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Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
Week One Powerpoint
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Week One Powerpoint

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For EDT02

For EDT02

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  • 1. The Gilded Age Dr. John Holmes US History, 1865 to present Sample Powerpoint, EDT 02, Merritt College, Fall 2009
  • 2. Transformation of America <ul><li>1865-1920: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population increases 300% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing 1000% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNP per capita more than 300% </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. America before 1877 <ul><li>The First Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron railroads in North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small factories, individual owners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad companies, state help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millionaires and big businesses few and far between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By WWI, U.S. Steel biggest company in world </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. The Corporation <ul><li>Sale of stocks means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of ownership and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockholders vs. management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key role of banks as financiers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From free competition to monopoly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Demarest Lloyd </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Railroads: the first big corporations </li></ul>
  • 5. The Robber Barons <ul><li>Symbols of Gilded Age </li></ul><ul><li>Widely hated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By laborers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By small businessmen </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Jay Gould <ul><li>Most hated man in America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant Administration scandals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Ingersoll on Gould </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sayings: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I can hire one half of the working class to kill the other half. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The effect of this policy will be to anni-hilate the Indians & so greatly benefit us. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>Richest man in world. Gould’s opposite </li></ul><ul><li>Brilliant businessman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price of steel: $126 a ton in 1864, less than 20 in 1890s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steel empire founded on rails for railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Gave it all away. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnegie Institute. </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Corruption of Gilded Age <ul><li>Government favoritism to business </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads and Homestead Act </li></ul><ul><li>The lobbyist: free rail passes </li></ul><ul><li>Where to draw the line? </li></ul><ul><li>The bank bailout </li></ul>
  • 9. Government before the Civil War <ul><li>Federal Government barely existed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The army, the mails </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tariffs on imports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of all government revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern business: high tariffs for “improvements” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern plantation owners opposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great political issue of 19th Century </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. After the Civil War <ul><li>First federal income tax </li></ul><ul><li>Homestead Act in 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>The great land giveaway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1850: 63% of all land federal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1912: half that </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thin line between economic development and corruption </li></ul>
  • 11. Politics after 1877 <ul><li>Party differences mostly rhetorical </li></ul><ul><li>Huge corruption in government at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Hardly any social welfare spending </li></ul><ul><li>Intense political life. Spoils system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plunkett, doc. 19-5. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban social services through parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ward heelers and the poor </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Labor <ul><li>Unions arise after Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>1865-1900: wages of skilled workers double, unskilled decline </li></ul><ul><li>Craft and industrial unionism </li></ul><ul><li>National Labor Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in 1866 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on local craft unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Votes to admit women and blacks. In practice, usually doesn’t. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to establish labor party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapses in Depression of 1870s </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. The Knights of Labor <ul><li>Industrial unionism: skilled and unskilled, men and women, white and black </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion of Chinese: story of George Speed </li></ul><ul><li>“ Producerism”: cooperatives as alternative to capitalism. Alliance with farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers can join, as fellow “producers.” </li></ul>
  • 14. Labor politics <ul><ul><li>Terence Powderly, mayor of Scranton and leader of Knights of Labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry George and the New York Labor Party </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. The Great Upheaval of 1886 <ul><li>1885: Knights of Labor defeat Jay Gould in rail strike </li></ul><ul><li>K of L grows like wildfire </li></ul><ul><li>8 hour day and Mayday </li></ul><ul><li>Haymarket and Albert Parsons </li></ul><ul><li>Powderly comes out against strikes; K of L collapses </li></ul>
  • 16. The Haymarket Affair <ul><li>The monument </li></ul>
  • 17. The American Federation of Labor <ul><li>Samuel Gompers </li></ul><ul><li>National craft unionism </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pure and Simple” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled workers, high dues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unskilled, immigrants, blacks and women excluded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No more involvement with politics </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Ideology of Gilded Age <ul><li>Economic individualism, free market, Adam Smith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No land redistribution in South </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protestant Work Ethic and Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats and Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin, Spencer and Sumner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnegie and Gould </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Next week <ul><li>The Crisis of the 1890s: Populism, Depression; War and Jim Crow </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion Exercise on Spanish-American War? </li></ul><ul><li>Readings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foner, Chapter 17 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson, Chapters 19 and 20; docs. 21-5 and 21-6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get started on Levinsky! </li></ul></ul>

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