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Pharma 1

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  • 1. Introduction to Drugs Nhelia B. Perez, RN, MSN Northeastern College Santiago City Philippines
  • 2. PHARMACOLOGY
    • The study of biological effects of chemicals.
    PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS
    • The branch of Pharmacology that uses drugs to treat, prevent and diagnose disease.
  • 3. SOURCES OF DRUGS
    • Plants
    • Animal Products
    • Inorganic Compounds
    • Synthetic Sources
  • 4. DRUG EVALUATION
    • Preclinical Trials
    • Phase I Studies
    • Phase II Studies
    • Food and Drug Administration Approval
    • Continual Evaluation
  • 5. Legal Regulation of Drugs
    • For thirty years, Republic Act 6425 , otherwise known as the Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972 , had been the backbone of the Philippine drug law enforcement system. Despite the efforts of various law enforcement agencies mandated to implement the law, the drug problem alarmingly escalated. The high profitability of the illegal drug trade, compounded by the then existing laws that imposed relatively light penalties to offenders, greatly contributed to the gravity of the problem.
  • 6.
    • Recognizing the need to further strengthen existing laws governing Philippine drug law enforcement system, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed Republic Act 9165 , or the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002, on June 7,2002 and it took effect on July 4, 2002 . R.A. 9165 defines more concrete courses of action for the national anti-drug campaign and imposes heavier penalties to offenders.
  • 7.
    • Executive Order No. 218
    • Strengthening the support mechanism for the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency
  • 8. Controlled Substances
    • Schedule I (C-1) high abuse potential and no accepted medical use (heroin, marijuana, LSD)
    • Schedule II (C-II) High abuse potential with severe dependence liability. (narcotics, ampethamines and barbiturates)
    • Schedule III (C-III) Less abuse potential than Schedule Ii drugs and moderate dependence liability (nonbarbiturates sedatives, nonamphetamine stimulats, limited amounts of certain narcotics)
  • 9.
    • Schedule IV (C-IV) Less abuse potential than schedule III and limited dependence liability (some sedatives, antianxiety agents and non-narcotic analgesics)
    • Schedule V (C-V) Limited abuse potential.
  • 10.
    • Generic Drugs
    • Orphan Drugs
    • Over-the-counter Drugs
  • 11. SOURCES OF DRUG INFORMATION
    • Package Inserts
    • Reference Books
    • Journals
    • Internet Information
  • 12. DRUGS AND THE BODY
  • 13. PHARMACODYNAMICS
    • DRUG ACTIONS
    • To replace or act as substitutes for missing chemicals.
    • To increase or stimulate certain cellular activities.
    • To depress or slow cellular activities.
    • To interfere with the functioning of foreign cells, such as invading microorganisms or neoplasms.
  • 14. RECEPTOR SITES
    • React with certain chemicals to cause an effect within the cell.
    • Some drugs directly interact with receptor sites to cause the same activity that natural chemicals would cause at the site. (agonist)
    • Other drugs prevent the breakdown of natural chemicals that are stimulating the receptor sites.
    • Some drugs react with receptor sites to block normal stimulation, producing no effect.
    • Other drugs react with specific receptor sites on a cell and by reacting there, prevent the reaction of another chemical with a different receptor site on that cell.
  • 15.
    • DRUG-ENZYME INTERACTIONS
    • SELECTIVE TOXICITY
  • 16. PHARMACODYNAMICS
    • Critical Concentration
    • Loading Dose
    • Dynamic Equilibrium
    • Absorption
    • Administration
    • First pass effect
    • Distribution
    • Protein binding
    • Blood-Brain barrier
  • 17.
    • Placenta and Breast Milk
    • Biotransformation
    • Excretion
    • Half-Life
  • 18. FACTORS INFLUENCING DRUG EFFECTS
    • Weight
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Physiological factors
    • Pathological factors
    • Genetic factors
    • Immunological factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Environmental factors
  • 19.
    • Tolerance
    • Cumulation
    • Drug-drug or drug-alternative therapy interactions
    • Drug laboratory test interactions
  • 20. TOXIC EFFECTS OF DRUGS
  • 21. ADVERSE EFFECTS
    • PRIMARY ACTIONS
    • SECONDARY ACTIONS
    • HYPERSENSITIVITY
    • the Drug may have other effects on the body besides the therapeutic effect.
    • The patient is sensitive to the drug being given.
    • The drug’s action on the body causes other responses that are undesirable or unpleasant.
    • The patient is taking too much or too little of the drug, leading to adverse effects
  • 22. Drug Allergy
    • Can occur when the body forms antibodies to a particular drug.
    • It may be anaphylactic, cytotoxic, serum sickness or delayed allergic reaction.
  • 23. Drug – Induced Tissue and Organ Damage
    • Dermatological Reactions
    • Superinfections
    • Blood dyscrasia
    • Toxicity
    • Alterations in glucose metabolism
    • Electrolyte imbalances
    • Sensory effects
    • Neurologic effects
    • teratogenicity
  • 24. to be continued
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