Lymphatic system


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Lymphatic system

  1. 1. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM The lymphatic system is part of the larger circulatory system of the body. Its function is to help maintain the body's fluid balance and to remove microorganisms from tissues.
  2. 2. EDEMA Edema is the medical term for swelling. It is a general response of the body to injury or inflammation. Edema can be isolated to a small area or affect the entire body. Medications, infections, pregnancy, and many medical problems can cause edema.
  3. 3. Edema results whenever small blood vessels become "leaky" and release fluid into nearby tissues. The extra fluid accumulates, causing the tissue to swell.
  5. 5. FUNTIONS OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM - to collect and transport tissue fluids - returning plasma proteins to the bloodstream; - Digested fats are absorbed
  6. 6. - New lymphocytes are manufactured in the lymph nodes; - Antibodies and anti assist the body to build up an effective immunity to infectious diseases;
  7. 7. The lymphatic system has three main components: - One component is the delicate vessels called lymphatic vessels. - A second component is the lymph nodes. - The third component is lymph, the pale, watery fluid that circulates and continually bathes the body's tissues.
  8. 8. Tonsils are large clusters of lymphatic cells found in the pharynx. It is still among the most common operations performed and typically follows frequent throat infections.
  9. 9. Function of Tonsils - Lymph tissue that produces lymphocytes. - They get smaller as a person gets older.
  10. 10. Thymus gland which stores immature lymphocytes and prepares them to become active T cells, is located in the chest just above the heart.
  11. 11. Function of Thymus - Produces lymphocytes - Also considered an endocrine gland
  12. 12. Lymph nodes - Tiny, oval shaped, size of pinhead to size of almond - Located alone or grouped - Most in head, neck, axilla, chest, abdomen and groin
  13. 13. There are 600 to 700 lymph nodes in the human body that filter the lymph before it returns to the circulatory system.
  14. 14. Function of Lymph Nodes - Produce lymphocytes - Filter out harmful bacteria - If substance can’t be destroyed, node becomes inflamed
  15. 15. Spleen - Sac-like mass of lymphatic tissue - Upper left abdominal cavity, just below diaphragm
  16. 16. Function of Spleen - Produce lymphocytes and monocytes - Filter blood - Blood reservoir – stores large amounts of RBCs, contracts during vigorous exercise or loss of blood to release RBCs - Recycles old red cells – destroys and removes old or fragile RBCs
  17. 17. Lymph vessels - Closely parallel veins - Located in almost all tissues and organs that have blood vessels - Thoracic duct – largest lymph vessel
  18. 18. Function of lymph Vessels B. Lymph vessels – transport excess tissue fluid back into circulatory system - Valves prevent backward flow - Lymph flows in only one direction – from body organs to heart
  19. 19. - Closely parallel veins -Tissue lymph enter small lymph vessels which drain into larger lymph vessesl (lymphatics) into two main lymphatics – the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct .
  20. 20. Characteristics and treatment of common lymphatic disorders
  21. 21. Tonsillitis - In childhood, tonsils become infected and enlarged - Difficulty swallowing - Tonsillectomy in extreme cases
  22. 22. Lymphadenitis (adenitis) - Swelling (enlargement) of lymph glands - Occurs when infection present and body making WBCs to fight infection
  23. 23. Hodgkin’s disease - Cancer of lymph nodes - Painless swelling of lymph node early symptom - Rx –chemotheraphy and radiation
  24. 24. Mononucleosis - Caused by virus - Young adults and children - Spread by oral contact (kissing) - Symptoms – lymphadenitis fever, fatigue, Ç leukocytes - Rx - bedrest
  25. 25. Hypersensitivity  Abnormal response to drug or allergen  Antibodies made in response to foreign material (allergen) irritate certain body cells  Allergen – antigen that causes allergic response (Examp. Ragweed,penicillin, bee stings, foods, etc.)
  26. 26. Anaphylaxis (Anaphylactic shock)  Severe or fatal allergic reaction  Antigen-antibody response stimulates massive secretion of histamine  Symptoms – breathing problems, headache, facial swelling, falling blood pressure, stomach cramps, vomiting  Rx – Adrenaline  Those prone should wear medic alert bracelet.
  27. 27. AIDS and HIV  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  Cause – HIV virus  Three responses to HIV infection: a. AIDS – full disorder b. ARC – AIDS-related complex c. Asymptomatic infection
  28. 28. Screening test for HIV available AIDS victim subject to opportunistic infections (cancer, infections) that a healthy person would fight off but AIDS victim has compromised immune response.
  29. 29. Incubation period – 1 month to 12 years Rx and prevention – advances being made ARC – AIDS-related complex – HIV but not AIDS – less severe symptoms
  30. 30. Transmission a. Sex with someone HIV positive b. Sharing needles with infected drug users c. At birth from infected mother  Cannot be spread by casual contact, coughing, sneezing, shaking hands and sharing eating utensils Prevention – avoid risky behaviors and observe standard precautions
  31. 31. ASSIGNMENT: Essay If lymphatic system prevents the body from having diseases, why does lymphatic system itself has some diseases?