Cd nov10 pm

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Cd nov10 pm

  1. 1. INFECTIONS NCM 104 – Class 2015
  2. 2. Review of Physiology • Resistance A. Non-specific Resistance - Body surface barriers - Anti Microbial Secretions - Internal Anti Microbial agents - Phagocytosis part of the reticoendothelial system a. phagocytes - Microphages - Macrophages
  3. 3. • B. Specific Resistance - lymphatic system - lymph vessels - lymph nodes - lymph - spleen
  4. 4. Specific Resistance (cont) • Antigen A. B-lymphocytes B. T – Lymphocytes C. Memory Cells
  5. 5. • Antibody 1. IgG 2. IgA 3. IgM 4. IgD 5. IgE
  6. 6. • Antigen – antibody reactions a. Agglutination b. Cytolysis c. Opsonization d. Neutralization (viral) e. Neutralization (toxin) f. Precipitation
  7. 7. Chain of Infection Susceptible host Portal of Entry Etiologic Agent (microorganism) Reservoir Method of transmission from reservoir to (Source) susceptible host Portal of exit
  8. 8. Pathogens • Bacteria – Aerobic – Anaerobic • Viruses - intracellular parasite capable of reproducing outside of a living cell. • Mycoplasma – similar to bacteria and have no cell wall – resistant to antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesis • Rickettsiae & Chlamydia - rigid cell wall; with some feature of both bacteria and viruses. – Chlamydia- transmitted by direct contact – Rickettsiae- infect cells of arthropods and are transmitted by these vectors. • Fungi - self-limited, affecting the skin and subcutaneous tissue. • Parasites
  9. 9. Reservoir -where the pathogen lives and multiplies – Endogenous – Exogenous • Mode of Transmission – Direct contact – Indirect contact • Vector – Droplet or airborne transmission
  10. 10. Host Factors • Factors that enable a host to resist infections: • Physical barriers • Hostile environment created by stomach acid secretions, urine & vaginal secretions. • Antimicrobial factors e.g. saliva, tears • Respiratory defenses • Specific and nonspecific immune responses to pathogenic invasion. • Age • Nutrition
  11. 11. Portal of Entry • Respiratory Tract • GI Tract • Genitourinary Tract • Skin and mucous membrane • Bloodstream
  12. 12. Stages of Infectious Process • Incubation period – period begins with active replication but with no symptoms • Prodromal stage – Symptoms first appear • Acute phase – proliferation and dissemination of pathogens • Convalescent stage - containment of infection and pathogens are eliminated • Resolution – total elimination of pathogens without residual manifestation Nosocomial infection – Infection acquired in a health care setting. – Typically manifest after 48 hrs. – UTI most common type
  13. 13. FACTORS AFFECTING RISK OF INFECTION • • • • • • • AGE HEREDITY LEVEL OF STRESS NUTRITIONAL STATUS CURRENT MEDICAL THERAPY PRE-EXISTING DISEASE IMMUNIZATION STATUS
  14. 14. Standard precautions • • • • Blood All body fluids, secretions, excretions, Non-intact skin Mucous membranes • Essential elements: • Use barrier protection • Prevent inadvertent percutaneous exposure, dispose of needles • Immediate and thorough hand washing
  15. 15. Infection Control and Prevention
  16. 16. Infection Control in In-Patient Health Care Agencies • • • • Hand Hygiene Patient Placement Protective Equipment Proper disposal of Soiled Equipment
  17. 17. Infection Control In Community – Based Setting • • • • Sanitation Proper Disposal of Waste Food Preparation Report CD Occurrence
  18. 18. Pharmacology • Check for: – History of hypersensitivity. – Age and childbearing status of the client. – Renal function – Hepatic function – Site of infection • Classification of antimicrobial preparations: – Bacteriostatic – Bactericidal
  19. 19. COMMUNICABLE DISEASE – Is any disease that can be transmitted directly or indirectly from one person to another
  20. 20. INFECTION – Is a condition caused by the entry and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms within the host body. – It is also an invasion of an organisms (bacteria, helminths, fungi, parasite, ricketsia and prion)
  21. 21. ISOLATION – It is necessary when a person is known or suspected to be infected with pathogens that can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact. – The principle behind isolation technique is to create a physical barrier that prevents the transfer of infectious agents. To do this you have to know how the organisms are transmitted.
  22. 22. Transmission-Based Precautions –Airborne –Droplets –Contact
  23. 23. AIRBORNE – PRIVATE ROOM – NEGATIVE AIR PRESSURE – VENTILATION SAFEGUARDS air from room is not recirculated to other areas – DOOR SHOULD BE KEPT CLOSED – BARRIER TO SMALL PARTICLES masks HEPA high efficiency particulate air – COVER MOUTH OF PATIENT WITH MASK DURING TRANSPORT
  24. 24. DROPLET • – PRIVATE ROOM – WEAR MASK IF WORKING WITHIN 3 FEET – WEAR MASKS UPON ENTRY INTO THE ROOM – COVER MOUTH OF PATIENT WITH MASK DURING TRANSPORT
  25. 25. CONTACT – PRIVATE ROOM – WEAR GLOVES – GLOVES ARE REMOVED BEFORE EXITING FROM THE ROOM – HANDS ARE WASHED THOROUGHLY – NOTHING IS TOUCHED BEFORE EXITING THE ROOM – GOWN IS WORN WHEN ENTERING THE ROOM – REMOVE GOWN CAUTIOUSLY BEFORE LEAVING THE ROOM – PATIENT CARE ITEMS SHOULD BE RESTRICTED TO SINGLE PATIENT
  26. 26. AFB ISOLATION – VISITORS REPORT TO NURSES’ STATION BEFORE ENTERING ROOM • MASKS ARE TO BE WORN IN THE PATIENT’S ROOM • GOWNS ARE INDICATED TO PREVENT CLOTHING CONTAMINATION • GLOVES ARE INDICATED FOR BODY FLUIDS AND NONINTACTSKIN • HANDWASHING-after touching the patient or potentially contaminated articles and after removing gloves • articles should be discarded, cleaned or sent for decontamination and reprocessing • room is to remain closed • patient is to wear mask during transport
  27. 27. STRICT ISOLATION – VISITORS-REPORT TO NURSES’ STATION BEFORE ENTERING ROOM – PRIVATE ROOM-necessary, door must be kept closed – GOWNS-must be worn by all persons entering the room – MASKS- must be worn by all persons entering the room – HANDS-must be washed on entering and leaving room – GLOVES-must be worn by all persons entering the room – ARTICLES-must be discarded, or wrapped before being sent to CENTRAL SUPPLY for disinfection or sterilization
  28. 28. RESPIRATORY ISOLATION – VISITORS-REPORT TO NURSES’ STATION BEFORE ENTERING ROOM – PRIVATE ROOM-necessary, door must be kept closed – GOWNS-gowns not necessary – MASKS- must be worn by all persons entering the room if susceptible disease – HANDS-must be washed on entering and leaving room – GLOVES-not necessary – ARTICLES-those contaminated with secretions must be disinfected – CAUTION-all persons susceptible to the specific disease should be excluded from the area, susceptibles must wear masks
  29. 29. WOUND AND SKIN PRECAUTIONS – VISITORS-REPORT TO NURSES’ STATION BEFORE ENTERING ROOM – PRIVATE ROOM-desirable – GOWNS-must be worn by all persons having direct contact with the patient – MASKS- during dressing changes – HANDS-must be washed on entering and leaving room – GLOVES-must be worn by all persons having direct contact with infected area – ARTICLES-instruments, dressing, linens
  30. 30. ENTERIC PRECAUTIONS – VISITORS-REPORT TO NURSES’ STATION BEFORE ENTERING ROOM – PRIVATE ROOM-necessary FOR CHILDREN ONLY – GOWNS- must be worn by all persons having direct contact with the patient – MASKS- not necessary – HANDS-must be washed on entering and leaving room – GLOVES-must be worn by all persons having direct contact with patient or articles contaminated with fecal material – ARTICLES-special precautions necessary for articles contaminated with urine and feces, must be disinfected or discarded
  31. 31. PROTECTIVE ISOLATION – VISITORS-REPORT TO NURSES’ STATION BEFORE ENTERING ROOM – PRIVATE ROOM-necessary, door must be kept closed – GOWNS- must be worn by all persons entering room – MASKS- - must be worn by all persons entering room – HANDS-must be washed on entering and leaving room – GLOVES-must be worn by all persons having direct contact with patient

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