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Ch.1 1

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    Ch.1 1 Ch.1 1 Presentation Transcript

    • WAHOO! We’re Moving on to CHAPTER 1!!! Cells: The Basic Unit of Life
    • Section 1 The Diversity of Cells
    • The Discovery of the Cell
      • “ Seeing is believing”
      • Cells remained “out of sight - out of mind” for many scientists
      • Until the invention of the microscope that is…..
    • Early Microscopes
      • Not until mid-1600’s
      • Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a thin slice of cork
      • Cork = a plant material
    • Robert Hooke
      • Cork seemed to be made of thousands of tiny, empty chambers
      • Hooke called these chambers “CELLS”
      • They reminded him of a monestary’s tiny rooms…which were called cells!
    • Yay for Cells!
      • Hooke’s discovery was great, however being the biology scholars that you all are, you know that cells are NOT just empty chambers…..
    • THEY CONTAIN LIVING MATTER!!!!
    • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
      • From Holland
      • Used a single-lens microscope
      • Observed samples of pond H 2 O (around the same time Hooke did his experiment)
      • He noticed tiny living organisms swimming all over the place on the slide!
    • The Cell Theory
      • B/c of work from scientists all over the world, it was made clear that….
      • CELLS ARE THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE!
      • Let’s see why this is true….
    • Matthias Schleiden
      • 1839
      • German Scientist
      • Botanist
      • Concluded that all plants are made of cells!
    • Theodor Schwann
      • Next year (1840)
      • German Biologist
      • Concluded that all animal cells were made of cells!
    • Rudolph Virchow
      • 1855
      • German physician
      • Said that “new cells could be produced only from the division of pre-existing cells”
    • So Let’s Review & Put It All Together…..
      • B/c of all these discoveries we know that…
        • 1. All living things are composed of
        • cells
        • 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure
        • and function in living things
        • 3. New cells are produced from pre-
        • existing cells
        • THIS IS THE CELL THEORY!!!
    • Researchers Today….
      • Scientists are still following in the footsteps of guys like Hooke and Leeuwenhoek
      • However today’s scientists have the advantage of getting to use much more sophisticated and expensive microscopes to study and learn about cells
    • Characteristics of Cells
      • Cells come in many different shapes and sizes
      • Despite differences, all cells have 2 things in common:
            • They are surrounded by a barrier called a CELL MEMBRANE
            • They contain DNA - the molecule that carries their genetic information
      • *Who remembers the type of biological molecule
      • that DNA is???
      • NUCLEIC ACID 
    • 2 Categories of Cells
      • Prokaryotes
      • Eukaryotes
      • These 2 categories are based on whether or not the cell contains a nucleus!
    • But Miss Hegerich, What’s a Nucleus???
      • It is a large membrane-bound structure that contains the cell’s genetic material (DNA)
      • It also controls many of the cell’s activities and processes!
      • The nucleus is like the “CEO” of the cell!
    • Prokaryotes
      • Let’s break down the word…
          • “ Pro” means before
          • “ karyote” means nucleus
          • BEFORE THE NUCLEUS!
      • These are cells that have NO NUCLEUS
      • They still have DNA, however it is not enclosed in a nucleus.
      • Usually smaller than eukaryotes
    • More about Prokaryotes…
      • Even though they are small and simple, they still carry out every activity that every other living thing does
      • Such as grow, reproduce, respond to their environment, etc.
      • Bacteria are prokaryotes!
    •  
    • Eukaryotes
      • Let’s break down this word…
          • “ Eu” means true
          • “ karyote” means nucleus
          • TRUE NUCLEUS!
      • These cells HAVE a nucleus!
      • The DNA of these cells are enclosed in the nucleus.
    • More about Eukaryotes…
      • These cells are usually larger than prokaryotes
      • More specialized and complex!
      • Some eukaryotes live alone as unicellular organisms
      • Others form large, multicellular organisms
          • Such as plants, animals, fungi, and protists
    •  
    • Let’s Look At It This Way
      • Prokaryotes Both Eukaryotes
    • Let’s Review….
      • What 3 statements make up the cell theory??
      • What 2 structures do all cells have??
      • What are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells??