A locally managed sequential interchange of thoughts and feelings between two or more people. Interactive and extemporaneous.
Locally managed : only those involved in the conversation determine the topic.
Sequentially organized : have openings, middles, and closes.
Interactive : Involve at least two people.
Largely extemporaneous : Participants have not prepared or memorized what they will be saying.
Spontaneous interactions between people, with no planned agenda
Conversational episodes in which at least one participant has a communication goal
Casual Social Conversations Pragmatic Problem- Consideration Conversations
Pragmatic Problem-Consideration Conversations Skipping a stage may provide less satisfaction
Greeting and small talk
Topic introduction and statement of need for discussion
Information exchange and processing
Summarizing decisions and clarifying next steps
Rules A prescription that indicates what behaviors are required, preferred, or prohibited in certain contexts
Examples of Communication Rules
If your mouth is full of food, then you must not talk.
If someone is talking, then you must not interrupt.
If you are being spoken to, you should direct your gaze to the speaker.
If you can’t say something nice, then you don’t say anything at all.
Discuss what communication rules you think are important.
Cooperative Principle Conversations will be satisfying when the contributions made by conversationalists are in line with the purpose of the conversation.
Conversation Maxims Politeness Be courteous Morality Meet moral/ethical guidelines Manner Specific and organized Relevancy Related to the topic Quantity Not too much or too little Quality Truthful information
Present quality information.
Provide free information to enable others to talk.
Ask questions that are likely to motivate responses.
Maintain conversational coherence.
Politeness -- relating to others in ways that meet their need to be appreciated.
Positive face needs– desire to be appreciated and approved, liked and honored.
Negative face needs – desire to be free from imposition or intrusion.
Face-threatening acts (FTAs) – behavior that fails to meet positive or negative face needs
Engage in Ethical Dialogue
Authenticity - direct, honest, straightforward information and feelings
Empathy – understanding another’s point of view (without giving up yours)
Confirmation – affirming others as unique individuals (does not imply approving of their behaviors)
Engage in Ethical Dialogue (continued)
Presentness – taking time, avoiding distraction, being responsive, risking attachment
Equality – treating conversational partners on the same level regardless of status differences
Supportive climate – encourage participation by praising efforts
Low Context Cultures
Include categorical words such as certainly, absolutely