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[Operation];[RACIS]

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RACIS methodology

RACIS methodology

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  • This has given me the grounding to use the process. Good piece of work.
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  • 1. Project Objectives and Responsibility Charting
    • R Responsible
    • A Accountable
    • C Consulted
    • I Informed
  • 2. RACI
    • Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed (RACI) or…
    • Roles and Responsibility Charting
  • 3. RACI
    • … is a process that organizations can use to confirm that the responsibilities and accountabilities for each activity or process within the operating system or project are set at the appropriate level.
  • 4. RACI
    • The purpose of the RACI process is to answer the questions:
    • What functions, activities and tasks must be done in order to achieve the desired results?
    • Who must act?
  • 5. RACI
    • Responsible :
    • Responsible individuals are the “doers” or those who actually complete the assigned tasks.
  • 6. Responsible
    • They are responsible for action/ implementation.
  • 7. Responsible
    • Responsibility can be shared.
  • 8. Responsible
    • The degree of responsibility assigned is determined by the person in the process assigned the “A” (Accountable).
  • 9. RACI
    • Accountable :
      • Accountable individuals are ultimately liable for for the results and hold the “sign-off” or veto power in the process.
  • 10. Accountable
    • Only one “A” may be assigned to a function, task or process.
  • 11. RACI
    • Consulted :
    • Consulted individuals are those people who must be addressed before a final decision is taken.
  • 12. Consulted
    • Normally, “consulted” individuals provide input and support throughout the entire process.
  • 13. Consulted
    • Strong two-way communications are necessary with the people assigned a “C” in the process.
  • 14. RACI
    • Informed :
    • Informed individuals in the RACI process are those people who need to be told when a decision or action has been taken.
  • 15. Informed
    • One-way communication with someone assigned an “I” is appropriate in this process.
  • 16. The RACI Objectives
    • In a workload analysis it can help to identify redundancies that may exist or improve the quantity and quality of the work being performed.
  • 17. The RACI Objectives
    • During reorganization it assures that key functions and continuous improvement processes are not overlooked in the new structure.
  • 18. The RACI Objectives
    • In the case of employee turnover it aids in redistributing the workload, in retraining employees affected by a void, or in shifting responsibilities with a minimal disruption of the work flow.
  • 19. The RACI Objectives
    • In conflict resolution it helps break down the areas of conflict by developing the best balance between departments for achieving specific tasks or process steps.
  • 20. The RACI Objectives
    • It also promotes teamwork by enhancing the understanding of individual contributions to the overall process.
  • 21. The RACI Objectives
    • As part of a company’s training objectives it can be used to identify specifics for job descriptions and/or specific job requirements. It can be used to make training more focused and relevant to the job.
  • 22. The RACI Objectives
    • RACI is a way to document company procedures and to communicate the roles and responsibilities of individuals and functions in an unbiased way.
  • 23. The Responsibility Chart
    • Functions and Responsibilities are listed on the left Y axis.
    • Functional roles are listed on the top X-axis.
    • The inter-relational letters (RACI) are indicated in the squares of the matrix.
  • 24. The Responsibility Chart An Example
  • 25. The Responsibility Chart Macro
    • A concern in the past may have been the appropriate allocation of engineering and marketing resources to prepare for a new product introduction. In the next slide, the Marketing Manager, while not accountable for the actual new product design, shares responsibility for implementation with the Production Engineering Manager.
  • 26. The Responsibility Chart Macro: Example
    • Departmental or Organizational Projects
  • 27. The Responsibility Chart Micro: Example
    • Individual or Goal-Oriented
      • Responsibility: Process regional employee expense statement
  • 28. RACI Benefits
    • Roles and Responsibilities Charting can result in:
      • Clearly defined roles and responsibilities for all individuals and functions
      • Improved cooperation and teamwork across functional or departmental boundaries
      • Better communications
      • Increased productivity through well-defined accountabilities
  • 29. RACI Benefits
    • Roles and Responsibilities Charting can result in:
      • Reduced rework (since all roles and functions are discussed and clarified)
      • Identified opportunities for a streamlined organizational structure through elimination of unneeded layers and by placing responsibility and accountability where it belongs
  • 30. RACI Benefits
    • Roles and Responsibility Charting can result in:
      • Better trained people (the population participates in workshops and meetings where roles and responsibilities are discussed and designed)
      • Better planning processes through better communication
  • 31. RACI Benefits
    • Roles and Responsibilities Charting can result in:
      • Increased understanding of the many complex processes in an organization
      • A commitment to change
      • Continuous improvement
  • 32. RACI Theory
    • Executives and Senior Managers cannot be accountable for everything in their organization; they can only maintain overall accountability.
    • The goal or Roles and Responsibility Charting is to ensure that the responsibility and accountability for each function is placed with the right person.
  • 33. RACI Theory
    • Roles and Responsibilities Charting prevents role confusion.
    • Differing perceptions may cause one person’s view of a “role” to be quite different than another’s.
  • 34. RACI Theory
    • There are three basic elements to any role:
      • Role Conception
      • Role Expectation
      • Role Behaviour
  • 35. RACI Theory Three Basic Elements to a Role
    • ROLE CONCEPTION:
      • What a person thinks his/her job is and how he/she has been taught to do it. (His/her thinking may have been influenced by many false assumptions over time.)
  • 36. RACI Theory Three Basic Elements to a Role
    • ROLE EXPECTATION:
      • What others in the organization think the person is responsible for and how he/she should carry out those responsibilities. Those ideas may also be influenced by incorrect assumptions. This is usually based on the output or results expected from the role.
  • 37. RACI Theory Three Basic Elements to a Role
    • ROLE BEHAVIOR:
      • What a person actually DOES in carrying out the job at hand.
  • 38. RACI Theory Role Reconciliation
    • Roles and Responsibilities Charting provides the opportunity to reconcile the Role Conceptions with the Role Expectations so that Role Behavior becomes more productive.
  • 39. The Steps in the RACI Process
    • DEVELOP THE RESPONSIBILITIES LIST:
      • State in “verb-adjective-noun” format e.g. “publish weekly reports” or “evaluate production records.
      • Focus on tasks/activities required to achieve a major step in the organizational process.
  • 40. The Steps in the RACI Process
    • ASSIGN RACI CODES:
      • Assign codes to describe the type of participation each role has to each responsibility or function.
      • Place the R and A and C and I codes in the matrix.
  • 41. The Steps in the RACI Process
    • ANALYZE THE CHART FOR AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT:
      • Should the function be performed at all?
      • What value does the function add?
      • Is the function performed elsewhere in the organization?
      • How often is the function performed?
  • 42. The Steps in the RACI Process
    • ANALYZE THE CHART FOR AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT:
      • Is the function performed at the appropriate skill level?
      • What is the impact of the function on the company, its goals, its processes, etc.
  • 43. The Steps in the RACI Process
    • REVIEW THE CHART FOR POTENTIAL PROBLEMS:
      • Does a VERTICAL analysis indicate too many “R”s within a functional role? If so, that may indicate a work overload for that person.
      • Are there too many “A”s? If so, a bottleneck may result waiting for that person to make all of the decisions.
  • 44. The Steps in the RACI Process
    • REVIEW THE CHART FOR POTENTIAL PROBLEMS:
      • Only one functional role should have an “A”
      • Do a HORIZONTAL review for “A”s. Too many “A”s create confusion across the organization (“I thought YOU had the ‘A’!”)
  • 45. The Steps in the RACI Process
    • REVIEW THE CHART FOR POTENTIAL PROBLEMS:
      • Too few “A”s and “R”s indicate nobody is minding the store
      • Columns with NO empty boxes or boxes that are filled with “C”s and “I”s may indicate a “gatekeeper” (a functional role that believes it needs to know everything)
  • 46. The Steps in the RACI Process
    • REVIEW THE CHART FOR POTENTIAL PROBLEMS:
      • An excess of “C”s or “I”s may indicate a slowdown in the process
      • Not every box on the chart should be filled in. If all of the boxes are full, too many people may be involved
  • 47. The Steps in the RACI Process
    • COMMUNICATE THE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES CHART:
      • The information on the chart must be communicated to all affected areas of the organization
      • High levels of effective two-way communication are necessary to get effective buy-in to the changes that have been made
  • 48. The Steps in the RACI Process
    • CONDUCT EFFECTIVE FOLLOW-UP:
      • Ensure that the relationships as established in the process actually work
      • Encourage people to live their roles, take personal responsibility, and commit to action