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RACIS methodology

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  1. 1. Project Objectives and Responsibility Charting <ul><li>R Responsible </li></ul><ul><li>A Accountable </li></ul><ul><li>C Consulted </li></ul><ul><li>I Informed </li></ul>
  2. 2. RACI <ul><li>Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed (RACI) or… </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and Responsibility Charting </li></ul>
  3. 3. RACI <ul><li>… is a process that organizations can use to confirm that the responsibilities and accountabilities for each activity or process within the operating system or project are set at the appropriate level. </li></ul>
  4. 4. RACI <ul><li>The purpose of the RACI process is to answer the questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What functions, activities and tasks must be done in order to achieve the desired results? </li></ul><ul><li>Who must act? </li></ul>
  5. 5. RACI <ul><li>Responsible : </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible individuals are the “doers” or those who actually complete the assigned tasks. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Responsible <ul><li>They are responsible for action/ implementation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Responsible <ul><li>Responsibility can be shared. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Responsible <ul><li>The degree of responsibility assigned is determined by the person in the process assigned the “A” (Accountable). </li></ul>
  9. 9. RACI <ul><li>Accountable : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountable individuals are ultimately liable for for the results and hold the “sign-off” or veto power in the process. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Accountable <ul><li>Only one “A” may be assigned to a function, task or process. </li></ul>
  11. 11. RACI <ul><li>Consulted : </li></ul><ul><li>Consulted individuals are those people who must be addressed before a final decision is taken. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Consulted <ul><li>Normally, “consulted” individuals provide input and support throughout the entire process. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Consulted <ul><li>Strong two-way communications are necessary with the people assigned a “C” in the process. </li></ul>
  14. 14. RACI <ul><li>Informed : </li></ul><ul><li>Informed individuals in the RACI process are those people who need to be told when a decision or action has been taken. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Informed <ul><li>One-way communication with someone assigned an “I” is appropriate in this process. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The RACI Objectives <ul><li>In a workload analysis it can help to identify redundancies that may exist or improve the quantity and quality of the work being performed. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The RACI Objectives <ul><li>During reorganization it assures that key functions and continuous improvement processes are not overlooked in the new structure. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The RACI Objectives <ul><li>In the case of employee turnover it aids in redistributing the workload, in retraining employees affected by a void, or in shifting responsibilities with a minimal disruption of the work flow. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The RACI Objectives <ul><li>In conflict resolution it helps break down the areas of conflict by developing the best balance between departments for achieving specific tasks or process steps. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The RACI Objectives <ul><li>It also promotes teamwork by enhancing the understanding of individual contributions to the overall process. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The RACI Objectives <ul><li>As part of a company’s training objectives it can be used to identify specifics for job descriptions and/or specific job requirements. It can be used to make training more focused and relevant to the job. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The RACI Objectives <ul><li>RACI is a way to document company procedures and to communicate the roles and responsibilities of individuals and functions in an unbiased way. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Responsibility Chart <ul><li>Functions and Responsibilities are listed on the left Y axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional roles are listed on the top X-axis. </li></ul><ul><li>The inter-relational letters (RACI) are indicated in the squares of the matrix. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Responsibility Chart An Example
  25. 25. The Responsibility Chart Macro <ul><li>A concern in the past may have been the appropriate allocation of engineering and marketing resources to prepare for a new product introduction. In the next slide, the Marketing Manager, while not accountable for the actual new product design, shares responsibility for implementation with the Production Engineering Manager. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Responsibility Chart Macro: Example <ul><li>Departmental or Organizational Projects </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Responsibility Chart Micro: Example <ul><li>Individual or Goal-Oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility: Process regional employee expense statement </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. RACI Benefits <ul><li>Roles and Responsibilities Charting can result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly defined roles and responsibilities for all individuals and functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved cooperation and teamwork across functional or departmental boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased productivity through well-defined accountabilities </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. RACI Benefits <ul><li>Roles and Responsibilities Charting can result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced rework (since all roles and functions are discussed and clarified) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified opportunities for a streamlined organizational structure through elimination of unneeded layers and by placing responsibility and accountability where it belongs </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. RACI Benefits <ul><li>Roles and Responsibility Charting can result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better trained people (the population participates in workshops and meetings where roles and responsibilities are discussed and designed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better planning processes through better communication </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. RACI Benefits <ul><li>Roles and Responsibilities Charting can result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased understanding of the many complex processes in an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A commitment to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. RACI Theory <ul><li>Executives and Senior Managers cannot be accountable for everything in their organization; they can only maintain overall accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal or Roles and Responsibility Charting is to ensure that the responsibility and accountability for each function is placed with the right person. </li></ul>
  33. 33. RACI Theory <ul><li>Roles and Responsibilities Charting prevents role confusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Differing perceptions may cause one person’s view of a “role” to be quite different than another’s. </li></ul>
  34. 34. RACI Theory <ul><li>There are three basic elements to any role: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Behaviour </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. RACI Theory Three Basic Elements to a Role <ul><li>ROLE CONCEPTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What a person thinks his/her job is and how he/she has been taught to do it. (His/her thinking may have been influenced by many false assumptions over time.) </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. RACI Theory Three Basic Elements to a Role <ul><li>ROLE EXPECTATION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What others in the organization think the person is responsible for and how he/she should carry out those responsibilities. Those ideas may also be influenced by incorrect assumptions. This is usually based on the output or results expected from the role. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. RACI Theory Three Basic Elements to a Role <ul><li>ROLE BEHAVIOR: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What a person actually DOES in carrying out the job at hand. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. RACI Theory Role Reconciliation <ul><li>Roles and Responsibilities Charting provides the opportunity to reconcile the Role Conceptions with the Role Expectations so that Role Behavior becomes more productive. </li></ul>
  39. 39. The Steps in the RACI Process <ul><li>DEVELOP THE RESPONSIBILITIES LIST: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State in “verb-adjective-noun” format e.g. “publish weekly reports” or “evaluate production records. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on tasks/activities required to achieve a major step in the organizational process. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. The Steps in the RACI Process <ul><li>ASSIGN RACI CODES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign codes to describe the type of participation each role has to each responsibility or function. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place the R and A and C and I codes in the matrix. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. The Steps in the RACI Process <ul><li>ANALYZE THE CHART FOR AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should the function be performed at all? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What value does the function add? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the function performed elsewhere in the organization? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often is the function performed? </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. The Steps in the RACI Process <ul><li>ANALYZE THE CHART FOR AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the function performed at the appropriate skill level? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the impact of the function on the company, its goals, its processes, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. The Steps in the RACI Process <ul><li>REVIEW THE CHART FOR POTENTIAL PROBLEMS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does a VERTICAL analysis indicate too many “R”s within a functional role? If so, that may indicate a work overload for that person. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there too many “A”s? If so, a bottleneck may result waiting for that person to make all of the decisions. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. The Steps in the RACI Process <ul><li>REVIEW THE CHART FOR POTENTIAL PROBLEMS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one functional role should have an “A” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do a HORIZONTAL review for “A”s. Too many “A”s create confusion across the organization (“I thought YOU had the ‘A’!”) </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. The Steps in the RACI Process <ul><li>REVIEW THE CHART FOR POTENTIAL PROBLEMS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too few “A”s and “R”s indicate nobody is minding the store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columns with NO empty boxes or boxes that are filled with “C”s and “I”s may indicate a “gatekeeper” (a functional role that believes it needs to know everything) </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. The Steps in the RACI Process <ul><li>REVIEW THE CHART FOR POTENTIAL PROBLEMS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An excess of “C”s or “I”s may indicate a slowdown in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not every box on the chart should be filled in. If all of the boxes are full, too many people may be involved </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. The Steps in the RACI Process <ul><li>COMMUNICATE THE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES CHART: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The information on the chart must be communicated to all affected areas of the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of effective two-way communication are necessary to get effective buy-in to the changes that have been made </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. The Steps in the RACI Process <ul><li>CONDUCT EFFECTIVE FOLLOW-UP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the relationships as established in the process actually work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage people to live their roles, take personal responsibility, and commit to action </li></ul></ul>