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Ngữ pháp Ngữ pháp Document Transcript

  • ĐỘNG TỪ BẤT QUI TẮC (IRREGULAR VERBS) arise arose arisen be was/were been bear bore borne/born become became become begin began begun bend bent bent bet bet bet bid bid bid bind bound bound bite bit bitten bleed bled bled blow blew blown break broke broken breed bred bred bring brought brought broadcast broadcast broadcast build built built burst burst burst buy bought bought cast cast cast catch caught caught choose chose chosen cling clung clung come came come cost cost cost creep crept crept cut cut cut deal dealt dealt dig dug dug do did done draw drew drawn eat ate eaten fall fell fallen feed fed fed feel felt felt fight fought fought find found found fit fit fit flee fled fled fling flung flung fly flew flown forbid forbade forbidden forecast forecast forecast forget forgot forgotten forgive forgave forgiven forsake forsook forsaken freeze froze frozen get got gotten grind ground ground
  • grow grew grownhang hung hunghave had hadhear heard heardhide hid hiddenhit hit hithold held heldhurt hurt hurtkeep kept keptknow knew knownlay laid laidlead led ledleave left leftlend lent lentlet let letlie lay lainlight lit/lighted lit/lightedlose lost lostmake made mademean meant meantmeet met metmislay mislaid mislaidmistake mistook mistakenpay paid paidquit quit quitread read readrid rid ridride rode riddenring rang rungrise rose rosenrun ran runsay said saidsee saw seenseek sought soughtsell sold soldsend sent sentset set setshake shook shakenshed shed shedshine shone/shined shone/shinedshoot shot shotshow showed shown/showedshrink shrank/shrunk shrunkshut shut shutsing sang sungsit sat satsleep slept sleptslide slid slidslit slit slitspeak spoke spoken
  • speed sped/speeded sped/speededspend spent spentspin spun spunspit spit/spat spit/spatsplit split splitspread spread spreadspring sprang/sprung sprungstand stood stoodsteal stole sotlenstick stuck stucksting stung stungstink stank/stunk stunkstrive strove strivenstrike struck struck/strickenstring strung strungswear swore swornsweep swept sweptswim swam swumswing swung swungtake took takenteach taught taughttear tore torntell told toldthink thought thoughtthrow threw thrownthrust thrust thrustunderstand understood understoodundertake undertook undertakenupset upset unsetwake woke/waked woken/wakedwear wore wornweave wove wovenweep wept weptwin won wonwind wound woundwithdraw withdrew withdrawnwring wrung wrungwrite wrote written
  • CÁC THÌ TRONG TIẾNG ANHTHÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN(Simple present)I. CÔNG THỨCSố nhiều: We/ I/ They/ You + V (Động từ nguyên thể không có “to”)Số ít: He/ She/ It/ Peter + V-s/esII. Chú ý: Cách thêm -s/-es vào động từ số ítThêm –es vào động từ tận cùng bằng : - o (do/does); -ch (catch/ catches); -s(miss/misses); -x (mix/mixes); -sh (push/pushes)Động từ tận cùng bằng một phụ âm và một nguyên âm Y, Đổi Y thành I rồi thêm –esEx: Study → studiesĐộng từ tận cùng bằng một nguyên âm và Y: thì không đổi chỉ thêm –sEx: Play→ playsIII. CÁCH DÙNG:1.Chỉ chân lý ( Sự thật lâu dài) Ex: Winter follows autumn ( Mùa đông đến sau mùa thu)2.Sự thật ở hiện tại Ex: We live in Cao Lanh city3. Thói quen ở hiện tại, thường có trạng từ đi kèm : always, usually, normally,typically, commonly, often, frequently, sometimes, seldom, rarely, everyday, now andthen, from time to time. Ex: I seldom finish my work before 6:00 (Tôi hoàn thành công việc trước 6 giờ)4. Chỉ tương lai (theo thời khóa biểu hay chương trình thường lệ) Ex: The last bus leaves at 7 p.m. this evening. (chuyến xe buýt cuối cùng sẽrời vào lúc 7 giờ tối nay).THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN(Present progressive) I. CÔNG THỨC: Chủ từ + be(am,is,are) + V-ing 1. Động từ tận cùng bẳng e, bỏ e trước khi thêm ing Ex: Make→ Making 2. Động từ một vần tận cùng bằng một nguyên âm và một phụ âm, gấpđôi phụ âm cuối. Ex: Run→ Running 3. Động từ hai vần, có dấu nhấn đặt ở vần thứ hai, tận cùng bằng mộtnguyên âm và một phụ âm, gấp đôi phụ âm cuối. Ex: Begin→ Beginning 4. Động từ tận cùng bằng –ie, đổi thành y trước khi thêm –ing Ex: Lie→ Lying 5. Động từ tận cùng bằng –ic, thêm –k trước khi thêm –ing Ex: Traffic→ Trafficking II. CÁCH DÙNG 1.Hành động xảy ra vào thời điểm đang nói Ex: We are studying English at the moment. (Hiện giờ chúng ta đang học tiếng Anh) 2. Hành động diễn ra tại một thời điểm nhất thời ở hiện tại ( không nhất thiết phải xảy ra lúc đang nói), thường dùng với this week, this month, this year.
  • Ex: We are taking ten subjects this semester. 3. Đã dự định làm gì trong tương lai: Ex: I’m going to the English speaking club next Sunday. ( Tôi sẽ đến câu lạc bộ tiếng Anh vào chủ nhật tới) Có thể dùng [be(is,are, am) going to] 4. Một số trạng từ dùng với thì này (now, at the moment, still, today, nowadays, these days, right now, this morning, etc...) 5. Một số động từ không được dùng với thì tiếp diễn, chỉ dùng với hiện tại đơn, mặc dù nói hành động đang diễn ra. Belong, believe, forget, hate, hear, know, like, love, mean, need, prefer remember, realise, see, seem, suppose, understand, want. EXERCISEPut the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense.1. Dennis (drink, usually) coffee with his breakfast, but this morning he (drink) teainstead.2. Jane (take) the bus to work everyday. She (wait, usually) for the bus at the corner of5th and Pine.3. This morning it (rain). I can see Janet from my window. She (stand) at the corner of5th and Pine. She (hold) her umbrella over head. She (wait) for the bus.4. Mike (take) three classes this semester. Every morning he (study) French at 9o’clock. He (take, also) chemistry and accounting. He (like) chemistry best of all, buthe (has) better grades in accounting and French.5. Cuckoos (not build) nests. They (use) the nests of other birds.6. I (wear) my sunglasses today because the sun is very strong.7. Right now I (look) around the classroom. Yoko (write) in her book. Carlos (bite)his pencil. Wan-Ning (scratch) his head. Ahmed (stare) out the window. He (seem) tobe daydreaming, but perhaps he (think) hard about verb tenses. What (think, you)Ahmed (do)? THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH (Present perfect) I. CÔNG THỨC Chủ từ + have/has + V3/ed (quá khứ phân từ) I/We/they/you + have She/he/it/Peter +has + V3/ed (qkpt) II. CÁCH DÙNG 1.Xảy ra ở thời điểm không xác định rõ ở quá khứ Ex: I have already seen that movie (Tôi đã xem bộ phim đó rồi) 2. Vừa mới xảy ra hay vừa chấm dứt Ex: I have just lost my key. Can you help me to find it? ( Tôi vừa đánh mất chìa khóa. Bạn có thể giúp tôi tìm nó không?) 3 Hành động bắt đầu ở quá khứ kéo dài đến hiện tại. Ex: We have learned English for 6 years. ( Tôi đã học tiếng Anh được 6 năm rồi) 4. thường dùng để chỉ từ trước đến nay mình đã từng hay chưa từng làmmột việc gì. Ex: Ann has never smoked cigarettes. ( An chưa bao giờ hút thuốc) 5. Hành động đã xảy ra và chưa hoàn thành lúc đang nói.
  • Ex: I have smoked ten cigarettes today. (Hôm nay tôi đã hút 10 điếu thuốc) 6. Một số từ chỉ thời gian dùng với thì này : for, since, so far, today, till now, up to now, never, ever, just. Already, yet, recently. III. CHÚ Ý Động từ bất quy tắc, dùng cột 3 (qkpt) (I sell/ just) have just sold my bicycle Động từ theo quy tắc thêm “-ed”THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH TIẾP DIỄN( present perfect continous) I. CÔNG THỨC: Chủ từ + have/has + been + V-ingI/you/we/they + haveShe/he/it/Peter + has + been + V-ing II. CÁCH DÙNG: 1. Hành động xảy ra ở quá khứ và tiếp tục tới hiện tại (có thể dùng hiện tại hoàn thành) Ex: We have been learning English for 6 years. 2. Hành động xảy ra mới đây trước thời điểm đang nói, thường lưu lại dấu vết Ex: The ground is still wet. It is clear that it has been raining lately. 3. So sánh với hiện tại hoàn thành Ex1: I’ve been painting this room. It will look good when it’s finished ( Tôi đã và đang sơn xong cái phòng này. Nó sẽ trông đẹp khi tôi sơn xong nó). Công việc chưa hoàn thành. Ex2: I have already painted this room. Does it look good? (tôi đã sơn xong cái phòng này rồi. Nó trông có đẹp không?). Công việc đã hoàn thành. EXERCISEPut the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the present perfect continuoustense. (In some cases either could be used.)1. It (snow) all day. I wonder when it will stop.2. We (have) three major snowstorms so far this winter. I wonder how many more wewill have.3. It’s ten P.M. I (study) for two hours and probably won’t finish until midnight.4. I (write) them three times, but I still haven’t received a reply.5. I (live) here since last March.6. The telephone (ring) four times in the last hours, and each time it has been for myroommate.7. The telephone (ring) for almost a minute. Why doesn’t someone answer it?8. The little boy is dirty from head to foot because he (play) in the mud. THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN (Simple past) I. CÔNG THỨC S + V-2/ed II. CHÚ Ý Động từ bất quy tắc dùng cột 2 ( quá khứ đơn) Ex: I (go) went to the cinema last night.
  • Động từ theo quy tắc thêm –ed Cách thêm –ed Động từ một vần tận cùng bằng một nguyên âm và một phụ âm thì gấp đôiphụ âm cuối. Ex:Stop→ stopped. Động từ tận cùng bằng –e chỉ thêm –d Ex: arrive→ arrived Động từ hai vần, có dấu nhấn ở vần thứ hai, tận cùng bằng một nguyên âm vàmột phụ âm thì gấp đôi phụ âm cuối. Ex: Admit→ Admitted Động từ tận cùng bằng một phụ âm + Y, -Y đổi thành –I trước khi –ed. Ex: Study→studied Động từ tận cùng bằng một phụ âm + Y, - Y để nguyên, chỉ thêm –ed Ex: Play→played III.CÁCH DÙNG: Hành động xảy ra và chấm dứt ở quá khứ, dùng với những trạng từ (ago, yesterday, last night, last month, last week, in 1990, etc...) Ex: I (see) saw Lan yesterday. (Tôi gặp Lan ngày hôm qua) EXERCISEUse the simple past or the present perfect.1. What (learn, you) since you (come) here? How many friends (make, you)? I hopeyou (meet, already) a lot of interesting people.2. Since classes began, I (have, not) much free time. I (have) several big tests to studyfor.3. Last night my roommate and I (have) some free time, so we (go) to a show.4. I admit that I (get) older since I last (see) you, but with any luck at all, I (get, also)wiser.5. The science of medicine (advance) a great deal in the nineteenth century.6. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, medical scientists (make) manyimportant discoveries.7. Libraries today are different from those in the 1800s. For example, the contents oflibraries (change) greatly through the years. In the 1800s, libraries (be) simplycollections of books. However, today most libraries (become) multimedia centers thatcontain tapes, computers, disks, films, magazines, music, and paintings. The role ofthe library in society (change, also). In the 1800s, libraries (be) open only to certainpeople, such as scholars or the wealthy. Today libraries serve everyone. QUÁ KHỨ TIẾP DIỄN (Past continuous) I. CÔNG THỨC: S + be(was/were) + V-ing We/they/you + were +V-ing She/he/I + was II. CHÚ Ý: CÁCH THÊM –ING NHƯ PHẦN CHÚ Ý CỦA THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN. III. CÁCH DÙNG: 1. Người nào đamg làm gì tại một thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ. Ex: This time last year I was living in Brazil
  • ( Năm ngoái vào lúc này tôi đang sống ở Bra xin) 2. Dùng với thì quá khứ đơn để diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra giữa một hành động khác ở quá khứ (Xảy ra trước dùng quá khứ tiếp diễn) Ex: While I was walking down the street, it began to rain. (Khi tôi đang đi xuống đường thì trời bắt đầu mưa) 3. Dùng với những trạng từ: a few minute (moments) ago, at that time, then, just, at this time last week (year, month), during (in,by) + time.Use the simple past or the past progressive.1. Tommy went to his friend’s house, but the boys (be, not) there. They (play) soccerin the vacant lot down the street.2. Stanley (climb) the stairs when he (trip) and (fail). Luckily, he (hurt, not) himself.3. While Mrs Emerson (read) the little boy a story, he (fall) asleep, so she (close) thebook and quietly (tiptoe) out of the room.4. I really enjoyed my vacation last January. While it (snow) in Iowa, the sun (shine)in Florida. While you (shovel) snow in Iowa, I (lie) on the beach in Florida.5. While Ted (shovel) snow from his driveway yesterday, his wife (bring) him a cupof hot chocolate. THÌ QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH (Simple present perfect) I. CÔNG THỨC S + had + pp(qkpt) II. CÁCH DÙNG 1.Hành động xảy ra trước một hành động khác ở quá khứ Ex: When I arrived, Ann had left (Khi tôi đến, An đã đi rồi) 2. Một số từ dùng với thì này - Liên từ: When, after, as, as soon as, by the time that - Trạng từ : Already, ever, never.......before EXERCISEUse the simple past or the past perfect.1. He (be) a newspaper reporter before he (become) a businessman.2. I (feel) a little better after I (take) the medicine.3. I was late. The teacher (give, already) a quiz when I (get) to class.4. The anthropologist (leave) the village when she (collect) enough data.5. It was raining hard, but by the time class (be) over, the rain (stop). THÌ QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH TIẾP DIỄN I. CÔNG THỨC: S + had + been + V-ing II. CÁCH DÙNG Hành động mang tính chất diễn tiến trong quá khứ thường để lại dấu vết Ex: Her eyes were red. It was clear that she had been crying (Đôi mắt cô ấy đỏ. Rõ ràng cô ấy đã khóc)Use the present perfect progressive or the past perfect progressive.1. It is midnight. I (study) for five straight hours. No wonder I’m getting tired.2. It was midnight. I (study) for five straight hours. No wonder I was getting tired.3. Jack suddenly realized that the teacher was asking him a question. He couldn’tanswer because he (daydream) for the last three minutes.4. Wake up. You (sleep) long enough. It’s time to get up.
  • THÌ TƯƠNG LAI ĐƠN (Simple future) I. CÔNG THỨC: S + will/shall + infinitive (nguyên thể không có to) I/We + shall hoặc will II. CÁCH DÙNG: 1. Tiên đoán điều gì sẽ xảy ra trong tương lai Ex: It will rain tomorrow. (Ngày mai trời sẽ mưa)Nếu tiên đoán có cơ sở hoặc dựa vào tình huống hiện tại mà đoán dùng BE GOINGTO + VEx: Terry is doing his examinations tomorrow. He hasn’t done any work for them andhe is not intelligent. He is going to fail. (Ngày mai Terry thi mà nó không có học hànhgì hết và nó không thông minh nữa. Nó sẽ rớt chắc.)Will hoặc be going to có thể dùng trong trường hợp này:Ex: According to the weather report, it will/ is going to be cloudy tomorrow. (Theodự báo thời tiết thì ngày mai trời sẽ có mây.) 2. Hứa làm điều gì ở tương lai Ex: I will buy you a bicycle for your birthday. (Anh sẽ mua cho em chiếc xe đạp nhân ngày sinh nhật của em) 3. Yêu cầu làm việc gì hay sẵn sàn làm điều gì: Ex1: Will you hold the door open for me, please? (Nhờ anh mở cửa ra giùm em)Ex2: “I need some money”. “Don’t worry. I’ll lend you some.” (Em cần một số tiền.Đừng lo. Anh sẽ cho em mượn.) 4. Quyết định làm điều gì lúc đang nói. Ex: Mother: Have you cleaned the floor? Con đã lau nhà chưa? Daughter: Not yet. I will do it rightnow. Chưa. Con sẽ lau ngay bây giờ.Nếu có dự định trước dùng BE GOING TOEx: A: Why did you buy this paint? (Tại sao anh mua loại sơn này?)B: I’m going to paint my bedroom tomorrow. (Anh dự dịnh sơn phòng ngủ của anhvào ngày mai.)NOTE: Không dùng will trong mệnh đề chỉ thời gian (when, before, after, as soon as,until/till, while, as, since) khi nói về tương lai, chỉ dùng hiện tại đơn hoặc hiện tạihoàn thành.Ex: I will call you before we start the trip. (Anh sẽ đt cho em trước khi chúng ta bắtđầu chuyến đi.)EXERCISEPut the verb in the correct form using will or be going to.1. A: I’ve got a terrible headache.B: Have you? Wait there and I (get) an aspirin for you.2. Why are you filling that bucket with water?B: I (wash) the car.3. A: I’ve decided to repaint this room.
  • B: Oh, have you? What colour (you/paint) it?4. A: Look! There’s coming out of that house. It’s on fire.B: Good heavens! I (call) the fire-brigade immediately.5. A: The ceiling in this room doesn’t look safe, does it?B: No, it looks as if it (fall) down.6. A: Where are you going? Are you going shopping?B: Yes, I (buy) something for dinner.7. A: I can’t work out how to use this camera.B: It’s quite easy. I (show) you.8. A: What would you like to drink – tea or coffe?B: I (have) tea, please. THÌ TƯƠNG LAI TIẾP DIỄN (Future continuous) I. CÔNG THỨC: S + will + be + V-ing II. CÁCH DÙNG: 1.Diễn tả hành động sẽ đang xảy ra vào thời điễm ở tương lai. Ex: By this time tomorrow we’ll be sitting in class. (Ngày mai vào lúc này là chúng ta sẽ đang đang ngồi học trong lớp) 2. Dự định làm gì ở tương lai ( Như thì hiện tại tiếp diễn) Ex: We will be spending the winter in Australia. (Chúng tôi sẽ trải qua mùa đông ở Úc)EXERCISEUse the future progressive or the simple present.1. Right now I am attending class. Yesterday I was attending class. Tomorrow at thistime, I (attend) class.2. Tomorrow I’m going to leave for home. When I (arrive) at the airport, my wholefamily (wait) for me.3. When I (get) up tomorrow morning, the sun (shine), the birds (sing), and myroommate (lie/still) in bed fast asleep.4. Next year at this time I (do) exactly what I am doing now. I (attend) school and(study) hard next year.5. (you/use) your bicycle this evening? No, you can take it. THÌ TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH (Future perfect) I. CÔNG THỨC S + will + have + V3/ed (qkpt) II. CÁCH DÙNG: 1. Hành động sẽ được hoàn thành trước một thời điểm nào đó ở tương lai. Ex: They will have completed the new bridge by the end of the year. ( Họ sẽ hoàn thành cây cầu mới vào cuối năm nay) 2. Những trạng từ thường được dùng: before, when, by the time,... by + date or time. THÌ TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH TIẾP DIỄN (Future perfect continuous) I. CÔNG THỨC S + will + have + been + V-ing
  • II. CÁCH DÙNG: 1. Hành động đã xảy ra bao lâu trong tương lai và còn tiếp tục Ex: Tomorrow I will start working at 7:00. Mary will come to see me at 8:00.When she arrives, I will have been working for an hour. 2. Trạng từ được dùng như tương lai hoàn thành.EXERCISEUse the future progressive, the future perfect, or the future perfect continuous.1. Tonight the film on VTV3 begins at 9 o’clock and ends at 11 o’clock. My brotherwill come home at 10 o’clock tonight. When he gets home, I (watch) the film and I(watch) it for an hour, and after 11 o’clock, I (watch) it.2. I (retire) by the end of this year.3. By the end of the week, I (wait) seventeen weeks for my phone to be repaired.4. Do you realize that on August 15, we (live) in this house for fifty years.5. I hope I (finish) this report by the end of the day.6. She (leave) for work before the children get home from school.7. We (fly) nonstop for fourteen hours before we get to the U.S.EXERCISE 1. “Hurry up! We’re waitting for you. What taking is so long?” “ I _____for an important phone call. Go ahead and leave without me” A. wait B. will wait C. am watting D. have waited2. “ Robert is going to be famous someday. He _____ in three movies already.” “ I’m sure he’ll be a star.” A. has benn appearing B. had appeared C. has appeared D. appeared3. “ Where’s Polly?” “ She _____” A. in her room studying B. in her room in studying C. studies in her room D. has in her room studied4. “ Hello? Alice? This is Jeff. How are you?” “Jeff? What a coincidence! I _____ about you when the phone rang.” A. was just thinking B. just thought C. have you thought D. was just thought5. “ What _____ about the new simplified tax law?” “ It’s more confusing than the old one.” A. are you thinking B. do you think C. have you thought D. have you been thinking6. “ When is Mr. Fields planning to retire?” “ Soon, I think. He _____here for a long time. He’ll probably ritire either nextyear or the year after that.” A. worked B. had been working C. has been working D. is working7. “ Why this you buy all this sugar and chocolate?” “ I _____ a delicous dessert for dinner tonight.” A. make B. will make C. am going to make D. will have make8. “ Let’s go! What’s taking you so long?”
  • “ I’ll be there as soon as I _____my key.” A. found B. will find C. find D. am finding9. Next week when there _____a full moon, the ocean tides will be higher. A. is being B. is C. will be D. will have been10. While I _____ TV last night, a mouse ran across the floor. A. watch B. watched C. was watching D. am watching11. Fish were among the earliest forms of life. Fish _____ on earth for ages and ages A. existed B. are existing C. exist D. have existed12. The phone _____constanly since Jack announced his candidacy for president morning. A. has been ringing B. rang C. had rung D. had been ringing13. The earth _____on the sun for its heat and light. A. is depend B. depending C. has depend D. depends14. I don’t feel good. I _____ home from work tomorrow. A. am staying B. stay C. will have stay D. stayed15. Today there are weather satellites that beam down information about the earth’satmosphere. In the last two dacades, space exploration _____great contribution toweather forcasting. A. is making B. has made C. made D. makes16. On July 20, 1969, Astronaut Neil Armstrong _____ down onto the moon, the firstperson ever to set foot on another celestial body. A. was stepping B. stepped C. has stepped D. was step17. The plane’s departure was delayed because of machanical difficulties. When theweary passengers finally boarded the aircraft, many were annoyed and irritablebecause they _____ in the airport for three and a half hours. A. are watting B. were waitting C. have been waitting D. had been waitting18. If coastal erosion continues to take place at the present rate, un another fifty yearsthis beach _____ anymore. A. doesn’t exist B. isn’t going to exist C. isn’t existing D. won’t be existing19. Homestead High School’s football team _____championship until last season,when the new coach led them to take first place in their league. A. has never won B. is never winning C. had never been winning D. had never won20. Many years of intensive language study are required for non-native speakers to beable to qualify as interpeters. By the end of this year, Chen _____ English for threeyears, but he will still need more training and experience before he masters thelanguage. A. will be studying B. has studied C. will have been studying D. has been studying21. “ May I speak to Dr. Paine, please?” “ I’m sorry, he _____a patient at the moment. Can I help you?’ A. is seeing B. sees C. has been seeing D. was seeing22. “ When are you going to ask your boss for a raise?” “_____ to her twice already! I don’t think she wants to give me one.” A. I’ve talked B. I’ve been talking
  • C. I was talking D. I’d talked23. “ Do you think Harry will want something to eat after he gets here?” “ I hope not. It’ll probably be after midnight, and we _____.” A. sleeping B. will be sleeping C. have been sleeping D. be sleeping24. Paul, could you please turn off the stove? The potatoes _____for at least thirtyminutes.” “ I can’t. I’m feeding the baby.” A. are boiling B. boiling C. have been boiling D. were boiling25. “ It is true that spaghetti didn’t originate in Italy?” “ Yes. The Chinese _____spaghetti dishes for a long time before Marco Polobrought it back to Italy.” A. have been making B. have made C. had been making D. make26. “ I once saw a turtle that had wings. The turtle flew into the air to catch insects.” “ Stop kidding. I _____ you!” A. don’t believe B. am not believing C. didn’n believe D. wasn’t believing27. “ Could someone help me lift the lawnmower into the pickup truck?” “ I’m not busy. I _____you.” “ Thanks.” A. help B. will help C. am going to help D. am helping28. My family love this house. It _____the family home ever since my grandfatherbuilt it 60 years ago. A. was B. has been C. is D. will be29. Here’s an interesting statistic: On a typical day, the average person _____ about48,000 words. How many words did you speak today? A. spoke B. was speaking C. speaks D. is speaking30. I know you feel bad now, Tommy, but try to put it out of your mind. By the timeyou’re an adult, you _____all about it. A. forget B. will have forgotten C. will be forgetting D. forgot31. It’s against the law to kill the black rhinoceros. They _____ extinct. A. became B. have become C. become D. are becoming32. After ten unhappy years, Janice finally quit her job. She _____ along with herboss for a long time before she finally decided to look for a new position. A. hadn’t been getting B. isn’t getting C. didn’t get D. hasn’t been getting33. The Nation Hurricane Center is closely watching a strong hurricane over theAtlantic Ocean. When it _____the coast of Texas sometime tomorrow afternoon, itwill bring with it great destructive force. A. reaches B. will reach C. is reaching D. reaching34. At one time, huge prehistoric reptiles dominated the earth. This Age of Dinosaurs_____ much longer than the present Age of Mammals has lasted to date. A. lasted B. was lasting C. has lasted D. had lasted
  • 35. Jim, why don’t you take some time off? You _____too hard lately. Take a shortvacation. A. worked B. work C. were working D. have been working36. The city is rebuilding its dilapidated waterfront, transforming it into a pleasant andfashionable outdoor mall. Next summer when the tourists arrive, they _____104beautiful new shops and restaurants in the area where the old run-down waterfrontproperties used to stand. A. will found B. will be finding C. will have found D. will find37. A minor earthquake occurred at 2:07 on January 3. Most of the people in thevillage _____at the time and didn’t even know it had occurred until the next morning. A. slept B. had slept C. were sleeping D. sleep38. The little girl started to cry. She _____ her doll, and no one was able to find it forher.39. According to reasearch reports, people usually _____in their sleep 25 to 30 timeseach night. A. turn B. are turning C. have turned D. turned40. Jane’s eyes burned and her shoulders ached. She _____ at the computer for 5straight hours. Finally, she took a a break. A. is sitting B. has been sitting C. was sitting D. had been sittingSENTENCE TRANSFORMATION1. Mr Pike started using this car ten years ago.→ Mr Pike has2. I last saw him three years ago.→ I haven’t3. He hasn’t seen such a nice woman before.→ She4. It is three years since I separated her.→I5. The last time Jim smoked was ten months ago.→ Jim hasn’t6. My dad started living here in 2000.→ My dad has7. Bill hasn’t played football for 2 years.→ Jack last8. I have never drunk beer before.→ This is the first9. He worked as a TV reporter, then he became a businessman.→ Before he10. Bob will graduate from university in June, and then he will open a company.→ By the time JackIF SENTENCES I. Có thật ở hiện tại/ tương lai: If + hiện tại đơn hiện tại đơn Will + động từ nguyênthể không có “to” Ex: If I have enough time, I write to my parents every week (Nếu tôi có đủ thời gian, tôi viết thư cho cha mẹ tôi mỗi tuần)
  • Ex: If I have enough time tomorrow, I will write to my parents. (Ngày mai nếu tôi có đủ thời gian, tôi sẽ viết thư cho cha mẹ tôi) II. Không có thật ở hiện tại/ tương lai: If + quá khứ đơn would/should/might/could + V (nguyên thể) Ex: If I were a bird, I would fly everywhere ( Nếu là chim, tôi sẽ bay mọi nơi)NOTES:- If ……would khi chúng ta yêu cầu người nào đó làm 1 điều gì bằng 1 cách trịnhtrọng.Ex1: “Shall I close the door?” “Yes, please, if you would.” (Tôi đóng cửa nhe. Vâng,cứ đóng nếu bạn muốn).Ex2: I would be very grateful if you would send me your brochure and price as soonas possible. (Tôi sẽ cám ơn bạn nhiều nếu ban gởi cho tôi quyển sách QC và giá càngsớm càng tốt)- Be → was/were (nhưng WERE mang tính trang trọng hơn khi câu nói mang tínhnghi ngờ).Ex: If I was/were you, I would buy that coat.Tuy nhiên dùng were, không dùng was khi câu nói mang tính tưởng tượng, thể hiệnlời khuyên, giải thích điều gì đó đã không xảy ra.Ex1: If I were the Queen of Sheba, you’d be King Solomon.Ex2: If it weren’t for your help, I would still be homeless. III.Không có thật ở quá khứ If + quá khứ hoàn thành would/should/could/might have + pp(qkpt) Ex: Last month if I had had enough money, I would have bought that car. (Tháng rồi nếu tôi có đủ tiền, tôi sẽ mua chiếc xe đó) IV. Kết hợp loại 2 và 3- If + TYPE 3 (S + had + v3/ed), TYPE 2 (S + would + v0)- If + TYPE 2 (S + V2/ed, TYPE 3 (S + WOULD + HAVE + V3/ed)Ex1: If I had stayed up late last night, I wouldn’t have a headache now.Ex2: If you knew me better, you wouldn’t have said that.V. Mệnh lệnh + liên từ (and, or, or else, otherwise) + S + willEx: Stop eating sweets, or you won’t get any dinner.→ If you don’t stop eating sweets, you won’t get any dinner.NOTE:- unless = if….not = except if: trừ phi, nếu….không, (không dùng will sau chúng)Ex: We’ll be late unless we hurry. (= except if we hurry) (chúng ta sẽ bị trễ nếu chúngta không đi gấp)- as/so long as = providing (that) = provided (that): miễn là, (không dùng will sauchúng)Ex: Providing (that) she studies hard, she should pass the examination. (Ắt hẳn cô tasẽ thi đậu miễn là cô ta học chăm chỉ.)- in case + mệnh đề, in case of + (cụm) danh từ: nếu, dự phòng, trong trường hợp,( không dùng will sau chúng.)
  • Ex1: I will draw a map for you in case you can’t find my house. (Tôi vẽ cho bạn sơ đồnếu bạn không tìm được nhà tôi.)Ex2: In case of emergency, telephone this number. (Trong trường hợp khẩn cấp, hãygọi số đt này.- Bỏ IF: Were/Was/Should/Had + SEx1: If it were not for your help, I would still be homeless.→ Were it not for your help, I would still be homeless.Ex2: If he had been here yesterday, he could have told us.→ Had he been here yesterday, he could have told us.WISH SENTENCES I.Ước muốn về tương lai: WouldWish + that + S + were going to Could/ should/ might Ex: I wish that I would be a billionaire. II. Ước muốn về hiện tại: quá khứ đơn Wish + (that) + S were + V-ing Could Ex: I wish I could speak JapaneseNOTE:- Be → was/were (nhưng WERE mang tính trang trọng hơn khi câu nói mang tínhnghi ngờ)Ex: I wish Mary was/were here now. III. Ước muốn về quá khứ: Quá khứ hoàn thành Wish + (that) + S + Could + have + P.P Ex: I wish Mary could have come yesterdayEXERCISE1. If I was offered the job, I think I (take) it.2. Would George be angry if I (take) his bicycle without asking?3. Our earth will be destroyed if no measures (be) taken to protect it.4. He (join) us in the trip tomorrow if he is free.5. If he (call), tell him I’ll ring back.6. If I should see him, I (ask) him to bring you.7. I’d have sent you a postcard while I was on holiday if I (have) your address.8. If he had missed the train, he (be) late for his interview.9. I have eaten too much and now I feel sick. I wish I (not/eat) so much.10. It probably won’t happen. Tim wishes it (happen).11. I don’t know many people and I’m lonely. I wish I (know) more people.12. Jack didn’t visit me yesterday. I wish Jack (visit) me yesterday.13. Take a taxi, otherwise you (miss) your train.14. I will buy some more food in case Tom (come).15. Had the management acted soon, the strike (not/happen).Exercise
  • 1. When I stopped talking, Sam finnished my sentence for me as though he______mymind. A. would read B. could be C. were D. had been2. If you______, I would have brought my friends over to your house this evening towatch TV, but I didn’t want to brother you. A. had studied B. studied C. hadn’t been studying D. didn’t studied3. I wish I______you some money for your rent, but I’m broke myself. A. can land B. would land C. could land D. could come4. If someone______into the store, smile and say, “May I help you?” A. comes B. came C. would come D. could come5. “Are we lost?” “I think so. I wish______we a map with us today,” A. were bringing B. brought C. had brought D. would bring6. “ Here’s my phone number.” “ Thanks. I’ll give you a call if I______some help tomorrow.” A. will need B. need C. would need D. needed7. If I weren’t working for an accounting firm, I______in a bank. A. work B. will work C. have worked D. would be working8. Ed invested a lot of money with a dishonest advisor, and lost nearly all of it. Nowhe is having serious financial problems. He ______ in this position if he had listenedto some of his friends. A. will be B. wouldn’t be C. will be D. hadn’t been9. The world______ a better place if we had known a hundred years ago what weknow today about the earth’s enviroment. A. will be B. was C. should be D. might be10. The medicine made me feel dizzy. I felt as thought the room______around andaround. A. were spinning B. will spin C. spins D. would be spinning11. “I’m really sorry about what happened during the meeting. I felt I had no choice.” “ It’s okay. I’m sure you wouldn’t have done it if you______.” A. Should have B. had to C. hadn’t dad to D. have to12. ______you, I’d think twice about that decision. It could be a bad move. A. If I had been B. Were I C. Should I be D. If I am13. “ Was Pam seriously injured in the automobile accident?” A. will be B. would have been C. was D. were14. If my cadidate had won the election, I ______happy now. A. am B. would be C. was D. can be15. I wish Janet______to the metting this afternoon. A. came B. will come C. can come D. could come16. I______you to the woman I was speaking with, but I couldn’t think of her name. A. will introduce B. would introduce C. would have introduce D. couldn’t have introduce17. “What______today if you hadn’t cone here this weeken?” “I guess I’d be putting in extra hours at my office.”
  • A. did you do B. can you do C. will you be doing D. would you be doing18. Page 12 of the manual that came with the applicance says, “______any problemwith the merchandise, contact your local dealer.” A. You should have B. Do you have C. Had you have D. Should you have19. Magre walked away from the discussion. Otherwise, she______something shewould regret later. A. will say B. said C. might say D. might have said20. I would never have encourageed you to go into this field______it would be sostressful for you. I’m sorry it’s been so difficult for yo. A. had I know B. and I had know C. should I know D. but I knew21. Please keep your voice down in this section of the library. If you_______ to talkloudly, I will have to ask you to leave. A. continued B. could continue C. will continue D. continue22. Gloria never sems to get tired. I sure wish I_______her energy. A. would have B. have C. have had D. had23. “Why didn’t Bill get the promotion he was expecting?” A. would have been given B. were given C. would be given D. was given24. If I could find Rob’s phone number, I_______him about the change in plans. Maybe somebody else will call him. A. called B. had called C. could call D. will call25. “ How do you like your new apartment?” “ The apartment itself it great, but I wish I_______used to the constant noise fromthe street below.” A. got B. could get D. had gotten D. am26. I was very engrossed in that presentation an Australia. The video taps were sorealistic that it was as though we_______there, driving through the outback country. A. were B. could get C. had gotten D. will be27. If I_______following that other car too closely, I would having been able to stopin time instead of running into it. A. wasn’t B. would have been C. was D. hadn’t been28. “ Why aren’t you going mountain climbing with the rest of us next weeken?” “ To be honest with you, I’m a coward. If I were brave, I_______with you. A. would have gone B. would go C. go D. willl go29. “ Will you see Tom at lunch today? I’d like you to give him a massage for me.” “ I’m not going to lunch, but if I_______him later, I’ll give him your message.” A. should see B. will see C. would see D. could see30. I’m really sleepy today. I wish I_______Bob to the airport late last night. A. didn’t have to take B. weren’t talking C. hadn’t had to take D. didn’t take31. Hurry! We’ve got to leave the house immediately. Otherwise, _______theopening ceremony. A. we’d miss B. we’d have missed C. we miss D. we’re going to miss32. “Why didn’t you tell me you were having so many problem?”
  • “ I_______you, but I figured you had enough to worry about without myproblems, so I said nothing.” A. would tell B. would have told C. would be telling D. had told33. A natiom’s balance of trade is considered unfavorable if it_______more money onimports than it agains from exports. A. will spend B. would spend C. can spend D. spends34. Many people who live near nuclear plans are concerned. _______ go wrong, theimpact on the surrounding area could be disastrous. A. something would B. something will C. should something D. does something35. Had I know the carpenter was going to take three days to show up, I_______thematerials and done the work myself. It would be finished by now. A. will get B. would have gotten C. might get D. will have gotten36. I wish you_______making that noise. It’s bothering me. A. would stop B. are going to stop C. stop D. can stop37. A huge three crashed through the bedroom roof and broke my bed and most of theother furniture. _______in the room, I would have been killed. A. Should be B. Had I been C. Would have I been D. Would I be38, If everyone _______, how would we control air traffic? Surely, we’d all becrashing into each other. A. can fly B. will fly C. flies D. could fly39. If the world’s tropical forests continue to disapear at their presner rate, manyanimal species_______extinct. A. became B. would have become C. will become D. would become40. When my lost briefcase was returned with my year-long research results intact, Ifelt tremendously relieved. It was as if a huge and heavy weight_______from myshoulders. A. had been lifted B. is being lifted C. would be lifted D. is liftingSENTENCE TRANSFORMATION1. I don’t love you, so I don’t marry you.→ If2. He is fat because he doesn’t take any exercise.→ If3. She didn’t come, so I was disappointed.→ If4. You got into so much trouble because you didn’t listen to me.→ If5. I’m sorry that I don’t know anything about cars.→ I wish……..6. I regret that I misunderstood her.→ I wish7. My friend won’t lend me his car for my date tomorrow night.→ I wish8. Drop that gun, or I’ll shoot you.→ If
  • 9. If the referee had seen it, our team would have won the game.→ Had10. Without your help, I couldn’t have done it.→ IfĐỘNG TỪ TÌNH THÁI (MODAL AUXILIARIES)ĐỘNG TỪ TT CÁCH DÙNG HIỆN QUÁ KHỨ TẠI/TƯƠNG LAImay (1) yêu cầu lịch sự May I borrow (polite request) your pen? Cho phép tôi mượn bút nhé? (2) cho phép trịnh You may leave the trọng (formal room. Bạn có thể ra permission) khỏi phòng (3) < 50% chắc - Where’s John? He may have been chắn (less than He may be at the at the library. Nó 50% certainty) library. Có lẻ John đã có thể ở thư viện ở thư việnmight (1) < 50% chắc - Where’s John? He might have chắn (less than He might be at the been at the library 50% certainty) library (2) yêu cầu lịch sự Might I borrow (polite request) ít your pen? dùngshould (1) khuyên I should study I should have (advisability) tonight. Tôi nên studied last night. học tối nay. Lẽ ra tối qua tôi nên học (2) 90% chắc chắn She should do well She should have 90% certainty on the test. Cô ấy done well on the chắc sẽ làm bài thi test. Cô ấy chắc đã tốt (chỉ dùng ở làm bài thi tốt tương lai)ought to (1) khuyên I ought to study I ought to have (advisability) tonight. Tôi nên studied last night. học tối nay Lẽ ra tối qua tôi nên học (2) 90% chắc chắn She ought to do She ought to have 90% certainty well on the test. Cô done well on the ấy chắc sẽ làm bài test. Cô ấy chắc đã thi tốt (chỉ dùng ở làm bài thi tốt tương lai)had better (1) khuyên với đe You had better be Dạng QK không dọa hậu quả xấu on time, or we will phổ biến (advisability with leave without you. threat of bad result)be supposed to (1) mong đợi Class is supposed Class was
  • (expectation) to begin at 10. Lớp supposed to begin học sẽ bắt đầu lúc at 10. Lớp học đã 10 giờ phải bắt đầu lúc 10 giờbe to (1) mong đợi mạnh You are to be here You were to be mẽ (strong at 9:00. bạn phải có here at 9:00. bạn đã expectation) mặt ở đây lúc 9 phải có mặt ở đây giờ. lúc 9 giờ.must (1) cần thiết mạnh I must go to class I had to go to class mẽ (strong today. Hôm nay tôi yesterday. Hôm necessity) phải đi học. qua tôi phải đi học. (2) cấm (phủ định). You must not Prohibition open that door. (negative) Bạn không được mở cửa đó (3) 95% chắc chắn Mary isn’t in class. Mary must have (certainty) She must be sick, been sick Mary không có yesterday. Hôm trong lớp. Ắt hẳn qua ắt hẳn Mary đã nó ốm (chỉ dùng ốm. hiện tại)have to (1) cần thiết I have to go to I had to go to class (necessity) class today. Hôm yesterday. Hôm nay tôi phải đi học. qua tôi phải đi học. (2) không cần thiết I don’t have to go I didn’t have to go (lack of necessity) to class today. Hôm to class yesterday. phủ định nay tôi không phải Hôm qua tôi không đi học. phải đi học.have got to (1) cần thiết I have got to go to I had to go to class (necessity) class today. Hôm yesterday. Hôm nay tôi phải đi học. qua tôi phải đi học.will (1) 100% chắc chắn He will be here at 6:00. Anh ta sẽ ở đây lúc 6 giờ (chỉ dùng tương lai) (2) sự sẵn lòng - The phone’s ringing. I’ll get it. ĐT reo. Để tôi trả lời (3) yêu cầu lịch sự Will you please pass the salt? Xin đưa giùm muối ạbe going to (1) 100% chắc chắn He is going to be here at 6:00. Anh ta sẽ ở đây lúc 6 giờ (chỉ dùng tương lai) (2) kế hoạch xác I’m going to paint I was going to định (definite plan) my room. Tôi sẽ paint my room, but sơn phòng của tôi. I didn’t have time.
  • Tôi đã định sơn phòng của tôi, nhưng không có thời giancan (1) khả năng, sự có I can run fast. Tôi I could run fast thể có thể chạy nhanh. when I was a child, (ability/possibility) but now i can’t. Hồi còn bé tôi có thể chạy nhanh được, nhưng bây giờ thì không. (2) cho phép thân You can use my mật (informal car tomorrow. Bạn permission) có thể sử dụng xe tôi ngày mai. (3) yêu cầu lịch sự Can I borrow your thân mật pen? Cho tôi mượn (informal polite bút nhé? request) (4) impossibility That can’t be true. That can’t have (không có khả năng Không thể có thật been true. Điều đó (phủ định) được. đã không thể có thật được.could (1) khả năng quá I could run fast khứ (past ability) when I was a child. Hồi còn bé tôi chạy nhanh được (2) yêu cầu lịch sựCould I borrow (polite request) your pen? Cho mượn bút nhé (3) gợi ý - I need help in You could have (suggestion) math. You could talked to your talk to your teacher. Bạn đã có teacher. Tôi cần thể nói với GV. giúp đỡ môn toán. Bạn có thể nói GV (4) < 50% chắc - Where’s John? He could have chắn (less than He could be at been at home. Nó 50% certainty) home. John đâu? đã có thể ở nhà Nó có thể ở nhà. (5) impossibility That couldn’t be That couldn’t have (không có khả năng true. Không thể có been true. Điều đó (phủ định) thật được. đã không thể có thật được.be able to (1) khả năng I am able to help I was able to help (ability) you. I will be able him. Tôi đã có thể to help you. Tôi có giúp hắn. thể sẽ giúp bạn.would (1) yêu cầu lịch sự Would you please (polite request) pass the salt? Bạn
  • đưa giùm muối ạ? Would you mind if I left early? (2) ưa thích I would rather go I would rather (preference ) to the park than have gone to the stay home. park. Tôi đã thích đi công viên hơn. (3) repeated action When I was a child, in the past. Hành I would visit my động lập trong quá grandparents every khứ weekend. Hồi còn nhỏ, tôi thường đến thăm ông bà tôi mỗi cuối tuầnused to (1) repeated action I used to visit my in the past. Hành grandparents every động lập trong quá weekend. tôi khứ thường đến thăm ông bà tôi mỗi cuối tuầnshall (1) câu hỏi lịch sự Shall I open the để gợi ý (polite window. Tôi mở question to make a cửa dổ nhé suggestion) (2) chỉ tương lai., I shall/will arrive dùng với “I” và at nine. Will phổ “we” biến hơn.EXERCISE1. Al painted his bedroom black. It looks dark and dreary. He_______a different colo A. had yo choose ĐỘNG TỪ 1. Động từ + to + động từ ( nguyên thể) Phủ định: V + not to + V (infinitive) Ex: I refuse to answer his question Một số động từ dạng này: Afford : đủ tiền/ khả năng Dare : dám Agree : đồng ý Dicide : quyết định Appear : có vẻ Fail : thất bại Arrange : xếp đặt forget : quên Attempt : cố gắng Hope : hy vọng Learn : học Promise : hứa Manage : điều khiển Refuse : từ chối Offer : sẵn sàng, giúp Seem : dường như Pretend : Giả vờ Tend : xu hướng Plan : dự định Threaten : dọa 2. Tình từ + To + động từ (nguyên thể): Ex: I’m glad to see you again Một số tính từ: Glad : vui vẻ Content : vừa lòng Happy : Hạnh phúc Relived : khuây khỏa
  • Pleased : Vui Lucky : May mắn fortunate : may Sad: buồn Delight : vui Upset :buồn 3.Động từ + where/ what/ when/how + to + nguyên thể: Ex: I don’t know how to do this 4. Động từ + in order to/ so as to + nguyên thể Ex: I go out so as to see the machine ( Tôi ra ngoài để xem cái máy) 5. Động từ + túc từ + to nguyên thể Ex: He asked me to come in Một số động từ: Enable : tạo điều kiện Remind : nhắc nhở Force : bắt buộc Persuade : thuyết phục Get : thuyết phục Teach : dạy Invite : mời Tell: kể Order : ra lệnh Warn : cảnh báo Dạng bị động: Be + P.P + to + nguyên thể Ex: I was asked to come in 6. V + to (nguyên thể) or V-ing Ex: it starts to rain it starts raining Một số động từ : Begin, start (bắt đầu), continue (tiếp tục), intend (dự định), can’t bear (không chịu nổi), can’t stand, commence (bắt đầu) V + to + v/v-ing (đổi nghĩa) Try + to V0 ( cố gắng) Need + to Vo (cần thiết) Try + V-ing (thử) Need + V-ing ( bị động) To + Vo: Chuyện chưa xáy ra Remember, forget, reget( hối hận) + V-ing : xảy ra rồiEx1: I need to learn English.Ex2: My car needs washing. (to be washed) 7. V + V-ing ( động từ thêm ing) Một số động từ dạng này: Amit : nhận Involve : quan tâm Avoid : tránh Miss : bỏ lở Consider: xem như Pospone : hoản lại Delay : hoản lại Pratice : thực hành Enjoy : thích thú Regret : hối hận Fancy : tưởng tượng Risk :liều, mạo hiểm Finish : hoàn thành Stop : dừng lại Imagine: tưởng tượng Suggest : đề nghị Ex: I enjoy listening to music V-ing Advise, permit, suggest, allow, ban, forbid+ O + to Vo 8. Động từ + giơií từ + V-ing Ex: I give up smoking Giới từ: in, on, that, under, off, of, beneath, above, up,etc... 9. Động từ + túc từ + giới từ + V-ing
  • Ex: My mother prevents me from smoking (Mẹ tôi ngăn tôi hút thuốc) 10. Go + V-ing Ex: Do you go swimming? 11. Thành ngữ + V-ing Một số thành ngữ: It’s (no) good : không tốt It’s (no) use : không lợi ích It’s (not) worth : không giá trị There’s is no point in: không cần thiết Spend/ waste (time/ money) Have + difficultty/ trouble/ fun/ a good time 12. Động từ + động từ ( không to) ` Ex: He make her cry Một số động từ dạng này Make : làm Let : để cho Know/help (có hoặc không có to) Have (nhờ) + someone + V0 = get + someone + to V Get/Have + O + V3/ed = ask + someone + to V Ex1: I had my brother carry my suitcase. Ex2: I got my watch repaired. 13. V-ing (chủ động) : This film is interesting V-ed ( bị động ) : I’m interested in the film 14. It’s time + someone + quá khứ đơn Ex: It’s time we went home Had better Nên Ought to Nên Be able to + Vo Có thể Used to Thường ở quá khứ Be used to + V-ing ( thường ở hiện tại) See, watch, hear Notice, feel, listen to Vo / V-ing Vo Would rather + Someone + simple past Ex: I’d rather you cooked the dinner now ( Tôi muốn (thích) bạn nấu cơm chiều ngay bây giờ)1. Let’s not (argue) about it2. He was made (work) twenty hours a day3. Miss prouty made the boys (stay) in after school4. I’d rather (work) on the land than (work) in a factory5. You’d better not (go) near the edge6. My mother helped me (do) my homework7. He was known ( have) had a quick temper as a boy8. I saw him (be) taken away by the police10. I’ll have you (speak) English in 6 months11. You shut the door quietly so as (not/wake) the baby12. It’s nogood (swim) alone in a big river13. I can’t afford (buy) a house14. She is able (work) as a secretary
  • 15. Joe used (get) up late 5 years ago16. Now Joe is used to (get) up early17. There is no point in (go) there by bus18. My sister advises (read) more books19. I learn how (ride) a bicycle20. Please show me where (go)21. He was kind (help) me22. John always remembers (lock) the door when he goes out23. They accused him of (steal) their purse24. Practise (write) essays everyday!25. He is the First (arrive)26. My bicycle needs (repair)27. Jane had the waiter (bring) her some tea.28. When I walked into my office, I found George (use) my telephone.29. Edward stood on the beach (look) out over the ocean.30. When I walked into my office, I caught a thief (look) through my desk drawers.II. Rewrite these sentences.1. He usually smoked in the past. (used to)2. She usually does morning exercise. (be used to)3. Jack finds it easy to drive a car. (be used to)4. They find it difficult to swim across the channel. (not be used to)5. I will ask someone to paint my house. (have)6. Jim asked someone to cut his hair. (had)7. He is now sorry that he didn’t study harder when he was at college. (regret)8. Could you turn the radio down, please? (mind)9. The sudden noise caused me to jump. (made)10. The batteries in this radio need changing. (need to)11. Tom went to bed but first he had a hot drink. (before)12. The plane took off and soon afterwards it crashed. (soon after)13. We didn’t eat at home. We went to a restaurant instead. (instead of)14. You put people’s lives in danger if you drive dangerously. (by)15. He hurt his leg but he managed to win the race. (in spite of)16. Bill is a very good cook. (good at)17. I don’t intend to lend her any money. (have no intention of)18. George took more exercise and so lost weight. (by)19. He was angry with me because I was late. (angry…with…for)20. Tom thinks that doing nothing is better than working. (prefer…to)Exercise: ͢ 1. I don’t blame you for not________ outside in this awful weather. A. wanting to go B. to have had C. to have D. having2. I think I hear someone ________ the back window. Do you hear it, too? A. trying often B. trying to open C. trying open D. try to open3. When Alan was questioned by the police, he amitted knowing about theembezzlement of funds from his company, but he dinied ________ in anyway A. to be involved B. involving C. having involved D. being involved4. Mr. Lee was upset by ________him the truth. A. our not having told B. us not tell
  • C. we didn’r tell D. not to tell5. We considered________after work A. to go shop B. going shoping C. going to shop D. to go to shop6. Jack offerd________ care of my garden while I was out of town. A take B. taking C. to have taken D. to take7. Could you please come over ? I need you________ the refrigerator. A. help me moving B. helping me to move C. to help me move D. help me to move8. I just hear that there’s been a major accident that has all of the traffic tied up. If wewant to get to the play on time, we’d better avoid ________ the highway. A. having taken B. take C. to take D.taking9. The painting was beautiful. I stood there________it for a long time. A. for admiring B. being admired C. admire D. admiring10. Jim should have asked for help instead________ to do it himself. A. of trying B. to try C. try D. from trying11. A plan with an engine on fire approached the runway. ________ was frightening.There could have been a terrible accident. A. watching it landing B. watching it land C. To watch to it land D. Watching to landed12. The costoms officer opened the suitcase________ if anything illegal was beingbrought into the country. A. seeing B. for seeing C. see D. to see13. Sometimes very young children have trouble________ fact from fiction and maybelieve that dragons acctually exist. A. to separate C. separating C. to be separated D. for separating14. Do you have an excuse________ late to class two days in a row ? A. for to be B. for being C. to be D. being15. Jack made me ________ him next week. A. to promsise to call B. to promise calling C. promise to call D. promise calling16. I got Barbara________ her car for the weekend. A. to let me to borrow B. let me borrow C. to let me borrow D. let me to borrow17. I’ll never forget________ that race. What a thrill ! A. to win B. win C. being won D. winning18. No one has better qualifications. Carol is certain________ for the job. A. to choose B. having chosen C. to be chosen D.being chosen19. I was enjoying my book, but I stopped ________ a program on TV A. reading to watch B. to read to watch C. to read for watching D. reading for to watch20. Who is the women talking to Mr. Quinn? I don’t recall ________ her around theoffice before. A. to have seen B. seeing C. to see D. being seeing21. Roger proved that the accident wasn’t his fault by________ two witnesses whotestified in his favor. A. produce B. produced C. to produced D. producing
  • 22. The front door is warped from the humidity. We have a difficult time________it. A. open B. to open C. having opened D. opening23. I stood up at the meeting and demanded________. At last, I got the chance toexpress my opinion.24. Did you ever finish ________ the office for that new client of yours? A. to design B. designing C. designed D. having designed25. It’s a beautiful day, and I have my brother’s boat. Would you like to go? A. to sail B. sailing C. to sailing D. for sailing26. I called a plumber________ the kitchen sink. A. for repairing B. for to repair C. to repair D.to be repaired27. I’m anrgy because you didn’t tell me the truth. I don’t like________ A. deceiving B. to deceive C. being decived D. having decieved28. A good teacher makes her students________ the world from new perspectives. A. to view B. viewing C. view D. to be viewed29. Please remember________ your hand during the test if you have a question. A. raising B. to raise C. having raiseed D. to haveraised30. It is important ________ care of your health. A. to take B. to be taken C. take D. taken31. ________in restaurant as often as they do is very expensive. A. being eaten B. having eaten C. having been eating D. eating32. I expect Mary_______here early tonight. She should arrive in the next half hour. A. to come B. coming C. having come D.to have come33. I avised my niece not_______at an early age. A. marrying B. to marry C. being married D. to have been married34. Shhh. I hear someone_______in the distance. Do you here it, too? A. shout B. shouted C. to shout D. shouting35. I don’t understand_______your job so suddenly. Why did you do that? A. your quitting B. you to have quit C. to quit D. you quit36. Last night, we saw a mtero_______through the sky. A. streaked B. to streak C. streak D. to have streaked37. My parents wouldn’t let me_______up late when I was a child. A. to be stay B. staying C. to stay D. stay38. Children should be encouraged_______their individual interests. A. develop B. to be developed C. to develop D. developing39. This room is to dark. We need_______a lighter shade. A. to have it painted B. to be painted C. painting it C. to have it paint40. I’m sorry. I never graduated. I’ve always regretted not_______ colleage. A. to finish B. finish C. finished D. having finishingSỰ HÒA HỢP
  • I. SỰ HÒA HỢP GIỮA CHỦ TỪ VÀ ĐỘNG TỪ1. Chủ từ số ít + Động từ số ít Ex: Mary is a student2. Chủ từ số nhiều + Động từ số nhiều Ex: Doctors work in hopitalsDanh từ số nhiều thường tận cùng bằng s/es (ta thêm s/es để thnàh lập danh từsố nhiều). Doctor→ Doctors* Một số danh từ không theo qui tắc- Một số danh từ số nhiều không tận cùng bằng s/es, khi nó có nguồn gốc latinh:Số ítCriterion tiêu chuẩn criteriaPhenomenon hiện tượng phenomenaCactus xương rồng cactuses/ cactiStimulus vật kích thích stimuliSyllabus chương trình học tập syllabiVertebra đốt sống vertebraeAppendix mục lục appendices/ dixesBacterium vi khuẩn bacteriaFormala công thức formulae/ formulas- Một số danh từ đặc biệtPerson → people/ persons, wife → wives, man → men, child → children, mouse →mice, foot → feet, tooth → teeth, ox → oxen, goose → geese, woman → womenDanh từ số ít tận cùng bằng S:  News : Tin tức  Môn học: physic (lý học), economics (kinh tế học), statistics (thống kê học), maths/ mathematics (toán học).  Bệnh: Measles (bệnh sởi), mumps (bệnh quai hàm), rickrets (bệnh còi xương)  Tên riêng: Wales, the United State, the United Nation, the Philipines.Động từ được dùng ở số ít khi một số chủ từ được kết hợp với những từ/ cụm từdưới đây:Each, every, a, an, either, neither, danh từ không đếm được, danh từ số ít tận cùngbằng s, little, much, a great deal of, v-ing, the number of, số lượng tiền (ten dollars),thời gian (3 hours), đoạn đường ( six miles), noone, someone, somebody, something,nothing, nobody, anything, anyone, anybody. Ex: Everyone has a bookĐộng từ được dùng ở số nhiều khi một số chủ từ số nhiều được kết hợp vớinhững từ/ cụm từ dưới đây :Many, a few, a number of, several, both ... and, danh từ số nhiều, the +adj Ex: The rich are usually happy.3. Danh từ số ít cũng như số nhiềuDeer (con nai), fish, means (phương tiện), sheep (con cừu), spieces (loài)Ex: one deer is….; two deer are….Not only ... but also, either ... or, neither ... nor: Động từ đi với chủ từ gần nhất. Ex: Not only my sister but also my parents are here ( Không những chị gái mà còn cả ba mẹ tôi ở đây nữa).II. ADJ/DETERRMINER-NOUN AGREEMENT (SỰ HÒA HỢP GIỮA TÍNHTỪ/ĐỊNH NGỮ VÀ DANH TỪ)1. that/this book → those/these books
  • 2. every girl → all girls3. every day → every two days (hai ngày 1 lần)4. another week → another two weeks (hai tuần nữa)5. the other book is → the other books areIII. SỰ HÒA HỢP GIỮA DANH TỪ VÀ ĐẠI TỪ1. Đại từ nhân xưng bất định:Ex1: Somebody left his book on the desk. Formal (cách nói trịnh trọng)Ex2: Everyone has his/her ideas. FormalEx3: Somebody left their book on the desk. Informal (cách nói thân mật hằng ngày)Ex2: Everyone has their ideas. InformalEx5: One should take care of one’s/his health.Ex6: One should take care of his or her health.2. Danh từ tập hợp.Audience (khán giả), couple (cặp), family, class, public, crowd, government, staff,committee, falculty (khoa), group, team.a. Khi một danh từ tập hợp đề cập đến một đơn vị không nhân xưng duy nhất,đại từ it, its được dùngEx: My family is large. It is composed of nine members.b. Khi danh từ tập hợp đề cập đến một tập hợp các cá nhân khác nhau, một đạitừ số nhiều they, them, their được dùng.Ex: My family is loving and supportive. They are always ready to help me.c. Đại từ phản thân (reflexive pronouns).She/her → herself (chính cô ấy)He/him → himself (chính anh ấyIt → itself (chính nó)I/me → myself (chính tôi)We/us → ourselves (chính chúng tôi)You → yourself (chính bạn), yourselves (chính các bạn)They/them → themselves (chính họ)Ex1: They advised her to take care of herself.Ex2: He answered the phone himself.LƯỢNG TỪ (EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY)Lượng từ Được dùng với danh từ Được dùng với danh từ K ĐĐ ĐĐone, each, every apple (táo) số ít ØTwo, both, a couple of, apples Øthree, a few, several,many, a number ofa little, much, a great deal Ø waterofnot any, no, some, a lot of, apple waterlots of, plenty of, most, allExercise1.The science classes at this______difficult. A. schools are B. school is C. school are D.school’s is2. One of the______from Italy. A. student is B. students are C. student are D. students is3. ______to support the case against Janes?
  • A. Is there any proof B. Are there any proof C. Is there any proofs D. Are there any proofs4. You have to pay extra if you take too______with you. A. much luggages B. many luggages C. much luggage D.many luggage5. ______in your class have tickets for the lecture series? A. Do any of the student B. Does any of the student C. Do any of the students D. Does any of the students6. Bob got fired. It’s going to be difficult for him to find______job. A. other B. another C. the other D. the another7. There______ available in his area of specializatiion. A. isn’t a lot of job B. aren’t a lot of jobs C. isn’t a lot of jobs D. aren’t a lot of job8. He made the soup by mixing______ meat with some rice. A. little B. few C. a little D. a few9. Many of the______not expect to win. A. participants in the race do B. participants in the races does C. participants in the race does D. participants in the race does10. The English______strong traditions. A. has many B. have much C. have many D. has much11. ______moved to that cidy recently. A. A number of Vietnamese have B. A number Vietnamese has C. The number of Vietnamese has D. The number of Vietnamese have12. Each of the reference______available in the school library. A. books on that list is B. books on that list are C. book on that list is D. book on that list are13. Several______sleeping under the tree. A. of lions were B. lion was C. of the lions was D. lions were14. Many of the______ not used today. They are remnants of the past. A. railroad tracks around here are B. railroad’s track around here is15. As we walked through the jungle, the______unusually quiet. A. monkeys were B. monkeys was C. monkies werw D.monkies was16.At the new conference, serveral reporters didn’t get clear answersto______questiions. A. theirs B. their C. his and hers D. his and her17. I have a______sister. A. seven years old B.seven-years-old C. seven-year-old D. seven year olds18. There______in the world today. A. is many new computer company B. is many computer companies C. is many new computers companies D. are many new computer companies19. Self-esteem is important. It’s important for people to like______. A. oneself B. yourself C. him/herself D. themselves20. What______you used in picking up a winner in the art contest? A. is the criteira B. are the criteria C. are the criterion D. are the criterions21. One of the dinner______broken. A. plate is B. paltes are C. paltes is D. plate are22. Most______hard. A. of students work B. students work C. student works D. of stdent works23. Can you help me? I need ______information.
  • A. a little B. little C. a few D. few24. All of the althletes who took part in the international games should be very proudof______. A. himself B. oneself C. themselves D. yourselves25. Snow and rain______of nature. A. are phenomenon B. are phenomena C. is phenomena D. is phenomenon26. I accidently broke the______by stepping on it. I apologized them for mycarelessness. A. child’s toy B. child’s toys C. childrens’ toy D. childrens’s toy27. Our weather is cloudy in the winter. We don’t have _______. A. many sunshines B. many sunshine C. much sunshines D. much sunshine28. Several of my friends are_______repoters. A. newspaper B. newspapers C. newspaper’s D.newspapers’29. Construction workers need _______ to build a highway. A. an heavy equipment B. a heavy equipment C. heavy equipments D. heavy equipment30. Our classroom is supplied with _______. A. a plenty of chalk B. plenty of chalk C. several chalks D. several chalk31. Knowing several_______ helpful if you work for an international corporation. A. languages are B. language is C. languages is D.language are32. Two-third of my_______ from the Middle East. A. classmates is B. classmate are C. classmate is D. classmates are33. There _______ in my country. A. are a lot of problem B. are a lot of problems C. is a lot of problems D. is a lot of problem34. Winning a lottery is a rare accurrence. _______ very small. A. A number of winners is B. The number of winners is C. A number of winners are D. The number of winners are35. There are several means of mass communication. The newspaper is one.Television _______. A. other B. the other C. another D. the another36. Each of the _______ own cage. A. birds has their B. bird has its C. birds have their D. birds has its37. I really need _______. Can we talk ? A. some advice B. an advice C. some advices D. advices38. Every _______ a license plate. A. cars have B. cars has C. cars has D. car have39. The swimming team has done well this year. All of _______ have trained veryhard. A. their members B. its members C. it’s members D. theirs members40. Next week, we’re going to take a _______ A. three day trips B. three-day trip C. three days trip D. three days’ trip
  • RELATIVE CLAUSE (MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ)1. WHO, THAT thay thế chủ từ chỉ người (he, she, they)Ex: The woman is a singer. She lives next door.→ The woman who/that lives next door is a singer.2. WHO, WHOM, THAT, Ø thay thế túc từ chỉ người (him, her, them)Ex: The girl is pretty. I sometimes see her at the supermarket.→ The girl who/whom/that/Ø I sometimes see at the supermarket is pretty.3. WHICH, THAT thay thế cho chủ từ chỉ vật.Ex: The book is interesting. It is on the table.→ The book which/that is on the table is interesting.4. WHICH/THAT/ Ø thay thế túc từ chỉ vật.Ex: The film is interesting. I have seen it twice.→ The film which/that/ Ø I have seen twice is interesting.5. THAT, không dùng WHICH, sau all, everything, nothing, the only, so sánhnhất.Ex: Everything that must be done has been done.THAT không thể thay thế cho WHO, WHOM, WHICH trong mệnh đề quan hệ bấtđịnh.Ex: New York, which is ice-free in all seasons, is the largest city in the U.S.6. WHOSE chỉ sở hữu cho người và vật (its, her, his, their, your, Mary’s).Ex1: The man is teaching us mathematics. His father is a great scientist.→ The man whose father is a great scientist is teaching us mathematics.Ex2: The table is made of wood. Its leg is broken.→ The table whose leg is broken is made of wood.Có thể dùng of which chỉ sở hữu cho vật.→ The table, the leg of which is broken, is made of wood.7. WHERE = GIỚI TỪ + WHICH thay thế cho trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn.Ex: I love New York. My father is living there.→ I love New York, where/in which my father is living.8. WHEN GIỚI TỪ + WHICH thay thế cho trạng từ chỉ thời gian.Ex: 1997 was the year. I graduated from university in that year.→ 1997 was the year when/in which I graduated from university.Note: the day/ the year/ the time (etc.) that….Ex: Do you still remember the day that we first met.9. WHY, THE REASON (WHY) thay thế cho trạng từ chỉ lí do.Ex: The reason (why/that) I’m phoning you is to invite you to the party.10. WHAT = THE THING(S) THAT; THE WAY/HOW.Ex1: Did you hear what I said? (= the words that I said)Ex2: This is the way/how he did it.11. PRE (GIỚI TỪ) + WHICH/WHOMEX: This is Mr Carter. I was telling you about him.→ This is Mr Carter, who I was telling you about. (not whom)→ This is Mr Carter, about whom I was telling you.12. Lượng từ (ALL, MOST, NONE, MANY, MUCH, (A) FEW, EACH, BOTH,NEITHER, HALF, EITHER, ONE/TWO, etc. + giới từ (of, among…) +WHICH/WHOMEx: Norman won $ 20,000. He gave half of it to his parents.→ Norman won $ 20,000, half of which he gave to his parents.
  • 13. WHICH thay thế cho it, this, that, bổ nghĩa cho cả câu.Ex: Minh married Linh. This surprised us.→ Minh married Linh, which surprised us.14. Cách giảm của mệnh đề quan hệ.Khi giảm, bỏ đại từ quan hệ và đưa động từ về nguyên thể, thêm –ing. Nếu bị độngthì bỏ luôn to bea. Dùng present participle (HTPT).Ex: Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?→ Do you know the girl talking to Tom?b. Dùng past participle (QKPT).Ex: The man who was injured in the accident was taken to hospital.→ The man injured in the accident was taken to hospital.EXERCISEI. Combine the two sentences, using relative pronouns.1. The students are from China. They sit in the front row.2. Algebra problems contain letters. They stand for unknown numbers.3. I liked the woman. I met her at the party last night.4. The man is standing overthere. I was telling you about him.5. I lave to call the man. I accidentally picked up his umbrella after the meeting.6. The man poured a glass of water on his face. His beard caught on fire when he lit acigarette.7. The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation there.8. July is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.9. Mr Lee teaches chemistry. I met him yesterday.10. After the riot, over one hundred people were taken to the hospital. Many of themhad been innocent bystanders.11. They own an original Picasso painting. The value of the painting is over a milliondollars.12. I shut the car door on my necktie. That was really stupid of me.II. Change the adjective clauses to adjective phrases.1. There’s someone who is knocking at the door.2. What can you do about a dog which is barking all night?3. Customers who complain about the service should see the manager.4. Trains which leave from this station take an hour to get to London.5. Passengers who travel on planes shouldn’t smoke.6. The experiment which was conducted at the university of Chicago was successful.7. The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.8. We have an apartment which overlooks the park.MỆNH ĐỀ TRẠNG TỪ (ADVERBIAL CLAUSES)I. Mệnh đề trạng từ chỉ thời gian: Nối với mệnh đề chính bằng những liên từ when, after, before, as soon as(ngay khi), since (kể từ khi), while (trong khi), until, till. Ex: You didn’t look very well when you got up this morning.III. Mệnh đề trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn: -Những từ nối với mệnh đề chính như : where, wherever, anywhere, evereywhere Ex: You can’t camp where you like these days.III. Mệnh đề trạng từ chỉ lý do: Because, as, since, seeing that (bởi vì)
  • - Sau nó dùng mệnh đề, sau because of dùng cụm từ (v-ing, danh từ) hay due to Ex: Because there was little support, the strike was not successful.→ Because of the very little support, the strike was not successfulIV. Mệnh đề trạng từ chỉ điều kiện: Assuming (that): Giả sử rằng, if, on condition (that): điều kiện là, as long as:miễn là, unless (if not): trừ phi Ex: He will fail the test unless he studies well.V. Mệnh đề trạng từ chỉ sự nhượng bộ: Athough, eventhough, though, even if (mặc dù), no matter what (what ever):dù gì đi nữa. In spite of/ despite: mặc dù, sau nó dùng cụm từ V-ing, noun. Ex: I’m going to buy a computer eventhough I haven’t got much money/inspite of (despite) not having got much money.VI. Mệnh đề trạng từ chỉ mục đích: So that In order that (để mà) + mệnh đề (S + can/could/will/may,etc..) To, so as to In order to Vo Ex: I’ve arrive early so that/ in order that I may/ can/ will/ get a good viewof the procession.→ I’ve arrived early to/ so as to/ in order to get good view of the processionVII. Mệnh đề trạng từ chỉ kết quả: So + adj/ adv that (quá đến nổi mà) So + adj/adv + that …not = Too + adj/adv + to (quá đến nổi không thể) Such + (adj) n + that + mệnh đề Not + adj + enough to V Too + adj/adv + to V Ex: The coffee is so hot that I can not drink it→ The coffee is too hot (for me) to drink→ It is such hot coffee that I can’t drink it.EXERCISE1. Mr. Jackson hopes to avoid surgery. He will not agree to the operation_______ heis convinced that it is absolutely necessary.VIII. SO SÁNH (COMPARISON)1. So sánh hơna. Tính từ và trạng từ 1 vần, và 1 số tính từ 2 vần tận cùng bằng –y, -le, -ow, -er, -et.ADV/ADJ + -ER + (THAN)Ex: The examination was easier than we expected.Simple → simpler; narrow → narrower; quiet → quieter; clever → clevererb. Tính từ và trạng từ nhiều vần: MORE + ADJ/ADV + (THAN)Ex: Her illness was more serious than we at first thought.Notes:Much, very much, far, a little, a bit, a lot, any, no, even, still + ADV/ADJ so sánhhơn2. So sánh nhấta. Tính từ và trạng từ 1 vần, và 1 số tính từ 2 vần tận cùng bằng –y, -le, -ow, -er, -et.THE + ADJ/ADV + ESTEx: Yesterday was the hottest day of the year.Narrow → (the) narrowest
  • b. Tính từ và trạng từ nhiều vầnTHE MOST + ADV/ADJEx: That was the most delicious meal I’ve had for a long time.Ngoại lệ: Adj Bậc hơn Bậc nhất Well/good better the best Badly/bad worse the worst Late later last Much/many more most Little less least Far father/futher fatheest/furthest Chú Ý Tính từ một vần tận cùng bằng nguyên âm + phụ âm, gấp đôi phụ âmcuối Wet→ wetter→ wettest3. So sánh bằngAS + ADJ/ADV + ASEx: He speaks English as fluently as his brother does.Note:Twice/three times as……..asEx: Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.4. So sánh kém hơnNOT AS/SO +ADV/ADJ + ASLESS + ADV/ADJ + THANEx: Henry isn’t so rich as Joe.5. So sánh kép (càng……..càng)THE + SS HƠN……THE + SS HƠNEx1: The warmer the weather, the better I fell.Ex2: The more electricity you use, the higher your bill will be.6. THE SAME AS (giống như)Ex: Ann’s salary is the same as mine. Or Ann gets the same salary as me.7. MORE AND MORE + long ADV/ADJ ;Short ADV/ADJ + ER AND shortADV/ADJ +ER (ngày càng………….)Ex1: she is becoming more and more beautiful.Ex2: Jack is getting taller and taller.EXERCISEI. Make sentences with the same meaning by using the suggestions in brackets.1. No mountains in the world are higher than Mount Everest. (highest)2. I’ve never heard such a funny story. (funniest)3. Jack is younger than he looks. (old)4. It’s warmer today than yesterday. (cold)MỆNH ĐỀ DANH TỪ (NOUN CLAUSE)Giống như danh từ, mệnh đề danh từ có thể làm chủ từ, túc từ của động từ và giới từ,bổ ngữ sau to “be”1. Mệnh đề danh từ bắt đầu bằng That, The fact thatEx1: That the world is round is a fact.Ex2: I think (that) he is a good actor.EX3: It is important that we should study English hard.2. Mệnh đề danh từ bắt đầu bằng If, WhetherEx: I don’t know whether she will come.
  • 4. Mệnh đề danh từ bắt đầu bằng một từ để hỏi (when, who, where, how, why, what)Ex1: What she said surprised us.Ex2: I want to know who that man is.EXERCISEComplete the sentence by changing the question in parentheses to a noun clause.1. Will it rain?→ I wonder if/whether2. What time did Jane call?→ Ask Tom what time3. Does she speak portugese?→ I wonder if/whether4. How far is it from New York City to Jakarta?→ I wonder how far5. Who did Ann play tennis with?→ I wonder who6. Who won the tennis match?→ I want to know who7. Where should I buy the meet for the lamb stew?→ I don’t know where8. Should I stay home or go to the movie?→ Tom can’t decide whether to9. Should I look for another job?→ Jason is wondering whether (or not)10. Where can I get a map of the city?→ Ann wants to know where toCÂU NÓI GIÁN TIẾPI. Khái niệm: - Câu nói gián tiếp được dùng để tường thuật lời nói của một người nào đó. - Có sự thay đổi danh từ, động từ, trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn. Đại danh từ: I →he/she we →they mine →his/her Me/you →him/her us →them ours →theirs Ours →their myself → himself/herself Trạng từ: Now → immediately/then Ago → before/ earlier Today → that day Tonight → that night Tomorrow → the next/ following day Yesterday → the day before Here → there` This → that These → those Thì: - Hiện tại đơn → quá khứ đơn
  • - Hiện tại hoàn thành → quá khứ hoàn thành - Quá khứ đơn → Quá khứ hoàn thành (đơn) - Will → would may → might - Can → could must → must/had to II. Các loại câu: A. Câu mệnh lệnh: Khẳng định: told/ asked/ ordered + O + to Ex: “ Shut the door! “. Teacher said to a pupil → Teacher told a pupil to shut the door Phủ định: Told/ asked/ ordered + O + not to Ex: John said to Joe: “ Don’t take my bicycle” → John told Joe not to take his bicycle. B. Câu trình bày: Said that Ex: Dinh said that his mother save him 100$. C.Câu hỏi phải không: Said asked, wondered Said to wanted to know Whether Ex: Dinh asked his mother : “ Are you tired ?” → Dinh asked his mother whether she was tired → Dinh wanted to know/wondered whether his mother was tired D. Câu hỏi với từ để hỏi: Said asked, wondered Said to wanted to know + từ để hỏiEx: Dinh asked his mother how she was → Dinh wanted to know/ wondered how his mother wasE. V + TO V; V + O + TO V;Say, accept (chấp nhận), agree (đồng ý), beg (van xin), exclaim (kêu lên), hope (hivọng), introduce (giới thiệu), invite (mời), offer (sẳn sàng, ban cho), point out (vạchra), promise (hứa), , refuse (từ chối), remind (nhắc nhở), threaten (dọa), wish (ước)F. V + (pre) + V-ingadmit (chấp nhận), apologise to… (for) (xin lỗi), complain to …about (phàn nàn),advise (khuyên), congratulate… (on) (chúc mừng), deny (phủ nhận), assure…of (đảmbảo), insist (on) (khăng khăng đòi), suggest (đề nghị), thank…for (cám ơn), warn…against (cảnh cáo), protest against (phản đối), remark on/upon (nhận xét), accuse...of(buộc tội)Ex1: Andrew said,” You really must let me pay the bill.”→ Andrew insisted on paying the bill.Ex2: Diana said,”Why don’t we go sailing?”→ Diana suggested they should go sailing. . E. Chú ý: - Bỏ dấu ngoặc kép và dấu hỏi - Đưa động từ khiếm khuyết sau chủ từ, nếu trợ từ do/ does/ did/ thì bỏ.- Những động từ khiếm khuyết không thay đổi trong câu tường thuật: should, would,could, might, ought to, needn’t, used to, if loại 2 và 3.Ex: The boss said,” You needn’t come in tomorrow.”→ The boss said I needn’t come in the next day.
  • 1. Tom said,”Let’s have fish for dinner.”→ Tom suggested2. The driver of the car said, “Right. I don’t have a licence.”→ The driver of the car admitted3. Daisy said, “ Sorry. I can’t help you, John.”→Daisy refused4. “Don’t forget to post the letter”, Jack said to me.→ Jack reminded5. “Would you like to have dinner with me?” Tom said to Ann.→ Tom invited6. “I’ll drive you to the station. I insist”, Tom said to Ann.→ Tom insisted7. Jim said to me, “I heard you passed your examination. Congratuations!”→ Jim congatuated8. I said to Jack, “Don’t stay at the hotel near the airport.”→ I warned9. Mrs Dent said to Sue, “It was nice of you to visit me. Thank you.”→ Mrs Dent thanked10. Margaret said to me, “I’m sorry I didn’t phone you earlier.”→ Margaret apologised11. The teacher said to the boy, “You didn’t pay attention to what I said.”→ The teacher accused12. “I’m going away tomorrow, mother,” he said.→ He told his mother13. “It isn’t so foggy today as it was yesterday,” I remarked.→ I remarked14. “Don’t come before 6 o’clock,” I said to him.→ I told15. “Read the instruction before you switch on the machine”, he said to me.→ He told16. “Don’t wait for me if I’m late”, Ann said.→ Ann said17. I said to Joe, “Did you see your girlfriend last night?”→ I asked18. “ Where did you go yesterday, Tom?” Mr Pike asked.→ Mr pike wanted to know19. “I would like an appointment tomorrow,” I said to my dentist.→ I told20. He said, “If you’d passed your test, I’d have bought you a car.”→ He said thatExercise1. I talked to Bod two weeks ago.I thought he wanted to know about my car, but Imisunderstood him. He asked me where _______, not my cat. A. is my hat B. my hat was C. my hat is D. was my hat2. “ The people in the apartment upstairs must have a lot of children.” “ I don’t know how many _______, but it sounds like they have a dozen.”
  • A. children do they have B. do they have children C. chidrem thay have D. they have childdren3. Do you know _______? I myself have no idea. A. how many the years the earth is B. how old the earth is C. how long is the earth D.how much time has been the earth4. “There is too much noise in this room. I can’t understand what _______.” “ Neither can’t I.” A. is the professor saying B. is saying the professor C. that the professor is saying D. the professor is saying5. When I was little, my father gave me some advice. He said _______ talk tostrangers. A. I shouldn’t B. that shouldn’t C. don’t D. that I don’t6. “ I didn’t expect Ann’s husband to be here at the opera with her.” “ I’m surprised, too. Ann must have insisted that _______ with her.” A. he come B. he comes C. he came D.he had come7. “Ms Wright, can you give me a little extra help typing some letters today?” “Sorry. I can’t. The boss has an urgent report for me to write. She demanded that it_______ on her desk by 5 p:m today.” A. was B. will be C. is D. be8. “Did you tell Carol where _______ us this evening?” “Yes. I did. I can’t understand why she is late.” A. should she meet B. she to meet C. she meets D. to meet9. A fortune-teller predicted _______ inherit a lot of money before the end ot the year. A. that I would B. that I C. what I will D. what I10. “Bill Frazer seems like a good person for the job, but we don’t kow why he lefthis last job.” “I kow why. He told me _______ a serious policy disagreement with his boss lastJanuary.” A. if he’d had B. he’d had C. what he’d had D. that what he had11. “It is true that you fell asleep in lass yesterday and began to snore?” “Unfortunately, yes _______ is unbelievable! I’m very embrassed.” A. That I could do such a thing it B. That I could do such a thing C. I could do such a thing it D. I could do such a thing12. “Officer, can you tell me how to get to Springfield?” “Sure. What part of Springfield _______ to go to?” A. do you want B. you want C. that you want D. where you want13. “Is it true _______ the laws says there is no smoking in restaurants in this city?” “ Yes. That law was passed last year.” A. that what B. what C. if D. that14. _______prompt is important to our boss. A. A person is B. Is a person C. If a person is D. Whether or not a person is15. A scientific observer of wildlife must note every detail of how _______ in theirenvironment: their eating and sleeping habits, their social relationships, and theirmethods of self-protection. A. do annimals live B. live animals C. do live animals D. animmals live
  • 16. The mystery movie was clever and suspenseful. The audience couldn’t guess_______ comitted the murder until the surprise ending. A. who he B. who had C. that who D. that17. How do you like your new school? Tell me _______. A. who in your class is B. who your class is in C. who is in your class D. your class who is in it18. “What do you recommend _______ about this tax problem?” “I strongly suggest that we consult an expert as soon as possible.” A. do we do B. we will do C. should we do D. we do19. The college does not grant degrees simply to _______ pays the cost of tuition; thestudent must satisfy the academic requirements. A. whoever B. who C. whomever D whoever that20. “What are you going to buy in this store?” “ Nothing. _______ want is much too expensive.” A. That I B. What I C. That what I D. What do I21. “Does anybody know _______ on the ground?” “Your guess is as good as mine.” A. how long this plane will be B. how long will be this plane C. how long will this plane be D. that how long this plane will be22. “This restaurant is very expensive!” “It is, but order _______ want. Your birthday is a very special occasion.” A. what is it you B. what do you C. whatever you D. whatever you do23. Why did Beth ask you _______ a bicycle? A. that if you had B. do you have C. that you had D. if you had24. “What did your grammar teacher want to talk to you about?” “ I did badly on the last test. She _______ study for it.” A. said why didn’t I B. asked why didn’t I C. said why I didn’t D. asked why I didn’t25. “Why are you starting out the window? What _______ about?” “Nothing.” A. you are thinking B. you think C. are you thinking D. do you are thinking26. “I can’t decide what color I want for my bedroom. What do you think?” “You should choose _______ color you want. You’re the one who will have tolive with it.” A. whichever that B. whatever C. however D. that what27. “Did you remember to tell Marge _______ she should bring to the meetingtomorrow?” “Oh, my gosh! I completely forgot! I’m sorry.” A. that B. what C. if D. that what28. “My aunt has been feeling bad since Uncle George died. Is it because she’sdepressed?” “ I think so. _______ can cause debilitating physical symptoms is a medical fact.” A. Depression B. That depression it C. That depression D. It is that depression29. There was an earthquake on the coast yesterday. Fortunately, there was no loss oflife. However, because of the danger of collapsing sea walls, it was essential that thearea _______ A. to be B. will be C. be D. is
  • 30. _______ saying was so important that I asked everyone to stop talking and listen. A. What the women was B. The women was C. That the womem was D. What was the women31. “This cake is terrible. What happened?” “It’s my grandmother’s recipe, but she forgot tell me how long _______it.” A. did I bake B. should I bake C. do I bake D. to bake32. “Let’s go to Riverton this weeken.” “Sound like fun. _______ from here?” A. How far is B. How far it is C. It how far is D.How far is it33. “Somebody forgot this hat. I wonder _______. A. whose is this hat B. Whose hat this is C. whose hat is D. is this whose hat34. Edward’s interview was very intense. The interviewer wanted to know many factsabout his personal life, and even asked him _______ had ever used any illegal drugsof any kind. A. that if he B. whether or not he C. if or not he D. that he35. It is hoped that all present-day communicable diseases will be conquered.However, _______ about certain diseases is still not suffcient to prevent them fromspreading easily among the population. A. what we know B. what do we know C. what we know that D. that we know that36. “Why didn’t Herry attend the meeting this morning?” “He been very sick. His doctor insisted that he _______ in bed this weeken.” A. will stay B. stayed C. stays D. stay37. Nobody yet knew what _______ to cause the dam to burst, but the residents of thearea organized quickly to protcet life and property against the risings floods. A. happens B. had happened C. happen D.did it happen38. Did the teacher explain how _______ this problem? A. do we solve B. can we solve C. to solve D. solve39. _______ the Nation Weather Bureau predicted severe storms did not deter thefishing boats from going out into the open seas. A. The fact that B. The fact is that C. Is fact that D. The fact is that40. Tom walked into the huge hall to register for classes. At first, he simply lookedaround and wondered what _______ supposed to do. A. was he B. am I C. he was A. I am THỂ BỊ ĐỘNG (Passive voice)I. Công thức : Be + quá khứ phân từ Active : Mary help the boy Passive: The boy was helped by Mary
  • Ở thể bị động, túc từ của động từ trong câu chủ động thành chủ từ của động từtrong câu bị động.II. Các thì trong bị động: 1. Hiện tại đơn: is/am/are + qkpt: Mary helps John → John is helped by Mary 2. Hiện tại tiếp diễn: is/am/are + being + qkpt Mary is helping John → John is being helped by Mary 3. Hiện tại hoàn thành: Have/has + been + qkpt Mary has helped John → John has been helped by Mary 4. Quá khứ đơn: Was/were + qkpt Mary helped John → John was helped by Mary 5. Quá khứ tiếp diễn: was/were + being + qkpt Mary was helping John → John was being helped by Mary 6. Quá khứ hoàn thành: Had + been + qkpt Mary had helped John → John had been helped by Mary 7. Động từ khiếm khuyết: Can + shall Will, be going to + be + qkpt Must, used to Mary will help John → John will be helped by Mary. 8. People say → It is said that hoặc S + be + V3/ed + to V(hiện tại) / to Have V3/ed (quá khứ). Một số động từ dạng này: Show (chỉ) know Suggest (đề nghị) think Report (tường thuật) understandEx1: People say that Henry eats ten eggs a day.→ It is said that Henry eats ten eggs a day.→ Henry is said to eat ten eggs a day.Ex2: They think that the man drank too much wine.→ It is thought that the man drank too much wine. → The man is thought to have drunk too much wine.III.Câu hỏi ở dạng bị động: A. Phải không: Do you buy that book ? → Is that book bought by you ? B. Từ để hỏi: Why didn’t you lend him some money ? → Why wasn’t he lent some money by you ? →Why wasn’t some money lent to him by you ? + Câu có hai túc từ được đổi bằng hai cách, có thể lấy túc từ gián tiếp làm chủ từ, hoặc lấy túc từ trực tiếp làm chủ từ ( phải thêm to trước túc từ gián tiếp). Ex: She teaches her brothers English → Her brothers are taught English by her → English is taught to her brothers by herIV. BE + V3/ed + Pre (giới từ)composed of (bao gồm), accustomed to (quen thuộc), terrified of/at (khiếp sợ),finished with (kết thúc, chấm dứt), opposed to (phản đối, chống đối), covered in/with
  • (được bao phủ), satisfied with (thỏa mãn), married to (lập gia đình), divorced from (lihôn), acquainted with (quen biết), tired of (mệt), related to (có liên quan), dedicated to(tận tâm), disappointed in/with (thất vọng), scared of (bị hoảng sợ), committed to (tậntụy), devoted to (hết lòng), dressed in (ăn mặc), done with (kết thúc).ExerciseV. Chú ý: - Khi chuyển sang thể bị động phải xác định rõ túc từ, động từ được dùng ở thhì nào - By them / anyone / someone / people thường được bỏ, nhưng khi yêu cầu đổi sang chủ động phải lấy những từ này làm chủ từ. Ex1: Someone helped John → John was helped (by someone) Ex2: John was helped → Someone help John1.The Persians invented windmills around 1500 years ago.2. Tommy didn’t break the chair.3. Did Sue knock that vase to the floor.4. Mr Snow hasn’t taught that course since 1985.5. My uncle will meet you at the airport.6. Thousands of people ride the subway everyday.7.They are going to build a new hospital just outside of town.8. Jane is watching TV at the moment.9. Bill was playing the video games when I arrived.10. Had a special messenger delivered the package before you got to the office?11. Someone is going to serve Jack breakfast in bed on his birthday.12. People gave Mr French a gold watch upon his retirement from the company.13. Someone ought to repair this broken window.14. Someone should have supplied the hotel guests with clean towels.15. Someone had better take this garbage to the dump soon.16. They say that many people are homeless after the floods.17. People thought that the prisoner escaped by climbing over the wall.18. People say that he writes poetry. (be supposed to)19. He is asking someone to build a swimming pool. (having)20. He got someone to wash his car yesterday. (had)1. I still can’t believe it! My bicycle_______last night. A. was stolen B. was stealing C. stolen D. stole2. The current constitutional problem is_______ by the top legal minds in the country. A. studying B. being studying C. being studied D. been studied3. Something funny_______in class yesterday. A. happened B. was happened C. happens D. is happened4. The child’s arm was swollen because he_______by a bee. A. stung B. had stung C. had been stung D. had being stung5. Today, many serious childhood diseases_______ by early immunization. A. are preventing B. can prevent C. prevent D. can be prevented6. I _______with you on that subject. A. am agree B. am agreed C. agreeing D. agree7. Many U.S. automobile_______in Detroit, Michigan. A. manufacture B. have manufactured
  • C. are manufactured D. are manufacturing8. Let’s go ahead and do it now. Nothing _______by waiting. A. accomplishes B. accomplished C. has accomplished D. will be accomplished9. “When_______?” “ In 1928” A. penicillin was discovered B. did penicillin discovered B. was penicillin discovered D. did penicillin discovered10. In recent years, the government has imposed pollution controls are automobilemanufactures. Both dosmectic and impored automobliles must_______anti-pollutiondevices. A. equip with B. be equipped with C. equip by C. be equipped by11. A shortage of water is a problem in many parts of the world. In some areas,water_______from the ground faster than nature can replenish the supply. A. is being taken B. has been taken C. is taking D. has taken12. Vitamin C_______by the human body. It gets into the blood stream quickly. A. absorbs easily B. is easily absorbing C. is easily absorbed D. absorbed easily13. “When can I have my car back?” “I think it’ll_______late this afternoon.” A. finish B. be finished C. have finished D. be finished14. I didn’t think my interview when very well, but I guess it must have. Despite allmy anxiety, I_______for the job I wanted. I’m really going to work hard to justifytheir confidence. A. was hiring B. hired C. got hiring D. got hired15. My country_______the pursuit of world peace. A. is dedicating to B. is dedicated to C. is dedicating by D. is dedicated by16. About 15,000 years ago, nothern Wiscosin_______under ice a mile deep. A. buried B. was burying C. was buried D. had buried17. Ed was new on the job, but he quickly fit himself into the_______routine of theoffice. A. established B. establishing C. establishes D. establish.18. The Mayan Indians_______an accurate and sophisticated calender more thanseven centuries ago. A. were developed B. developed C. are developed D. have been developed19. George is_______Lisa. A. marry with B. marry to C. married with D. married to20. The rescuers_______for their bravery and fortitude in locating the lost mountainclimbers. A. were praised B. praised C. were praising D. praising21. “Can’t we do something about the situation?” “Very. Undersea life is_______” A. is doing B. is done C. is being done D. has been doing22. “ Are you intersting in scuba diving?” “Very. Undersea life is_______.” A. fascinated B. fascinating
  • C. being fascinating D. being fascinated23. The university_______by the private funds as well as by tuition income and grants A. is supported B supports C. is supporting D. has supported24. My car made strange noises, sputtered to a stop, and then wouldn’t star again. Fortunately, the mechanic at my garage_______the source of the problem. A. was dicover B. discovered C. was discovered D. has been discovered25. “Ms. Jones, please type those letter before noon.” “The’ve already_______,sir. They’re on your desk.” A. typed B. been typed C. being typed D. been being typed26. “ Has the committee made its decision yet?” “ Not yet. They are still_______the proposal.” A. considering B. been considered C. being considered D. considered27. In some rural areas of the United State, health care_______by only a smallnumber of doctors, nurses, and other health professionals. It’s often more than theycan handle. A. is providing B. is being provided C. provides D. provided28. “How did that window_______?” “I don’t know.” A. get broken B. broke C. got broken D. broken29. Renoir is one of the most popular French impressionist painters. His paittings_______ masterpeices all over the world. A. had considered B. are considering C. are considerded D. consider30. As the fairy tale goes, the prince_______into a frog by an evil magician, and onlya kiss from a beautiful princess could restore him to his original state. A. turned B. was turning C. was turned D. had been turning31. When I woke up and looked outsite. The landscape had changed. The ground hadbeen lightly_______with a dusting of snow during the night. A. covering B. cover C. covers D. covered32. We can’t even walk in this storm. Let’s wait in the hallway where we’ll be_______ the strong winds until things quiet down. A. protected from B. protected by C. protecting from D. protecting by33. “_______about the eight o’clock flight to Chicago?” “Not yet.” A. Has been an announcement B. Has an announcement made C. Has an announcement been made D. Has been made an announcement34. Last night a tornado swept through Rockville. It _______everything in its path. A. destroyed B. was destroyed C. was being destroyed D. had been dsetroyed35. Be sure to wash these vegetables thoroughly. A lot of pesticide residue_______onunwashed produce. A. can find B. can found C. can be found D. can be finding
  • 36. The building of the bridge had been delayed for three years because of politicalproblems on both sides of the river. Finally, it_______because the public demandedaction, and now many hours of driving have been saved for daily commuters. A. was constructed B. gets constructed C. constructed D. has constructed37. On Friday aternoon before a three-day holiday wekeend, thehighways_______people on their way out of the city. A. are crowding by B. are being crowd with C. are crowded with D. crowd by38. Fortunately, the hospital’s new air-conditioning system_______when the first heatwave of the summer arrived. A. had installed B. installed C. had been installed D. had been installing39. It’s hard to believe that my application for a scholarship_______. I was sure I’dget it. I don’t know now I’ll go to school next year. A. was denied B. denied C. was denying D. has denied40. The man died because medical help was not summoned. A docto should_______immediately. A. have called B. been called C. called D. have been called ĐẢO NGỮ1. Subject-verb inversion (sự đảo ngữ giữa chủ từ và động từ).a. Đảo ngữ được dùng trong câu hỏi trực tiếp (direct question).Ex: How long have you been in America.b. Đảo ngữ không được dùng trong câu hỏi gián tiếp (indirect question).Ex: I asked him how long he had been in America.c. Những từ mang nghĩa phủ định (negative wors) đứng đầu câu phải dùng đảo ngữ.Never, rarely: hiếm (ít khi), seldom (hiếm khi), on no account: không vì (lí do), notonly..... but also, no sooner....... than, only, no longer, so +adj that/such + (that),hardly, not until, etc.)Ex1: he rarely works at night.→ Rarely does he work at night.Ex2: He didn’t change his mind until yesterday.→ Not until yesterday did he change his mind.2. Cụm trạng từ /here/there+ come/lie/stand/sit + S.Ex: A taxi comes here. → Here comes a taxi.EXERCISE1. There has never been such a display of strength by the workers.→ Never2. You shouldn’t answer the door when I’m out in any circumstances.→ In no circumstances3. I realized what had happened only later.→ Only later4. The city stands on the other side of the river.→ On the other5. She no longer sings in the discotheques.→ No longer GIỚI TỪI.Tính từ + Giới từ:
  • Of: nice, kind, good, generous (rộng rãi), mean (ích kỷ), stupid (dại), silly (khờ), intelligent, clever (thông minh), sensible (nhạy cảm), (im)polite (lịch sự), rude (thô bạo), unreasonable (không hợp lí) With/ About : angry, annoyed, (bực bội), furious (giận dữ) With : delighted (vui), pleased, satisfied (hài lòng), crowded (đông đúc), disappointed (thất vọng), bored, fed up (chán) At / By : surprised, shocked, amazed, astonished (kinh ngạc) About: excited (hứng thú), worried (rầu), upset (giận), sorry (for) Of: afraid, frightened (sợ), terrified, scared, proud (tự hào), ashamed (xấu hổ), jealous, envious (ghen), suspicious (nghi ngờ), aware, concious (nhận thức), capable (có thể), fond (thích), short (thiếu, tired (mệt), full (đủ) At: good, bad, excellent (xuất xắc), brilliant (thông tin), hopless (thất vọng) On: keen (nhạy bén) In: interested For: responsible chịu trách nhiệm), famous (nổi tiếng)II. Động từ + Giới từ: Apologise to…for : xin lỗi Apply for : nộp đơn xin việc Apply to : Believe in : tin Belong to : thuộc về Care about : quan tâm về Care for : thích, chăm sóc Take care of : chăm sóc Collide with :đụng chạm Complain to ....about: than phiền Concentrate on : tập trung Consist of : bao gồm Crash (va chạm vào) drive / bump/ run into Depend on : thuộc vào Die of : chết về Dream of/about : mơ vềfill inget up, overgive up Glance at : liếc nhìn aiGo in, out, on, away, off Happen to : xảy đếnhold uphurry up Laugh / smile atlie down Listen to : lắng nghe Live on : sống nhờ vào Look at (nhìn) / for (tìm), after (chăm sóc), up Pay for : trả tiền choput on
  • Rely on : dựa vào Search for : tìm kiếm Shout at : la, hétsit down Speak / talk to : nói về Stare at : nhìn chằm chằm vào ai Suffer from : đau khổtake after, take care oftake off Think about / of : nghĩ vềtry out, turn round, up, on, off Wait for : chờwash up Write to : viết Accuse...of buộc tội Ask ..... for : Blame ..... for : đổ lỗi Borrow.....from : Charge......with : phạt Congratulate ...on : chúc mừng Divide, cut, split...into: chia (ra) Do.......about : Explain...to : giải thích Invite.....to : Leave......for : rời để đến......... Point / aim.........at : chỉ....(vào) Prefer....to : Provide.....with : cung cấp Regard.......as : coi như Remind....of : nhắc nhở Search….for : Sentence .....to : kết án Throw.....at : Translate...from....into: Warn.....about : cảnh báoIII. Một số giới từ: On, off (rồi, cách xa, hết), in, out, up, down, away (xa), back (lại), over,about, forward (hướng tới), through (xuyên qua), along (dọc theo), with, of, onto, for,at, from, as, like, by, after, before, near, below, above, under, among, across,afterwards, behind, between, past, wuthout, against... MẠO TỪ I. Mạo từ bất định (a / an): - A / an được đặt trước danh từ số ít đếm được. Ex: He is a doctor -A / an / đứng trước danh từ số nhiều (không dùng mạo từ the) để nói lên danh từ chưa được xác định (chỉ chung). Ex: Cats are domestic animals
  • (Mèo là động vật nuôi trong nhà) → A cat is a domestic animal II. Mạo từ xác định “the”; Dùng trước danh từ đếm được và không đếm được, trước tính từ (để nóivề người ở số nhiều) Ex: The sugar in the kitchen The man standing overthere The rich (người giàu) The được dùng: Với danh từ chỉ sự duy nhất ( the United Nations),sông, biển, dãy núi, danh từ được xác định, etc.... The không được dùng: tên nước, thành phố (New York. Viet Nam),con đường, tên riêng nagỳ trong tuần, tháng, mùa, bữa ăn, etc...EXERCISEPut in a, an, the, or zero articleI travel all over __________ world on business and my neighbor thinks my life is onelong holiday. You know what __________ business travel is like: up at __________to catch __________ plane; __________ breakfast in __________, __________ lunchin __________ New York, __________ language in __________ Bermuda. Whenyou are in __________ sky, you see only snow in __________ Artic or Greenland.You have glimpses of __________ Andes or __________ Pacific. You are alwaysexhausted. Your wife or husband complains you are never there to take __________children to __________ school or put them to __________. When you get home, yourneighbor says, “Another nice holiday, eh?” Give me home sweet home anyday! TỪ VỰNGCÁCH LẬP TỪ I.Cách thành lập danh từ:1. Động từ + tiếp vị ngữ → Danh từ Post + _age → postage : cước bưu điện Arrive + _al → arrival : đến Accept + _ ance → acceptance : chấp nhập Exist + _ ence → existence : tồn tại Discover + _ ery → discovery : khám phá Possess + _ ion → possession : sở hữu Agree + _ment → agreement : đồng ý Decide + _sion → decision : quyết định Extend + _tion → extension : mở rộng2. Tính từ + tiếp vị ngữ → Danh từRun + _ing → running : Abudant + _ance → abundance : dồi dào Absent + _ence → absence : vắng mặt Constant + _ancy → constancy : kiên trì Consistant + _ency → consistency : kiên định Anxious + _ety → anxiety : lo lắng Active + _ity → activity : hoạt động
  • Happy + _ness → happiness : hạnh phúc Free + _dom → freedom : tự do Social + _ism → socialism : CNXH Lunatic + _cy → lunacy : điên rồ3. Danh từ + tiếp vị ngữ → Danh từ King + _dom → kingdom : vương quốc Mouth + _ful → mounthful : đầy miệng Relation + _ship → relationship : mối quan hệ Boy + _hood → boyhood : thời niên thiếu Critic + _ism → crtiticism : CN phê phán4. Động từ + tiếp vị ngữ chỉ người (-ar, -er, -ant , -or) → Danh từBeg + _ar → beggar : người ăn xin Assist + _ant → assistant : người giúp việc Drive + _er → driver : tài xế Act + _ →actor : diễn viên II. Cách thành lập tính từ:1. Động từ + tiếp vị ngữ → Tính từ Change + _able → changeable : thay đổi được Act + _ive → active : sinh động Hestiate + _ant → hestitant : do dự Suffice + _ent → sufficient : đủ Continue + _ous → continuous : tiếp tục2. Danh từ + tiếp vị ngữ → Tính từ Sence + _ory → sensory : thuộc cảm giác Beauty + _ ful → beautyful : đẹp Care + _less (không) → careless : cẩu thả Friend + _ly → :friendly Child + _like → childlike : như trẻ con Nation + _al → national : thuộc quốc gia Importance + _ant → importance : quan trọng Absence + _ent → absent : vắng Gorge + _eous → gorgeous : có hẻm (núi) Picture + _esque → picturesque : đẹp như tranh Sex + _ist → sexist : thuộc về giới tính Economy + _ic (al) → economic : thuộc kinh tế Glory + _ous →glorious : lộng lẫy Fear + _some → fearsome : có vẻ sợ America + _(i)an → American : Possibility + _ible → possible : có thể III. Cách thành lập động từ1. Tính từ + tiếp vị ngữ → Động từ
  • White + _en → whiten : làm trắng Industrial + _ize → industrialize : công nghiệp hóa Real + _ise → realise : nhận ra Terrible + _fy → terrify : làm sợ En + _adj → enlarge : làm rộng ra2. Danh từ + tiếp vị ngữ → Động từ Beauty + fy → beautify : làm đẹpOrigin + _ate → originate : bắt nguồn IV. Cách thành lập trạng từ Adj + _ly → adv Careful + _ly → carefully C. VIẾT A. CỤM TỪ : A. Khái niệm : Cụm từ là một nhóm từ tập hợp để tạo thành một phầncủa câu. B. Loại cụm từ: 1/ - Cụm giới từ : Giới từ + mạo từ + danh từ Over the bridge 2 - Cụm động từ : a) Cụm động từ nguyên thể To go swimming alone in a big sea b) Cụm động từ có ing : Going swimming alone in a big sea c) Từ để hỏi + to + nguyên thể What to do 3 - Cụm danh từ: Art adv adj n n pre pharse A very beautiful class mate of mine B. CÂU.I. Khái niệm : Câu là một nhóm từ mang môt ý nghĩa hoàn hảo, có ít nhất một chủ từvà động từ đã chia.II. Thành phần câu: 2/ - Chủ từ : Có thể là một danh từ (Mary), một đại danh từ (he), mộtcụm danh từ (a young woman), cụm động từ nguyên thể (to go there), cụm động từthêm ing, chủ từ đứng trước động từ:Ex: she goes 3/ - Động từ : Đứng sau chủ từ, động từ làmột từ Ex: She criedhay một cụm động từ Ex: She is being pulled down 4/ Túc từ : Là một danh từ, một cụm danh từ, một đại danh từ, cụmđộng từ nguyên thể, hay động từ thêm ing, đứng sau động từ.Ex: I like tea.
  • - Có hai loại túc từ:+ Túc từ trực tiếp (direct obbject) thường trả lời câu hỏi ai (who), cái gì (what), đứngsau ngoại động từ.Ex: Mai loves her parents.+ Túc từ gián tiếp (indirect object) trả lời cho câu hỏi for/to whom và to/for what,đứng trước túc từ trực tiếp, còn đứng sau túc từ trực tiếp thì ta thêm “to” hay “for”trước nó.Ex: Throw me the ball hay Throw the ball to me.III. Các loại câu:1. Câu đơna. S + VEx: My head aches.b. S + V (be, appear, become, look, seem, sound, taste) + Complement (bổ ngữ):adj, noun, adj + noun, pronoun, adv, prepositional phrase.Ex: Frank is clever.c. S + V + Direct Object (DO)Ex: My sister enjoyed the play.d. S + V + Indirect Object (IO) + Direct Object (DO)Ex: I gave her a rose.e. S + V + O + Complement (appoint, baptize, call, consider, christen, crown,declare, elect, label, make, name, proclaim, pronounce, vote)Ex: They called him foolish/ a fool.2. Câu ghép : Dùng liên từ (and, and then, but, for, nor, or, so, yet, either...or,neither... nor, not only......but.....(also / as well / too) để nói hai câu đơn thành câughép. Ex: Jimmy fell off his bike, but he was unhurt3. Câu phức : Dùng liên từ để nói hai hay nhiều câu để tạo thành câu phức, trong đó có mệnhđề chính và mệnh đề phụ. Mệnh đề phụ thường là- mệnh đề danh từ bắt đầu bằng if, whethere, that, từ để hỏi (what, where, when, how)Ex: Where she goes doen’t matter.- mệnh đề quan hệ bắt đầu bằng which, who, whose, that,… (xem MĐQH)Ex: The boy who is sitting overthere is handsome.- mệnh đề trạng từ bắt đầu bằng when, where, so that, because,…(xem MĐTT)Ex: I follow you wherever you go. CÁCH ĐẶT CÂU HỎI I.Câu hỏi phải không (yes/no question) - Đặt động từ khiếm khuyết trước chủ từ (can, could, must, shall, will, would,may, might, is, am, are, were, was, etc… Ex: she can swim → Can she will ? - Đối với động từ thường, theo sau liền chủ từ. Khi đặt câu hỏi, dùng trợ động từ (do/ does/ → hiện tại, did → quá khứ), động từ sau chủ từ trở về nguyên thể. Ex: She goes shoppping every afternoon. → Does she go shopping every afternoon ? Ex: She went shopping last Sunday. → Did she go shopping last Sunday ?
  • Khi trả lời phài (yes), không (no) và trợ động từ hay động từ khiếm khuyết ở câu hỏi được dùng trong câu trả lời. Ex: Can she swim ? → Yes, she can. or No, she can’t (Phủ định thêm not sau trợ động từ, hay động từ khiếm khuyết).Trợ động từ Chủ từ Động từ chínhĐộng từ khiếm khuyếtDid have to go ?Do YouWillDidn’t II. Câu hỏi với từ để hỏi (question word question) Vị trí:Từ để hỏi Trợ động từ, Chủ từ Động từ chính Động từ khiếm khuyếtWhere Will, can, could, I, we, you, they, goWhen may she, he, it, Mary,What doctors, etcWhich + (n) Did goWhy Does Whose + (n) DoHowHow much + (n) Were, was, is, V-ing, V-ed,How many + n am, adj, noun, pre,How Are advlong/far/wide/fast/old/tall Has, have, had been here - Khi trả lời không dùng yes/no phải dùng thông tin trả lời Ex: Where will she go ? → To America (not yes, she will) - Những từ viết tắt : ‘d = had / would ‘s = is / was / has ‘re = are / were ‘ve = have ‘ll = will / shall n’t = not - Khi trả lời, có thể dùng một từ, cụm từ, mệnh đề: Ex: Where will she go ? → America → She will go to America
  • III. Câu hỏi lựa chọn ( Or question) Ex: Do you like coffee or tea ? Trả lời chọn một trong hai. → I like coffee. IV. Dùng từ gợi ý để đặt câu: - Xem từ gợi ý có đủ thành phần của câu chưa. Nếu thiếu thành phần nào phải thêm vào thành phần ấy.Thiếu chủ từ, be Ex: Where / born → thiếu → Where was she born ? Thiếu động từ, giới từ, mạo từ Where / people / English / first language ? → Where do people use English as a first language ? - Nếu câu hỏi không có từ để hỏi, thì đặt câu hỏi phải không Ex: English / private / property / English ? → Is English the private property of English people ?EXERCISEI. Ask questions about Ed and Liz.1. Where/ Ed and Liz live? – In Nottingham.2. How long/ they/ be/ married? – 15 years.3. They/ go out very often? – No, not very often.4. What/ Ed do for a living? – He’s a policeman.5. He/ enjoy his job? – Yes, very much.6. He/ arrest anyone yesterday? – No.7. They/ have/ a car? – Yes.8. When/ they/ buy it?9. They/ go/ on holiday next summer? – yes.10. Where/ they/ go? – To Scotland.II. Make the question for the underlined part.1. My dad has been living in New York for over 10 years.2. Jack quit school because his family was poor.3. I saw her at the supermarket.4. she lived all her life in California.5. it takes 2 hours to fly to Kong Kong.6. The lake is 20 meters deep.7. I will pick you up at 6 a.m. tomorrow.8. We met each other in 2010.9. The car costs 5000 dollars.10. I travel to work by motorbike.