Vietnamese German University                             Urban Development and Planning                                   ...
Shanghai – A global city |     ContentsAbstracts ............................................................................
Shanghai – A global city |Abstracts      This paper analysis the collected information of Shanghai - a global city, especi...
Shanghai – A global city |    Based on population of total administrative area, Shanghai is the second largest of the four...
Shanghai – A global city |       In addition, Shanghais economic growth rate lagged the pace of the national average, whic...
Shanghai – A global city |     Therein, the export value totaled USD 148.07 billion, up 23% year-on-year; and the import v...
Shanghai – A global city |       The Shanghai Metro is the urban rapid transit system which incorporates both subway and l...
Shanghai – A global city |       To cope with future growth in Shanghai, planning authorities have adopted a strategy of  ...
Shanghai – A global city |     companies in China (300 of 850) and 34% of all French establishments in China (647 of 1887)...
Shanghai – A global city |  The above analyses show that Shanghai occupies the central place in the national economy and h...
Shanghai – A global city |References.     1. Shanghai, the sixth national census in 2010 Communiqué on Major Data. At 05:5...
Shanghai – A global city |17. Chinese academy of engineering, national research council of the national academies and the ...
Shanghai – A global city |     Tables and figures                                   Figure 1: Shanghai urban planning (190...
Shanghai – A global city |                                7253      2009                      7209                        ...
Shanghai – A global city |                                                  Figure 4: Solution to transportation problems ...
Shanghai – A global city |                   Year          GDP (Billion RMB)                      GDP per capita (RMB )   ...
Shanghai – A global city |                        Table 3: Shanghai’s dominance in mainland China’s financial market27    ...
Shanghai – A global city |                                                               Shanghai (PVG)                   ...
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Shanghai global city

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This paper is an assignment which is belong to the master course of Urban development and planning of Vietnamese German university.
This paper analysis the collected information of Shanghai - a global city, especially emphases these economic and transportation factors. By doing this, the role of Shanghai in the national economy and world economy will be clearly shown out. It helps to understand why shanghai is a global city. Its could be the lesson learned for Hochiminh city in the progress to become a global city.

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Shanghai global city

  1. 1. Vietnamese German University Urban Development and Planning ----***---- Shanghai global city. Focus in Transportation and Economic factors. Advisor: Prof. K.Kluegel Student: Nguyen Dinh KhoaTag: Urbanization, global city, world city, Transportation, Regional planning, shanghai city, Asian city, megacity. Hochiminh city, Dec 25th 2011
  2. 2. Shanghai – A global city | ContentsAbstracts ............................................................................................................................................... 3I. Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 3II. Shanghai’s Characteristics. ....................................................................................................... 3 a. Demographic .............................................................................................................................. 3 b. Economic Characteristics .......................................................................................................... 4 c. Transportation. .......................................................................................................................... 6III. Shanghai’s planning. ................................................................................................................. 7IV. Shanghai Global city. ................................................................................................................ 8V. Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 9References........................................................................................................................................... 11Tables and figures .............................................................................................................................. 13 2 | Page
  3. 3. Shanghai – A global city |Abstracts This paper analysis the collected information of Shanghai - a global city, especially emphases these economic and transportation factors. By doing this, the role of Shanghai in the national economy and world economy will be clearly shown out. It helps to understand why shanghai is a global city. Its could be the lesson learned for Hochiminh city in the progress to become a global city. This paper is an assignment which is belong to the master course of Urban development and planning of Vietnamese German university. I. Introduction Shanghai is one of the worlds great cities. It is located on the East China coast just to the south of the mouth of the Yangtze River, at the junction of the east coastal economic belt and the Yangtze River Basin economic belt. It has jurisdiction over 18 districts and one Island County, with a total area of 6,340.5 sq.km, including 523 sq.km for Pudong New Area. Today, Shanghai is the largest economic and transportation center in China. Now, the city is striving to turn itself into one of the economic, financial, trade and transportation centers in the world. It also aims to lead the country in building a well-off society and in achieving the initial modernization. Now tremendous achievements have been made in economic construction. Shanghai is a city that not only successful in economic development. But also has accomplished the goal of satisfying the basic living needs for its residents and is leading the way to improve their living standards. II. Shanghai’s Characteristics. a. Demographic The 2010 census put Shanghais total population at 23,019,148, a growth of 37.53% from 16,737,734 in 2000. 20.6 million Of the total population, or 89.3%, are urban, and 2.5 million (10.7%) are rural.11 Shanghai, the sixth national census in 2010 Communiqué on Major Data. At 05:53 on May 3rd, 2011.Source: Liberation DailyMagazine. 3 | Page
  4. 4. Shanghai – A global city | Based on population of total administrative area, Shanghai is the second largest of the four direct- controlled municipalities of China, behind Chongqing, but is generally considered the largest city in China because Chongqings urban population is much smaller. A leader in fashion, business and commerce, as the city with the densest population in the worlds most populous country, with an overall population density of more than 2,800 people per square kilometer, compared with 900 in Beijing and fewer than 400 in Chongqing, Shanghais central Huangpu district has a whopping 126,500 people per square kilometer; giving each person less than 8 square meters. 2 b. Economic Characteristics Today, Shanghai’s GDP is twenty times that of 20 years ago. Across the Huangpu River from old Shanghai, Pudong is a developmental miracle. The rebuilt Pudong has become a world center of finance and trade, a massive economic bridge linking China with all nations where some of the most modern skyscrapers in the world dwarf older, smaller building.3 In the last two decades Shanghai has been one of the fastest developing cities in the world. Since 1992 Shanghai has recorded double-digit growth almost every year except during the global recession of 2008 and 2009. 4 In 2010, Shanghais total GDP grew to 1.687 trillion RMB (US$256.3 billion) with GDP per capita of 76,000 RMB ($11,540).5 Insert: Table 1: Shanghai GDPs Growth rate (2001 - 2010) at page 15 Shanghai is ranked top in terms of comprehensive economic competitiveness among all Chinas provinces and municipalities, according to a survey released by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.62 Urbanites head for new life in suburbs - By Mark South (China Daily). http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-07/03/content_631193.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011.3 http://chiefexecutive.net/shanghai-world-city. Retrieved December 24, 2011.4 Shanghai statistic. http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje11.htm?d1=2011tjnje/E0109.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011.5 "Shanghai GDP rises 9.9% last year, beating target". Shanghai Daily. 2011-1-25 .http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2011/201101/20110125/article_462395.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011.6 “Shanghai ranks first in economic competitiveness”. 16:23, March 01, 2011.http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90778/90862/7304666.html. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 4 | Page
  5. 5. Shanghai – A global city | In addition, Shanghais economic growth rate lagged the pace of the national average, which stood at 10.3 percent in 2010, for the third consecutive year. The development of Shanghai city benefits from its unique position at the mouth of the Yangtze, making it a major platform for global commerce. The origin of the wealth of the city, in the 20s and 30s the economic capital of Asia, the Shanghai port remains a major asset: In 2010, Shanghai port overtook Singapore port to become the worlds busiest container port. Shanghais port handled 29.05 million TEUs, whereas Singapore port was a half million TEUs behind. 7 In 2009, the Port of Shanghai became the worlds busiest seaports by cargo tonnage with 505,715 thousand tons of cargo. 8 Shanghai Pudong International Airport is a fast-growing hub for both passenger and cargo traffic. With 3,227,914 metric tonnes handled in 2010, the airport is the worlds third busiest airport by cargo traffic. Pudong Airport also served a total of 40,578,621 passengers in 2010, making it the third busiest airport in mainland China and the 20th busiest in the world. Both passenger and cargo traffic grew by more than 27% in 2010.9 As Chinas busiest international airport, about half of Pudongs passenger traffic is international. 10 Insert Table 5: Air Traffic statistics for Shanghai in 2010 from page Table 518 In addition, there is a second airport in Shanghai - Hongqiao International Airport. It is the main domestic airport serving Shanghai, China. In 2010, Hongqiao Airport handled 31,298,812 passengers, a growth of 24.8% over 2009, making it the 4th busiest airport in China and the 41st busiest in the world. The airport was also Chinas 5th busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic and the 7th busiest by traffic movements.11 Regarding foreign trade, Shanghai has a trade surplus with the rest of the world. In the first 4 months of 2011, Shanghai ports import & export value totaled USD 245.89 billion, up 22.8% year-on-year.7 "Shanghai overtakes Spore as worlds busiest port". Straits Times. January 8, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2011.8 AAPA World Port Rankings 2009. http://aapa.files.cms-plus.com/PDFs/WORLD%20PORT%20RANKINGS%202009.pdf9 "Cargo Traffic 2010 FINAL from Airports Council International". Airports Council International. 2010-08-01.http://www.airports.org/cda/aci_common/display/main/aci_content07_c.jsp?zn=aci&cp=1-5-54-4819_666_2 RetrievedDecember 24, 2011.10 "From obscurity, Guangzhou and Shanghai Pudong airports move up rankings". CAPA. June 3, 2011. "From obscurity,Guangzhou and Shanghai Pudong airports move up rankings" Retrieved December 24, 2011.11 “ACI releases World Airport Traffic Report 2010” athttp://www.aci.aero/aci/aci/file/Press%20Releases/2011/PR_01082011_2010_WATR.pdf Retrieved December 24, 2011. 5 | Page
  6. 6. Shanghai – A global city | Therein, the export value totaled USD 148.07 billion, up 23% year-on-year; and the import value totaled USD 97.82 billion, up 22.6% year-on-year, import growth is lower than export growth for the first time since 2010, trade surplus was USD 50.24 billion, up 23.8% year-on-year. 12 Illustration of the importance of its role in transport and logistics, one quarter of Chinas foreign trade passes through the port of Shanghai. Today, Shanghai is indisputably the national financial centre of mainland China. The city has the country’s biggest stock market in terms of market capitalization, turnover and capital raised. It also has the biggest bond market (in terms of trading value) and the only gold market on the Mainland, and the highest concentration of domestically-incorporated foreign banks (in terms of numbers and assets). Insert Table 3: Shanghai’s dominance in mainland China’s financial market at page 17 Although, Shanghai’s dominance in the Mainland’s financial arena, the city is still some way behind the world’s major financial centers such as London or New York in terms of market size and the availability and sophistication of financial products and services. Insert Table 4: Shanghai position in world financial market at page 17 c. Transportation. Public transport For adapt the rapid development of Shanghai economy with very highly demand of mobility. Shanghai has established various kinds of transportation. Many very hi-end kinds of transportation were also applied. Up to the end of 2005, Shanghai has 560 km expressways, carrying 327 million tons of cargo and 24.68 million passengers. The network of roads has linked Shanghai with 392 counties under 104 prefectures in the other provinces and municipalities. Shanghai’s train node is one of the most important rail networks of China. The trains dispatched by Shanghai railway authorities covered 269.1 kilometers, transporting 12.783 million tons of cargo, and 43.131 million passengers. Shanghai Railway Station has a daily capacity of transporting 110,000 departing passengers on average. 1312 Shanghai Customs statistics,13 Shanghai’s report by Ministry of commerce of china. http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/aroundchina/Shanghai.shtml. 6 | Page
  7. 7. Shanghai – A global city | The Shanghai Metro is the urban rapid transit system which incorporates both subway and light rail lines. It opened in 1995, making Shanghai the third city in Mainland China, after Beijing and Tianjin, to have a rapid transit system. Since then, the Shanghai Metro has become one of the fastest-growing rapid transit systems in the world.14 According to the latest report, by the end of 2020 the network will comprise 22 lines spanning 877 kilometers (545 mi). 15 Insert Figure 5: Shanghai metro is the longest metro system in the world at page 18 The Shanghai Maglev Train is the first commercial Maglev railway in the world. The train line was designed to connect Shanghai Pudong International Airport and the outskirts of central Pudong where passengers could interchange to the Shanghai Metro to continue their trip to the city center. Commercial operation started in 2003. The 30 km trip takes 7 minutes and 21 seconds and reaches a maximum speed of 431 km/h (267.8 mph). Normal operating speeds usually reach 431km/h, but during a test run, the Maglev has been shown to reach a top speed of 501km/h.16 Private vehicles In Shanghai, car ownership was historically suppressed through high fees and limited permits. In recent years, however, this has been reduced (partly as a result of the presence of vehicle manufacturing), and incomes are rising. The city currently devotes little land to roads and has only 650,000 cars and trucks, very few of which are privately owned, placing vehicle ownership levels well below those of virtually all cities of similar income. Shanghai alone is expected to see a quadrupling of cars and trucks by 2020. 17 The very dense urban area and lack of parking and road space for vehicles has pushed growth outside the city, thus setting in motion a spatial development pattern that will be increasingly difficult to serve by more sustainable modes of trans-port. In Shanghai and other Transitional cities where car ownership is set to soar, there are no easy answers to the issues posed by congestion. III. Shanghai’s planning.14 http://www.rfsworld.com/Commercial-cellular-needs-of-Shanghai-Metro-swiftly-serviced-ahead-of-World-Expo,62,1,pressreleases,517.html. Retrieved December 24, 2011.15 Shanghai Metro. January 1, 2010. http://www.visitshanghaicity.com/2010/01/shanghai-metro.html. Retrieved December 24,2011.16 The Shanghai Maglev Train. http://shanghaichina.ca/video/maglevtrain.html. Retrieved December 24, 2011.17 Chinese academy of engineering, national research council of the national academies and the national academies press. 2003.“Personal Cars and China”. Page 243. 7 | Page
  8. 8. Shanghai – A global city | To cope with future growth in Shanghai, planning authorities have adopted a strategy of suburbanization for moving people out of ageing low-rise buildings in the dense urban core and relocating them to newly built suburbs farther out of town. The ideas of “One City nine town” ,“1966 plan” , four-level city system (the eleventh five-year plan), are the symbol for Shanghai to realize urbanization of suburb. They will play an important part in Shanghai’s future layout. In “1966” plan, the most important part is the nine new towns. "The plan defines the 600-square-kilometre area within Shanghais outer ring road as central Shanghai. Outside the ring road, according to the plan, nine new towns with a combined population of 5.4 million and 60 new small towns with populations of around 50,000 each will be built." 18 Insert Figure 1: Shanghai urban planning (1900 – 2020) at page 13. In May 2001 the state council approved the new master plan <shanghai city master plan (1999-2020)>. Within the plan, the vision of the Shanghai will be one of world economic center, world financial center, world trade center and world shipping center. Shanghai whole region will be the important component of Yangtze Delta mega-polis. The development along the river and the coast line as well as the new town in suburb has been emphasized. IV. Shanghai Global city. In their second annual Global Cities Index, Foreign Policy magazine takes aim at Shanghai pride, ranking the city 20th (tied with Frankfurt), below Beijing, which comes in at number 15. 19 The metropolis has the ambition to become a metropolis of services. However her manufacturing strength continues to rearrange minds: in some sectors, Shanghai and her region dominate largely the national production. If the development of shanghai is based on the powerful municipal capitalist, it also takes its dynamism of private initiative. The innate sense of business of Shanghai entrepreneurs explains the incredible dynamism of the creation of small and medium private enterprises (about 40% per year) and the extremely rich local fabric of active SMEs in all areas. The city-province welcomes a growing number of Asian headquarters for major international companies, including French. In early 2008, she concentrated more than 35% subsidiaries of French18 http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-07/03/content_631193.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011.19 http://www.cnngo.com/shanghai/life/shanghai-most-global-city-china-think-again-692243. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 8 | Page
  9. 9. Shanghai – A global city | companies in China (300 of 850) and 34% of all French establishments in China (647 of 1887). Showcase of modern China, Shanghai is a place where are drawn all the new Chinese trends. Today, in Shanghai, a foreign company enters every 26 minutes, and we count almost 40 000 in the megalopolis. Proof of its attractiveness. As the showcase of Chinese modernity, Shanghai is a place where all the Chinese new trends are drawn. There were 152,050 officially registered foreigners in Shanghai as of 2009, an increase of 50% from 100,011 in 2005. The three largest foreign nationalities were Japanese (31,490), American (21,284) and Korean (20,700).20 Some foreign expatriates are staying in Shanghai as long-term settlers, renewing Shanghais reputation as Chinas global city. In addition, there are a large number of people from Taiwan living within the municipality (2010 estimates vary around 700,000).21 Insert Figure 3: Foreigners in Shanghai come from 214 countries and regions. Following top five. At page 13 V. Conclusion The vision of the Shanghai will be one of world economic center, world financial center, world trade center and world shipping center. In conclusion, Shanghai has become a strategic concentration node for global capital. Its geographic location together with its world lead in g capacity in air- and water-way transportation make the city a global convergent point of investment and trade activities. The city also develops competitive infrastructures, network, and urban policies to attract more foreign investment and promote international transaction. Shanghai will only succeed as a city and a place to live if it fulfills its economic role and generates sufficient revenue to guarantee social and environmental improvement all that is required is that the city uses a slightly longer timeframe. Social and environmental initiatives can be shown to affect economic performance in, say, five to 10 years.20 Shanghai statistics bureau. http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje10.htm?d1=2010tjnje/E0214.htm. Retrieved December 24,2011.21 Xinhua News Agency. 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 9 | Page
  10. 10. Shanghai – A global city | The above analyses show that Shanghai occupies the central place in the national economy and hasexperienced an enormous economic growth in the last decade. As Shanghai is leading the way for thenational economic development, it can at least be justified as a “primate city” in China. 10 | Page
  11. 11. Shanghai – A global city |References. 1. Shanghai, the sixth national census in 2010 Communiqué on Major Data. At 05:53 on May 3rd, 2011.Source: Liberation Daily Magazine. 2. Urbanites head for new life in suburbs - By Mark South (China Daily). Http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-07/03/content_631193.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 3. Http://chiefexecutive.net/shanghai-world-city. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 4. Shanghai statistic. Http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje11.htm?D1=2011tjnje/E0109.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 5. "Shanghai GDP rises 9.9% last year, beating target". Shanghai Daily. 2011-1-25 . Http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2011/201101/20110125/article_462395.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 6. “Shanghai ranks first in economic competitiveness”. 16:23, March 01, 2011. Http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90778/90862/7304666.html. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 7. "Shanghai overtakes spore as worlds busiest port". Straits Times. January 8, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 8. AAPA World Port Rankings 2009. Http://aapa.files.cms- plus.com/pdfs/WORLD%20PORT%20RANKINGS%202009.pdf 9. "Cargo Traffic 2010 FINAL from Airports Council International". Airports Council International. 2010-08-01. Http://www.airports.org/cda/aci_common/display/main/aci_content07_c.jsp?Zn=aci&cp=1-5- 54-4819_666_2 Retrieved December 24, 2011. 10. "From obscurity, Guangzhou and Shanghai Pudong airports move up rankings". CAPA. June 3, 2011. "From obscurity, Guangzhou and Shanghai Pudong airports move up rankings" Retrieved December 24, 2011. 11. “ACI releases World Airport Traffic Report 2010” at http://www.aci.aero/aci/aci/file/Press%20Releases/2011/PR_01082011_2010_WATR.pdf Retrieved December 24, 2011. 12. Shanghai Customs statistics, 13. Shanghai’s report by Ministry of commerce of china. Http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/aroundchina/Shanghai.shtml. 14. Http://www.rfsworld.com/Commercial-cellular-needs-of-Shanghai-Metro-swiftly-serviced- ahead-of-World-Expo,62,1,pressreleases,517.html. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 15. Shanghai Metro. January 1, 2010. Http://www.visitshanghaicity.com/2010/01/shanghai- metro.html. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 16. The Shanghai Maglev Train. Http://shanghaichina.ca/video/maglevtrain.html. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 11 | Page
  12. 12. Shanghai – A global city |17. Chinese academy of engineering, national research council of the national academies and the national academies press. 2003. “Personal Cars and China”. Page 243.18. Http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-07/03/content_631193.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011.19. Http://www.cnngo.com/shanghai/life/shanghai-most-global-city-china-think-again-692243. Retrieved December 24, 2011.20. Source: Comprehensive Plan of Shanghai Central City (1999-2020).21. China Daily 02/23/2011 page5. Http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011- 02/23/content_12060936.htm. Retrieved December 24, 201122. Shanghai statistics bureau. Http://www.stats- sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje10.htm?D1=2010tjnje/E0214.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011.23. Shanghai statistic. Http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje11.htm?D1=2011tjnje/E0109.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011.24. Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2011. Http://www.stats- sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nj11.htm?D1=2011tjnj/C0104.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011.25. “Shanghai’s Future as an International Financial Centre”. Hanseng bank report, Jun 24th, 2009.26. According to ACI World Traffic Statistics at http://www.aci-na.org/content/aci-world-traffic- statistics. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 12 | Page
  13. 13. Shanghai – A global city | Tables and figures Figure 1: Shanghai urban planning (1900 – 2020)22 Figure 2: Shanghais population growth2322 Source: Comprehensive Plan of Shanghai Central City (1999-2020).23 China Daily 02/23/2011 page5. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-02/23/content_12060936.htm. RetrievedDecember 24, 2011 13 | Page
  14. 14. Shanghai – A global city | 7253 2009 7209 20700 31490 5008 7264 UK 2008 7717 Germany 22736 33427 Singapore Korea 2904 Japan 4591 2005 5547 14047 27812 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 Number people Figure 3: Foreigners in Shanghai come from 214 countries and regions. Following top five.2424 Shanghai statistics bureau. http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje10.htm?d1=2010tjnje/E0214.htm. Retrieved December 24,2011. 14 | Page
  15. 15. Shanghai – A global city | Figure 4: Solution to transportation problems 16 15.2 14.2 14 12.7 12.3 11.3 11.4 12 10.5 10.3 9.7 GDP growth (%) 10 8.2 8 6 4 2 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Table 1: Shanghai GDPs Growth rate (2001 - 2010)2525 Shanghai statistic. http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje11.htm?d1=2011tjnje/E0109.htm. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 15 | Page
  16. 16. Shanghai – A global city | Year GDP (Billion RMB) GDP per capita (RMB ) 1990 781.66 5911.00 2000 4771.17 30047.00 2009 15046.45 69164.00 2010 17165.98 76074.00 Table 2: Shanghais GDP2626 Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2011. http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nj11.htm?d1=2011tjnj/C0104.htm. Retrieved December24, 2011. 16 | Page
  17. 17. Shanghai – A global city | Table 3: Shanghai’s dominance in mainland China’s financial market27 Table 4: Shanghai position in world financial market 2827 “Shanghai’s Future as an International Financial Centre”. Hanseng bank report, Jun 24th, 2009.28 “Shanghai’s Future as an International Financial Centre”. Hanseng bank report, Jun 24th, 2009. 17 | Page
  18. 18. Shanghai – A global city | Shanghai (PVG) Amount (% Change from the previous World Rank year) Passengers 40 578 621 (26.4%) 20 Cargo 3 228 081 (26.9%) 3 Table 5: Air Traffic statistics for Shanghai in 201029 Figure 5: Shanghai metro is the longest metro system in the world29 According to ACI World Traffic Statistics at http://www.aci-na.org/content/aci-world-traffic-statistics. Retrieved December24, 2011. 18 | Page

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