reservation they said that not much is really known about them.
This is a picture of a Wintu personspearing on the McCloud River. This isthe closest I could get to a picture ofthe Nomlacki people.
This tribe is especially close to my heart because it is the tribe that I belong to. While I was doing my research I found that most spell it Wailaki, but my grandpa who was raised on the reservation and full blooded Indian spelled it Wylacki. I thought that was interesting that it was spelt so many ways. What I know to be true is that the Wailacki people lived on the Eel River and were part of a larger group called the Athapaskan people. They lived in round houses and were hunter and gatherers. I remember my grandpa saying that the coyote is our protector and that if you died in battle you were to be burnt instead of buried. He also told me that the women go the noses, cheeks, and chin tattooed as a sign of respect.
He also told me that the women go the noses, cheeks, and chin tattooed as a sign of respect. And that when you killed an enemy you were suppose to keep their head as a trophy and for the ceremony that followed. As far as their ceremonies and music my grandpa said they had flutes, drums, and rattles and that every song had a purpose. Throughout my research I didn’t find anything that said what my grandpa said wasn’t true. However I did find that there was some connection between the Wailacki tribe and Wintun people and the our language was a dialect of the Kato language.
A picture of a Wailacki man Here is an example of thetattooing my grandpa told me about.
Like many of the other tribe I have discussed in this power point the Concow tribe’s name is spelt different by many others, Konkow and they too are part of a larger tribe known as Maidu tribe. My great grandmother was half Concow and half Wailacki so I talked to my family and found out that she told stories of living on the reservation and how she wished she wasn’t Native American or at least pale enough to pass as white. I found this interesting because I remember my grandpa telling me that many people on the reservation who were pale enough would leave and not claim that they were Native American, so they wouldn’t be discriminated against.
I also remember my grandpa telling me that when he finally left the reservation he only wanted to marry a white women because he wanted his children to be pale skinned and not endure the hatred he did. Again while doing my research I had a very hard time finding anything on the tribe, I did however find that like the other tribes Concow people were hunters and gathers and that they originated from Feather River area. I also found that the Concow people suffered their own trail of tears, when being forced back to the Round Valley Reservation after leaving because of very poor conditions. Beyond this there wasn’t much I could find and my family didn’t really know much.
Yo-E-Ma daughter of To- Me-Ya- Nem, a chief of the Concow Maidu tribe Maidu headman with Treaty Commissioners
According to my research the Pomo territory bordered the Pacific Coast and extended to the Coast Range mountains, staying between Santa Rosa and the Sherwood Valley. It is said that like many of the other tribes, Pomo people would migrate with the seasons to get the most resources from the earth to survive. The Pomo people were hunters and gathers like the rest of the tribes I have discussed and were noted for the basketry and use of feathers. The main destruction of the Pomo tribe was due to the exploitation by the Russians, founding of missions and the settlers that came with the Gold Rush. As far as their music it was very similar to the rest of the tribes with the exception of having clapping sticks.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeHBjGR XqgY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u4drjJkek iU&feature=related A young child preparing for a ceremony. A man in Pomo headdress, notice it is very similar to that of the Yuki Tribe.
Examples of Pomotribe’s extraordinary basketry
As a whole all six tribes were treated very poorly by settlers. Throughout my research I found that many were killed by not only other humans but by the diseases they brought with them. There were many massacres that occurred with all six tribe. I found that they were all hunters, gathers, basket weavers, and their musical instrument were very similar as well. They all seemed to have drums made of hide, some had flutes from hollow twigs, while other had clapping sticks. All in all I found that for the most part many Native Americans in California were very similar in the way of traditions and such. I also found it interesting that Native Americans and African Americans were treated very much the same.
This is book waswritten about the way people onthe Round ValleyReservation were treated by the white people. An example of Indians being used as entertainment
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IIIZmKeVEec This is an example of a ceremonial dance to heal the river and bring salmon to them. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93G7bBrRL- U&feature=related This powwow is not part of the Round Valley Reservation, but I found it intrigue and catchy. It also reminded me of the Pit River Tribe, as far as their headdress and music.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I634gpcC7fI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzckdraHHbc &feature=related I found this interview to be very interesting and thought it needed to be included.
Clark, L Michael. “The Biography of Yo-E-Ma.” 22 Oct 2011 http://www.clarkmichael.com/roots/BIOS/Yoema.htm Four Directions Institute. “Pomo.” Four Directions Press. 2007. 26 Oct 2011 http://www.fourdir.com/pomo.htm Four Directions Institute. “Yuki.” Four Directions Press. Aug. 2007. 20 Oct 2011 http://www.fourdir.com/yuki.htm Goldschmidt, Walter. “Nomlaki.” 15 Oct 2011 http://www.calwater.ca.gov/Admin_Record/C-076118.pdf “Pomo-History and Cultural Relations.” Advameg Inc. 2011. 25 Oct 2011 http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Pomo-History-and-Cultural- Relations.html Revolutionary Worker #917. “Bitter Memories at Round Valley.” July 1997. 20 Oct 2011. http://rwor.org/a/v19/910-19/917/rndvaly.htm