Effective Listnening
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Effective Listnening






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Effective Listnening Effective Listnening Presentation Transcript

  • Interpersonal Conversations
  • Conversations
    • A locally managed sequential interchange of thoughts and feelings between two or more people. Interactive and extemporaneous.
    Microsoft Photo
  • Conversations (cont’d)
    • Locally managed : only those involved in the conversation determine the topic.
    • Sequentially organized : have openings, middles, and closes.
    • Interactive : Involve at least two people.
    • Largely extemporaneous : Participants have not prepared or memorized what they will be saying.
    • Spontaneous interactions between people, with no planned agenda
    • Conversational episodes in which at least one participant has a communication goal
    Casual Social Conversations Pragmatic Problem- Consideration Conversations
  • Pragmatic Problem-Consideration Conversations Skipping a stage may provide less satisfaction
    • Greeting and small talk
    • Topic introduction and statement of need for discussion
    • Information exchange and processing
    • Summarizing decisions and clarifying next steps
    • Formal closing
  • Rules A prescription that indicates what behaviors are required, preferred, or prohibited in certain contexts
  • Examples of Communication Rules
    • If your mouth is full of food, then you must not talk.
    • If someone is talking, then you must not interrupt.
    • If you are being spoken to, you should direct your gaze to the speaker.
    • If you can’t say something nice, then you don’t say anything at all.
  • Discuss what communication rules you think are important.
  • Cooperative Principle Conversations will be satisfying when the contributions made by conversationalists are in line with the purpose of the conversation.
  • Conversation Maxims Politeness Be courteous Morality Meet moral/ethical guidelines Manner Specific and organized Relevancy Related to the topic Quantity Not too much or too little Quality Truthful information
  • Effective Conversationalist
    • Present quality information.
    • Provide free information to enable others to talk.
    • Ask questions that are likely to motivate responses.
    • Credit sources.
    • Practice turn-taking.
    • Maintain conversational coherence.
    • Practice politeness.
  • Politeness
    • Politeness -- relating to others in ways that meet their need to be appreciated.
    • Positive face needs– desire to be appreciated and approved, liked and honored.
    • Negative face needs – desire to be free from imposition or intrusion.
    • Face-threatening acts (FTAs) – behavior that fails to meet positive or negative face needs
  • Engage in Ethical Dialogue
    • Authenticity - direct, honest, straightforward information and feelings
    • Empathy – understanding another’s point of view (without giving up yours)
    • Confirmation – affirming others as unique individuals (does not imply approving of their behaviors)
  • Engage in Ethical Dialogue (continued)
    • Presentness – taking time, avoiding distraction, being responsive, risking attachment
    • Equality – treating conversational partners on the same level regardless of status differences
    • Supportive climate – encourage participation by praising efforts
  • Cultural Variations
    • Low Context Cultures
    • Include categorical words such as certainly, absolutely
    • Relevant comments that are directly to the point
    • Speaking one’s mind
    • Silence is seldom good
    • High Context Cultures
    • Include qualifiers such as maybe, perhaps
    • Indirect, ambiguous and less relevant comments
    • Creating harmony
    • Silence indicates truthfulness, embarrassment, disagreement