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  • 1. COPAR Concept of Community
  • 2. Community
    • It is a social group of people, interacting with each other, determined by geographical boundaries, living together to attain certain and common goals and sharing the same interest.
  • 3. Characteristics of a healthy community
    • The members are aware of their own health and biologic status.
    • Members give credit to the governing authority.
    • The natural and biological resources are open for everybody but consumption is controlled.
    • It has a strong and reliable governing body.
  • 4.
    • The people work together to attain independence.
    • Environmental and physiologic needs are sustained by the communities and families.
    • Parents and guardians serve as role models for their children.
    • The people are concern with their health status.
    • Health needs are accessible and affordable to the public and free for the indigents.
    • Everyone is working to attain healthy citizenry.
  • 5. Classification of Community
    • Rural or Open Lands
    • Urban or City
    • Suburban or the Capitals
  • 6. Development of the Community and Society
    • Every human community has institutions for the socialization of its members.
    • Development of community requires sanction of group members.
    • A community is a reflection of all the functional relationships that occur among its individual members.
    • A community or a group can change because of conflict among members.
  • 7.
    • Family is the primary group.
    • Peer groups help youth to establish norms of behavior and assist in the rites of passage from the family group to society.
    • Group membership helps individuals achieve goals that are not attainable through individual effort.
    • Type of leadership in a group depends on the needs of group members as well as the personality of the leader.
  • 8. Leadership styles
    • Authoritarian leader – rigid and uses leadership role as an instrument of power. The leader makes all the decision.
    • Democratic Leader – fair and logical, uses the leadership role to stimulate others to achieve a collective goal.
    • Emotional Leader – reflects the feeling tones, norms and values of the group.
  • 9.
    • Laissez – faire – passive and unproductive; usually assumes the role of a participant – observer and exerts little control or guidance over group behavior.
    • Bureaucratic Leader – rigid and assumes a role that is determined by a formal criteria or rules that are inherent in the organization and frequently unrelated to the present group.
    • Charismatic leader – can assume any of the above behaviors.
  • 10. Type of roles assumed by the members of the group
    • harmonizer
    • questioner
    • deserter
    • Tension deserter
    • encourager
    • monopolizer
    • clarifier
    • Opinion giver
    • initiator
    • listener
    • negativist
    • energizer
    • aggressor
  • 11.
    • Community is a social organization that is considered the individual’s secondary group.
  • 12.  
  • 13. Role of the Community
    • Care for their members when they are ill.
    • Gives high priority in health maintenance and the prevention of disease.
    • Provides for health maintenance.
  • 14. Health Agency as a Social Institution
    • Has a bureacratic structure.
    • Policies, rules and regulations governing behavior of its member.
    • An impersonal viewpoint.
    • A status hierarchy
    • An increasingly specialized subculture.
  • 15. Hospital as a Subculture of the community
    • Employees develop both written and unwritten hospital policies.
    • Recognizes the presence of folklore and folkways.
    • Hospital has several functions
  • 16. Delivery of Health Service : Responsibility of the community
    • Members of society becomes active participants in prevention of illness.
    • Community health centers care for the ill in the home rather than in the hospital.
    • Extended care facilities are established with a more community and homelike atmosphere.
  • 17.
    • Local community leaders take active role in establishing health policy for society.
    • Lay members of the community become involved with health agencies’ policies and decisions.
    • Health maintenance and treatment are no longer considered a privilege, but the right of all members of society.
  • 18. Culture and Health
    • General Influence
    • - cultural background influences the way in which people view both health and disease.
    • - the cultural influences seem to be derived from the areas of nationality and religion rather than race.
  • 19. Specific Influence
    • National Culture may influence an individuals:
    • a. Response to illness, pain and its tolerance
    • b. Need for superstitions and rituals.
    • c. Acceptance of dietary change both in type or in consistency of food.
    • d. Need of support and comfort from the family.
  • 20.
    • Ability to communicate in understandable terms.
    • Response to loss of independence
    • Feelings about loss of privacy and exposure of parts of the body.
    • Feelings about loss of body parts
    • Need for specific rites and rituals associated with dying.
  • 21. Religious Culture may influence an individual’s:
    • View about conception, birth and child care.
    • Views about meaning of pain and suffering.
    • Feelings about meaning of death
    • Desire for guidance from the clergy.
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