nhelzki DIRECTING NCM 105


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nhelzki DIRECTING NCM 105

  1. 1. DIRECTING NCM 105 Nursing Leadership & Management
  2. 2. Directing <ul><li>Getting the work done through others. </li></ul><ul><li>Giving orders and directions to others to attain quality patient care. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the issuance of orders, assignments and instructions that enable the nursing personnel to understand what are expected of them. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Elements of Directing <ul><li>Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which a manager assigns specific tasks/ duties to workers with commensurate authority to perform the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Criteria – ability of the worker to carry-out the task & fairness not only to the employee but to the team as a whole. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Principles of Delegation <ul><li>Select the person to whom the job is delegated. </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate both interesting and uninteresting tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide subordinates with enough time to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate gradually. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Delegate in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult before delegating. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid gaps and overlaps. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Matters that cannot be delegated <ul><li>Overall responsibility, authority and accountability for satisfactory completion of all activities in the unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Authority to sign one’s name is never delegated. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating the staff and / or taking necessary corrective or disciplinary action. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Responsibility for maintaining morale or the opportunity to say a few words of encouragement to the staff especially the new ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs that are too technical and those that involve trust and confidence. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nursing Care Assignment <ul><li>Functional Nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Total Care or Case Nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Team Nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Nursing </li></ul>
  9. 9. Other Nursing Assignments <ul><li>Modular Method </li></ul><ul><li>Case Management </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Utilizing / Revising / Updating Nursing Service Policies and Procedures </li></ul>
  11. 11. Supervision <ul><li>Comes from the word “supervide” – “to oversee or view directly. </li></ul><ul><li>It is providing guidelines for the accomplishment of the task or activity with initial direction and periodic inspection. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Qualities of Good Supervision <ul><li>Good technical, managerial and human relation skills; </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to communicate well in both spoken and written language; ability to listen; </li></ul><ul><li>Firmness with flexibility to adjust to the needs of the situation; </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness in dealing with employees </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Familiarity with hospital and nursing policies that affect patient care; </li></ul><ul><li>Good decision-making skills; </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to grow and develop; </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to accept changes and consider them as challenges; </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Dignified and pleasing personality; </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to motivate employees and provide opportunities for continuing professional growth and development and </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy for nurses and nursing. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Principles of Good supervision <ul><li>Good supervision required adequate planning and organization which facilitate cooperation, coordination and synchronization of services; </li></ul><ul><li>Good supervision gives autonomy to workers depending on their competency, personality and commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>Good supervision stimulates the worker’s ambition to grow into effectiveness. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Good supervision creates an atmosphere of cordiality and trust. </li></ul><ul><li>Good supervision considers the strengths and weaknesses of employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Good supervision strives to make the unit an effective learning situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Good supervision considers equal distribution of work considering age, physical condition, and competence. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Techniques in Supervision <ul><li>Participatory Management </li></ul><ul><li>Leading </li></ul>
  18. 18. LEADING <ul><li>TO GUIDE, TO GO BEFORE AND SHOW THE WAY. </li></ul>
  19. 19. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Nhelia S. Bañaga – Perez RN, MSN </li></ul><ul><li>Northeastern College – Nursing Depatment </li></ul><ul><li>Santiago City, Philippines 3311 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Leadership . . . <ul><li>A subject that provokes many questions. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Important Questions <ul><ul><li>Why do some leaders inspire? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do some leaders create empires? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can some losers come to occupy places of great power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do some followers suddenly reject their leaders? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are some followers willing to give their lives for the leader? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Or You can be!
  24. 24. The word leadership can refer to: <ul><li>The process of leading. </li></ul><ul><li>Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to affect human behavior so as to accomplish a mission designated by the leader </li></ul>
  25. 25. Leadership Qualities <ul><li>1. Humility </li></ul><ul><li>It is often found in the most effective leaders, including Pope John Paul II and Abraham Lincoln. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Integrity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders in different industries and cultures can and do spar over the rules, but integrity is the bedrock characteristic of straight dealing. If you lose your integrity, you lose everything. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Leadership Qualities <ul><li>3. Decisiveness </li></ul><ul><li>A leader's ability to step up and make decisions, even if it's deciding only when consensus has been reached and it's time to act. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Take risk </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders have the courage to act in situations where results aren’t assured. They’re willing to risk failure. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Leadership Qualities <ul><li>5. Emotional resonance </li></ul><ul><li>This is the ability to grasp what motivates others and use it to inspire them into action. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Build Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders create productive teams that draw the best from people. They effectively coach teams in collaboration, consensus building, and conflict resolution. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Leadership Qualities <ul><li>7. Self-knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This valuable trait will protect you from overreaching. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Passion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortunately, this trait is prized and encouraged in Filipino life. If you are passionate about something, that's where you will lead. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Leadership Qualities <ul><li>9. Conviction </li></ul><ul><li>All leaders everywhere believe in what they're doing. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Dedication </li></ul><ul><li>Dedication means spending whatever time and energy on a task is required to get the job done, rather than giving it whatever time you have available. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Leadership Qualities <ul><li>11. Magnanimity </li></ul><ul><li>A magnanimous person gives credit where it is due. It also means being gracious in defeat and allowing others who are defeated to retain their dignity . </li></ul><ul><li>12. Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Openness means being able to listen to ideas that are outside one's current mental models, being able to suspend judgement until after one has heard someone else's ideas. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>13. Energetic </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses a striking physical personality. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>possesses a sense of purpose and direction. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>15. Linguist </li></ul><ul><li>has the power of ready speech. </li></ul><ul><li>16. Intelligent, versatile and has a sense of humor </li></ul>
  33. 33. Other Qualities <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates success in carrying out the duties of the leadership position, or the duties necessary to successfully complete the project and/or activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates ability to provide direction for the organization. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates ability to take the lead in meeting organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates reliability and dedication to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization, or the unique service objectives related to service learning. Dedication and implementation and organization of community service events. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Character </li></ul><ul><li>Use of good judgment reflected in all activities. Performance, vision and initiative above the norm in service activities. Character may also be revealed by an individual’s ability to overcome physical and/or environmental handicaps. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Essential Qualities of Nurse Leaders <ul><li>Intellectual, technical and administrative skills </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity, honesty, ability to work with others; </li></ul><ul><li>Tact and emotional stability; </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to win the support and loyalty of fellow-workers; </li></ul><ul><li>Good human relationships with co-workers. </li></ul>
  37. 37. What leadership style work best for me and my organization?&quot; <ul><li>&quot; There are many leadership styles from which to choose </li></ul><ul><li>Different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Basic Leadership Style <ul><li>Autocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul>
  39. 39. Autocratic Leadership Style <ul><li>• The classical approach </li></ul><ul><li>• Manager retains as much power and decision making </li></ul><ul><li>authority as possible </li></ul><ul><li>• Does not consult staff, nor allowed to give any input </li></ul><ul><li>• Staff expected to obey orders without receiving any </li></ul><ul><li>explanations </li></ul><ul><li>• Structured set of rewards and punishments </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Greatly criticized during the past 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>• Gen X staff highly resistant </li></ul><ul><li>• Autocratic leaders: </li></ul><ul><li>• Rely on threats and punishment to influence </li></ul><ul><li>staff </li></ul><ul><li>• Do not trust staff </li></ul><ul><li>• Do not allow for employee input </li></ul>
  41. 41. Not all bad <ul><li>• Sometimes the most effective style to use </li></ul><ul><li>• When: </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 New, untrained staff do not know which tasks to </li></ul><ul><li>perform or which procedures to follow </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Effective supervision provided only through </li></ul><ul><li>detailed orders and instructions </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Staff do not respond to any other leadership style </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Limited time in which to make a decision </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 A manager’s power challenged by staff </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Work needs to be coordinated with another </li></ul><ul><li>department or organization </li></ul>
  42. 42. Should not be used <ul><li>• When: </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Staff become tense, fearful, or resentful </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Staff expect their opinions heard </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Staff depend on their manager to make all their decisions </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Low staff morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage </li></ul>
  43. 43. Bureaucratic Leadership Style <ul><li>• Manages “by the book¨ </li></ul><ul><li>• Everything done according to procedure or policy </li></ul><ul><li>• If not covered by the book, referred to the next level above </li></ul><ul><li>• A police officer not a leader </li></ul><ul><li>• Enforces the rules </li></ul>
  44. 44. Most effective <ul><li>When: </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Staff performing routine tasks over and over </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Staff need to understand certain standards or procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Safety or security training conducted </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Staff performing tasks that require handling cash </li></ul>
  45. 45. Ineffective <ul><li>When: </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Staff lose their interest in their jobs and in their co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>􀂉 Staff do only what is expected of them and no more </li></ul>
  46. 46. Democratic Leadership Style <ul><li>• Also known as participative style </li></ul><ul><li>• Encourages staff to be a part of the decision making </li></ul><ul><li>• Keeps staff informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities </li></ul>
  47. 47. The Leader <ul><li>A coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff before making a decision </li></ul><ul><li>• Produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time </li></ul><ul><li>• Staff like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Democratic Leader <ul><li>Develops plans to help staff evaluate their own performance </li></ul><ul><li>• Allows staff to establish goals </li></ul><ul><li>• Encourages staff to grow on the job and be promoted </li></ul><ul><li>• Recognizes and encourages </li></ul><ul><li>achievement </li></ul>
  49. 49. Most Effective <ul><li>• When: </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to keep staff informed about matters that affect them. </li></ul><ul><li>Wants staff to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties. </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to provide opportunities for staff to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>A large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve </li></ul><ul><li>Changes must be made or problems solved that affect staff </li></ul><ul><li>Want to encourage team building and participation </li></ul>
  50. 50. Democratic leadership should not be used when … <ul><li>• Not enough time to get everyone’s input </li></ul><ul><li>• Easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision </li></ul><ul><li>• Can’t afford mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>• Manager feels threatened by this type of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>• Staff safety is a critical concern </li></ul>
  51. 51. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style <ul><li>• Also known as the “hands-off¨ style </li></ul><ul><li>• The manager provides little or no direction and gives staff as much freedom as possible </li></ul><ul><li>• All authority or power given to the staff and they determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own </li></ul>
  52. 52. An effective style to use … <ul><li>• Staff highly skilled, experienced, and educated </li></ul><ul><li>• Staff have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own </li></ul><ul><li>• Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants used </li></ul><ul><li>• Staff trustworthy and experienced </li></ul>
  53. 53. Should not be used <ul><li>• Staff feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager </li></ul><ul><li>• The manager cannot provide regular feedback to staff on how well they are doing </li></ul><ul><li>• Managers unable to thank staff for their good work </li></ul><ul><li>• The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and hoping the staff cover for him or her </li></ul>
  54. 54. Other Leadership Styles
  55. 55. Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variable. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making.
  56. 56. Similar in some ways to “Great Man” theories, trait theory assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.
  57. 57. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>The hierarchical effect </li></ul><ul><li>A key aspect of the model is the hierarchical nature of the needs. The lower the needs in the hierarchy, the more fundamental they are and the more a person will tend to abandon the higher needs in order to pay attention to sufficiently meeting the lower needs. For example, when we are ill, we care little for what others think about us: all we want is to get better. </li></ul>
  58. 59. As we constantly are predicting likely futures, we create expectations about future events. If things seem reasonably likely and attractive, we know how to get there and we believe we can 'make the difference' then this will motivate us to act to make this future come true.  Motivation is thus a combination of: Valence : The value of the perceived outcome (What's in it for me?) Instrumentality :  The belief that if I complete certain actions then I will achieve the outcome. (Clear path?)  Expectancy : The belief that I am able to complete the actions. (My capability?) Of course you can have an unpleasant outcome, in which case the motivation is now one of avoidance.     Expectancy Theory is also called Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory or VIE Theory . Expectancy Theory
  59. 60. Description A behavior will increase if it is followed by positive reinforcement. It will decrease if it is followed by punishment. Operant Conditioning is thus ‘learning by consequences’. Research Skinner put rats and pigeons in a box where pressing a lever resulted in food being dispensed. From accidental knocking of the lever, they quickly learned to deliberately press it to get food. Example Parents often try to balance praise and punishment. To be effective, they should punish only behaviors they wish to extinguish--they should not punish for not doing what should be done. So what? Using it If you want someone to work harder, do not punish them when they do not work—reward them when they do. If you want them to stop smoking, make it unpleasant when they do rather than pleasant when they refrain.
  60. 61. Equity Theory Description People are happiest in relationships where the give and take are about equal. If one person is getting too little from the relationship, then not only are they going to be unhappy with this—the person getting the lion’s share will also be feeling rather guilty about this imbalance. This is reinforced by strong social norms about fairness. In short-term relationships we tend to trade in things, such as loaning small sums or buying beers. In longer-term relationships the trade is more emotional. Overall, though, it is still better to be getting more than less—although you could feel better about the relationship , the benefits you get from it can buy you compensatory happiness elsewhere. Example Men who have been pulled away from their family by their work sometimes try to even the scales with expensive holidays. This does not work well as they are trying to trade (short-term value) money for (long-term value) emotion.
  61. 62. Relationship theories (also known as “Transformational theories”) focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. These leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Transformational leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. These leaders often have high ethical and moral standards.
  62. 63. The Transformational Leadership <ul><li>• Make change happen in: </li></ul><ul><li>• Self, </li></ul><ul><li>• Others, </li></ul><ul><li>• Groups, and </li></ul><ul><li>• Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>• Charisma a special leadership style commonly associated with transformational leadership; extremely powerful, extremely hard to teach </li></ul>
  63. 64. Management theories (also known as “Transactional theories”) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished.
  64. 65. Transactional Leadership <ul><li>• Emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>• In opposition to transformational leadership </li></ul><ul><li>• “ By the book&quot; approach - the person works within the rules </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly seen in large, bureaucratic organizations </li></ul>
  65. 66. Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.
  66. 67. Creative Leadership <ul><li>Ability to uniquely inspire people, </li></ul><ul><li>To generate shared innovative responses and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>To complex and readily changing situations </li></ul>
  67. 68. Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.
  68. 69. Corrective Leadership <ul><li>Empowers staff to facilitate collaborative and synergism </li></ul><ul><li>Working with and through other people instead of bowing to authoritarianism </li></ul>
  69. 70. Change Leadership <ul><li>• Endorses alteration </li></ul><ul><li>• Beyond thinking about individuals and individual organization, single problems and single solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Rethinking systems to introduce change on parts of the whole and their relationship to one another </li></ul>
  70. 71. Intelligence Leadership <ul><li>To navigate the future by embracing ambiguity and reframing problems as opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>A proactive stance in taking their organizations into uncharted territory </li></ul>
  71. 72. Multicultural Leadership <ul><li>Fosters team and individual effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Drives for innovation by leveraging multicultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Teams work harder in an atmosphere of understanding and mutual respect </li></ul>
  72. 73. Pedagogical Leadership <ul><li>Paradigm shift from leader/teacher centered &quot;orientation&quot; to an interactive, connective organizational system using a democratic learning and communicative style </li></ul><ul><li>An alternative to instructional leadership by enabling the learning and intellectual growth of those led </li></ul>
  73. 74. Servant Leadership <ul><li>A practical philosophy focusing on people who choose to serve first and then lead as a way of expanding service </li></ul><ul><li>Servant leaders are &quot;servants first&quot; with the object of making sure that other people's highest priority needs are being served </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders put the needs of their followers first; these leaders rare in business </li></ul>
  74. 75. Bridging leadership <ul><li>Fostering synergy and reinforcing behavior and motivation through the use of communication to create climate of trust and confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Projection of confidence on the face of a difficult </li></ul><ul><li>challenge </li></ul>
  75. 76. Purposeful Leadership <ul><li>Leader and the community share a common purpose to develop or provide the drive, authority and commitment to undertake projects </li></ul>
  76. 77. Varying Leadership Style <ul><li>• Three factors that influence which leadership style to use. </li></ul><ul><li>1. The manager’s personal background: What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have. What does he or she think will work? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Staff being supervised: Staff individuals with different personalities and backgrounds; The leadership style used will vary depending upon the individual staff and what he or she will respond best to </li></ul><ul><li>3. The organization: The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the organization influence how a manager acts </li></ul>
  77. 78. Determining the Best Leadership Style <ul><li>Should leaders be more task or relationship (people) oriented </li></ul><ul><li>• Leaders have a dominant style, one they use in a wide variety of situations </li></ul><ul><li>• No one best style - leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led </li></ul><ul><li>• Many different aspects to being a great leader - a role requiring one to play many different leadership styles to be successful </li></ul>
  78. 79. To lead you must first be able to follow: for without followers, there can be no leaders. <ul><li>YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THIS PPT PRESENTATION AT www.slideshare.com </li></ul>
  79. 80. Thank you for listening!!!