The superior vena cava and the pulmonary trunk are attached to the right side of the heart. The aorta and pulmonary veins are attached to the left side of the heart. The right ventricle forms most of the ventral surface of the heart, and the left ventricle forms most of the dorsal surface.
The coronary arteries and cardiac veins pervade cardiac muscle. The coronary arteries bring oxygen and nutrients to cardiac cells, which derive no benefit from blood coursing through the heart.
Oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood never mix.
The heart has four valves. The atrioventricular valves allow blood to pass from the atria to the ventricles, and the semilunar valves allow blood to pass out of the heart.
This diagrammatic representation of the heart allows you to trace the path of the blood through the heart.
If the SA node fails to work properly, the heart still beats due to impulses generated by the AV node, but the beat is slower (40 to 60 beats per minute). To correct this condition, it is possible to implant an artificial pacemaker, which automatically gives an electrical stimulus to the heart.
The SA node sends out a stimulus, which cause the atria to contract. When this stimulus reaches the AV node, it signals the ventricles to contract. Impulses pass down the two branches of the atrioventricular bundle to the Purkinje fibers, and thereafter the ventricles contract.
A normal ECG (top) indicates that the heart is functioning properly. The P wave occurs just prior to atrial contraction; the QRS complex occurs just prior to ventricular contraction; and the T wave occurs when the ventricles are recovering from contraction. Ventricular fibrillation (bottom) produces an irregular electrocardiogram due to irregular stimulation of the ventricles. Ventricular fibrillation is of special interest because it can be caused by an injury or drug overdose. It is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in a seemingly healthy person over age 35. Once the ventricles are fibrillating, they have to be defibrillated by applying a strong electrical current for a short period of time. Then the SA node may be able to reestablish a coordinated beat.
The blue-colored vessels carry O 2 -poor blood, and the red-colored vessels carry O 2 -rich blood; the arrows indicate the flow of blood. Capillaries are present in all parts of the body, so no cell is located far from a capillary.
A realistic representation of the major blood vessels of the systemic circuit shows how the systemic arteries and veins are arranged in the body.
A portal system begins and ends with capillaries. The hepatic portal system begins with capillaries in the small intestine, continues with the hepatic portal vein leading to the liver, and ends with capillaries in the liver.
Although the blood pressure in the brachial artery is typically about 120/80, blood pressure actually varies throughout the body. Blood pressure is highest in the aorta and lowest in the venae cavae.
Blood pressure and blood velocity drop off in capillaries because capillaries have a greater cross-sectional area than arteries.
Blood vessels require oxygen and nutrients, so larger ones have blood vessels in their walls.
The walls of arteries and veins have three layers. The inner layer is composed largely of endothelium, with a basement membrane that has elastic fibers; the middle layer is smooth muscle tissue; the outer layer is connective tissue (largely collagen fibers). Arteries (on left) have a thicker wall than veins because they have a larger middle layer than veins. Capillary walls (center) are one-cell-thick endothelium. Veins (on right) are larger in diameter than arteries, so that collectively veins have a larger holding capacity than arteries.
The inner layer of an artery wall is a simple squamous epithelium called endothelium with a connective tissue basement membrane with elastic fibers. The outer layer is fibrous connective tissue near the middle layer, but it becomes loose connective tissue at its periphery.
Capillaries have one-cell-thick walls composed only of endothelium with a basement membrane. Capillaries form vast networks with a total surface area of 6,000 square meters in humans.
A capillary bed forms a maze of capillary vessels that lies between an arteriole and a venule. When sphincter muscles are relaxed, the capillary bed is open, and blood flows through the capillaries. When sphincter muscles are contracted, blood flows through a shunt that carries blood directly from an arteriole to a venule. As blood passes through a capillary in the tissues, it gives up its oxygen (O 2 ). Therefore, blood goes from being O 2 -rich in the arteriole (red color) to being O 2 -poor in the vein (blue color).
When blood is transferred to a test tube and prevented from clotting, it forms tw layers. The transparent, yellow top layer is plasma, the liquid portion of the blood. The formed elements are the bottom layer.
Hemoglobin is a red pigment, thus imparting a red color to red blood cells. A hemoglobin molecule contains four polypeptide chains that make up the protein globin.
Red blood cells move in single file through the capillaries. Each red blood cell is a biconcave disk containing many molecules of hemoglobin, the respiratory pigment. Hemoglobin contains four polypeptide chains (in blue). There is an iron-containing heme group in the center of each chain. Oxygen loosely combines with hemoglobin when oxygenated. Oxyhemoglobin is bright red, and deoxyhemoglobin is a dark maroon color.
In iron-deficiency anemia, the most common type of anemia, the hemoglobin levels are low, probably due to a diet that does not contain enough iron.
Leukemia is a form of cancer characterized by uncontrolled production of abnormal white blood cells. There are two types of lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, have different roles in immunity. Their specific roles are covered in Chapter 14.
Monocyte-derived macrophages are the body’s scavengers. They engulf microbes and debris in the body’s fluids and tissues, as illustrated in this colorized scanning electron micrograph. The macrophage is in red, and the bacteria are in green.
Vitamin K, found in green vegetables and also formed by intestinal bacteria, is necessary for the production of prothrombin. Hemorrhagic disorders might develop if this vitamin is missing.
As soon as blood vessel repair is initiated, an enzyme called plasmin destroys the fibrin network and restores the fluidity of the plasma. If blood is allowed to clot in a test tube, a yellowish fluid develops above the clotted material. This fluid is called serum. Serum contains all the components of plasma except fibrinogen.
Platelets and damaged tissue cells release prothrombim activator, which acts on prothrombin in the presence of calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) to produce thrombin. Thrombin acts on fibrinogen in the presence of Ca 2+ to form fibrin threads. The scanning electron micrograph of a blood clot shows red blood cells caught in the fibrin threads.
The use of adult stem cells does not require that an embryo be sacrificed.
Multipotent stem cells give rise to two specialized stem cells. The myeloid stem cell gives rise to still other cells, which become red blood cells, platelets, and all the white blood cells except lymphocytes. The lymphoid stem cell gives rise to lymphoblasts, which become lymphocytes.
Osmotic pressure in the blood is created by the presence of salts and the plasma proteins.
At the arterial end of a capillary, the blood pressure is higher than the osmotic pressure; therefore, water tends to leave the bloodstream. In the midsection, oxygen and carbon dioxide follow their concentration gradients. At the venous end of a capillary, the osmotic pressure is higher than the blood pressure; therefore, water tends to enter the bloodstream.
Thromboembolism is a clot that has moved and is now stationary in a new blood vessel where it can cause damage.
During this operation, the surgeon grafts segments of another vessel, usually a small vein from the leg, between the aorta and the coronary vessels, bypassing areas of blockage. Patients who require surgery often receive two to five bypasses in a single operation.
On the left, a plastic tube is inserted into the coronary artery until it reaches the clogged area. In the middle diagram, a metal tip with a balloon attached is pushed out the end of the plastic tube into the clogged area. On the right, when the balloon is inflated, the vessel opens. Sometimes metal coils or slotted tubes, called stents, are inserted to keep the vessel open.
Cardiovascular System Nhelia B. Perez RN, MSN Northeastern College Santiago City Philippines 3311
The heart has four chambers: two upper, thin-walled atria , and two lower, thick-walled ventricles .
The septum is a wall dividing the right and left sides.
Atrioventricular valves occur between the atria and ventricles – the tricuspid valve on the right and the bicuspid valve on the left; both valves are reenforced by chordae tendinae attached to muscular projections within the ventricles.
Blood follows this sequence through the heart: superior and inferior vena cava -> right atrium -> tricuspid valve -> right ventricle -> pulmonary semilunar valve -> pulmonary trunk and arteries to the lungs -> pulmonary veins leaving the lungs -> left atrium -> bicuspid valve -> left ventricle -> aortic semilunar valve -> aorta -> to the body .
A cardiac control center in the medulla oblongata speeds up or slows down the heart rate by way of the autonomic nervous system branches: parasympathetic system (slows heart rate) and the sympathetic system (increases heart rate).
Hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla also stimulate faster heart rate.
The vein that takes blood to the vena cava often has the same name as the artery that delivered blood to the organ.
In the adult systemic circuit, arteries carry blood that is relatively high in oxygen and relatively low in carbon dioxide, and veins carry blood that is relatively low in oxygen and relatively high in carbon dioxide.
This is the reverse of the pulmonary circuit.
Major arteries and veins of the systemic circuit
Iron is reused by the red bone marrow where stem cells continually produce more red blood cells; the remainder of the heme portion undergoes chemical degradation and is excreted as bile pigments into the bile.
Lack of enough hemoglobin results in anemia .
The kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin to increase blood cell production when oxygen levels are low.
Medical treatments for dissolving blood clots include use of t-PA ( tissue plasminogen activator ) that converts plasminogen into plasmin, an enzyme that dissolves blood clots, but can cause brain bleeding.
Aspirin reduces the stickiness of platelets and reduces clot formation and lowers the risk of heart attack.