Dg   vsi foundation lecture lucknow - final
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Dg   vsi foundation lecture lucknow - final Dg vsi foundation lecture lucknow - final Presentation Transcript

  • • Importance of sugar industry.  Provides work for about 0.5 million people.  More than 50 million sugarcane growers and their dependents are directly related to the sugar industry.  Highest consumer – around 23 million tonnes.  Demand in 2020 – around 30-31 million tonnes  Incremental rise – around 4% per annum.  In 2012-13, 526 mills in operation.  Production around 25 million tonnes.  Limitation on area expansion. • Production of ethanol – around 2.5 billion liters. • Potential – 7500 MW of green power. Facts and Figures
  • 9.7 9.8 9.9 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 SugarRecovery% CaneYieldt/ha Crushing Season Cane Yield and Sugar Recovery of India Cane Yield Sugar Recovery
  • • Turnover – Rs.800 billion • Dependency of farmers, labour and consumers • 65% of sugar consumed by bulk consumers • Higher potential for  Employment  Renewable and eco-friendly raw material  Sugarcane – Most efficient converter of solar energy into sugar • Contributor to a stable economy. Dimensions and Dynamics
  • • Diminishing or stagnant yield and recovery. • Diversion of sugarcane area to other competitive crops. • Fluctuations in production due to inherent cyclic nature. • Water availability for irrigation. • Small and marginal land holdings. • Limitations in mechanized farming. Challenges • Fixation of cane price • Export and import • Ethanol blending programme Government Policies
  • • The renewable eco-friendly raw material – enormous scope for harnessing and development of value added products. • Additional income generation and employment. • Entire biomass from sugarcane including leaves and tops are being intensively investigated for profitable utilization. • To provide economic stability to industry & growers and consistent supply of products to consumers. • Substantial scope for saving in foreign exchange. Why emphasis on R & D
  • • India - 0.87% • Brazil - 1.17% • Russian Federation - 1.25% • China - 1.70% • South Africa - 0.93% • Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Mexico - less than 0.5% • Most of the developed countries spend more than 2% of their GDP on R & D. Expenditure of R & D on GDP
  • • Gross expenditure on R & D is driven by the Government sector comprising of –  Central Government – 54.4%  State Governments – 7.3%  Higher Education – 4.1%  Public Sector Industries – 5.3%  Private Sector Industries – 28.9% Expenditure on R & D in India
  • • In Industrial R & D,  Drugs and Pharmaceutical – 27.7%  Transportation – 14%  Information Technology -13.6%  Defence Industries – 6.1% Expenditure on R & D in India
  • • Industrial sector spent 0.61% of their sales turnover on R & D activities. For Private sector – 0.27% and Public sector – 0.82% • Applying this formula to sugar industry, our expenditure on R & D should be around Rs. 4.4 billion • R & D expenditure of Brazil in sugar sector is of US$ 1.7 billion (Rs. 105.4billion) Indian investment in R & D (2009-10)
  • • Leading Institutes in sugarcane research (ICAR)  Sugarcane Breeding Institute (SBI), Coimbatore  Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR), Lucknow • Organizations engaged in developing sugarcane and sugarbeet varieties  UP Government Federation  State Agriculture Universities • Institutes engaged in R & D activities related to processing of sugarcane, ethanol, co-generation and by-products  National Sugar Institute  Vasantdada Sugar Institute  Praj Industries Ltd. R & D Organizations in sugar sector
  • • Sugarcane Development Fund (SDF), Govt. of India  Soft loan assistance for agriculture, plant expansion and modernization of sugar mills.  Grants for research projects. • Project based funding from Govt. organizations  Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR)  Department of Science & Technology (DST)  Department of Bio-technology (DBT)  Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) Funding agencies
  • PROSPECTS IN SUGARCANE AGRICULTURE Wide gap between the potential yield and actual yield realized 600 355 125 66 84 57 105 Potential of Cane yield Cane Harvested by some farmers Research farm cane yields Average of India Average of Maharashtra Average of Uttar Pradesh Average of Tamilnadu
  •  Varietal development  Planting and harvesting programme  Seed replacement programme  Soil fertility and integrated nutrient management  Use of microbial inoculants  Micro irrigation and fertigation  Strengthening research on mechanization  Plant protection through bio-control agents  Ratoon management  HRD and extension mechanism Sugarcane Agriculture – R & D Priorities
  • Varietal Development  SBI Coimbatore is the premier Institute in the country working for the development of varieties.  Recently VSI has established Sugarcane Breeding Centre at Amboli, Dist. Sindhudurg in Maharashtra. Sugarcane Breeding Centre, Amboli
  • Seed Multiplication and Replacement Plant Cane (60%) 6 lakh ha Ratoon (40%) 4 lakh ha Seed Replacement on 2 lakh ha (1/3) Certified Seed Requirement on 13300 ha Foundation Seed Requirement on 670 ha Total area under sugarcane 10.00 lakh ha Production of 33.50 lakh Tissue culture plantlets Breeder Seed 55 ha Breeder Seed Programme
  • Advantages of Tissue-culture Technique • Genetic purity • Faster rate of multiplication • Higher seed multiplication ratio • Disease and pest free • Quick & Higher (95-98%) germination • Early establishment • Uniform maturity • Increase in cane yield by 20-25%
  • Soil Fertility and Integrated Nutrient Management I) Organic Manuring  Bio-compost production at sugar mill site  Implementation of Green manuring practice II) Establish soil testing laboratory III) Foliar application of multi micronutrients IV) Use of bio-fertilizers in sugarcane V) Reclamation of salt affected soils Use of microbial inoculants Azotobacter & Rhizobium Glucanoacetobacter bioinoculant Phosphate Solublizing culture Sulphur Oxidizing bioinoculant Silicon solublizers Potash mobilizers Micronutrients mobilizers Consortia of endophytic bioinoculants Decomposing cultures Growth promoting/Antimicrobial ability
  • Efficient Water Management in Sugarcane  Extensive research work on micro irrigation techniques Drip irrigation - Irrigation water 45 to 50% Increase in cane yield by 25 to 30% WUE 2 to 2.5 times more Raingun sprinkler - Irrigation saving 30 to 35% Increase in cane yield 15 to 20% WUE1.50 to 2.00 times more
  • Urgent requirement of mechanization for • Planting • Inter-culturing operations • Harvesting Mechanization in Sugarcane
  •  Important Pests in sugarcane - Early shoot borer, internode borer, top borer, root borer, woolly aphid, white fly, termites, white grub and rodents  Important diseases- Whip smut, Grassy shoot, Pokkah boeng, Rust, Wilt, Pinnaple, Leaf spot, Brown spot More emphasis on Biological Control Measures Integrated Pest and Disease Management
  • Ratoon cane: 45 to 50% of total area under sugarcane Ratoon cane productivity: less by 25 to 30 t/ha than plant cane Ratoon Management Techniques  Trash mulching  Stubble shaving  Off barring  Gap filling  Foliar application of micronutrients  Bio-fertilizer applications Ratoon Management
  • • Manpower • HRD Infrastructure • Training Facilities • Field demonstrations Strengthening HRD and Extension Mechanism
  • • Use of membrane filtration in sugar industry. • Product diversification and improved sugar quality – VVHP raw sugar. • Reduction in steam consumption. • Cane sampler Thrust areas for R & D Sugar Processing
  • • Product diversification and improved sugar quality  Replacement of sulphitation process by defecation  Use of concentrated defecated syrup for bakery industries  Production of Very Very High Pol (VVHP) raw sugar below 500 IU and its use for direct human consumption  Use of VVHP sugar for refined sugar production SUGAR PROCESSING
  • • Reduction in steam consumption  Many sugar mills in India have been successful in reducing steam consumption from 45% to 38-40%.  Some sugar mills reduced steam consumption up to 36% on cane.  In near future, steam consumption can practically be reduced below 27% on cane by saving through waste heat recovery. Contd..
  • AMolasses B Bagasse C Sugarcane Trash DPress-mud Cake SUGAR MILL BY-PRODUCTS  These products have become extremely important to offer flexibility of operations and diversification in the sugar sector.
  • Gasification Second & Third Generation Ethanol Ethanol from alternate sugar processing intermediates Bio-methanation of concentrated spent wash Other important R & D projects for sugar sector
  •  Gasification is a process to produce syngas (CO+H2) from biomass.  Syngas can be converted into various value added products.  Commercial scale thermal gasification plant (SW+PMC) is under erection at Kopargaon co-operative sugar mill in Maharashtra (India).  Advantages: 1. Zero discharge/zero pollution 2. Valuable syngas generation
  • Particulars Power generation- KW/T bagasse Conventional system Gasification route Complete biomass use for power generation KW/T cane 145 240 Captive power consumption KW/T cane 35 35 Net surplus power KW/T cane 110 210  Bagasse can be thermally gasified to syngas and syngas can be used for the generation of power.  By conventional co-generation route used in sugar mills, 110 Kwh power can be generated from one tonne of cane, whereas through thermal gasification route power generation can be almost doubled
  •  Biomass Gasification Syngas  Syngas Gas Fermentation Ethanol  Emerging technology: Wide variety of biomass can be used including lignin content, which is usually difficult to break down and not utilized via bio-chemical route.  Expected to give maximum yield of more than 400 liters per tonne of biomass.  Lowest cost of production than ethanol production by other routes.  VSI is working on this route.
  • 1 2 3 Bagasse Cane Trash Cane Tops
  •  Cellulosic ethanol fermentation using genetically modified microorganisms is under investigation.  Use of genetically modified microorganisms for production of ethanol and other value added products like hydrogen, bio-butanol, is also interesting and extremely potential area for R & D activities.  VSI has started activities in this direction.  Amyris (Brazil): Sugarcane juice to diesel (genetically modified yeast).
  •  Biogas based Compress Natural Gas (CNG) production (First plant is now operating in one of the member distillery of VSI)  Bio-butanol production.  Lactic acid production by fermentation route  Development of thermotolerant yeast for alcoholic fermentation  Development of Very High Gravity fermenting yeast for alcoholic fermentation
  •  To make the industry globally competitive, the industry must be able to innovate putting in investment in R & D.  There should be constant interaction and effective coordination between the industry and research organizations.  There is urgent need to create a separate fund for providing financial assistance for R & D activities in sugar sector. CONCLUSION
  •  All research organizations need to coordinate their efforts for enhancing future technologies in every field and to avoid duplication of research activities.  All stakeholders i.e. growers, processors, consumers and most importantly the government have to play proactive role to assure the country to protect the interest of each stakeholder and make the sector stable, strong and efficient. Contd…