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  • 1. DAI HQC DAN LAP THANG LONGBAI GIANG CONG TAC XA HOI LI THUYET VA THliC HANH CONG TAC XA HOI TRVC TIEP Chu Mon: GS.TS. Pham Huy Dung Tham gia bien soon: TrOn Hai Binh Hoang Thi Thu Dung Cao Thi TO Hoai Trthn Thi Thanh Ht.tOng TrOn PhiMng Thu TrOn Thu Trang Zlk A24 V11. NHA XUAT BAN BA] HQC SU PHAM
  • 2. Ma 86: 01.02.7/40 DH 2006
  • 3. myc LycLèln6i4u 5Lai moat/ 7 Chuang 1 9 Kr NANG NHAP CUOG VOI KHACH HANG 9 Ton tat 54 Chuang 2 55 KIN THUG VA KT NANG DANH GIA 55 Ióntk 88 Chuang 3 89 Kl6N THUG VA Kt NANG LAP K HOACH 89 TOm tAt . 128 Chuang 4 129 KIN THUG VA KITHLIAT CAN THIP 129 Tam tat 171 Chuang 5 172 !HAT TRIghl KINANG 981 r H6 GOA KHACH HANG 172 Tam tAT 214 Chuang 6 215 THUG HANH PHAT HUY NO LUG VA THE MA NH . 215 Ibntk 240 Chuang 7 242 TANG CLONG VtG THUG HIgN CHUG NANG GOA GIA191NH 242 Tom tat 280 Chuang 8, 282 TANG CLONG VI€C THUG HO CHUG NANG TRONG NH6M 282 T6m tAt 320 Chuang 9 321 CAN THIfr VAG CAC H THONG LON HON 521 Chuang 10 359 KIN THUG VA Ki NANG DANH GIA HIED QUA GONG TAG IRV GOP.. 559 TOm At 397 Tai IiEu than kftio 398 3
  • 4. Lai Si Idu Viec giang day cong the xa hei (CTXH) tuy da chinh thfic có lich sit hang tram nam ii nhUng qugc gia khac; song viec giang day nay a Viet Nam co thd nal la con mai. Quan niem vii giang day CTXH cling chua that sti dude th6ng nhat. Tuy Be Ciao due va Dao tao da dtia ra khung chUang trinh day CTXH a bac cu nhan, sach day hoc ye CTXH a Viet Nam van rat higm hoi. Vi vay viec xual ban cu6n sach Bea gicing Gong tdc xd hOi — Li thuyet met Owe hanh cling tdc xd hOi true tigp cua nh6m giang vien Twang Dai hoc Thang Long la mot this nghiem clang khuygn khich. CuSn each nay dttac nhom giang dm Hai hoc Thang Long sit dung cho cac dgi Wong sinh vien khoa Cling the xa hei a giai doan chuyen nganh. Cu6n each se sung cap nhting nei dung non tang, co he thgng ve ca dia hat li thuygt va thitc hanh cim m6n hoc nay. Tai nhigu qugc gia, cac linh vue CTXH nhu cling tac xa hei vdi ca nhan, cling the la hei v6i nhem, t6 chile ceng &Ong, quan tri CTXH, nghien cim CTXH, v.v... da va dang dude nghien thu, phat trign sau va reng, vol thuc to cOng tac xa hoi phong pha. Trong do, dale hanh CTXH true tiep la met phan hgt sue quan trong. Viet Nam, cac not dung thue hanh cling tac xa hei true tigp con mdi me, mac di" hoat deng nay cling da dude Tin g dung It nhieu tai met so cd sa W van thuec cac pham vi gia dinh tre em, HIV/AIDS v.v... Do do cueen each nay cling chtta thd phan anh thue to thuc hanh CTXH a Viet Nam. Cugn sach nay chic yell la tap hop kinh nghiem quec t6 mang tinh tham khao cho viec flute hanh CTXH trip tip a Viet Nam. Cu6n each nay g6m hai -phan: phan thuygt va phan thuc hanh voi nhung kinh nghiem qua° to ve thue hanh CTXH. 5
  • 5. Chung toi hi vong rang khi cu6n sach nay duac tai ban sau nay se co nhigu minh hoo vg thvc to CTXH a Viet Nam va qua do phan 1i thuyet cling se c6 the dude nang cao vOi an &Mg gap cila each nhin Viet Nam, cua thvc tg Viet Nam, voi each nhin hau hien dai hien nay vg CTXH. GS. TSKH Hodng Xutin Sinh Pho Chu tich Mat tran T6 Quek Viet Nam Chu Lich H6i ding Quail tri Truang Hai hoc Thang Long6
  • 6. Lai me au Tithe hanh cong tac xa hei true tigp la phen cdt loi chi ygu cna thue hanh ding tee xa hei. N6i thkic hanh tong tee la hei true tigp co nghia la con e6 thuc hanh tong the xa hOi gian tigp. Vay, Una hanh gang tac x5 hei true tigp la gi va th4c hanh tong tac xa hei gian tigp la gi? Thuc hanh cong tac xa Mil true tigp la viec ngUdi lam cong tac xa hOi si dung tri thde va ki nang da c6 &Arc thong qua dao tao a true tigp hd tru cac ca nhan the nh6m, cac gia dinh va can cong &Ong. Con tithe hanh ding tan xa hei gian tigp la ngudi lam cong tac xa hei Mixing true tigp voi cac ca nhan, cac nhem, cac gia dinh va cong Bong, nhung hog thing cia ho co yr nghia h6 tro gian ti4p. Thi du vg nhung ngudi thue " hanh cong tac xa ho, i gian tigp có the ke nhu quan 11 hanh chinh cong the x5 hqi, plant trien chinh sach cling the x5 MX, giam sat thuc hien chinh sach xa het v.v... Tuy that hanh cong the xa hei gian tigp den hOi e6 them Id Ming rieng, song ggc cia thlic hanh cling tac xa hOi chuyen nghiep van IA thue hanh cong the x5 hei true tigp. Song song vol khai them thilc hanh cong tan xa hei true tigp va Uric hanh gian tigp, ngubi to con cO khai niem cling tac xa hei vi enO, eOng tac xa hei vi mo va gong tac x5 hei trung me. Tithe hanh cong the xa hei vi mO la thkie hanh true tigp vol cac ca nhan, trung mO la thip hanh vdi cac nit va gia dinh, va vi mo IA thile hanh vdi the t6 chic Ira ceng Thuc hanh lam sang thuang dude col la thtfc hanh vi me. Song trong thtic hanh lam sang doi khi bao ggm ca gia dinh va nh6m. Tithe hanh CTXH vi ma bao g6m gee hoat ding c6 ding cho nth:Mg chinh sach xd. hei. Doi khi ngVdi to cho rang thuc hanh cong tac xa hei vi me cling IA thuc hanh ding tee la hei gian tigp. Song, dal khi gida cling ten xa hei gian tigp va thuc hanh cling tac xa hei true tigp cling en nhung khoang Chung trong linh vue nay. Thuc hanh cong tac xa MI true tigp tren dug te" la qua trinh hex trq den tUOng nang cao nang hie "giai quygt van de" a to giai quygt vgn de cia minh. Qua trinh hO tro bao g8m ki nang tigp can dgi ttiOng, 7
  • 7. nang xac dinh van de caa del Wong, ki nang lap kg * hoach can thiep, ki nang thac hien can thiep, Id nang h6 trl khach hang giai quyel van de caa minh, ki nang tang cudng nang lye cua dgi ttiOng can he tre, ki nang tang Wong chic nang gia dinh, ki nang tang along chile nang caa nh6m, Id nang tang curing chic nang cua cac he thong 16n hdn, ki flung danh gia kat qua can thiep va ki nang kgt thtic can thiep. Thuc hanh cong talc xa hei true tip co the chap thuc hien trong cac vai tre sau day caa cong talc xa Tri lieu va to van — Gido duc — Gi6i thieu, chuyen tuygn xa li — Giai guy& &tieing hop — Ung he trueng hap — Lanh dao nh6m — v.v... Tri lieu to van la cling vies dal dien nhift, caa cong talc xa hei true tip bao gem hau hgt cac giai doan dm qua trinh he tro: • Kay ding quan he vol khach hang • Da.nh gia nang hie va nhu can cua khach hang • My dung kg hoach can thiep phn hap vta khach hang • Thuc hien kg hoach can thiep • Theo del vi danh gia tign trim caa khach hang va cac hoat deng theo kg hoach can thiep • Kett thilc quan he khach hang va tri lieu8
  • 8. Chucng 1 KT NANG NHAP CUOC VOI KHACH HANG Trong tam cim chucing nay nham dg cap den nhfing ki nang giao tipca ban thiet thuc cho giai doan nhap cuac va lam viec vdi khach hang. Cuthe nhiing ki nang nay bao gem cac ki nang Lang nghe, ki nang tao ra cacdigu kien thuan loi va mot se cac ki nAng co ban khac can thiet de tao dungmoi quan he gin gin vdi khach hang h6 tra cho cac giai doan nhap cuac, xacdinh ve:n dg, Lim hieu tinh hueng, xac dinh phttong phap atria tri va danhgia lien tile. Ki nang ling nghe Nham dat duct hieu qua trong danh gia, phat trien mat kg hoach haydui ra nhiing lai khuyen, ngu6i lam ding Lac xa ho, i pith luen san sang rangnghe cau chuyen cua khach hang, phai tap trung chti 4 ling nghe nhiingdiem quan trong, phai co gang hieu khach hang Ma gi va phai nhay cam vdicau chuyen caa khach hang. Ki nAng Lang nghe da hau het moi ngt.trii dadinc ren luyen to nha. Tuy nhien, thong thttong thi nhung ki nang nay bimai met hay kern hieu qua do chting ta khOng tap trung town be, de y Ira quan tam dgn nhung digu ngora khac noi. Trong cac et* not chuyen thong thang, ngttoi ta Fang nghe ngttaikhac deng thai vdi viec nghi xem ho nen tham gia noi chuyen nhtt the naothong qua viec Chia se kinh nghiam ban than tudng tq. NI4c du day khOng phai IA met phuong phap Lieu cue trong ndi chuyen thong thilong, chUng ta kh6ng de xuat lam nhtt fly trong khi tip xile de gitip da. Nguiii nhan vien CTXH nen chit 9 tdi va tap trung vao viec nghe va hieu dieu khach hang dang Ma. Cue ki6u ring nghe Long cho rang c6 nam kieu nghe co ban bao gem "khOng chit Y Tang nghe, gia vrt ling nghe, ling nghe co chon loc, Lang nghe chi quan va ling nghe long cam vdi ngttdi MA". Long, V.0 (1996). Communication skill in the helping ralation: A framework for facililating personaln growth. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 9
  • 9. Khong chii Si rang nghe Nghia la ngudi nghe klaing chu nghe vi nhu khi ban vita nghe vita chuyen kenh vO tuyen va tra lai: "The a?" mot Mt eau ban có the hOi lai ngudi noi: "Anh dang nth gi nhi?" Gra ye rang nghe Thong tu nhu tren ngudi nghe khong linh hei nhung dieu Wide noi ra. , Ngtrai nghe có the nhin thong vao ngudi noi nhung tam tri thi khOng he tap trung vao ngudi noi. Lang nghe co chip !cc Mari nghe co nghe it nligt met phan nao do duct noi ra. Tuy nhien phan it nhigu nghe dude do co the dan den nhung ket luan sai lam do chna hieu het va bleu thing Y cua ngudi noi. Ket titan sai Mm con co the do ngudi nghe chi tap trung vao phan Ma dung hoac phan cam the. Ngudi nhan vies CTXH khong the cho pilot) minh thigu chti hoac thien kien dAn den suy then khi cm tv $7 sang be nhung thOng tin can thief nhung khOng phu hap vdi kien cua minh. Lang nghe ttf tap trung Ngubi nghe co nghe thong diep cua khach hang, tuy nhien lai to ra qua set sang d6" tap trung tim cau tra lai cho nen co the ho qua met phan thong diep cua khach hang. Lang nghe co dong cam Mac dich cua ngudi lam cling the xa het la phai phat trien cac ki fangnghe de tra thanh met ngudi nghe hi& d6ng cam, nghia IA phai biet chinhxac khach hang cua minh dang cam nhan thaty gi, ha dang suy nghi gi vaphai de y. dgn cac chi tiet hen quan khac. Nhting hanh vi phi ng6n ter hong ki nang lag nghe Th6 hien nhfing hanh vi tich cue trong khi tang nghe IA ki nang thietyeti Op phan tao dung long tin vdi khach hang. NhUng hanh vi tich cuenay khong chi la nghe nhung lei noi to phia khach hang ma no dOi tuaingudi lam tong tac xa hoi Mon no hp tim tOi de hieu them nhiing nghia,cam gist va hoan canh gan li gn von lai noi cua khach hang. De dat dime .nhcing ki nang nay, ngudi lam cling tae xa ho i phai chit Sr Lang nghe Wan ,10
  • 10. be nhUng thong diep tit phia khach hang, Ire ca thong diep bang Edi not vathOng diep phi nen tii, vi du nhu giong nal, bieu hien am khuon mat haynen net co the. Egan (2002) da liet ke ra nhting hanh vi phi nem tit quan trong sauday co the xuat hien khi giao tiep vat khach hang. Nhan vien CTXH Ulf&hgt phai hieu ho the hien ban than minh qua cat hanh vi nhu the nao, sau do can tiep thu cac Id nang quan sat nhfing hAnh vi nay a khach hang, xem nhu met hinh flute danh gia va met phudng phap de hieu ki th8ng diep cna ngUai giti. (Xem them bang 1.1) • Hanh vi, nen ngd cit chi bao gem cac to thg, su di chuyen va cac dieu be • Mat: su tiep xtic anh mat, ants mat nhin, chuyen dOng am mat. • Bleu hien tren khuon mat: mim cudi, nhiu may, nhudng may, blu mei. • Giong nai: de cao, am Wring, curing de, ngat t3, nhan manh, ngUng, im lang. • Phan fang cd the quan sat dttoc: tha gap, xanh xao, ma to mat. nbi • Khoang each: khach hang nggi xa hay gan ngttai khac trong khi chuyen • Nh>ing bleu hien Chung khac nhu An mac, kik toe... Nhang ki nang iang nghe tich cut Ivey va &Ong su (2003) me to bOn ygu t6 quan trong sau gop phan hinh thanh cac ki nang nghe tich cue: tiep xuc anh mat, giong nth, lai Ma, va nen ngii eU chi. Ti6p dm qua anh mat St tap Thong thttang drill mat nhin thich hop la phai bleu hien ski ehd trung den nhiing gi ngttai to dang muOn n6i. Nhan vien ding tac xa hei thtiang phai nhin khach hang nhigu lam trong khi ngtiai noi lai hay co xu huong Fang tranh nhin true tiep. Vi vay nguai nghe khong nen nhin lau, nhin cham cham khach hang ma dth hie nen nhin qua axe khac. Tigp vie qua anh mat ea the co nhiing anh huang nhaI dinh vg van hoa, vi vay n6u khOng hieu r5 vg met hanh vi nao do thi nen hai nhilng ngttai than can hoar nhEing ngtidi có ding truyen thOng, thai quen hay quy dinh trong gia dinh. 11
  • 11. Giong mai Giong noi nen phii hdp voi lei noi hay nhung bieu hien dude dung. "Giong noi ka ban IA tong cu giao tip v & truygn tai cam giac cem ban tdi . ngttei khac hay tai tinh hugng nao do". Nen lAng nghe am ludng va trong am khach hang dung khi me to tinh hueing vi nhang yeti t6 nay thudng clan den su hieu biet thgu dao van de ben trong cua ski viec. Tim hi‘u qua lei n6i (Theo dais lei nbi) Nghe met each chi tiet phai bao gem viec tim higu qua lei noi. Nghia la ngudi nghe phai theo htidng khach hang da vach ra do vac, nhung thong tin da dude truyk tai to trttac. khi rift nhigu Inking hay tinh hueng cUa van dg dude dat ra. Tuy nhien, nen ngttai nghe biet chi Y den nhung gi da dude truygn tai thi ho co thg dien giai va tom cat dude nhung thong tin nay va nave dich IA a giup khach hang a; the quyet dinh dude plmang hieing nao IA quan trong dgi vdi ho trong giai doan hign tai. Nhan vien tong tac xa hOi có the xem xet nhung eau hai sau khi gitip dd khach hang: "Dieu gi la quan trong del vdi khach hang? Khach hang muk minh va nhung ngttai khac hieu gi? Khach hang man digu gi xay ra?". Khi ban tin la minh da hieu nhung fitting diep cua khach hang hay trinh bay flitting thong tin do vdi khach hang nhung phai san sang thay dei quan digm dtia vao nhung phan h6i có (Woe to phia khach hang. Ngem ngirc& chi sa dung nen net cei chi la met clang giao tik va co nhung anh huangnhit dinh vg van hoa. Chit ST den viec khach hang the hien ban than hethong qua ngon ngfi cei chi co thg gitip ban higu y nghia cua thong diep.Nhung nhan vier tong tac xa het cling phai hieu khach hang plain ling nhuthe nao del vdi nen nga cif chi cita ho. Met digu can km y la nein ngu eft chi chiu anh huang nhigu caa van -hoe. Chang han, nam gidi ngudi Y nen IA ban be than co the khoac tay nhaudi be, trong khi a met s6 an van hoa, su gen gui nhu vey bi hieu la d8ngtinh luyen ai. O my, thieu nien có thg ngei vat to the thoai mai khi noichuyen vdi ban be hoac ngtibi Ian, du nhung at chi nay lai the hien stt thieuton trong, va khong plan hdp a nhien ilk van hoa khac. Ivey. A.E.. & Ivey. M.B (2003). Intentional interviewing and conseling (5 th ed) PacificGrove. CA : Brooks/Cole.12
  • 12. Vigo chti y din cach khach hang the hien minh thong qua ngo.chi cif the gifip ban hieu nhiing y nghia cast nhitng thong then nay. i.hang co the nhin di, rOi quay 10 khi ho cam thay tei 16i hay rclu he. Khicao hung, ho co the dung len khoi ghg, chow ngtiai yg phfa trtteic. Buongthong vai xulng khi di có the bao hieu met cam giafe suy sop hoac tuyetvong. Nhan vies CTXH nen nhan Hi& dude each khach hang phan (mg 10nen ngil di chi dm nhan Aden CTXH. Ho co cam thay kern thoai mai khi toghe nguii vao wan hay ho có cam thly to dang thigu chit y khi ngoi yea tothg chia dam khong? Vdi tat ca nhling Id nang nghe neu tren, mite (hell cuato la phai hieu ban chat nhling digu throe dien dat. Thong thUring thong digp ena khach hang dude truygn tai dtiOi danggang nhu met eau de nghia la chi (Ilia ra met phan thong tin nao de. Nhuvay de có mth quan he thuan loi vei khach hang, nhan vien cong tac xa heirat can phai nghe va hieu tang nhigu tang tot phan thong tin sung cap baikhach hang, vg nhiing kinh nghiem, cuec sing caa ho va gitip khach hang a lien kat cat thing tin co met bilc tranh rd han ve digu ho man giao ti6p. Cac y6u t6 han ch6, sao lang khi Fang nghe Viec Lang nghe co the bi han che do tieng on, bi sao lang, nhcing yOu t6nay co the lam lech di hoac then vao giVa thong diep dang dude truygn tai.Tigng On va nhiing ylu to lam sao rang c6 the bao g6m nhung am thanhxung quanh, vi du nhu tigng trg con kink, tiOng chuong dien thoai, tigng go tigng TV, dal... Hau het nhiing loaf tigng on nay cif) the tranh dude nguco kg hoach gap go khach hang a mot nth kitting bi nhung phien toai tren. Nhung ygu to khac &An din sft han chg khi nghe xugt phat to chinhnguoi tigp nhan thong tin do ho có nhung dinh kiln hay thanh kiln nhitdinh nao do ve ban than khach hang hay chinh tit eau chuyen cim khachhang. Digu nay thtiang clan din viec ngudi nghe chi nghe met phan thongtin dine truygn tai va sau do ei yang dua ra kit luan ve th6ng diep criakhach hang hay vg chinh ban than khach hang. Nhan vien cong the xd hth cong phai tranh khong de bi anh huangtieu cue to nhUng van de ca nhan cha minh khi Fang nghe khach hang. Vidu vg nhUng van clg ca nhan nhu trong mth quan he hen nhan, quan henam-nci, quan he giva b6 me yeti con cai, chu, nhan vien, hay van dg lienquan den tam trang hay nhiing rol loan tinh cam, cac va dg Nig ruou, rli in 13
  • 13. loan tam li, tang thang, met mOi trong tong viec... Bat Ice van de nao neu tren dau co the din den nhang kho khan nhat dinh cho ngttai nghe khi phai nghe them ve nhung van de &la ho. Nhan vien tong the xa NI co the bi anh hltang W chinh nhang van de ca nhan caa ho va hay c6 nhang ket luan vei yang hoar chi nghe met phan nao do trong cau chuyen cua khach hang. it nhat thi nhan vien ding tac xa hai cang bi anh huang nhat dinh nao do to chinh nhang van de dm ho va do do co the xao nhang khi nghe. Doi vai nhan vien cling the xa hei, viec gat nhung van de ca nhan sang met ben khi nhep cuec voi khach hang la dieu can thigt phai ran luyen. Mat triSn ki !fang nghe Dual day la met sellai khuyen nham phat trign ki nang nghe tich eve: • Tap trung vao van de dang &roc trinh bay • Chu Y ca cac bieu hien nen to va phi ngon W • Khuyen khich khach hang not bang each gat deli hay dung cac cum to nhit "the a, a ..." • ring xit phi hop yeti tam trang, bleu hien cUa khach hang. Vi du: Neu khach hang to ra burin, hay to ra quan tam den ho. Nett khach hang vui, hay vui eutli ciing ho. • Diing c6 doan thi khach hang dang muen not gi bang caqh not ho ho • Ditng bet deu giai guy& van de ngay cho ho • Dung qua M. ngai khi e6 khoang thai gian im Fang • Ditng vei yang ket luan • Tranh to Hit do ke ea, ngao man khi gap ga khach hang. Thuc hanh Khi doe xong nhang lai khuyen tren, hay Chia cac thanh vien eila lopthAnh cac nhom 2 hay 3 noted. Met noai &Mg vai mot khach hang timkiem su giup do de vuot qua stress. Co the khach hang la met sinh vier dadang ki hoc 24 trinh trong ki nay, va phai hoc 15 den 20 gia m6i Wan vavita midi met sinh vien khac cang trong tinh canh nhu vey. Khach hangcam thay kiet site, qua tai, ban loan va nan chi vi ca hai con it nhat metnam nua mdi ra trtiang dude va ca hai dgu co ye khong the c6 thai giandanh cho nhau.14
  • 14. Khi nhan vien CTXH lam viec a met trung tam td van cho sinhban phai pluing van ve tinh hinh hien tat caa khach hang va xay dung mOiquan he yea ho de ho cam they &Jac khich khi quay ve. De lam duct viesnay ban can the hien ki nang nghe caa minh. De danh gia dune mite do, kinang nghe clan ban, ban có the ad dung he thOng nhd trong bang 1.1.Nguaidanh gia eb th5 la khach hang, ngdoi this ba quan sat, hoac chinh la ban.Viec ren luyen ki nang lAng nghe trong 5 den 10 phtit va thao luan vgnhcing hanh vi co hieu qua hoar nhting hanh vi can rem luyen them. Im 14ng Trong moi quan he v6i khach hang, nhan vien tong the xa hei nen tora thoai mai hoac nen clYip nhan phai co khoang im lang. Khi bat dau yeanghe nghiep nay, ho thudng tti dat ra cho minh met you eau khOng thdc t6la phai cO cau trg ldi cho mgi van de cita khach hang. Vi vgy khi co s>t imlang, ha bat dau cam that lo tang. D5 tranh bi cho la nguoi khong thg ) duera gigi phap, ho vei yang ngat Im tang c6 th5 la do nhieu nguyen nhan, va khi co ski im lang, nhanvien CTXH thdang bat dau suy then g nghia cim ski im Tang nay, xem ski imlang nhu la "TM khong mtiOn a day" "That la tuyet vong" "De tei met minh""TM khong tin anh/chi" "Anh/chi co the nghi anh/chi dang tp cho nhunganh/chi khong the lam toi n6i dude". Ngoai nhting khg nang nay, ski im langcling con c6 the hi hieu met each trung lap hoac Lich ctic hdn, chang han:"Do la met eau hai hay va tea dang khong bled nen tra tat nInt the it" "Tat& day chin ai tong hOi tai nhd vey, a toi nghi them met philt nth" "Cuol cling tad cling cam they tot hdn, cho toi nghi met chat" hay "C6 tit nhigu van de de noi, de toi sap xgp lei da". Cat hanh vi Kh6ng c6 den bg hen C6 Han bg Kha Rit Lien by ye the! dg nghe 66 1. Khong bi phan tam, sao lang 2. Thong digp cue khach hang khong glen doan 3. Khang co dinh kin khi nghe 4. Hanh vi, cg chi-tit the", chuyen Ong aim co thg 15
  • 15. 5. Mat nhin-tiep xbc qua anh mat, nhin chhm chhm, Owen Bong cCia mat 6. Bleu hien caa khuon mat-pha hdp vdi tam tang, cau chuyen cila khach hang A. The hien qua mac B. Khong the hien 7. Gong nokarn lacing, - nhan manh, ngang. 8. Phan (mg tam If-nhip trio, au tang thing, thoai mai 9. Khoing cach-qua gin, qua xa, vita phai 10. Sgtheo sat-phan (mg dm nmrdi trcr giCip del vdi cau chuyen cua khach hang, kha nang torn tatBANG 1.1. Bang clanh gia cac hanh vi va thai d5 nghe Lai khuyen tot nhal la khong nen to suy then. Nen hidu rang khach hang cling can co thai gian de suy nghi ye eau Mk, xem nen co thai do the nao, trai nghiem lai nhung § nghi, hinh anh cua cau chuyen, xem xat anh huang caa mei quan he tri lieu ho dang co... Doi khi ski im lang lai co. lien quail den van hod. DO co thd la bieu Men eim Si kinh treng dea vdi nguai dang tim each gni) do minh (nhit trong van hol cua ngttai Nhat). Dd tao kh6ng khi thoai mai, ban phai hidu rang im lang khang nhdtthiet la bidu hien tieu ckte hay lam de doa den uy tin cim nhan vien cling tacxa hei. Im lang có the la khoang thai gian dd this gian, va de tim hi@u quandiem caa khach hang va y nghia (rang sau sg im Fang. Khi da có the hidudude y nghia clang sau sa im lang, hay hei trip tiep khach hang: "Anh/chidang nghi gi vay?" hay "Anh/chi dang cam th‘y the nao?". Hoac neu bannghi ban có the hidu y nghia dkng sau ski im tang, ban ce the noi thanhfling ski suy dien nay va t6 ra cam thong nhtt: "CO ye la qua tai doi vdi bankhi ban phai del mat WS St ea nhung yin de nay clang met hic."16
  • 16. KT nang tao digu kien thuan Ili (Facilitative conditions) Nhfing dieu kien than loi la nhilng dieu kien vg pham chat hay meiquan he co hieu qua ma nhan vien CTXH can phai the hien &loc i . Gila recaa nhUng digu kien nay la 11 thuyet tam h hoe nhan hoc caa Carl Roger(1951). Li thuygt nay, trUoc day ddoc goi la tri lieu Inking tdi khach hang,da phat tries thanh tri lieu hudng tdi con ngdoi 2 . Nen tang ciaa trj lieu haang tali con ngutli la nigm tin rang con ngUdico kha nang thay khai them to than, thai de caa ho dgi vOi ngttai khac,va hanh vi caa ho ding vol viec co nth-Mg each de td hieu minh. Theo thuyetnay, nhan vien CTXH cung cap met mei trailing cho phep nhilng nang lyenay xukt hien. Viet nay dtkic thde Men thong qua vice, c the hien ba nang heco ban: su thku cam (hieu thou), su quan tam tich cue (su ton trong) va su thich hcip (tinh xac thuc, tinh than thtte) Sy thgu cam (Accurate understanding) Su thku cam la kha nang caa nhan vien gong the xa het cO the hieumet each chinh xac nhfing gi khach hang caa ho dang trai qua tit he quychiku caa khach hang. Khach hang co the dien giai eau chuyen eim ho bang each me to camgiac, suy nghi cua ho, hoar bang each sa dung cac gine quan (thi giac, khdugiac, thinh giac, xtle giac va vi giac) hay them chi la su kgt hop caa tat eanhung hanh Ong neu tren. Khi nhan vien tong tac xa hei hieu ddee eauchuyen caa khach hang, thi su hieu Met nay phai dude d6i chigu hoae kiemtra lai vei khAch hang. Theo Egan (1998), qua trinh nay se gillp to dungmet m6i quan he ben chat gifia ngttai ghip do voi ngttai can lime gidp dd.Hon nda, khi nhan vien gong the xa hei ething to dive sit thou hieu cua minh ve van de caa khach hang, thi chinh ho dang tao ra nhiing anh hdang tich cue den su cai and cua khach hang trong vise sung cap nhfing thong tin quan trong. Khach hang phai dttoc cam thky rang ho dang &we quan tarn theo each khong bi dinh kien, bi phe phan, chi trich va nInt vay ho tang cal su cdi ma khong e de. Nhan vien gag the xa het nen the hien rang cal hai dang e6 Collins, D., Jordan, C. & Coleman, H. (1999). An introduction to family social work. Itasca, IL: Peacock. 2. Raskin. N. I. & Rogers, C. R. (1995). Person centered therapy. In R. J. Corsini & D. - Wedding (Ed.), Current psychotherapies (5th ed., pp. 128-161). Itasca, II: Peacock. 17
  • 17. clang tim giai phap cho van de va khi do khach hang se tin rang ho dang dude long nghe, dang throe thou higu. Cach co ban de the hien tang nghe co thong cam la viec sit dung ding thric eau. Hay bat dau bang cau: "Anh/chi cam thay..." tiep theo va viec dtta vao tit chi cam giac ma khach hang dang noi 1.6i, cam giac ban dang nghi khach hang clang co. Khi da noi ra cam the, hay noi tiep Thai vi...", sau do lai dign vac) eau chuyen cua khach hang di keen vdi cam xiic do. VI du: "Son, em dang cdm thdy bi phan bei vi ban than nhat cUa em bi mat hen hO vei ban gal cua em," hay la "Minh, em dang cdm the& lo long vi khOng the dung len trtiOc lop then thuygt trong vong 7 phut v6 bao gia dinh". Co met so each khac nhau de the hien rang minh da hien khach hang. a cap do co ban, co" the the hien bang each thong bao bang cac hanh thing phi nem tit rang khach hang dang dude tang nghe. Cac hanh vi Lang nghe the hien su quan tam va su chi" y den nhung dieu khach hang dang noi. Nhiing hanh vi nay bao gem to the ng6i hci Nolan v6 phia tritec, mat tap trung nhin khach hang (frit khi khach hang den to met nen van hoa coi tiep themat khong phii hop), va dei khi gat dau a dap lai nhiing digu dang dude nth. ViOc sit dung the hien net mat Ming quan trip -1g va nen the hien si.tquan tam. Met net mat the hien s9 thong that khOng phii hop, hay sV kinkso hay s9 ttic gian se mang lai thong diep rang ban that vong hay so khachhang hoac eau chuyen ctia ho va lam khach hang nan chi hay lam can Eraqua trinh gin) do. Carkuff2 da tim ra va dao to cac ki nang the thien phan ang d cacnuac do cam thong va khong cam thong dio nguai can be. De lam don gianme hinh nay, cluing toi theo nhang dg xuat cim Ivey va Ivey va sU dung bacap de pilau ung nhu sau: Cap d9 1. NhUng phan iing a cap dQ nay the hien rang nhan viersCTXH clnia nhan ra, data hieu dttoc nhUng then ma khach hang trinh bay. Egan. G. (2002). The skilled helper: A problem-management approach to heping (6 6 ed.)PacifGrov,CA:Bks/le. 2 Carkuff. R. R. (1969). Helping and human relations. Vol. Practice and research. NewYork: Holt, Rinehart. and Winston. 3 Ivey, A. E. & Ivey, M. B. (2003). Intentional interviewing and counseling (5 1h ed,)Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.18
  • 18. NIUTing phan ling thuang la khong de Y den then khach hang trinh bay, hoacla nhung phan ling thien ve chi triak khach hang. Cgp da 2. Meng tin nghe dUcic dtiOc nhAc lai chinh xac voi khachhang. a cap do, nay, nhan vien CTXH thtiong nhAc lai nhfing thOng tinkhach hang da nOi truac dO. Nhung phan frog cling co the the hien giong nOiva cac yeti t6 phi nem tit dm khach hang. Doi khi nhan vien CTXH con guy& dinh nhan manh phan ling dm ho de &Cm khach hang nhan thayrang thong tin ho trinh bay la da dude hiked ban. Cip da 3. Nhung phan ling a cap do nay khong chi cho thgy thong diOp khach hang mu6n truyen tai da dine nhan vien CTXH hien ma con bao ham ca ski danh gia, su nhay cam oda 119 voi nhUng suy nghi caa khach hang. Dieu nay co the xay ra la do nhan vier CTXH da rat chti Fang nghe nhiing di6u khach trinh bay va dpa vao nhang trai nghiem time te, flitting kien thite chung v6 hanh vi cim con ngUai, stf tang hop cac du lieu ma khach hang da trinh bay. alai day la mot so cac vi du vg cac cap dO phan ling v6i cart chuyen cfm khach hang. 1. Khach hang: TOi da thtfc ski cam thgy that vong vg diem mon Sinh hoc. T6i can it nhat la diem B+ hoac MM. NhAn vien CTXH: Cgp do 1: Nhu vay, ban va ngtiai ban cling phong dang On thi nhuth6nao? Cac ban ciing a trong ki alit xa hoc ki nay phai khong? Cgp da 2: Ban dang cam thay that vong vi diem mon Sinh hoc cluOidiem B+? Cgp do 3: Vi ban da dat mac tieu phai vao chtqc trtiong dai hoc, bancam thgy bi ap he phai duy tri diem B+ trong tat ca the men hoc trong do c6men Sinh hoc. Hien nay diem sinh hoc caa ban (MA diem B+ va bay gia bandang ban khoan lieu ban c6 dude chap nhan vao trUang dai hoc khOng. Va nett khOng dive chap nhan, ban se calla Hay minh da hohn toan that bai. 2. Khach hang: Toi bi tai nan trong khi dang lam viec. Chan cim toi bi thudng. Chuyen do xay ra each day met nam va tOi van cam thay dau nhiett Nth khOng lam vies duos, them ncia Gen bao hima lien tro cap dang sap het. NhAn vier CTXH: Cap da 1: Toi chat rang neu ban not chuyen vai ngtiai chiu trach nhiem truang hOp nay thi moi chuyen se 6n. 19
  • 19. Clip di;, 2: Ban dang cam thgy that yang vi ban van kWh-1g the lama viec dude ke to khi tai nan say ra. Cgp do 3: Ban van cam thgy rat dau don of khi hi tai nan. Vi digu do ban da kheng the lam viec dime va bay gia ban thay rang tin fro cap dang hgt dan. Ban lo tang ve viec se chu cap cho gia dinh nhu the nao va dieu do khien ban se hai. Viec the hien kha nang thau cam tang nhu bat ki ki nang nao khac can phai ap dung met each hap Li. Ngtibi mai vao nghe thuang co xu hitting dung ki nang nay qua nhieu. Hay de cho khach hang dm ban co ed hei bee 10 vg ban than ha, ve nhang kinh nghiem caa ho, ve nhung ctieu quan trong dgi Arai ho va vg nhang van de ho dang phai dei mat voi. Khi ban Fang nghe nhung cau chuyen cua ho va quan sat cif chi caa ho, ban se cam nhan dude nhUng gi IA quan trong del vOi ho, hic do ban se c6 the truyen tai dude ski cam thong dea vii ho. Tranh to ra cam thong d&i v6i moi van de caa khach hang vi digu dO khign cho ban tra thanh met cai may có the nghe dude nhung kheng thtic ski thgu hien khach hang. Met lei thUang thay khac da nmiei mei vac) nghe la dat cau hai ma khong c6 ski lien quan doi vai van de caa khach hang. Van de nay dude minh hoa d vi du 1 not tren khi nhan vien CTXH hei vg tinh caa noel ban cling phong sau khi nghe qua ye van de caa khachhang. Loai hanh vi nay cho thgy nhan vien CTXH kheng he Lang nghe khach hang hoac cho Fa nhung gi nguai nay hai la khang quan trong. Cang co nhung truing hip xay ra khi nhan vien CTXH kheng bigt lam gi v6i mgi quan tam caa khach hang va do dO be qua no. Cling có nhang taking - hop khac say ra khi nhan vien CTXH lo Fang ve nhung viec phai lam trong thai gian bieu cua ho hdn La quan tam den nhUng van de caa khach hang. Met nguyen tac hien qua la phai the hien kha nang than cam khi met khach hang trinh bay yin de cUa ho ma ban nhan thgy la quan trong. Thvc hanh phat tri4 ki slang Dudi day la met s6 cac van de cua khach hang. Trong met tinh hu6ngdong kith, met nguai la khach hang, ngliai kia lam CTXH, khach hangnhac lai nhang cat nbi dudi day, sau dO nhan vien CTXH tra lai theo mehinh the hien kha nang thgu cam. Muc dich la phai tra lei it nhat la o 2 capdo va khi ban cam thgy to tin, chuyen sang cap do 3 de lam tang chitludng va de sau caa eau tra lai:20
  • 20. 1. Khach hang: Tot rat bue minh vdi anh trai UM, mg toi khOng baogib. bat anh ay ta chiu trach nhiem vg nhilng hanh Ong cua anh gy. 2. Khiteh hang: Trong 22 nam qua, chting toi da c6 it nhat mot dfiacon sang a nha, day la Fan dau tien chi eld hai cluing toi sling cling nhau. Toicam they khac thang. 3. Khach hang: Hitt met it thac thi et) van dg gi dau. Moi ngai deuthe ca).. B6 my t6i da khong hik v6 tu6i thanh thieu then, cluing toi khonglam ton thucing ai ca, cluing tOi chi man vui ye mot chilt. 4. Helena Kosovic, mot ngttai ti nan tit Bosnia not dude rat it tigngAnh, co dang c6 tim mot tong viec va van chtta cam thay 6n dinh trong meitrueng mdi. Co noi: "Toi khong bigt tim viec o dau. Ted can tik, tei can atign cho be me toi. a day rat kho khan, toi lan cam thgy met mai va ngakhong ngon. 5. Mdt ca gai 17 tuai dude than down la mac benh r6i loan an u6ng, lan clan tien gdp ban vdi to each la nhan vien CTXH. Co n6i: "Ho man toi la nguoi hoan hao. Toi phai dat chide tat ca the di6m A au khong ho se khong cho phep tot diing Bien thoai, toi phai tap danh dan piano met gie at ngay. Them vao ntta. ho con muen ten quan tam cham soc hai dua em sinh dOi vi h9 can phai nghi ngdi. Vey con khi nao thi toi c6 th6 dude nghi? 6. La Toya la mot ba me 24 tu6i song mot minh voi hai dila con, 5 tuei va 3 tu6i. Co dang tim trd gulp va ndi a. CO chi c6 25 dela va rat lo set vg st.t an toan caa ban than. Co ndi: "Ngttoi ta not la ban cid the giap toi va con tea, chUng tei can mot ch6 a. Mc eon tOi bi day ra kh9i nha ban trai tea tea qua va chi:mg tea phai nga a tren xe o dd. Se la qua nguy tam ngu quay tra lei voi anh ta va tea khong tin tang anh ta ntia. Anh ta lam tea sd khi anh ta ang say. Anh ta not la anh ta mat viec chinh la 161 tai tea, va anh ta khding the nuea dude mot nguei phu n>t vdi hai dila con". 7. Jimmy la mot ding nhan gang thep nghi httu sang trong rat nha clang lao. Tien luring huu va tign trd cap y t6 co the da da tra cho nha dang lao va Ong chi nhan duck khoAn trd cap hang thang la 88 Dela. Ong tied (rat tut gian): Montell bao la Ong ay se dua tei den ngan hang vao sang nay. Ong ay dau? Da la tign caa toi va tei man so tign do. Toi khong muen ddi them chat nao nVa. Toi se goi cho con gai tea va a se dua toi ra khoi cai nha ta nay ngay horn nay n6u toi khOng nhan dude tien caa tOi. 21
  • 21. 8. Met co be 12 tuth bi anh trai quay rth khi dang nga. Chau noi:"Chau thac day khi thSy anh ay se vao nguai chat, chau rSt so va khongbiet phai lam gi. Chau gia ve nga va Ian qua phla ben kia givang". 9. Manny la cha throng cria 4 dila tre 17, 15, 12, va 7 tuei. Ong cuoiLupita 6 thang trtiac. Ong n6i: "Toi phai lam viec vat va. Toi phai cham sacnhUng chaa tre nay trong khi be cim cluing chang lam gi cho chting. Nhungtat ca nhfing gi red nhan chap tit chting chi la su thieu ton trong. CluingkhOng gitip gi viec nha va me cila cluing cling cho chting lam nhu vay.Neu m9i thlt khong thay dei, toi se 66 di". 10. Khfich hang: Antoine la nguai tei da hen ho chtoc met nam. Anhay la ngttai clau tien thuc su rat tot v.% ten. Anh Sy vita mai thong bao vai raila anh ay mai dude nhan met cling viec tl alit do Washington, anh Sy muentOi di ding nhting toi khOng biet phai lam nhu the nal). Toi rat bth rth. Stt quan tam tich cctc (Ski ton trong) Khi khach hang duck dap lai bang thai do chSp nhan, itch cue, khonghi phe phan thi nhang thay dei trong quan he tri lieu la c6 the dat dttOc.Dieu nay ded hOi nhan vien cling tac xa hei phai san sang de cho khachhang ben to nhang cam gide tuc thai vi du nhu cam giac boi nth, tuc gian, so Khi nhan vier]. CTXH danh gia khach hang met each t6ng the thikhach hang co the lien gar, hal l . Su quan tam cUa nhan vien CTXH del vaikhach hang khOng nen bi tac deng bai "su hia chop, dac tinh va ket quamong muen khach hang" 2. Su quan tam tich clic la met dieu kien (kha nang) ma nhan vien dingtac xa hei có the chuyen tai ski tan thanh, su n6ng hau va su quan tam dennhiing trai nghiem caa khach hang . Su quan tam tich cup, con duct goi la st/ ton trong, la kha nal -1g danhgia khach hang nhu la met nguai co phem hanh va gia tri. Theo Ivey quan Rogers, C. R. (1986). Client-centered therapy. In I. L. Kutash & A. Wolf (Eds.),Psychotherapists cookbook: Therapy and technique in practice (pp.I 97-208). San Francisco:Jossey-Bass. 2 Raskin, N. J. & Rogers. C. R. (1995). Person-centered therapy. In R. J. Corsini & D.Wedding (Ed.), Current psychotherapies (5 ed., pp. 128-161). Itasca, II: Peacock. Ewen, R. B. (2003). An introduction to theories of personality (6 1" ed.). Mahwah, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaurn. 4 Ivey, A. E. & Ivey. M. B. (2003). Intentional interviewing and counseling (5" ed,)Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.22
  • 22. tam tich cue c6 the duce dinh nghia la Mu § tdi nhring phan tieh cue tronglai not hay eau chuyen cim khach hang va chti trong dgn chUng. Cac bigu hign cua stt quan tam tich cgt Egan dinh nghia c6 bon bieu hien dm su quan tam la cam ket voikhach hang, khong chi trich, co gang higu khach hang va chung to sv quantam va nang Cam kgt dude the hien Wang thai do lain a been canh khach hangtrong moi hoan canh vui ban. Them nOm no eon throe the hien a thai dequan tam chti y tdi nhiing digu khach hang dang Khong chi trich la thai de khOng eó nhiing phan xet, chi trich khachhang, vg y nghi, cam giac, hanh vi cUa ho. Digu nay Mk hai nhan vien cOng the xa hOi can phut trign nhan thile ye gia tri ea nhan cim ban than, cac kinh nghiem ban than a phut trign ki Mang the hien bang nem tir va phi nen t t dgi yin dieu khach hang dang truygn tai. De higu khach hang, nhan vien ding tae xa hei phai rat t2p trung vao dieu khach hang the hien ea bang nem t3 va phi nein Hi. Nhung cau hei cim ngtrdi trd gitip nen duo sau Um tea da hieu nhung digu khach hang dang not hon va da elnang to vdi khach hang la ho dang c6 gang hien a Mang cam giae, suy nghi nhan thilc va can chuyen cua khach hang. Chiang to nang life la kha Ming c6 the" lam dude vier trong pham vi nang lip dude duo tao, ki nang va nang hie, Phai dam bao vdi khach hang rang ho dang co &roc su quan tam tot nhgt, kh6ng phan biet ton giao, cluing tee, giai tinh va dia vi xa hei. MOt pinking phap danh gia kha nang quan tam Mn khach hang eim nhan vien CTXH la xgp hang nhung eau tra lbi cim nguai do theo kha Mang phan anh the bigu hien dm su quan tam tich cue dal vdi khach hang — vdi can chuyen eim khach hang, vol kha nang va dim manh cim khach hang. HUM day la cac vi du sit dung thang 3 alp de lam phudng phap danh gia Id nang nay: Egan. G. (2002). The skilled helper: A problem-management approach to heping (eh ed.) Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 2 Ivey, A. E & Ivey. M. B. (2003). Intentional interviewing and counseling (5" ed,) Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 23
  • 23. 1. Khach hang: Gan day tai cam thgy to lang. That la kh6 thite day va di lam nhung du sao tai clang da co" de lam dove digu da. Tea thay a nhA con tai to hdn. Cgp (10 1: Doi khi ban phai mien Wong lam digu do. Can du 2: Mae du ban thay that la kh6 de day va di lam, ban da lam &roc digu do. Can .10 3: Ban eo ye nho la rat higu ban than va sty lo Tang anh khong dgn ban nhu thg nao. Ban nhan thay rang di lam vigc, rot cue ban secam thay tot hdn cho nen ban da gang sac a day va di ngay ca khi bankhong hg muein. 2. Khach hang: Lilo nao tea cling phai tv len day cot. Moi thu taidOng dgn clau clan dgn that bai. Gia dinh roi be tea va tai chuan bi mat viecvi Ong chit khOng tin COL Ted can c6 the lam hang nhcing gi nth. Digu t8i togi co the xay ra nUa? Can di? 1: Ban can tham gia vao nhorn tro gitip. Can c1.5 2: Mac du có rat nhigu digu quan trong trong cuee song cuaban da dien ra khOng tot dep song it nhat la ban da dung cam dgn day vatim kigm sv gitip do. Can do 3: Vai tat ca nhung digu tai to nay xay ra trong cuQc sag dmban, BM thgy ban c6 the mugn to be moi thu nhung ban da khong lam nlntvay. Thay vao do ban da san sang tim kigm so gitip do va ea tim each dggiai quygt van de. Ban phai la noel rat dung cam mdi co the lam dune diguJO, va vi thg tai ton trong ban.Luyen tap Lam viOc ding mot ban khac d tao ra phan ling than cam a cap do 2va 3 cho nhung van dg sau &in khach hang: 1. Dave la mat Chang trai 30 tugi. Anh duct than down IA bi benh qua lo lang, can benh nay anh da trai qua trong slat 15 nam qua. Anh nOi: "Toi qua met mOi vi lac nao cling cam thay lo au. TIM lo Fang vg tete the, nhung tea mugn anh bigt rang tea khong to bO. Toi san sang thil bat ki gili phap nao anh din ra". 2. Khach hang: Ching tai la ngoei nghign cOng vigc. Chung tOi co hai dila con. Toi phai cham son chting va lam tat ca cOng vigc nha. Toi24
  • 24. da nghi ca hai chang UM se clang nuOi nang chting. DEng nghi sai cho t6i. Tai yeu cfic con tot. TOi chi mong mugn có it ALI b.() gitip nao do.3. Mat eau be 15 tuei &toe me clan den phOng guilt] da bang tri lieu. Can rat vat va vdi vise hoc tap a tniang nhung rat giOi the thao. Cau noi: "Toi chi khong mugn hoc, no chang giap Ich gi cho tea trong cac hop &Ong bang chay. T6i thich di dgn phOng tap. TOi se khoe manh hon va nhanh hon. Trtibng hoc chi danh cho nhitng ngt.thi nghien may tinh. T6i can nhiing thii do de lam gi?".4. Khach hang cila ban vita trai qua met vu li hon en ao each day 18 thang, va ba vo anh ay van con tut gian vdi anh ta. Anh ta not: "TM kh8ng the gap con t6i thtidng xuyen trong 10 thang qua. Vo tot khong ang he tai. Tai thus ski nhd cac con tai va tai mugn gap chting".5. Ban dude tuyan vao trudng lam vdi vi tri la nhan vLen CTXH. Met trong nhung nhiem vu ena ban la phai gitip nhung (Ma tre co bg me li hOn hoac li than. Khach hang ena ban la met co be 10 tual. Chau be noi: "Chau cam thgy bun khi b6 chau chuyen di. Chau nhd b6. Chau cha 66 goi rn6i tat Chau monglagchau se ye va sSng cling voi chau. Chau nghi 1/6 chau rat c8 dal". 6. Khach hang cila ban bi ham hip vao ban ngay. CO ay mugn dgn to van ye nhung t6n thddng tam than. CO ta not: "Chuyen da xay ra qua nhanh va t6i khong hi& phai lam gi. Na kh8ng gigng rdni nhiing gi xay ra truck day. TM so digng nguoi. Bang ra tai phai lam gi?" 7. Ban la nguoi to van Ara met khach hang mai den noi vdi ban nhung chuyen nhti sau: "TM bi that nghiep hon met thang r6i. Kheng ai mu6n thus toi. CU nhu the kh8ng con mot ding viec nao nua. Tat ea nhung gi tai co the lam la lai xe xugng ph6 va ghe xem moi noi". 8. Ban lam vise cho t8 chile thanh thigu nien. Met ea be 17 tu6i k vdi ban: "Chau nghi chau da ob thai. Chau so noi voi 1)6 my, ban trai chau kheng bigt. B6 my chau se rat that vong vg chau. Ho co kg hoach cho chau vao dai hoc tit khi chau con hoc tieu hoc. Hien tai dita ft-6 la quan trong nhlt". 25
  • 25. 9. Khach hang: Chgng tea co van de vg nghien ritou va toi so rang anh ay se mat viec Lan MM. DO la li do Lei phai girt cling viec Mm them. T6i they sO khong bigt digu gi co the? thy ra khi tei them chi khong con kigm dude khoan tien Mo. 10. Ban vOi vat trO IA nhan vien CTXH tai phOng kham sue khoe. Khach hang: TOi d cling anh ay trong ba deem lien. Khi anh 6y binh . tinh va thigp ngu, anh ay lai co gist. Tea can gidp do. Ca hai chting tOi deo can Tinh hop li (Tinh xac thuc va chart thuc) Tinh hop li nghia IA tinh than than kien dinh. Khi gitip dd khachhang, tinh kien dinh lien quan den viec ngudi tro giup cam thdy nhu thenao, suy nghi nhu the nao va cu xU nhu the nao. Neu ba van de tren thgngnhat vdi nhau, ngudi do dude Kern la hop 11. Ngu met trong hai van de trenkhac nhau, nghia la ngudi do killing hop li hay khong kien dinh. Vi dukhach hang co the tin rang nhung not cue nhan vien cong tac xa heinhu: "Ted that su mugn giup anh/chi" IA khOng trung thuc vi cling hic dongtibi nay lai dang quan tam den viec khac, va nhu vay khach hang co thdnghi rang nhung viec khac do quan trong Min hoac it nh6t la cong quantrong nhu viec gap ho. Tinh the thuc hay tinh Chan thOc (genuineness, authenticity) lanhUng khai niem khac dude dung de me to dac diem nay. Khi to ra thanthue, nhan vien cong the xd hei phai chung to dude ho mugn thuc su bleu,th‘tc so lam viec va thtfic su mugn giup cid khach hang. Raskin va Rogercho rang nhan vien CTXH phai dude Kern nhu la met ngudi an tic su mugngitip do ngudi khac va khOng nen bi Kern nhu IA met ngudi ti..tkhodc len chominh met ye bg ngoai nao do va cong viec chink cna anh to la ng61 do delinh ti6n luring. Met each dg the hien su san lOng nay la lam cho khachhang co met quan he cong tac, ca ngudi gitip do va ngudi dttoc gilp do phaicling nhau tim hieu va giai quyet v6n dg. Dieu nay la hoan toan khac so vdi Cornier, S., & Nurius, P. S. (2003). Interviewing and change strategies forhelpers (5 th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 2 Raskin, N. J. & Rogers, C. R. (1995). Person-centered therapy. In R. J.Corsini & D. Wedding (Ed.), Current psychotherapies (5 th ed., pp. 128-161). Itasca,II: Peacock.26
  • 26. each gitip do kik nhtt nggai gidp gia dinh la phai hilt het vg van de eimkhach hang sau do duo ra met loot the each chga tri ma khong he danhchin thai gian nee) de tim hik dac diem rieng, nhung hoar thnh va vande rieng tha titng ea nhan. Ngoati ra, tinh than thgc con co ngg Y rang nggai ghip tra met eachtrung thgc nhCing tau hal ma killing a all phOng thu. Nhan vien thug bac xahei than thud se tra lai khach hang mot each rat quan tam bang each sitdung nen nga khach hang co the hik &Mc chic killing phai la sit dung thetit chuyen m6n hay t6 ra ye xa each, trich thuong. Cac bieu hien cua su than thus Cormier va Nurius t cho rang ea 5 hien hien caa sg than thgc la "hanhvi nen tit cb tinh khich le, hanh vi clang vai, tfnh kien dinh, tfnh tg nhienva tinh cat ma" (trg. 69). Nhang hanh vi phi ngon tit c6 tinh khich 18 duct the then to athe ng6i hdi Iniong ve phia trgoe va nhin vac) khach hang (Ilk phi hap vanphong tut va van hed). NhiTing hanh vi &mg vai la khi nhan vien CTXH tg cam thay hailong hoac khong hi go be trong vi tr1, vai cita minh va do do thay kh8ng canthigt phai nhan manh vai tro vi tri tha minh. Hon Mita, nhan vien tong taexa hoi khong phai "dong vai" trong khi lam vile bai vi hg thgc sit muon aday a ginp khach hang. Tinh kien dinh la sg thong nit& kik dinh trong hanh vi, cam gineva y nghi cim nhan vien CTXH. Can phai the hien chan thue nhgng camgine cua minh trong khi phOng van khach hang thay vi co/ phai the giauhay phi nhan cam giac caa minh. Tinh nhi8n khong ggIng ep la kha nang phan ling hoc the hien ban than met each to nhien khong hi gO ho. Tuy nhien, trong trtiang hop co . cam giacnhigcamteudlvikhacngtoeb nay ra nlu khong can tra vies gitim do ho. Tinh cat ma la sti son long cai ma mgt each hop li caa nab lam CTXH nham mue dich gitip khaeh hang nhan thay rang nhiing ngttai khac Cornier, S., & Nurius, P. S. (2003). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers (5 ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 27
  • 27. cang da tang trai qua nhung dieu Wong 41, co earn gide Wring to vA do do co the tao dUng mei quan he On gni, hdp toe hdn vdi khach hang. Tuy nhien, ngu sv cal ma dO co dude dun gian la do nhu eau mu6n dude chia se caa nhan vien CTXH thi khong pha hdp va khong throe khuygn klatch. KT Wang dein giii Dien giai , cling gating nhu ki nang that cam, la su phan ling bang lainot caa nhan vien cang tae xA hei dui vdi khAch hang ma vg ban chat latruygn tai nOi dung caa thong diep nhan dude tii khach hang. Trong khi phan Cing than cam thuang din to su than hiau cam giacvg thong diep, dien giai Hwang tap trung vao viec khach hang dang suynghi gi hay dang lam gi. Dien giai cang có the dude dung a truygn tainhung du lieu co lien quan. Nhung gi nhan vien tong Lac xa hei nghe dude va hieu dude nen doge kiem nghiem lai vdi khach hang theo each khong phai la bat chadc y het. Nhan vien CTXH nen dung nhung tit quan trong ma khach hang da sa dung nham tom tat va lam sang to not dung eila thong diep. Hai vi du dal, dui% day la nhting vi du ye ki nang (lien giai khi lamviec vdi khach hang. Nam vi du tigp theo la tinh hueng cho ban thuc hanh (hen giai. 1. Khach hang: T8i &tang nhu kheing the lam cho moi chuyen emdep. TOi het tign, xe cua tai hang, hog don phai thanh toan cluing chat, va&Ong viec thi Chang di den dau. Toi thue su muen di hoc tra lai nhung khOngdu an chi tra ngay bay gin. . Ca ye nhu tai khOng the xoay sa &Mc. Toimuen co met Ong bac giau co va de lai cho tea thita ke. Nhan vien CTXH: Ban dang thieu tien, hoe dun phai thanh torndang cluing chat, ban muen dude tik tut hoc nhung ban khOng thay co eachnao a lam dude diet do. 2. Khach hang: Ka to khi thong tei gap gd nhau, Lei da lam dudenhieu chuyen tet hon. T8i da cO the not dude vdi vd tOi ve nhung gi da xayra vdi tai twee day. T6i da có the Chu tri cat buei hop nhan vien ma khongbi cam Mac ho se gian du vdi tea. Va tai nhan thay minh khOng con ngaiviec day som vao buei sang a di lam. Nhan vien CTXH: Ban clang thay minh tai and hurl vdi vd va ban dacó the lanh dao dude cac nhan vien trong cling ti.28
  • 28. 3. Khach hang: TOi bat qua tang con gai tbi dang eb can sa va met itgiAy otter. TOi da nghi ng6 tit mita he nay khi no di ye muon cung maynmiai ban va khi nam hoc bat dau, diem hoc ciM no kern dan. Khach hang: Chung tai vita chuyen den day to Nebraska. Nguai tanOi rang co nhieu viec trong nganh xay dung a day. Hien tai cluing UMkhong c6 chi a. Hai CM truck tea, vd toi va hai con nha phai ngu trong xe tai.Met canh sat noi chung tat co the nhd cac anh glut) da. 5. Khitch hang: Bac si cim tai noi toi can gap ban. Nam truck tbi bitai nan va khong the di lam dude. Toi bi nga khOi thang xueng dat tit trenmet gian khoan dau. Toi bi ran xttdng dui. Toi da co the di b8 dticic chilt itnhung van phai dung nang. Cu khoang 10 den 15 phtit toi lai thAy dau vaphai ng6i xueng. Bac si da cho tea Tenynol 3 nhung chi do chat it. 6. Gap khach hang la met co con gai ca trong met gia dinh. Co ta noi: "Tit khi me toi mkt, be tai cu xu nhu the tai la ngtt6i phaiganh moi track nhiem gia dinh. TOi nAu nhung, rUa bat, gitlp cac em lambai, nku boa trua cho chUng trtioc khi di ngti. Toi biet toi cung phai có trachnhiem lam viec trong gia dinh nhung be tai ding phai vay chit. Be chi noiOng qua met va tot phai lam nlifing viec do". 7. Ban vii to each la nhan vien CTXH trong trttang hoc va ban phai gap khach hang la cO Quitero, met phu nu nguoi Tay Ban Nha, la me cite, met eau con trai. CO ta nOi: "TM khong hien &No. Ngay nao Pepe cling di hoc. Tai chat than ye dieu do. Khi no ye nha, tai hen no co chuyen gi xay ra, no da hoc gi, boa trtta caa no nhu the nao, ye tat ca nhung dieu ma cac be me den muen biet. NO luau brio tei no da lam cac bai tap a trUang, boa trtta cna no tot. Cho nen tOi van nghi moi chuyen deli en ca. Bay gia, anh lai noi vii tOi no da khong lam bai tap va no thi trttOt". Ki !fang tom tit TOm tat cling Wring ti nhu dien giAi chi khac la no bao gem luringthOng tin 16n hen dude cung cap bai khach hang. Ki nang nay co the dudedung hai, ba hay ben lan trong khi phang van nhu la met each de nhac laichU diem, van de, nal dung va rine dich da de cap den. Tom tat cung la agiup khach hang tiep tut noi ye eau chuyen cfm. minh. 29
  • 29. Khi nhan vien CTXH nghe eau chuyen cua khach hang, th yang thi cakhach hang va nhan vien CTXH dgu bat data cam thky lo sq. Biet each tomrat co thd giup to chtic hap li thOng tin va do do day nhanh qua trinh tim ravan rig, tranh hi lan man hay phAn tan. Duda day IA met vi du tom tat ena nhan vien CTXH. Vi du: Jim, nhu nheing gi nghe chide, toi thdy anh dd xcic dinh chide ba veinde quan trong. Thg nha anh dang cam the!), theit vong, vet tinh hinh dangtra nen tdi to how. Thg hat, anh vet Sue dei tranh cdi ve viec nen di nghi d giadinh co cry hay tdi Nam California. Thu ba, ed hai ngudi dei tranh cal ve tengido va nen di nha the new vi bon tre dd hdi. Vein de new anh they la quantrong nhed digidi quyei My gid? Ki nang lam sang M van dd Khi khach hang chia se nhung cam gine, y nghi, each cu )(if, cauchuyen, hi vong trong Wong lai Qua ho, nhan vien CTXH phai dam bao rangminh co the hidu dude Sr nghia cua nhung nem tit ha su dung, nhung tinhhuSng cau chuyen xay ra, cac mire do cam giac cua khach hang va ea nhungdigu khach hang mong main dat duct Thong thudng thi khach hang se giadinh rang nhang thong tin ho truyan dat la day du, hoac nhan vien CTXHse hidu dude nhung W ho dien dat. Co nhang trong qua trinh phOng vanthtiang IA lan thu nhat, thu hai, thlt ba khi gap gei khach hang, nhAn vienCTXH thttang khong chat cha n vg ban chat, nei dung, nghia caa thong idiep &lac truygn tai. Trong nhang tinh huiing nhu vay, nhan vien CTXHcan phai lam sang to van de via khach hang de dam haa co thd hidu dtingvkn de. Met each thin gian va hieu qua a lam duck digu nay la dat cau" Y anh/chi la gi khi not ?". Myc dick cua viec lam sang t6 van dd Cho khach hang thky rung ban dang nghe nhung nei dung truygn taila chua day di a co the hidu. Vi vay viec clei cung cap them thong tin lacan thiet truck khi di xa hon. Thvong thi khach hang khOng co co hei dd suynghi San ye van dg oua minh. Bang each bi yeu cau lam sang to van de, banthan ho phai tim each Iva chon cach din giai vkn dg cho minh va tV lamsang to vkn de cho minh trtiOc khi ho c6 the giai thich met each chInh xac30
  • 30. cho met ngttoi khac. Yeu eau khach hang gill thich y nghia cim viec hiachon nem tit cO the ghlp ho hieu at/ Iva chon nen tit c6 the anh huffing clAnsuy nghi va hanh vi cua chinh ho Mang nhr nguai khac. Sau clang, tim each lam fa van dg se gitip thlic day nhanh qua trinhhieu khach hang, hieu each giao Ken, y nghi va earn gine cua khach hang.Vice yeu eau lam sang to van se gulp ban phut hien ra phong each giaotiAp cua khach hang va each suy nghi va cam giac cim ho ve moi digu. Bantang hieu nhanh dtMc phong each cim khach hang, ban tang c6 moi lien hechat the voi khach hang. Ki !fang phiing van Mat trong nhiling Id nang chinh cim nhan vien cling tic xa hei laphOng van. PhOng van la met nghe thuat, khi nhan vien CTXH Tat cau hoiphu hOp, kip thai va nhung cau hoi c6 dinh throng tett, khach hang co thegiai thich cau chuyen, xac dinh van dg thigt lap muc lieu, xac dinh ni6mtin, cam xtic va hanh vi cUa ho to/t hon. PhOng van gulp khach hang hieu bigt vg minh n5 hdn ma khong khignho c6 cam giac bi len lop hay hi liia phinh. PhOng van tang ghat) khach hangtV tim ra giai phap cho van de cua minh chit khang van de cim minh chonguai khac giai quygt. Thong qua phOng va-n, khach hang duoc trang hi metld nang ce the Kau ich trong tming lai va do do khign ho c6 site manh, svthao vat va nghi IVc. Khi nhan vien CTXH moi vao nghg va bat (tau cat moi quan trongtong viec, tan stigt, va loai cau hai cua ho throng hac le sV lo lang. Dieu nayxay ra thurthg xuyen nhAt trong nhiing khoAnh khac im lang hay khi thaoluan mot van de khO. Doi khi nhan vien CTXH hOi den dap va nhay to vande nay qua van de khac, thuang la to nhung van de nhay cam sang nhfingvan de it nhay cam hdn. Cling vai kinh nghiem, nghe thuat dat cau hai phithlp, khich le suy nghi tra nen tv nhien hdn, va nhung nhan vien CTXHsit dung chimg de he trd khach hang thong qua qua trinh dat dude sky sangto va xac dinh cat hta chon giai phap cho van c16. Cach oat au Nil Cormier va Nurius dua ra bOn each co ban eau ghlp cho qua trinhphOng van tra nen co hieu qua va tigt kiern hdn. 31
  • 31. • Nen dat cau hOi tap trung vao nhang van de thu but sy quan tam cim khach hang. Nghia la cau hOi dat ra phai dua vao nhfing thong tin ma khach hang da cung cap. • Khi da dua ra eau hai, nen de cho khach hang co thai gian tra lai. Hay tam dung khi ket thlic met cau va bat clan met eau mai. • Tranh viec lien tut dua ra the cau hOi nham tranh cho khach hang rtli vao tinh trang bei rei hay king tang. Dieu nay dat biet quan trong khi lam viec vai tre em hoac nguai gia. • Tranh dat eau hOi "tai sao" vi khich hang thtiong coi chang nhtt la met sy dei dau hay mang nghia buOc tel. Them vao do, hay chti § dgn giong not ciia. ban. MOt quy tAc la hayehuan bi hOi nhiing eau hOi cila ban, lya chon chUng sao cho thyc sy phananh sy ton trong va sy quan tam clgn nhang theta khach hang trai nghiemva then dat. Cugi thing, phai nhay cam voi van de van hoh. Tranh dungnhang eau hOi tao ra met an Wong rang ban dang co them van khach hangvi dieu nay co the anh }Wang Mn mot quan he vai khach hang va tao ra metcam giac khong tin cay, byc We hay so hai tit phia khach hang. Mac dau co ye nhtt ki nang hOi la met la nang de, thye tokhong phainhtt vay. Chung to co the thgy trong suet qua trinh gitip da, nhan vienCTXH thudng xuyen phai hOi nhung eau hOi co ki nang. Trong giai doandau (nhap euee vai khach hang), phOng van Ono xay dyng va phat trienmgi quail he vdi khach hang. Trong giai doan danh gia, phong van giupsang loe va phan tich thing tin nham tim ra phan thong tin quan trong cólien quan nhgt tai van de cim khach hang. Trong giai doan len kg hoach,phOng van gitip tim ra mac tieu dUQc tin been phai tim kigm. Trong giaidoan can thiep, phOng van gilip khach hang xem xet cac kign, sy lya chonva giai phap. Trong giai doan danh gia, phOng van giup the dinh dtiqc mitede tign trien va thanh tong cua giai phap can thiep va to do giup khachhang len kg hoach cho Wang lai. Phan sau day xem )(et kI luting hem vg cac loai eau hOi thttang (Iliac sitdung trong qua trinh tro giup.Cac It* cau hoi CO hai loai cau hOi ca ban thong dung trong qua trinh tro giup khachhang: Cau hOi Bong va cau hOi ma.32
  • 32. Cau hOi ma. Loai can hoi nay cho cho phep khach hang tra lai theoea laa chon, chta ra nhang thong tin chi tigt ma khach hang cho la phu hOpdua tren su hieu bigt cua khach hang ve tinh hugng. Milan vien CTXHthtiang hai nhang cau hal h a chon theo each goi khach hang rang ho cothe din giai 6 mile cIO it hay nhigu tuY thuec vao § mugn caa ho. Cau hOim6 thuang su dung tit a hal nhti tai sao, khi nem, ccii gi... M6i tii nay gal Ykhach hang dim ra thOng tin theo each hieu caa rieng ho. Theo Cormier va Nurius, cau hOi "Cal gi" thaang khuygn khich khachhang din ra thong tin thuc tg: "Ban nghi vo ban milk ntli gi khi "Emda than sting the nay lam rein Cau hOi "The nao" finking di kem voldin bign cam xiic: "Ban cam thy th6 nao khi anh ay nei anh ay da et)ngtiai phu nil khac?". eau hal "Ai" tim thong tin ve con nguai, cau hai "6 dal" va "Khi nao" tim thong tin vg khong gian Ark thai gian: "Horn qua ban dang sung ai khi sit viec xay ra?", "Ban di nho ban dang 6 dau khi dien thoai reo khOng?". Chu hOi "Vi sao" yeu eau khach hang dua ra met li do cho viec xay ra. Nen it sit dung eau hOi "Tai sao" vi thong thaang khach hang thaang suy nghi rang ngilai hoi dang c6 tim ra 18i, hoac co dO 16i hay buec tOi ho vg nhang chuyen da xay ra. Dieu nay khign cho khach hang tra nen phong thu va de chang, do do anh twang deal mai quan he vol khach hang. Cac cau hen bat &Au via "Ban co the ..." h & khach hang vg kha nang . Dili them chol la gi do: "Ban co the not tOi nghe ve nhang gi da xay ra khi ban chang kik tai nan dude khOng?". Nhang cau hoi sau day la nhang bec back caa khach hang va eau hOi ma theo saw 1. Khach hang: Ted time sp lo long vg chuyen dgn day ngay h6m nay. Toi data bao gia sit dung dich vu cling tae xa 114 Nhan vien CTXH: "Anh da nghe gi vg each lam viec vai met nhan vien CTXH khi6n cho anh lo thing vay?" 2. Khitch hang: "TOi dang bac mink vi co ca hei tea lieu t6i co the di tut gian ma van cam thgy en khong". Nhitn vien CTXH: (noi v6i cac thank vien khac): "Gag ban con lai cam thOy the lac, vg each Eta lam viec viii Thu va sa tut gian caa chi ay?". 33
  • 33. 3. Khach hang: "Anh ta sa vao nhung elle kin caa tor. Nhan vien CTXH: "Chi co the noi them ve thai gian va dia diem xgy ra chuyen nay khong?". 4. Khach hang: "T8i da CO the lam dieu gi do de sita claim nhiing tenthuang net), hem do. T6i time su mat to chit". Nhan vien CTXH: Chi ce the giai thich them Ire su mat to chit kliOng?" 5. Khach hang: "Tea man chgm ditt mei quan he nay ngay". Nhan vien CTXH: (Cau hOi de the hien su thanh thuc quail tam)"Hay noi vi sao ban cam thay manh me ye chuyen cham dot quan he vay?". Cau hni dOng. LA loai cau hOi dac tning bai cau trg lai nOn met tithoac met cau ngan. Loai eau hOi nay thttang dude dimg de thu thap thongtin Cu the met each nhanh thong va co the dot hen khach hang Ghia ra metlua chop (co hay khong). Bai vi nhong cau hen clang thtiang dude sit dung dethu thap thong tin Cu the, cluing dOi hOi nhan vien CTXH co met mite dOkiem coat ]on ye dinh htiOng cga euee phang van. Nguai phOng van nen can trong khi dimg loai cau hOi nay vi khachhang thttang coy nghi rang ho dang phai tra lai theo y muOn cua nguaihai hoac chi can Era lai nhu vay xong, ngttai phOng van se dua ra ngay metgiai phap. flute hanh: Lam theo nhOna hai hay ba nguai, that hanh sit dungnhiing cau Mk ma Cho nhang cau noi sau. Hay nhd hOi mot eau hat lienquan den nhilng dieu khach hang vita mil 1. Met ngttai me Ice vdi nhan vien tri lieu Ira dim con dang Lang ngheeau chuyen. Khach hang: Heim qua no lai op vac rei a trnang. 2. Khach hang: TM da nhu thang ngu vay. Thit nhgt, (Tang le tol dakhong nen den elle; do. 3. Khach hang: Toi kitting the tin dude la tat dude tang hieing T8ichua bao gia chtoc nhu vay, chua bao gia. 4. Khach hang: Anh ta cu dung do ettai tot Anhlchi eu thu nhin taiye do eim anh ta ma xem. Anh ta data bao gia nhu vay. 5. Khach hang: CO ay noi co ay miler chting toi sang Chung.34
  • 34. 6. Khach hang: TM InIta IA toi se lien be. TM vita mdi trai qua haiWan MI6 khan va diking nhu chang tien tridn chtyc gi. 7. Khach hang: My em bac) la bee me khOng muOn danh em. Nhungkhi b6 me danh em, me lai not d6 khong phai loi tai em. 8. Khach hang: Sang thu ba no di hoc nhu thttang le. Mai den 6h chigu,no van khong ve nha. Toi bat dau thdy lo Fang. Tit do Coi chua thdy no. 9. Khach hang: Toi Bang cam thdy chan nan vg htteng di dm cuec TOi during nhu khong thoat (Wye khOi tinh trang suy sup. 10. Khach hang: Ten lo la no co van de Toi khong hien vi sao toi camtidy nhu vAy. D6 chi la cam giac doi khi thoang qua filth. Cac eau hai dOng thtteng co cau tra ldi la "co" hoac "khong". Cac cauhai thuong la co hoac killing met thong tin Cu thd nhu ten, tail, not sinh,ton giao, dia chi v.v... Sau day la vi du caa nhung cau hOi clang: 1. Nhan vien CTXH: Anh co mien a day haul nay khong? 2. Khach hang: Co. 3. Nhan vien CTXH: Day co phai la chit ki ceia em 4. Khach hang: Khong. 5. Nhan vien CTXH: Ghi chdp caa cluing tOi chi ra rang chi da Lungden day. CO dung khong chi nhi? 6. Khach hang: Vang. 7. Nhan vien CTXH: Chau song vdi b6 hay voi my? 8. Khach hang: V& me. 9. Nhan vien CTXH: Digit my chew nOi co dung khong? 10. Khach hang: Khong. MOt s6 khach hang to nhan trach nhiem giii thich chi tigt nhung eautra lee cho nhung cau hal thing. Chang han trong truing hyp 5 tren day khidityc hOi digu nguei me not co dung killing, can be co the tra lei "khOng"nhung sau do co the giii thich li do vi sao eau nghi digu me not la khongdung. Neu nhan vien CTXH mu6n co ski giao tiep nhigu bun giiia hai benthi nen thing met call hai ma. Theo Ivery va Ivery (2003), sdd. 35
  • 35. Cau hOi theo trial hoc Socrat "Khong co gi dac trong cho Socrat bang tranh luan, va khong có gi dactrong cho tranh luau cua Ong hon dat can hOi". Theo Overholser (1988),phticsng phap Socrat nlahn manh, viec dat cau hOi la met trong ba ygu t6 coban trong dgi thoai. DO co the la met ki nang hula ich trong ginp do cackhach hang lam sang to hoan canh cua ho. Phudng phap Socrat duck lifthap cu the v6i thuyet tri lieu tinh cam caa, trong tri lieu nhan thac caaBeck va trong during Intong tri lieu ban nga (Stein, 1991). Nhang mac dtiphueng pithy) nay da duce dan ra trong cac diking hiking tren, co rht ft cacchi dhn hoac hU6ng dhn dude dua ra ye nhung y@u t6 thi tic to cua "plumngphap dat cau hOi" trade khi Overholser (1993) mo to chi tiet. Vao thji dai cua Socrat, phuong phap dat eau hoi dude dung de chiingminh su thieu hieu Matt ciia con nguai va su can thiet phai dua vao logic(Schmid, 1983). Trong m61 quan he tri lieu, phOng van dude dimg vi nhigu ifdo. Thong qua pilling van, khach hang va ngUai phOng van clang nhan khampha va cau hOi se gulp thlic day sit suy nghi doe lap to phia khach hang vatilde ddy ho tki tim cau tra lai cho chfnh von de caa ho. Dieu nay co the datdupe la do mei quan he Ong tac giva khach hang va ngtioi phOng van. 7 loai cau hai theo trial hoc Socrat Theo Overholser (1993), Bloom va Sanders da xac Binh va "me to bay loai can hOi gem co: cau hoi ye tri nha, eau dien giai, eau hOi giai thich, cauhOi fing dung, can hai phan tich, eau hOi tang hop, eau hen danh gih" (trg. 67). Cau hOi ve tri rthit Loai cat hen nay del h & ngitai throe hOi phai nh6 .lai nhfing su kien trong qua khft, de tim kigm thong tin chi tigt cu the. VD:"Ban bat dau co nhCing bigu hien nhu thg to khi nao?", "N6 keo dal bao1.au?", "Lan cugi cling chuyen JO xay ra la khi nao?". Cau hal din giai dal hOi ngurii dude hOi phai giai thich, hoac dien(Lich met Y Wang, met so kien, hay met mail thong tin c6 nghia nhu the naodOi veil ho. Can hOi nay &lac hOi de c6 gang lam tang higu bigt cua khachhang hoac de tim them thong tin chtia dude not den. VD: "Dieu do co .7nghia nhu the nao dgi v6i. ban?", "Ban co the giai thich viec do vdi vd nhuthe nao?". Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Birch Lane Press.36
  • 36. Cau hed giai thich. Loai cau hOi nay nham kham pha mgi quan hegtha cac su kien, da kien va y Wang. Cu thd, nhan vien CTXH c6 thg cogAng trinh bay met hake nhigu y Wang hay da lieu cho phgp khach hangtim mgi lien ket giaa cluing. VD: "Mgi quan he dm ban vei xgp hien taigigng va khac nhu thg nao vdi mgi quan he tra6c day caa ban v6i nhangxgp khac?". Gigng nhu cau hOi din dich, cau hoi giai thich Ming Lim ranghia caa thong tin nao do bang each dat cau hOi. "Dieu do co nghia nhuthe nao dgi voi ban?". Can hai ling dung. Loai eau hOi nay gitip xac Binh nhang Inkinghqp khach hang da nghi dgn (ang dung) hoac tha dua ra bien phap giaiquygt van dg. VD: Dd hien cu thg vg chign lugs giai quygt de caa khachhang, nhan vien CTXH có the hai: "Ann/chi da tha lam digu gi chaa?", "COphuang phan nao co ye c6 hien qua khang?". Cau hoi phan tich. Loai can hOi nay giap khach hang to tim eachgiai guy& vAn de then-1g qua nhang lift Man dua tree" viec thu thAp da cacbang thong. Nhang can hoi nhu the nay khuygn khich nguai dude hOi sadung to duy logic va sp khach quan de cling cg kign hay ket luau eau ho.VD: "Ban co bang chang nao de thong minh nhang ket Man dm ban?","Digu gi khien cho van dg tra nen tOt hon hay t6i to Min?" Cau hen tong 14p. Cac can hOi nay khuygn khich khach hang to duysang tao va gel tim ra nhang giai Aar) khac nhau cho van de caa ho. VD:"C6 the c6 nhang giAi phap nao?", "Ban da bigt each hay tha lam gi aura?".Cfic can hei t&ng hop cling &Ong vai tre gop phan dinh nghia cac to dungtrong nghia thong linking. VD: "Del vdi ban, thgnao la "thAt bar. Cau hOi danh gia. Doi hal khach hang phai danh gia chia tit mettieu chi nhgt dinh. Thy nhat, can phai neu re tieu than danh gia (sa dungeau hen "CM gi"); eau do xac dinh nhang kign hoac hanh vi xem chung Onvdi nhang tieu chuan de dgn mac nao (sa dung eau hOi "Thg nao"). VD:"Ngaoi to phai lam gi de thanh gong?", "Ban pha hOp vol su me to do nhuthe nao?", "VAy vO anh muOn gi to anh?", "Ban dat dude gi to nhang LieuchuAn do?". eau hei Socrat va cac giai down trong m8 hinh giai guy& van de Overholser (1988) dinh nghia rang phong van then he thgng la viec sudung met that cac eau hoi da thigt kg (khong qua nhigu) nham tim kigm 37
  • 37. thong tin vg met chu diem cu the de kith hoat nhan thfic tit duy cUa khachhang. Theo Overholser (1993), viec nay co the thuc hien duce relit each c6he thgng bang each kgt hap gnu hOi Socrat vao cac qua trinh cua mo hinhgiai quygt van Muc dich IA tra gitip khach hang phat trien cac ki nAng giai quygt vande va kha nang co the dua ra cac chitin luuc giai quygt khac nhau. Cac giai doan ed ban cim phudng phap giai quygt van dg bao Om: 1.Mo to cith khach hang ve van dg cling vOi li do can sit gall) do, 2. Cling danhgift vg van dg 3. Thigt lap mac tieu (ca mue den cha khach hang va cuangttoi khac, va (my& dinh loai can thiep de dat dude mue tieu, 4. im dungcan thiep, va 5. Danh gia ke hoach. Giai doan 1. Khach hang mo to van dg va dua ra li do tai sao can c6sti giup do. Ngttoi phOng van dat cau hOi nham owe inch yeu eau khach hang thedinh va mo to van dg. Nhang loci eau hai danh gia va phan tich co the dudedung. VD: "Tiii co giup gi cho anh?", "Dieu gi khign ban mugn tim kigm skigulp de tai thai diem nay?", "Anh nghi cai gi gay ra van dg?", "Dieu gi khignban cho rang do la nguyen nhan gay ra van dg nay?". Giai doan 2. Cong tae cling danh gia van de Tii nhang cau hai khai quat ve li do can gulp aa cua khach hang, vadigu ma nguoi do nghi la gay ra van de, nhan vien CTXH c6 the chuyensang giai doan hai. Muc dich a giai doan nay la hOi nhung cau hai cu the vachi tigt ye van de va nhang klea canh xung quanh van de. Nhang cau hendanh gia co the tigp tut duct sit dung. VD: "Theo thang danh gia to 0 dgn100, yin de nay dung a cap do nao?", "Theo ban, ban có the tim ra giai phapkilling?" Cau hai nhe cling co the duct s dung. VD: "NO xay ra thieingxuyen nhu thg nao?", "CO bao gia ban lam tinh hinh thay dude killing?Hay co khi nao tinh hinh kha hon khong?, "Co thei digm cu the nao khi vigcnay xay ra killing?", "6 mac do nao?". Ban sung c6 the dung eau hoi phantich de khach hang tit phan tich cac khia canh cua yin de. VD: "Nhang yguto nao tao nen van dg?", "Digu gi giup cai thien/lam toi te, van de hdn?. McMahon, M. 0. (1996). The general method of social work practice: A proble-solvingapprach (3 ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.38
  • 38. Giai doan 3. Lap ra muc tieu va tim each can thiep tot nhat trongviec tre giup khach hang dat dude muc Lieu Qua trinh phi-511g van bat dau thien vg muc dich ma khach hangva/hoac cac co quan, nhung nguei mugn co lien quan (cha me, ban del, cactoa an, nha truang) mugn dat dude. Hay dung eau 116i danh gia de gulpkhach hang guy& dinh ho mu6n dat dude gi va nhung ngvai khac mtten datchive gi. VD: "Ban mugn dieu gi cu the to cube gap ci-la chang to?", "Lam thenao de nhung khac) cfla ban bigt ban co fign be?", "Lam thg nao thiban bigt chting to dang tign be" "Lam the nao ban biet la chung to da hoanthanh wing viec?", hay "Toa an mugn ban lam duoc gi khi ban quay laitoa?". Gang co the dung cac cau 15i nha de giup khach hang va nhan vienCTXH len muc tieu cho Wong lai daft tren nhfing dieu co the trong quakhil. VD: "Ban TA titng lam duct viec do trudc day chug?", "CO viec gi cu theda xay ra trong qua khit lam ban tin la ban có the lam dude no lai trongWang lai?". Cau hai phan tich cang co the giup chia cac muc tieu kin thanhnhtIng muc tieu nh6 va de dat dale hon. NI).ling cau hOi nay sit dung suyluan then dich (Overholser, 1993): "De dat dtteic muc Lieu cna ban thi bttdcdau Lien la gi?", "Muc tieu caa ban la khong con suy sup tam H. Tay thi metviec ban co the lam ngay ngay mai de dat duoc cam giac do la gi?". Giai down 4. Tien hanh can thiep Dun vao mo hinh hoac can thiep ban dimg, cau hOi Ung dung di thegitip tim kigm met bien phap tim nang cho van de. Vi du: "Anh/chi se lamgi cu the trong tuan nay?", "Arm/chi con co the thi lam gi Mia?", "Chinh xac anh/chi co the lam gi de tao ra sitt thay del?". Co the dung cau hai tong hop nharn giup khach hang ma rang phamvi Lim kigm cac giai phap nhu: "CO cach nao khac a lam dieu nay khong?". Cau hei phan Lich co the giup tim ra giai phap da dude ap dung thanhding hoac chia thanh ding tit& do. VD: "Co hie nao khi ban lam dieu nay magiup ich doge, "Prong digu kien nao thi thanh gang? Khong thanh tong?". Giai doan 5. Danh gia kehoach 6 giai doan nay, dat cau hai phan Lich va danh gia la pha hap. Vi du, each &it eau hai phan tich co the la: "Cu the anhlchi da lamnhiing gi eO the" giup fah cho van de nay ref?", "Nhin lai thi dieu gi da giupich dudc nhieu nhat?". 39
  • 39. Cau hai dank gia de khach hang din ra danh gia cua minh. Trongtwang hop nay la met danh Ma vg kg hoach va viec thin hien lie hoach. Vidu vg each (tat eau 116i danh gia: "Theo thang diem tit 0-100, anhichi danhgia minh dang giao flip o mile dO nao?", "Chi van cho rang el-long chi languyen nhan duy nhgt gay ra van de?". Bang 1.2 la met ma hinh giai quyet van dg vol cac vi du vg vi0c tipdung cau hOi Socrat. Cac ban co the dung m6 hinh nay nha met chi dan vicac bUac clnia hoan chinh. Dan dan, nhan vien CTXH se cam thay quenthuec va thoai mai han trong viec sit dung cac cau hot. Khi dude ad dung eaki thuat, ening giup khach hang xac Binh van dat ra muc Lieu, thamkhao cac lua chin, va danh gia lien trinh. Tel ca cac ki nang tren deu co thedude hoc de sit dung trong Wong lai. Giai doan 1. Meta yen de A. Chu had chinh gin Dieu gi khien ban tai day? Van d6 caa ban la gi? Dieu gi da thay dOi cuOc song ala ban khien ban quygt dinh tim kiem sit giOp dd Et day? Tai co the giUp nInt the nao? B. Call hdi phan rich Theo ban nguyen nhan coa van de la gi? Dieu gi khign ban nght do la nguyen nhan gay ra yin de? Trong tinh hueng nao thi tinh hinh tra nen tat han? Giai doan 2. Cgng tic ding dank gia yen de A. Cau hoi gpl nhd N6 xay ra khi nao, a dau, trong di4u kien So? N6 xay ra thiteng xuyen nha the nao? Ai co lien quan? Khi nao no it xay ra nhat? B. Cau tufa [Man tic!, Ban thay dau la nguyen nhan chinh caa van de? Tmh hudng, dieu kien nao khien no tra nen tett tei to km? Bang Chung So cho thay dieu do? C. Cau bed than gird Van de cua ban c6 gigng Van de caa ban gidng va khac nht.r the nao?40
  • 40. D. CALI hot dein dichVe ban la gi khi not man cam thay tat hem?Giai doan 3. Thigt 15p muc tau va quygt dinh can thiepA. Cau hot goi nhdTni6c day ban da lam dial.] nay bao gib chita va no có higu qua khong?Sau do &au gi de xay ra?B. Chu hot dont, gidBan mu6n dat duce gi to cu6c gap caa chting ta?Ban có the not 91 khi ban dat duce digu do?Ban cho rang ban muon c6 sct cal thign trong giao tigp, di& gi khien ban cho rangban da co nhErng cai thign nhat dinh? BO me, thgy co... mugn ban lam gi? Lam sao ho bigt ban de dang lam duac (lieu do? C. Cat, hot phan tich Neu ban mu& dat &lac cap do 9 tren 10. Ban dang a cap do 3. Ban co thg lam gi de dat duac cap do 4? D. Cdu heal dien dich Dieu gi khien ban tin rang be; me, thay co muan ban lam khac di? Giai doan 4. Tan hanh can thiep A. Cau heti Ling dung Ban se lam gi cu the trong Wan nay? Ban c6 thg lam 91 khac nUa? Ban nghi digu gi se co the xay nail ban this...? Dieu gi khign ban nghi rang lam nht.t the nay thi tat Ilan? B. eau hal tong hop Ban nhin nhan van de theo each khac khong? 196 co phai la lqa chon duy nhat? Giai doan 5. Dann gia st; tren trignikg hoach A. eau heti phan tich NO tign trign nha the nao? Co khi nao no tatitgi to hdn khong? Dieu gi la hay nhat a kg hoach cua ban? B. Caw hot danh gief V6i thang digm to 0 dgn 100, ban danh gia minh dat &roc muc dich a thang diem nao? 41
  • 41. Ban danh gib mOc dO hobn thanh nhilth6 nao? Ban se lam gi khac hoac giang ngu c6 the lam !pi In sau? Ban a h9c &sac gi? BANG 1.2. MO hinh huang don ap dung eau hoi Socrat trong cac giai doan giai quyet van de Phan sau day la cac vi du ve cac can not cua khach hang va cac me hinh tra lai theo cac Id nang than cam, quan tam tich cue, cac eau hOi &mg, ma va cac can hdi lam sang CO van de. Nhung vi du nay dude ghi lai de cho phep ban ren luyen m8i Id ning chudn hi cho khi lam viec vdi khach hang. Chung toi gal y ban xem moi ki nang then tha ty mo ta roi luyen tap ding veil met nguai ban va (long vai tra lbi nhilng can not nay vdi ki nang phft hap. San moi can tra lai, hay long nghe phan hdi cita ban mirth ve su tign bo dm ban va so sanh cau Era lai cila ban Nth nhiing eau chide ghi trong phan cau tra lai Wang itng gem ea° cau tra lbi mau. Nhung can tra lai cUa ban khOng nhat thiet phai chinh xac nhtt eau tra ldi mau. Chung dude cung cap chi a lam chi &An hay tham khao. Tigp tuc qua trinh nay cho dgn khi ban cam thay to tin vai viec phat trien ki nang dm ban. Ngu ban khOng the Bong vai, hay luyen tap bang each viec lai nhung cau tra lai cila ban va so Walsh cluing viii nhung eau Era lai m au. r Thyt hanh ki Wang than cam 1. Mbt phy nil 30 Si lam ngha bed ban: TM dang nuoi hai dtia tre nha chi tel.. TM qua met nhung chUng khong thd di dau khac chile. Cita tra led cam thong mita: Viec cham sac hai duo tre con lam ban met mai qua. 2. Mbt ngtati lam cha, me &be than: Toi cam thay that yang voi truang hoe ma con toi dang hoc vi ho nghi moi van de dm no la do tel. Cau tra loi cam thOng man: Ban dang tuc gian bai vi tniang hoc do moi van de ma con ban gap phai cho ban. 3. albt na cong chac 28 Toi dang hen hO met ngttai co ve vaanh ta khong dinh ba vo con anh ta. Toi khong hilt phai lam gi. Cau tra 14% cam thong ma. u• Hen 116 Arai met nguai co ve rat metmoi, Mat la anh ta eft niu gift ve con. Ban dang ban khoan khong hilt bancó tticing lai vdi nguai nay khong.42
  • 42. 4. Miit ngtidi lai xe tai 50 tudi: TOi khOng Met tai sao Uoi phai den va co ta Kling clang nhd vay.day. TOi chi danh vo met chat thei. Cau tra ldi cam tilting matt Anh khong thich a day va anh khOng thehien vi sao danh vo lai nghiem trong den vay, nhat la vi do to 1$i cna vo anh. Con cim 5. MOt ngtidi me 32 tuOi lam nOi tr./ va dang bitc titc:chi gai tibi rat ngoan va khong bao gib gay chuyen. Cac con tai hien gaychuyen van toi. Toi da tra thanh met nguei me hay b0c bei. Can tra ldi cam thong mau: Chi dang cam thay that bai vi con cnachi hien gay chuyen con chi caa chi &tang nhu co nhung dita tre that ngoan. 6. MOt ngddi 35 tu8i da li hen: T6i mu6n not veil chi ye con trai toi,nhung truck het, toi mu6n biet chi co con chua? Cau tra Wi cam thOng mau: Anh khOng biet than rang tai di thegin]) anh va con trai anh dude kh6ng, frit khi toi ding da có con va toi da conhiing trai nghiem Wang tU nhtt anh. 7. MOt nhan vien himh chinh cOng Ong 40 tuOU Bay gia mei thittoi nOi vdi chi deu la bi mat va chi khOng &Mc not voi ai. Can tra Wi cam thong matt: Chia se nining chuyen rieng ttt van metngdbi khan co le rat clang lo ngai, nhat 11 nal nguai do not voi met ai khanve can van de cua anh. 8. MOt ngddi not tic; 50 -hll da Vet Wm 30 Mum Tin khOng mainve voi Ong ta na. Toi biet la 6ng ta se lai danh t6i, nhung Coi Wiling cam 010 ted có ndi nao de di. Cau tra lai cam thong mau: Bac so phai quay lai voi chOng vi khOng an Loan, nhung bac cam thay khong co Itta chop nao khan 9. MOt sinh Men 18 tu6i tit ming thOn ra thanh thi va dang hoc trtiting co nhiOu sinh vien thanh thi: Em earn thay than vi nguOn got dan que la tai dau tien ngubi ta nhin van em. Cau tra ldi cam thong mau: Em ban vi em mu6n ngubi ta danh gin em vdi nhung li do khan quan trong hdn nguon g6c cua em phai khOng? 10. MOt ba me co ba dith con trong tudi di hoc dang nOi chuyOn vdi ngttai tit van nha tratetng: Nha tri lieu chung tea gap nam ngoai noi rang chting tai that sn la met gia dinh Ii Wang. Tei khong biet vi sao nha trttong lai cho cluing toi la met gia dinh toi to. 43
  • 43. Cau tra lei cam thong matt: Ban dang thfic mac vi nha tri lieu nam ngodi noi rang moi this trong gia dinh ban deu On, va bay gig moi nguai nei gia dinh ban c6 yen de. 11. Cgu be 16 tuOi coy nghi tinh duc yeti mot clau be khtic: Chau dang c6 nhung y nghi quan he tinh due v6i met thang khac. Chau ban khoan khong biet chat) c6 bi d6ng tinh kheng. Cau tra lei cam thong tn6u: Chau dang co nhung cam giac tinh due fed met cau be khac va chau dang bAn khoan lieu de co nghia la chau bi "gay" killing. 12. MOt the theta tau 35 tuOi: Ngtibi to n6i tOi cue tinh nhung tea nghi Vol chi the hien WTI hue tut caa ten. Tei horn no tOi tut gian den not CM nem mot cai dia vao chi tOi ye dieu do lam tOi lo so. Cau tra lei cam thong milu: Doi khi anh tut gian den n6i met het binh tinh, vice nem cai dia vao chi anh lam anh thue sy lo Fang. 13. Met ngiteti lam cha my 60 tuOi bi dau tim: Toi cam thay ethic dal lei nhu da cham &it. TM chi có the nam day tren ginang va cha chit. Can tra lei cam thong mgm Can dau tim gan day da lam bac Co cam glee than nan, yeu dual va khong dm sue lye. Bac dang cam they than song vi bac chi c6 the nam tren gniang qua ngay thei. 14. Cgu be 15 tuei co b6 my thgeng xuyen cai nhau: Chau cam they than vi b6 me chat cai nhau suet ngay. Ho khong quan tarn den chau va em chau. Ho chi co thang trong cat nhau. Cau tra cam thong martn Chau buon vi chau khong cam they cha me chau cham lo cho cat chau. Ho &tang nhu chi quan tam den vice cai nhau. 15. Mgt phu ne 55 tuOi da kit hen 35 nam: Ch6ng toi 136 tei di voi nguai phu nu khac, tOi cam they tea da lam cti6u gi sae sot ghe gam. Cau tra led cam thong na6u• Khi thong bac bO bac di yea ngUai khacsau 35 nam chung sing, bac cam they bi suy sup ghe gam. Bac dae biet bankhoan vi bac nghi bac trai da 1)6 bee vi bac da lam gi sai. 16. MOt sinh vien 22 tit& co ban gal dang del chia tay: Em reittut co la. CO to cu nghi co to da qua tot vdi em. Khi e6 to di tham quan vg,ce to se biet tay em.44
  • 44. Cau tra ldi cam thong Mau: Em dang tae gian vi ban gai coy dinhbe em. Khi ban gai em vg nha, em dang dinh lam cho co ta cam that to vida be em. Em se la mgi phign lon hon co ta tuang. 17. MOt ba goa 73 tuOi: Chau bao nhieu tugi? Bac khong bigt chauco da lcinh nghiem glop bac khong. Cau tra lai cam thong matt. Bac khong tin met ngtiai tre nInt chalkcó thg hieu chicle nhung digu Kay ra vdi bac va nhung cam nhAn ena bac.Bac dang nghi ngo ve kha nang ghat -) da bac caa chau. 18. Met thanh mien 19 tu6i: Em khong bigt em nen hoc met trUangcao clang hay di hoc dai hoc. Chi nghi sao? Cau tra Wi cam thong matt. Quygt dinh vg hoc tip the . nao lam embgi rOi va em muk quygt dinh de hem ha? nut hanh ki !fang quan tam tich cut 1. Mat phu nil 49 tugi dang li hon, chi a nob "TM khong bigt toicó the) bat &Au met cues song mai khong. Cau tra ldi quan tam tich cite mau: Tai bigt hien gia rat IMO nhungchi clang a day de cloa phO vdi the van dg cim chi, viec nay cho thgy chi có sacmanh va kha nang xac dinh clUOc dinh Inking cho cube clai cila chi. 2. Met Ong cu 76 tu6i. Cu nob "Thi rat co ddn t3 khi ba nha EM matdi, nhung tOi Ming vui vdi ding viec tinh nguyen". Cau tra ldi quan tam tich cue maw DU Ong dau lOng vi mat banha, Ong van co can dam a gall) da ngkthi khac, clign do thAt tuyet. 3. Met thigu then. Chau be nob "Chau dang hoc khong tot lam,nhung chau thkic su da GO tang". Can tra Wi quan tam tich ette mfiu: Chau co the to hao vi chau dac6 gang va chalk nen cam thgy tot vi ellen clang lam nhung digit tot nhal. 4. Met ngtati nghien ma tug 36 tuOi. Anh ta n6i: "TM vaa mdi tainghien in dna 3, Mating lan nay VA can ski gitip do sOm hdn". Cau tra ldi quan tam tich cite matt: TM thay may IA anh da c6 the nhan ra ski tai nghien va tim kigm su gitip da sam 5. Met ngtfai 46 tu6i co benh tam than phan lief. Anh ta"Tai da co the tra hgt cac hod don thang nay". 45
  • 45. Cau tra Itli quan tam tich cite malt: DO qua la mat thanh tich dang kg. Anh nen cam thgy to hao. 6. Met phu nit 46 tudi ci, benh tram cam, chi ta n6i: "Toi khong the den an 6 cau lac ba phu nU, nhung tea c6 the den sem va gien da trang tri ban tiec". Cau tra Idi quan tam tich cite Mau: Toi they tiec IA chi khong the 6 10, Marne rgt tat la chi da giup bay ban va chi da &Mg ggp clang ke vao bea tiec. 7. Met thigu Men 16 tub em nod: "Em dang but can sa va em danglo la minh se bi nghiOn". Can tra WI quan tam tich ale mem: Toi thgy to hao la em có thechia se vgn de dO vdi tot 8. Met phu nit 62 tued chant sec bit me 85 tued, bac n6i: "Teadang cham sec me duoc 6 thang va tea thgy rgt met". Cau tra ldi quan tam tich cats mat: Chau vui la bac có the theanhan bac cam El* met. Va c6 mot digu quan trong la bac da nhan ra camgiac cua bac va co the xem xet mat each khach quan ve tinh hinh cham secngtfai than cea minh. 9. Met phu nit 28 tueii bi chfin doan benh rill loan hang clic(bipolar), chi ta MA: "Day la Ian dau ben tOi c6 the nhan ra benh tramcam caa Lai dang (lien ra, va vi vay t8i den day". Cau tra quan tam tich cite mau: Chi da lam chicle mat budsquan trong trong viec bat dau ca the kiem seat benh tat cua minh. Taimeng la chi da c6 the den day ham nay. 10. Met nmidi me dec than 36 Wei veil 3 data con mai: "Tai dang abilge during ding, toi khong the gig cho gia dinh tiep tue binh en dtgic. Cau tra ldi quan tam tich curc Tea thgy vui IA chi da co secmanh de xem xet tinh hinh gia dinh. 11. Met ngtidi me tre n6i: "TM cho rang dila be 2 ti& nha t6i bibenh ti ki, va tei rat so, khong biet phai lam gi. Cau tra Idi quan tam tich cite mdu• Tea cO the hien dude moi quantam thee se ciaa chi. Benh to ki la mot van de nghiem trong, Ara viec chi denday hoi la boric di dting dau tien.46.
  • 46. 12. Mat ngag6 cha 32 toga Md.: "Chi se lam gi nett chi a vao vi tricfm tOi?" Cau tra IM quan tam tich tee Mau: Toi khong biet la viec gi clang xayra voi anh nhung có the chting to Ming nhau xem xet cac van de quan trong. 13. Mat bac cha me dang tec gian: Chi co ughi la met dita con gai16 tu& phai a nha Mc 10h tei trong cac ngay di hoc khOng?: Cau tra lai quart tam tich eye maw Moi gia dinh den co nhungquy tae khac nhau, Mating dieu quan trong la chting to có the xem xet quytae nao la quan trong trong gia dinh anh. 14. Mot ngtiai 42 tueii noi: "Bac si bao t6i toi phai di noi soi daitrang, nhung UM rat so". Tu: Cau tra lai quan tam tich cUc ma Viec do chang dang se lamdam anh se co kha nang va co hoi de xem xet tinh hinh sac khoe cith minh. 15. Mat co gai 18 tit& Mai: "B6 me chau muen chau li hen ngay khichau con choa c6 con, c6 nghi sao? Cau tra ldi quan tam tich cats maw DO Fa met cau hOi kho tra loiva co the chi co chau mdi tra lei chicle - nhung chang to c6 the noi M tinhtrang cua chau de chau co the xem xet tat ca cac loa chon met each hop 16. Mat not& me 39 tit& not: "Thang con 9 tuSi cua tot W lam nobi thMing khi cat vao canh tay bang con dao be tai, no rat ban rAu - toi lamet nguai me to qua. Cau tra 1di quan tam tich cite mau: Su ban Mu va viec RI lam biamong la rat khO hieu va nhieu cha me se phai noi vg nhung van de do. Chida the hien ca long dung cam va sil hieu Met khi chi den day r6i. 17. Cha me caa mat cau thigu Men 16 tu6i noi: "Con cna chUngtoi xa lanh moi ngoai trong nha va ban be Than trade no noi voi cluing CMno nghe thly Wing n6i vong den". Cau tra lai quart tam tich cite maw CO ve la cac bac da co metquan he tot voi con trai va no da chia se vdi cac bac M chuyen no nghe theycac tieng no). 18. Mat daa tre con nuoi 14 tuai: "Chuyen chau song a dau khongquan trong vi chang ai attic sO quan tam den chau. Chau chi cO met nglidime nuoi co- gang gitip chau". 47
  • 47. Can tra ldi quan tam tich ciic ma. u: C6 le la khO khan khi phai song trong nhUng nha nth-A tre khan nhau, nhung quan trong IA chau co thd nhan ra c6 mot ngtioi me nuOi time su cggitip chat. Thvc hAnh ki nang cl4t eau hOi ma 1. Khach hang nam, buOi td van that hai, not: khong than thantoi c6 site manh nao khong. Cu8c song caa toi during nhu dang loan len". Caul hal ma mitu: Neu ban tgt nhat caa anh mo to sue manh cuaanh, ngUai do se noi gi vg anh? 2. Khach hang nil tram cam, buOi thus nhai noi: "Chang c8 1i giphai lap k6 hoach cho ttiOng lai. Ban kh8ng the kidm soat bat eft tha gi vamoi this c& din ra theo each no nhu thg". Cau hai ma maw Ban c6 thd and to met lan ban da lap kg hoach choWong lai ma moi vien bi rgi len killing? 3. Khach hang nam, buOi Tau tien , tham gia bat buOc trongmot tit van nhom cho nhdng nguti nghien noi: "Tot khong thy vienngai chung trong nhom thg nay thlic su c6 thay del dudc gi khong. NhUngngtibi nay cang gay r6i nhu toi, he lam sao c6 thg gitip (Woe lei?" Cau hat ma Sit: Hay gia sa met phtit IA ca nhom so him fob. NgunhOm hciu ich, ban mugn thay dgi digu gi? 4. Thanh vien nam trong rth6tn, buOi thit ba 1161: "Vi sao Sonchang noi gi trong nhom? CO phai anh to nghi anh to khOng co van dg ginh6m chi dank cho nhiing nguai con lai nhu chting to kh8ng? Cau hsai ma mgu: Dieu gi trong sa im lang caa Son khign anh quantam dgn? 5. Thanh vien net can dien tri nhom lam dung tre em"Phan, c6 khong bigt co dang Md. gi (Tau. Co den vdi nh6m nay W mat canhO dap, nhung co khong gig/rig vdi phan con lai ciia nhom". Cau hot ma man. Ban hay ban nao do c6 thd nghi dude nhfing didmChung ban cling có Arai Phan khong? 6. Cac thAnh vien cua nhOm hoc quan li can We gian noi: Lamsao cluing toi bigt rang ai do trong nhom khong bhp )(Op v6 nhCing digu honghe trong cac budi tit van? Toi khang bigt ho va khong bigt vi sao toi phaitin ho.48
  • 48. Chu hat ma m6u: Chung ta can co nhung nguyen Lac gi trong nh6mdg lam moi ngt.thi cam thky thoai mai lion vg viec gia bi mat eac euac noichuyen caa chang ta? 7. MCA phu n8 bi tram cam, bu6i dau tian mai: "TM co nhigu vandg, toi con khong bigt phai bat dau W dau. Chi co thg lam gi de gitlp nhungngtthi co nhigu van dg nhu toi?" Cau hoi ma Trong tat ca nhung van dg chi dang gap, van dgnao eM thky nghiem trong nhkt? VI sao? 8. MOt phu nit trong ndi frit tranh boo liic gia dinh non "ChOngtoi la mat ngttei cham lo tot cho gia dinh. Anh ay chi phat Bien len va danhtoi khi toi co 161 gi nhu lam chayM an. Anh ay Ruin xin 161 sau do". Cau hai ma matt: Nghi lai 3 thong tru6c, chi có thg mo ta anh taphat dien len nhu thg nao va denh chi bao lau mat Ian va trong nhung hoandanh nao khong? 9. MOt co gal 17 mai nob "Cha me em mugn em gill cal thai va cholam con nuoi, ban trai em mugn em phi thai, em that au khong quan tam,em khong the guy& dinh &toe. Chi nghi each nao tot lion?" Cau hoi ma meiu. Nhang tai loi va bat Idi cia hai lkta chon nay IA gi? Thgc hanh ki nang dot cau h6idong 1. MOt phu ng 45 tu6i nob "Hinh nhu la toi luOn so Itt91 thu. Toi locac con toi se di mkt, sl thong toi chgt, lo me toi phai vao trai &tong lao. T6inghi tai sap bi diem". Cau hOi Mang matt: Da có Inc nao chi khOng lo ling nhu vay khOng? 2. MOt phu nil 20 tuai n6i: "Vi sao no hanh dog nhU vay? Mn toi duo no vao dia hang, no del thu nay Hai no r6i n6i gian cho defn khi toi dau hang va mua cho no thit gi do". Cau hOi clang mau• NO co hanh dang nhu vay a nhung ndi khac ngoki cga hang khOng? 3. MOt nam gioi 30 tuM n6i: "Anh rat thich em. Em rkt vui tinh va thong minh, anh nghi cheing ta co thg la mat cap dky. Hay em di xem phim vei anh thu by nay di? Cau hOi :long main DO co phai la hai tinh each anh dang tine a mat ngttee ban dal khong? 49
  • 49. 4. Benh nhan noi trn nam trong trai tam thAn noi: "Ban dau bon nha Ong A duei theo toi, sau do la bon nha Ong B. Ted co le la ngudi tudng dea quan trong nen aging mdi du& theo. Cfm hOi d6ng m&u: Anh da noi yen bac si X vg hai nhOm du& theoanh chua? 5. Met phu Mt 38 tuei: "Chi thich "thong dig) Ten" ma em bao chi.Chi sit dung no vdi chgng chi horn qua va em co the to hao. Chgng chi vgnha sau khi di uSng vdi ban be va chi nOi• "Em ghet kieu ukng ruOu vo Lichsu caa anh, anh chi lam hai em va con thee. "Tot dky, phai khong?" Chu hOi dong mgiu: Chang chi co tra lei vdi Ma "Ted" nhu chi doananh to se tra ldi kliting? 6. Met nam thanh Men 25 turli not: "Viet ren luyen tinh kien dinhco ve hay dky. TOi sa dung no hiim qua vdi ngttai cha thue nha va rat co tacdung. Ngay mai Vol se di vac) va bao Ong sep vo dung caa 01 rang Ong tokhong the bat toi lam viec muOn MM. Chu hOi thing mat: Anh da can nhac nhung hau qua caa viec kien dinh vdi seep chua? 7. Met phu nit 34 tali tied: "Thi bigt chting to da guy& dinh to" nenyeu eau chi to di, nhung toi cu ay nay khOng bigt toi co lam sai khong. Chu hei thing mau: Chi c6 noi ay nay nlut the nay tit khi chUng tobAt &au flei ye chuyen duel chi to di khong? 8. MOt nam thanh nien 22 tued (Ngay khi bugi to van ket that) noi:"Toi vita nghi chi nen bigt la tea dang can nhac chuyen quay lai vdi ban gai.Tei bigt co ay có nghien ma tujr, nhung co ay noi co ay se thay del". Chu het dong mau: Anh co the hoan quygt dinh nay den buth saukhOng? 9. Met phu MY 57 tudi not: Ngudi nhan vien CTXH ma toi gap trudckhi chi dudc giao nhiem vu that keen. Doi khi anh to thd ra Loan mai ruduva toi nghi la anh to có met chai ruclu trong ngan tit Sao co quan khong choanh to th8i viec?". Chu hot &mg rn a u: Bac da ke vdi ai trong cd quan vg thong tin lrnay chua?50
  • 50. Thpc hanh ki nang lam sang to van de 1. Buiai gap this ba veil ngddi chong td van vi vp anh noi anhphai di den td van Ilan khong chi se 136 anh. Anh ta noi: "Nlidng bueigap nay rat ten kern vdi toi. Sao chUng ta khong trao dei nhi. T8i se sda(Wang eng cho chi va chi se giam phi cho tor. Cau hOi lam sang to van de: Co phai anh muen the nay khong. Anhmu6n cung ca) dich vu aria eng nu& cho WI a del lay cac bu8i W van? 2. Met nam gidi 45 tmai bat buec phai to van quail li titc giansau khi hi bat vi bao hie gia dinh. Anh ta nob "Thi co the xem he socua t8i citiOc khong? Toi mu& Met We chi MO. v6 toi the nao trong he 50". Cau hOi lam sang to van de: Manh, viec cho anh xem 11 6 so ma toi .da viet kh6ng co yen de gi nhung anh c6 the cho toi biet dieu do c6 lienquan gi den thao luau caa chting ta v6 cac on gian dil caa anh khong? 3. Met phu nit 27 tuai bi chan doom tram cam nang va reit loannhan each phu thuOc, noi: "Ten biet chi da noi bu8i lam viec cuei dingcaa chUng ta la Wan sau nhung chi co nghi la toi nen gap chi them khoang1 thong niia khong?" Cau hoi lam sang to van de: Phtfung, chi c6 the girintoi hieu 51 nghiena chi khi chi you eau ta gap nhau them met thong ni.la 4. Met khach hang ratan trd gitip de kien dinh hdn, noi: "Ted dabao vOi cher-1g toi nhung dieu chi nhi ye anh ta trong bu8i to van trUdc, vaanh ta dang phan doi viec toi den day ti6p". Can hOi lam sang to van de: Che-1g ciia chi c6 quan tarn den viecchUng ta noi ye anh ta trong bei canh van de caa chi khong? 5. Wit khach hang ridge gidi thieu den nit ki nang xa hoi cho rthfing ngtaii doe than, noi: "Neu tdi thaw gia vao nhom dao tao chi gidi thieu, tdi có West qua duet noi so sv grin bo khi kelt thtic khoa hoc khong?" Cau hei lam sang to van de: Chi hi vong nII6m se cho chi eta Id nang de met Luc nao do c6 the co met mea quan he gAn b6 veil ban be a die, lam phai kh8ng? 6. Mot nam ghat 37 tuOi, noi: "Chi noi vg 9 Wang thien vi hod Ian tratc. Chi co thi noi lai no co tac dung the nao kh8ng nhi?" 51
  • 51. Citu hal lam sang to van de: Anh man xem lai cac khai niem thien vi hod ma chting to thao Juan trong cuac gap tru6c cua chting ta, hay su lien quan Cu the cua nhung khai niem do din van de chting to dang del ph6? 7. Mat nam gitti lam viee cho mat doanh nghiap nhO khong c6bao hiem y te, dang tim trq gitip tit nhan vien CTXH y -Ca; n61: "CauTrung se chit niu eau to khong dude phau thuat, nhung eau Sy khong cotiro va chUng tea khong co bao hiem y ti 6 phOng kham cua phueng do". Cau Hi lam sang to van de: Anh co thg giai thich van de cuaTrung va loai phau thuat ma bac si yeu cau 8. Mat phu nit 73 tuOi 131 than down bi ung tint gan dang flan "&Ten khong the eau chita TA se chet, n6i: "Tea khong con lam dude ginlia, Tel kitting can có ich gi nCia, tea biet la moi ngtiai se sung stiOng hdnniu toi chit di". Cau Hi lam sang to van de: Bac noi "KhOng con lam dude gi rah","Toi khOng co ich cho ai ca" va "Tea biit moi ngudi se sung stidng hon niutoi chit di" co nghia la gi? 9. Mat eau be 16 tuei e6 ban gal vita 136 eau de di v6i ngitiOkhae, noi: "Theo chi thi em co van di gi?" Cau hOi lam sang to van de: Vi chi thuc ski khong Mit em, chikhong the dua ray kien vi có the la sai. Hay noi cho chi biit em nghinguyen nhan v an de cua em la gi? 10. Mat co gal 19 tuei ba nha di lan clau, dang gap mat nhanvien or trung tam site khoe tam than cua tong dang cd set, noi: "Doikhi em nghe thKy nhung fling noi bao em lam flitting Hitt x‘u xa. Emm6ng cluing nhung eau do chting lai quay lei". Can hOi lam sang to van de: sr em noi gi khi em bao em nghe thy bao em lam thin xan xa? 11. Mat nam gioi 51 -Wei chicle bac si chain sec ban clan gittithieu den tit van, "Toi dang uong thugc Prozac de" tri tram cam. Taisao toi lai con phai gap nhan vien CTXH?" Cau hOi lam sang t6 van de: Neu anh phai dua ray kien thi anhnghi vi sao bac si khuyen anh din gap toi khi co ay da ke don Prozac chochung tram cam cua anh r6i?52
  • 52. 12. Mid ten Ida hip vita dude tha khoi tit dang noi chuyen vdinhan vien CTXH: "TOi gap con nha o san truck bang hOrn qua. No bao toino 18 tudi nhting toi nghi no noi ddi. NO mu8n gap toi nem. NO bao no thichnhiing ngithi len tit& ang tor. Cau hed lam sang to van de: Anh noi chuyen dO vdi toi his nay de"lam gi vay? 13. MOt nit giam d6c kinh doanh clang cap chuyen nghiep visahi phat giao thong vi say rddu, noi day IA tan dAu tien ("Do la OMdang di tieep khach. Ted khong phai la ngtied nat nide), noi: "Chi cothe noi vdi toa rang toi da dgn nhOm giao due va khOng c&n tri lieu naa&toe khong?" Chu heti lam sang to rah de: Co phai chi muOn tot vigt tint cho toava noi rang chi khong can tri lieu itha thing khong? 14. MOt phu nil trailing thanh bit& thrum van dau tier nth rangchi IA met ngttdi theo dao Thien Chita tai sinh, chi ta hoi: "CM cotheo dao kh8ng? Toi nghi rang tdi se lam viec Col nhdt vdi met nhan vienCTXH cling theo dao". Chu hOi lam sang to van da: CO phai chi cho rang chi cam thythoai mai hun khi tim kigna ski gin) aa t3 ai do co sung gia tri va tin ngtthngton giao nhu chi phai khong? 15. MOt nam thanh nien 17 hi brit buOc tU it v6 lam dung matuY sau khi bi bat dang sit dung can sa, anh ta Ming hi kiem trathify co can sa va taidu trong matt, anh ta noi: "Nay, cliing nth vdi siquan phu trash toi vg bi mat nay nhe. Thuds do khong phai cua tot dau, nola dm ce ban tel. T6i chi cam no cho co ta". Cau hal lam sang to van Anh noi anh "CM cam no cho co ta" cOnghia la gi? 16. Mat ngttai me 37 tuCh dOe than, da li hem vdi ngndi chengthis hai hai nam throe, gap mot ngddi dim Ong hai thang trtidc, hoda hen ho trong khoeing hai Men, bay gid chi dang phat hien chi cothai, chi ta "Chi có bigt met bac si gioi nee co the pith thai cho tOikhOng? Toi nghi tet se cam thdy tdt hon thau dO la ngtiai chi gidi thieu". Cau hai lam sang to yin de: Chi main cam thdy an than hon ngugap met bac si cO kinh nglirem trong viec nay va gift bi mat cho chi ha? 53
  • 53. 17. MOt ngtieti ta nang thon ra ThU do lam mat tong viec vaiMang thiM c1 tin v6 cho gia dinh mien Trung, anh ta clang a;vat lOn 414 du chi tieu, anh ta noi:"Tai sao co quan nay killing lam viec bueitth nhi? Toi phai nghi viec a den day, the la mat di met phan thu nhap". Cau hOi lam sang to van c16: CO phai anh muen not anh phai Tautranh de nghi viec va den day khong? 18. Mat ngaai hang :Mtn dang Op ban gIup anh ta giai quyOtvan cI6 cua minh, anh ta n6i: "Tai lai bi trieu tap lam nghia vv. Anh cothe viet met hue thu not la ten khOng thip hien duet vi phai den day hangtuan khong?" Ulu hai lam sang to van c16: Anh muen ten viit met brie thu veli toeach la ban hoar hang x6m caa anh hay vei Or each la nhan vien CTXHern anh? TOM TAT Chuang nay da de cap den nhcing ki nang quan trong trong thve hanhtrue tiep. Nhi.ing Id nang nay bao gem viec lang nghe, thigt lap cac dieukien thong qua viec sit dung sv thin thong, st,t the hien quan tam tich cue,sv hoa hop each sit dung ki nang thuat lai, tom tat, lam sang to va ki nangdat eau h6i. Tam quan trong tha viec nhan ra, sa dung the giao trap phingOn W va nen ngit cif chi de hieu, then dat su hien tinh hveng ena khachhang cling da dude chti trong va nhan manh. Vi du ye the Id nang cling adduos cung cap. Phan ket thtic cua ehuong la sV phan tich ve cac tau hthSocrat e6 the dirge dua vao qua trinh giai guy& van de54
  • 54. Chuang 2 KIEN THUC VA KI NANG DANH GIA So Iuoc vS qua trinh danh gia tinh hu6ng trong Gong tan x5 h6i Danh gia tinh hugng la met nhiem vu vO ding quan trong d6i vdinguai lam tong tac XH. Thong qua qua trinh danh gia, ngttai lam tong tacxa hei có thd nam dune nhung van dg lien quan den tinh trang hien tai cUakhach hang, vi du nhu: tin sit, tam trang, tam li, mo hinh Wong tac tronggia dinh cua khach hang, ttu diem, nIntoc diem... Thong qua nhang phatMen dO nguei lam CTXH c6 the the dinh met hiking digu tri dung dAn, hopIi cho khach hang cua minh. Met so dinh nghia ye qua trinh danh gia trong &Ong the xa ha:d Qua trinh danh gut dupe nhin nhan nhula mOt qua trinh (a process) Theo Farley, Smith va Boyle: - Qua trinh danh gia gnip tim ra met laying digu tri linh hoat, phuMtn tuy theo tong trtking hop, tinh hugng dva tren nhu eau va sv khhe bitMilta cac ca nhan. - Qua trinh danh gia thita nhan met thud to la mOi tinh hugng códac thing rieng va vied lap kg hoach dieu tri can xem xet tat ca cac you t6lien quart - Qua trinh danh gia dude thgc hien met each uyen chuyen, linh hoat. - Qua trinh danh gia thay ct6i khong neing tii Mc bat dau cho do hiclegt tllc. Qua trinh danh pie dupt nhin nhan nhu la mfit son phim (a product) Rauch (1993) cho rang danh gia tinh hugng la met san ph6m: - K@t qua cim qua trinh danh gia throe nhap vao he sd caa khachhang. KM qua nay bao Smith, L. L., & Boyle, S. W. (2003). Introduction to social work (9 th ed.) Farley, 0. W.,Boston: Allyb and Bacon. 55
  • 55. + Van ban xac dinh tinh trang caa khach hang + Ban phan tich cac nguyen nhan, cac you t6 lien quan + Ban xac nhan + Qua trinh hinh thanh Quo trinh Minh gia vela la mat qua trinh, vita M mot son phial Theo Siporin: — Danh gia vita la met qua trinh vita la met san phaim cua su am higiu ve tinh hugng ma teen cd sä do cac hoat deng gitip dd se duct thue hien. Pincus va Minahan 2: —Trong sugt ca qua trinh, nhung ngudi lam CTXH lien tut danh gia tinh hinh va sau do quygt dinh nhiing viec can the hien va phudng phap thuc hien nhUng viec do nhu thgnao. Co se li 1u6n cea qua trinh danh gia tinh huffing Ngoai kha nang thigt lap met mei quan he TOoi khach hang, ngudilam cong tac XH can phai co co se li luan phir hap d g có the giai thich duos ihanh vi cila con ngudi cong nhu su Wong tac gida cac he thgng xa hal vaddi song con ngudi. Ngha ding tax XH can sit dung rat nhigu li luan. Cd säli luan sci dung trong CTXH rat rang, vi vay del hai ngudi lam CTXH canphai có MI6 nang tong hop va am hik nhigulfluan khac nhau. Khai niem"hanh vi cila con ngudi va mei tnieng XH" dal hOi su hiL bitt sau rang vgtarn li hoc va cac ygu to sinh li khac cling nhu nhigu he thgng Wong tactrong m6i truang lan loot toe thing dgn ctrec song con ngudi. De" danh giadude tinh hugng cila khach hang met each thing dan, nhung ngudi lamding tat XH can co cd so 11 ban viing yang, tren cd sa do h9 co thd co nitra duce nhiing van dg mau chgt, hoac tit do ho co dinh hitting re rang binde" hik khach hang dm minh. Th6ng thuang ngudi lam cong tac xa hei se danh gia cac the rot cilakhach hang qua met hoac nhigu li ban khac nhau. Nhung ngudi lam cong tac XH phai nhan bigt va higu rd li luau ma hodang ski dung trong qua trinh danh gia. cua minh. Qua trinh danh gia con Siporin, M. (1975). Introduction to social work practice. New York: Macmillan. 2 Pincus, A., & Minahan, A. (1973). Social work practice: Model and method. Itasca, IL:E. E. Peacock.56
  • 56. doi hai nab lam cong the XH hieu diiOc rangy Wang, ki nang va cac budcdanh gia deu xuat phat to nhting Si Wang da (Woe dp dung va phat trientrong nhieu nam. Met yeu t6 khac trong qua trinh danh gia lA ski cong tac chat the labkhach hang trong viec phat trien muc float va cac philong tien de dat diNccac muc tieu do. Can chi% ST rang cac muc Lieu nay phai xuat phat W quatrinh danh gia va di the thay del trong suet qua trinh can thiep. Chinh vivay qua trinh danh gia can ditOc xem xet nhu met qua trinh lien tqc. Neutrong qua trinh can thiep ma khach hang dat &toe met s6 thanh cong, co the LI ban than ho se nhan they can phai dat ra nhung muc tieu cao hon. Ba nhiam vu chu ch6t caa qua trinh danh gia Thiel lap quan 14 vol khach hang Co the nhin they rat Hi rang rang a bat ki cap doo nao kha nang thigtlap met mSi quan he th4c su chan thanh vdi khach hang luen la dal halthiet yeti d6i vdi nguei lam cong tae XH. Trong qua trinh danh gia tinhhuang, viec tao dude mSi quan he gan gai vdi khach hang gill vai tre dacbiet quan trong. Ngnai lam cang the XH can gitip khach hang ciaa minh tinWang rang minh dang tInic ski quan tam den he va luen c6 gang a hikchicle cam inic, hanh vi cang nhti tri giac aim ho. Th uc to da cho they de thiet lap met m6i quan he gan gui vdi khachhang khong phai den gian va de dang. Vi du &Ma day cho they rang nguedlam cong the XH can biet kien nhan va. Mon san sang a m6i quail he khhchhang - ngitai lam cong the XH phat tries theo htiOng thuan Ili cho khach hang caa minh. Vi du: Gerik, mat hoc sinh 16 tuai, dupe gidi thieu udi Jauon, !theta vien CTX11 vi trong that gian gat?. day Gerik da dcinh Ian udi bon, gap rtic rot trilling oa cau be nay da titng bi cdnh sat bat gill va tat phd hocti cac cong trinh van haa. Gerik den gap Javan theo yeu cdu caa cdnh sat. Javan del red thPn trong de Gerik tie sap 4 lich cho cuac gap dein tien mi dawn can di cho cOu be nay to not ra cam xac caa minh. Sau do Javan vein to ra Wit thodi mdi ua de nghi gap lei Gerik mat dip khcic detrao del mat ccich cat and va ratting kha khan cact eau. Tuy nhien khi Gerik cam nhan duck rang dawn dang thpc sit tang nghe can to yet loon san long lam viec vai cOu udi 57
  • 57. mat thcii dO it than thtinh, cat ma thi eau be nay thay sd heii. tv bcio ue minh eau nhely len yei het to: "Chou khong can bit ki mat sit gitip dO new ed. Co ye nhu Gerik ngcti at mat mai quan he than mat, grin gui. Javon win td ra reit binh tinh. Anh noi udi Gerik rang anh son sang lam yiec odi tau yet anh se danh mat tieng nizSi tucin trong yang vai thcing cho Mee do. Lai mat Mn nita Gerik nth cciu eau di ra khOi pheng thing sap cera Hai tuan sau, Javon goi Bien cho Gerik noi la anh min danh quy thitigian not &en cho eau ya anh hi (tong eau se din. That ra Javon ding khongeh& lieu Gerik co din hay khong trong cuac hen tiep do, tuy nhien eau be dci deh. Sau vat phut xa giao, Gerik dd the to yol Javon rang khong mat aiquan tarn den eau nhu quan tam din mat ngttdi binh thuMtg vet eau khongbiit pheti eu xet nhu thinao udi mot ai do to ra quan tam den eau. Javonnghi eau be gitip der anh trong quci trinh ddnh girt tinh hiang ei a tau deanh co the hieiz rd nhiing eau dang phai trdi qua. Gerik kicho Javon nhiengcuac ccii co Poi bit me ke" qua deing ceza minh, nhling beit binh d trithrtg vodaring n110 0 dilu, moi ngttrli cling quay lung lai vai eau. Chun hit, cank satdirt phuong ltic new cang cho rang ho se tom dude real Bang phom tai gi Javon der thank tong trong Mee thiei lap mat mei quan " he pin gui yetiGerik vci co the citng cau bE tiers hank mat cuac ddnh girt tinh huong conghia, dung thai dua ra dude mat so mae tieu thu .c revel re rang. Cac mo hinh danh gia tinh hu6ng MB hinh phat huy nOi lye Lea ngoai Khi Ai) dung m6 hinh nei luc va ngoai nhang ngUai lam cling LacXH co the dtta vao nhien Cd eV li luan khac nhau. M6 hinh nay (Hinh 2.1)cho tlay viec tap trung vac, qua trinh tUdng tac gala con nglibi va hohncanh song cua ho dOng vai tro reit quan trong. M6 hinh nay gitip phat hienra rang cac yen to not lvc va ngoai Mc la met rap hop cac sV kien tam li hocva cac sli kien XH. M6 hinh nay con dua ra mat s6 - co can (organizationalstructure) danh gia tinh Mang. Farley, 0. W., Smith, L. L.. & Boyle, S. W. (2003). Introduction to social work (9th ed.)Boston: Allyb and Bacon.58
  • 58. N ( Mang DOI Si" wing tac dm cac lacy Hanh vi va cac suy nghi dat dacic H1NH 2.1 Mht au diem caa ma hinh nay la tat ca nhang ygu td nOi lac va ngoailac c6 thA dude ap dung cho bAt ki co sa If luan nao ma ngaai lam tang tacXH chon hp cho hating diAu tri caa minh. Vi nhan Men CTXH clang can phdi gulp cto met thank nien,anh to chon li Irian cua Erik Erikson. Nhit upy nhan vien nay có the kit hopcac yin t6 not litc vet ngoai lilt udi li luein cilia Erik di phcit trier met li lu4ncho met doi Wong rieng biOt. Neit met nguai lam CTXH mon theo huangtap trung vao diem marsh, anh to co the dcinh gid cac yeu to nei lut vet yeit tongoai lilt di phcit hiM tin. diem mkt khdch hang vet xdc Binh cdc ngudn cothe he, try khdch hang Sat clack mite tieu dux minh. Cac ygu t6 nhi lac va ngoai lac con lk ding Cu h6 trq dAc lac trong vieccianh gia hanh vi plate tap caa con ngadi. Gia thiAt cha ygu caa m6 hinhnay la cO cac ygu t6 phat triers to ben trong tang ca the va W mei trukgsag tac Ong len each ca an, each suy nghi va each cam nhan caa hy. 59
  • 59. Ngu6n got chinh xac cua the yeti t6 nay c6 the se kheng bao gia xac dinh dude. Tuy nhien digu quan trong nit& la can phai nhan ra rang cac ygu to nay luon ton tai va thong lien tue tac Ong van suy nghi, cam tic va hAnh vi dm con ngUili. Do cac nIallm khach hang, skt tac deng qua lai trong the nhom khach hang va Si tac Ong qua lai giUa cac nhOm khach hang vdi nhau rat da Bang va phong phu nen ngligCTXH da phai ddu tranh de c6 dude met mO hinh danh gia ca ban du danh gia nhigu yeu to khac nhau trong cuoc song. Me hinh danh gia cac ygu to nei va ngoai Mc don gian la met each de ca khach hang ]an nguoi lam CTXH xem xet car yeti t6 net bat trong dal song cua khach hang. Me hinh danh gia nay con rat huu hieu trong viec gitip met ea nhan nao do phat huy diem mash cua minh del xrt li cac rac roi trong cues song. MO hinh cac yeu t6 nei Ipc va ngoai lift co l gang minh hoa met eachsinh diing va ddn gian cac khai niem co ban v6 he sinh that. Cric yeu t6 flea hie c6 the dude chia ra thanh ba nhom chinh: sinh hoc,tam 11 (tinh earn, hanh vi, tri nhan) va tinh than. Cae y6u Co ngoai lift gam halt nhom: xa 110 (gia dinh, ceng dgng, cdquan) va van hoa. Ngubi lam ding tac XH có the dan xen cac 11 luan khickhi dp dung me hinh nay. Ngoai ra ho c6 the kgt hop kign thric v6 hanh vicim con nguai a bat ki linh vkic nao lien quan den dao tao chuyen sad va cakinh nghigm cua minh. Tgt ca nhung digu nay dgu có the dp dung dgi vdinhu du dia khach hang. Ngudi lam tong tac XH c6 the silt dung me hinhnay theo nhigu each khac nhau. MO hinh nay h6 trd rat nhigu trong viacdanh gia va gidp de khach hang gill guy& r6c rgi.60
  • 60. i Nai hfc Tinh cam Sinh hoc Ngooi Xa hQi Van hay inh than (Th Dal tttOng Twang tac caa cac lye Hanh vi va cac suy nghi clot dagc HINH 2.2: Ma hinh n01 va ngoai IVc M6 hinh ap dyng cdc yeu td ngi luc, ngoai lyt %fa yang ddi Wit van dg quan trong n8a trong ma hinh nay la khai nigm vOng dot.Cac nha li luan trong nganh khoa hoc hanh vi cho rang có nhiing giai downtrong qua trinh Oat tri6n cita con ngthi during nhu la phic Min yoi tat eamoi dai Wong. 61
  • 61. r NOi Ivo Su thgp kern Su but bOi 1;4 lvc Twang hoc B6 during S2f lo Igng Carib sat 061 Wong Twang tan Goa cac Icfc Hanh vi fiat cyc Hung hang vial nguai Ian HiNH 2. 3 phan loci don gian bao g8m: thai nien thieu, thai thanh nien,trtaing thanh,va tu6i giA. Erik Erikson (1963) da" c16 xuat phan loai gamtam giai doan Ghia tren if thuyet co ban cila Freud. M6i giai doan, ong xacBinh mot tro ngai that ski ma mai ca nhan phai nick qua at a ag e motcal tei lanh manh. Cac do tu6i cho m6i giai doan ding vol cac far roi nhgtdinh dude chia nhti (1) Tin Wong va thigu tin Wang (0-1 tu6i) (2) ... Va ski xl.0 116 nghi nga chinh mink (1-3 tu6i) (3) Su khfch le vi tai 18i (4-6 tu6i) (4) Kha nang tap trung va thigu tap trung (7-11 tutli) (5) Hinh thanh ca tinh va nham lan vg ca tinh (12 — 18 tit& - Vithanh nien) (6) Si rieng 0.1 va ski ce der (18-22 tu6i) (7) Bilk tridn va dinh tre (23-65 tu6i) (8) Ban nga va tuyet vong (65 tu6i Aril len)62
  • 62. Cac giai clop caa cuoc dbi 8. Ban nga phat huy day do (65t) 7. Kha nang sinh s6i (23-65 tu6i) 6. M6i than mat hang to (18-22 tu6i) 5. Ca tinh phat hien (12-17 tu6i) 4. Skf siting nang (7-11 tu6i) 3. Kha nang bat dau (4-6 tu6i) 2. Skitkitri (1-3 tu6i) 1. Su tin cay (0-1 tut))) • Hanh vi va suy nghi dat &lac H1NH 2.4. MO hinh bigu dian nQi Iuc va ngoai Ric Mac dao dog do tu& di kern voi tang giai doan gitip nguoi doe It&tinh dude de tu6i cna met ai do a tang giai doan phat trik nhkt dinh. Phanloaf caa Erik dac biet hien qua khi duct kgt hdp vOi me hinh danh gia theoygu tgnei va ngoai lktc (xem hinh 2.4) Neu dat sd de cac giai doan trong cuec det tren me hinh danh gia nay,nail lam CTXH ye the can nhae, xem xet r ac r6i caa mot ai do theo align .httOng keet hop, co to chile. Vi du, met dila tre hoc lop ba tItueng xuyen bi nhac nhe ve tei kh6ngtap trung va khong hohn thanh bai tap. Cau be duce giai thieu vet nhanvien CTXH. Sit dung me hinh danh gia y6u to not hie va ngoai li e, nhanvien nay co the dat ra cac eau hal sau day: 63
  • 63. 1. Can be nay dang d giai doan nao? Nhiem vu phat trien quan trong nhat cho dfa tre trong that diem nay la gi? 2. Lieu cac yeu U6n6i Ittc, ngoai hie ye su ket hop cac ygu to nay co the la nguyen nhan gay ra cac rac tea kitting? 3. Ngu nguyen nhan la do cac 36u MI* lug gay nen, rac reei chit yeeu narn a yeu t6 tam ii, tinh cam, sinh hoc hay tinh than, hay la sti ket hOp cac yeu to nay. Lieu co phai vi cau be nay cam thgy that Tong, chan clueing va dieu do lam cho eau be chan hoc. Hay eau be co van de ve mat nen khong the doc bai duos? Hay la cau be nay co van de ye tinh than do tin nmiong ton Mao va van hea trong gia dinh gay nen? 4. Ngu nguyen nhan la a cac ngoai lue, ligu co ghat cau be nay dang gap rac rie a gia dinh vi b6 me vi phai song trong gia dinh mai genn nhieu dal tuong khac, hoac la vi mei Biking so-rig xung quanh khong an Win, nhigu xung dot dien ra? Neu xet ve mat van h6a, fie fel cila eau be co the la do bee me cim eau be nay chi sit dung tieng Tay Ban Nha a Mil, va digu do gay kW)" khan trong vies hoc hottn town bang Wang Anh cga eau d truang.64
  • 64. I Hai Igo -ft ID6ituang: 4 Ngopi l Vc Mat dUa tre Tinh then: Xa heal: Dda tre co lo ling rang Chita se Oita tre có phai ddi thing ghat khi no oho vai xung do t , m sai khong? gia dinh khong? Tmh cam: Dua tre co cam glac Van hoa: bi than kern khong? Oda tre co vah de song ngCt phai del oho khong? Sinh hoc: afatre có van de gi a mat khong? • Hanh vi va suy nghT dal &Igo HINH 2.5. Me hinh danh gia dye Von tam li hoc ben nga va phan tam hgc Lemma (2003) cho rang mot s6 vain dg can phai &No danh gia theoliOu phap phan tam hoc. Vitec danh gia theo me hinh nay bao gom: • each nhin nhan fac fel holm tinh hu6ng cua khach hang • mite dO dOng co caa khach hang • thigiei nOi tam va chat Wong caa cac mati quanh8 cua cl6i tticing • dac di8m va ban chat cua mei quan he khfich hang - nhan vian CTXH • mang hidi lam vice sari có cho khach hang • cap dO § thfic cat t8i caa khach hang 65
  • 65. • de kgt hop sieu ca nhan ma khach hang da trai qua • ban chat ena cd chgbao ve ma khach hang ap dung • milc dd phat trien cua khach hang so vol cgu true nhan each • each khach hang digu tigt anh twang • the trang caa khach hang • dac diem van hoa, truygn thgng, di San va cac yk t6 lien quan &la khach hang Do trong each daub gia nay c6 mat cac phuong phap tigp can phan tam hoc va tam li do, ng hoc ban nga, each danh gia se mang tinh lien dei nhigu hdn va can MI guy& dinh cua ca nhan vien CTXH va khach hang , xem phadng phap tigp can nao tot nkat. Theo nhung nhan Binh can ban caa hoc thuygt, de nhung chgn Hafting tam 11 dude thuc ski lanh Ian tra lai, nguen cei caa van dg phai duac giai quygt. Do do trong tam dau Lien cua cac phuong phap danh gia phan tam hoc va tam 11 hoc hoat &Ong la qua khii. Mt nhigu y Wang ciia. Freud va cua cac mon de tam 11 hoc ban nga caa Ong van con dude si dung a pham vi nap do a ding viec danh gia trong CTXH. Nhan dinh caa Freud ye anh twang sinh hoc va ban nang den hanh vi con ngtibi do xa hOi ki6m soot coy nghia to Ion trong viec nghien ctu qua khU hoat &Mg xa hOi cna khach hang. Mac dh con nhigu diem gay tranh tai v6 hoc thuyet ka Freud, chUng c6 da chi ra rang nhigu nhan vien CTXH tham c16 qua khti cna khach hang de xac dinh xem van de nom a dau. Cling co bang chang ch6 thgy nhan vien CTXH van quan tam den su phat trien thanh cac giai doan cua cac ca nhan. Cac S7 Wang vg cac giai doan phattrien do Erik Erikson, met hoc Ire ena Freud gioi thieu, dude s& dung Ongrai trong CTXH bai chting gitip rap trung vao nhung yang phat triers quantrong trong nhung giai doan tuoi nhgt dinh. Mac du Erikson su dung ratnhigu y Wang caa Freud, song Ong ta c6 han chg lai nhung xung lye sinhhoc ban nang va trigu cluing than kinh va tap trung vao chgt luting mangtinh thich nghi va khOe khoan cua ca nhan. Ong ta ding tin rang nhan eachtrong qua tninh phat trim dm con ngtiai (Woe dim tren "qua tninh bigusinh", trong do nhung nhiem vu nhan each nhal dinh phai dude thug hien amot di) tu6i nhgt dinh n6u ca nhan can phai tip thu nhiing ki nAng sang Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (Td d ed.) New York: Noton.66
  • 66. quan trong. Ngu cac Id nang nay khOng &roc tip thu, khach hang can phaidude tro gulp de tai tigp thu, nhO do cac hanh vi sai chic nang tha ho chiclegiai quygt. Gia tri cua cong trinh ciia Freud trong danh gia da lien tue brthach thfic. Vi du, nguai to chi dung n6 a tap trung vao cac suy earn, haycac hanh vi sai chfic nang va thutng la di diem manh cim khfich hang. NOcling dficie chta tren rn6 hinh tri lieu co phOng doan vg sa ton tai caa mgt vaibenh li ce ban. Hon naa cac me hinh phan tam hoc truygn thOng c6 chg dedigu tri quy dinh gam cac thai ki thigt ygu, va do do matt thuan vol y lenhcham sOc da cho. Lqi ich hang dau tha cong trinh nay la th tap trung vietam quan trong caa ban nga, gia tri oath viec khan sat qua khi de xac dinhnguan va cac tim nang ha tiro san cc the khach hang va the dinh do huudung eith vies xem cat vai trO cita cac ygu to sinh li trong the trang cuakhach hang. M6 hinh danh gia dya tren li thuyel hanh vi hoc M8 hinh danh gia dua tit It thuygt hanh vi hoc can nhac hai van dgchinh. Trude hgt la the hanh vi do khach hang the hien. Lieu khach hangc6 hung hang, c6 xung luc, hay lanh darn; lieu ho cO to ra chain chi lamnhiem IN hay kitting, ho c6 chU y rang nghe chi clan khong hay (tau 6c hodang bi cac kith thich khac chiem hit ch6. Nhung hanh vi nay vA nth:111gkha nang khac, &roc xac dinh la hanh vi dich hay la hanh vi IA trong tamtha sty thay deri (tang thong hay lam giam hanh vi dtla tren muc dichmong raugn dat duct) Met khi hanh vi dich chicle xac dinh, nhan vien CTXH se xac dinhvach bien cho hanh vi. Viec nay se dot hot phai do tan suit, cueing do va/hogc dO dai lau cith hanh vi dich. Them vao do, viec danh gia ding can cannhac nhung yin dg dang thy ra trong mei truing cua khach hang, (lac bietla nhung gi xay ra trudc va sau hanh vi dich. Xac dinh dude hai pham vi quan trong nay, hanh vi dich va nhunghanh vi ke tren, kg &ton cith ne, nguai nghien cuu hanh vi hoc can tim radtioc cac plutOng phap danh gia nhfing digu kien nay. Merrell (2003) da xacdinh ba pham frit Chung cua viec quan sat va ghi chop lai ve hanh vi.Cluing bao gam quan sat to nhien, quan sat luan suy va to theo dot Pinking flap quan sat tts nhien trong danh gia vg hanh vi laohm:mg phap true tip nhat. Nguoi danh gia quan sat khach hang trong 67
  • 67. mei truang et/ nhien caa ngtiai do ma hau nhu khong can thiep hay neat quang. Nhang mei truang din hinh có the 11 dua tre trong nha caa no, a twang hoc khi dang chcli tren sari hay dang tham dg lop hoc, hay dang duct trong gia ban ngay. Mac da ski co mat cila rived quan sat co the anh huang dgn each phan ung cua khach hang, qua then gian, ski co mat nay se it anh huang di va anal quan sat se nhap dude vao he thgng Phtiring phap quan sat lain suy la cach danh gia nham tai tao laigang sat thkic tee cang tot. Hau hgt gang viec nay then ra trong van phong tovan, trong phong thi nghiem (ngu dO la met nghien eau), hay trong met he ticanh khac nao do. Bai do la ski tai tao lai cac ski kiOn trudc day, viec nayti6m tang van clg dinh kien, cho du co cha y hay khong. Khach hang clangkith phan vai v6 tinh hugng nhat dinh nao do va ham ST va each ho se ca xa.Trong boi canh do, ngtioi digu tri có kha nang thay dOi hay dinh huting skithay clgi hanh vi nham the dog Etch cue cign khach hang. Digu then eh&trong phuong phap danh gia nay la viec tai tao lai nhung digu kien tanggigng bel canh tzi nhien tang ttit. Vi du, neu hai anh em met nha hay danhnhau vi ghen ti rang ho throe b6 me quan tam klieg nhau, nhung digu kiencaa mei truang gia dinh (ghg, de choi, nhung vat dung khac) can phai ductbe tri trong phOng to van cAng giting that cAng Pinking phap tti quan sit ban than gitip khach hang to biet eachquan sat va ghi lai hanh vi dich caa minh. Sau do ho duos chi dan tignhanh viec quan sat de va ghi lai hanh vi caa minh trong met quang thaigian nhat dinh. Met thuan lcd cua phuong phap nay la no có the phai hapdude cac suy nghi caa khach hang lai Arai nhau, ma nhung suy nghi naychinh la can ca cho viec danh gia co sa dung lieu pilau hanh vi-tu duy, dacMet la khi viec danh gia co lien quan dgn chang hay tut gian, lo au va tramcam caa khach hang. Tinh tin gay cua phuong phap danh gia nay phu thug°vao viec quan sat va ghi chop cac hanh vi cling nhu la cac thay dgi tronghanh vi co chinh xac hay khong. Hoc thuyel hoc theo phin xe va phuong ghat) danh gia Cot hoc gia not bat trong linh vac nghien euu v6 hoc thuygt phan xada phat trien quan them rang khi chting ta quail sat true tigp nhung thaydgi mong muen co dude trong hoat clang caa met khach hang, cluing ta phainit ra thielc nhan xet rang met phan xa hoc hanh vi, met qua trinh bign dea68
  • 68. W duy da dien ra. Noi each khan, nhiing ngttai ma c6 kha Mang thay /leiphan ung cua minh del sok met van de hay met boat cac van de da hoc chtOceach hanh eh& co hieu qua Min. Cac nha tam 11 hoc hanh vi da cung cap met quan diem tich cue honcac hoc gia phan tam hoc boi ho khang Binh rang van de namo chinh hanhvi thich nghi sai, hoac bi Ha loan chit no khong phai la met trieu Chung caamet can benh tigm an nen ca. Va nha do, ca nhan chi can kh8ng hoc hanh vithich nghi sai do va/ hoac la hoc met hanh vi &mg chile nang hon de giaiquygt duct van Coe phuong phap danh gia trong CTXH c6 the sii dung cac li thuyetoda cac nha tam li hoc hanh vi. Cac hanh vi ng6 cim khach hang can chidehtu y trong bat cif met qua trinh danh gia nal). Thong tt.t nhti the, khainiem bat chit& hay lam matt cung can dude Ink than dho khi khach hangco su mieu to nhiing ngttbi quan trong trong cuec king caa khach hang.Cu& cung, qua trinh danh gia trong CTXH can chn trong den nguyen tachoc bang phan xa ve haat deng xa hOi ma Cho rang cac kich thich ben trongva ben ngoai lien tuc Wong tac via nhau de tao ra kha nang thttc hien chilenang tam li hoc o khach hang. Phuttng phap danh gia dtp tree Ou phap to duy Lieu phap tu duy quan tam dac biet dgn cac suy nghi cua khach hang.Vi the phuong phap danh gia dun troll lieu phap tu duy nham vao viec xemxet cac suy nghi va cac ma hinh suy nghi caa khach hang. Lieu phap to duytap trung nhieu hon vao trai nghiem mat xay ra va nhUng dieu 06 tronghien tai bin la nhang trai nghiem trong qua khit xa cith khach hang. Dodo, phuong phap danh gia nay ea dinh &tang ve "bay gia" nhieu hon. Theoquan diem do, Simos da chi ra met vai huh vuc ma notli digu frit e6n xemxet trong suet qua trinh danh gia ban dau. Qua trinh danh gia ban dau naygitip dua ra met danh sash cac van de co ban ma khach hang trai nghiemtrong thai gian gan day. 13ao gam: • Mgi quan he tong tat •mth quan he vai nhung ngtthi quan trong, yea gia dinh va ban be Simos, G. (2002). Cognitive behavior therapy: A guide for the practicing clinician. NewYork: Taylor & Frances. 69
  • 69. • Nhang mang Judi quan he hien Miu va the he thong h8 trd • Viec tu bgi &tang elikt be; hay sa dung chit kith thich • Mac dQ hoat clang the ehal Mt nhigu nhan vien CTXH ap dung li thuygt to duy da sa dung viec xem xet chang tram cam, tuyet vong va lo au do Aaron Beck phat trien.Viec xem xet do giap nhan vien CTXH thigt lap dude vach bien de vg tam trang hay tinh cam eim khach hang. Willis va Sanders da cho rang, su danh gia bao gem viec hieu day du the trieu chi:Mg Men tai va cac ygu to tim an, cho phep dinh Mang viec digu tri met each r5 ret, thigt lap metvach bien do ma to do kgt qua digu tri Wong dei eh the do Ming dude. Judith Beck (1995) thi gdi Y rang a chuin bi cho dot digu tri dautien, nhan vien CTXH xem xet viec khach hang HI nhin nhan vg ban thanobit the nao. Viec thara khan chin tri thiu dho co vai tro rat quan trongtrong viec lap kg hoach digu tri co hieu qua bai vi theo DSM, nhang rgi loantrail true met va true hai chi ra kha nang au dung lieu phap tu duy daBang. Viec luu tam den the vin dg Men tai, viec lap chat nang hien tai, thetrieu Chang va lich sa hanh vi gan day cho phep nguai digu tri hinh thanhdude nhang higu bigt kith gnat ban dau va phat triers dude met kg hoachcan thiep. Sau do, nhan vien CTXH lai tim kigm thong tin cu the vg nhangvan dg hien tai. Willis va Sanders (1997) khong xem xet vied chin tri theo DSM la metbade can thigt trong qua trinh danh gia. Ho cho la mac dish cua danh gigkhong phai la "Mt ten" hay "chin dotal ra" vin dg ena khach hang ma dedat lode thga thuan sdm theo tang digu khoan se digu tri trong qua trinh118 trd. Pinking phap danh gia dua tren lieu phap to duy tap trung van cactrai nghiem hien tai va qua khit gan, xem xet met each cu the each thatkhach hang thus Men chile nang xa hei trong the bgi canh khac nhau cithcuoc song ho. No cho phep th6a thuan ban Mu 4 during &tang can thiep cothe duet ap dung sau do. each danh gia nay dija tren viec "khach hangnhan thite, hien va quy gan § nghia cho su kien nao do nhu the nao". Nhanvien CTXH co the quan sat a rut ra each mo hinh to duy caa khach hang Willis, F., & Sanders, D. (1997). Cognitive therapy: transforming the image. ThousandOaks, CA: Sage.70
  • 70. vg can tinh hugng song caa ho. Li thuyet nay e6 ich cho dee hieu li do taisao hai nguoi nao do có tong met tinh hugng nhu nhau, vi du nhit dangrang nghe xdp caa minh gap Y vg vik tai thien cling viec, lai cat nghia suviec do met each khac nhau. Met ngttai thi cho la su viec do la mot thachthat tich cue nham gitip ding ty phat tri6n, trong khi clO nguei kia lai hieucuec trao de;i d6 theo each lieu cue va nham a de doa nhan vien. CO le met trong nhung ang dung thus to nhat caa phuong phap tigpcan to duy la trong vies xem xet ehang tram cam. Day la each hik quatrinh bi tram cam met each thus le. Nguoi di6u tri xem xet be ba to duy.flutel dau tien trong by ba d6 la qua trinh suy nghi thigu tich cue makhaeh hang da hoe dude hay "that tries rang ban than ho lien tun chi toanchita nhung digu tieu cue ma thoi. Tha hai, nguoi bi tram cam nghi rang"th6 gidi" dang del xa bat cling vdi minh. Va earl Ming, ngttai tram cam tinrang hoan canh bi dat cua minh se ti6p then khong thd Mang trade dude. Met khia canh khac caa phticing phap danh gia dim tren li thuygt toduy la vice xem xet eac suy nghi caa khach hang a bigt cittOc do e6phai la "nhung meo m6 to duy" pho bign nao (TO khiing (Beck, 1995). Sau day la danh sach 12 meo mO tu duy dien hinh: • Suy nghi hoac-tat-ea-hoac-chang-sogi (xem xet tat ca moi ehuyen a cac thai cue hoac la cue tgt/ hoar hao hoac la cue t6i thigu sot tham tg) • The tham hba can su vice (chi doan Wong lai hay nhin nhan Wong lai theo chigu httong eau) • Loai tra tat ca nhung gi tich cue (tu nhu rang nhung die& pham chat tot dep/ tieh cue chang co nghia gi ca.) • Lap luan earn tinh (tin vao cai gi do chi bid vi ban "cam thay" la digu do thing trong khi loaf tra thong Ca d6i lap lai digu do) • Gan ten goi cho moi tha (gan ten goi cho ban than hay cho %Mai khan) • Ph6ng dai/ danh gia a mac t61 thieu (tit danh gia ban than, ngttai khan hay tinh hugng - phong dai mot each kheng thuc M nhung digu tieu ale hay danh gig nhung digu tich cue a mac tgi thieu) • Hieu su tee theo kik sang lychrilu trong h6a co lua chyn (chit Y qua nhigu den met chi tiet lieu cue don le, trong khi lig qua Man be bgi canh) 71
  • 71. • Cho rang co the doe &toe suy nghi caa ngudi khac (tin rang minh bigt dude ngtati khac dang nghi gi ma chang can xem xet nhung kha nang khac) • Khai quat h6a qua mac (ve ra met kgt luan tieu cpc tren Ca tinh hugng hien tai) • Ca nhan hoa (tin rang nhung ngttai khac dang xa ski tieu cue vi ban da not hay lam digu gi do ma kh8ng can xem xet the h do khac nao ca) • Si dung nhigu cau nen/phai (co nigm tin vao vigc moi chuyen phai/nen dien ra nhu thg nao, khi ma cac digu kien kh6ng dude dap ung thi lai doan dinh sai vg mac de tai to caa kat qua) • Co tam nhin nha during ham tai (chi nhin thy digu lieu cue) Phacing Oat) danh gia chia tren li thuygt to duy rat hau ich trongCTXH vi no gulp nhan vien CTXH nhay earn hun trong vige xem xet nhung16i to duy va nha:t quail trong nhin nhan cac mo hinh to duy co the co akhdch hang cila minh. Viec chi ra duct cac van dg vg to duy cling se gingtim ra eau phoing phap digu tri de co the 118 trO khach hang khi ho hoc eachnhin nhan thg gidi khac biet so vdi trade. Ph utlng phap danh gia lay d6i twng lam trung tam Khai nigm lieu phap lgy dgi taung lam trung tam do Carl Rogers phattrien da ce met anh haang lon dgn viec digu tri va danh gia trong CTXH.MO hinh nay khang dinh rang con ngtibi co khuynh hiking to hien that hoakha nang ban chgt cua ho. Rogers khang dinh tip rang ngu bau khang khigiva ngitai digu tri va khach hang co the hien ski taring clang hay sit thanthuc, ski quan tam tich tile, sv cam thong, khach hang se co the lit hienthuc hoa cac suy nghi, earn gine, hanh vi cim minh thanh hanh vi mangtinh chat nang hon. Mac du clueing hiking cim hoc thuygt nay thgng nhgt vdi yeu cau cartCTXH, eau ygu to then chgt tronatiCing }along lgy clai Wong lam trung tammau thuan vdi cac phttOng phap danh gia truygn thong cna nhan vienCTXH. Diem mau thuan chinh la dg xugt ciia Rogers rang khach hang se cokha nang tit danh gia ban than neu co dude mdi quan he digu tri tot. Quandiem nay ham y rang nhan vien CTXH khOng nen hoi, theo khugn mau72
  • 72. danh gia, hay et). bat cu hanh deng gi lam anh }Mang dgn qua trinh thigt lapm6i quan he do. Mau thain thif hai xay ra a viec nhan vien CTXH c6 gAngxac dinh van de that re net. Rogers chit ygu phan dOi;vai tro aim ngudi digutri trong viec (Iva ra nhiing danh gia mang tinh chuyen nghiep, dtia ra Lienluting vg van ire cua khach hang, chi clan khach hang theo bat c3 each nao.Quan diem nay trai ngulc vol nhu cau danh gia von rat thtfang thay trongda s6 eac linh Ric CTXH nhu IA phtic loi gong cling, site khae tam than egmcling d8ng, lao h6a va digu chinh nhilng sai lech vg tam than - tam h. Mac du ca nhilng han chg tren, tam quan trong cua vice uu tien thigt lap mai quan hg tich cue yei khach hang ritiOc Kau hgt cac nhan vien CTXH chap nhan. Turing to nhu vay, quan niem rang khach hang co kha nang va di sue tign tin so hien attic Ma ban than (Woe tong nhan reng rai trong cac tai lieu vg CTXH. Me hinh danh gia dtta teen li thuy6t he th6ng Li thuygt he thgng, vdi so nhan manh vao viec hieu mei Wong liengiva cac he thgng va mai truang va cac tieu he thiing, da sung cap met mOhinh digu tri phu hop voi trong tam vg con ngtfai-trong-moi-truang cuaCTXH. Nghien cuu cim Carol B. Germain trong viec phol hop cac linh 111.1C thuygt he thgng va quan diem sinh thai hoc da di sau vac van itg cachee, thgng hanh vi khac nhau. Phudng phap tip can vg he sinh thai cim bada tap trung vao nhang trao giila con nguai va mai tritang aim ho. Nhung 11 thuygt vg cac he thgng va he sinh thai da to ra hilu ich doivOi viec danh gifi trong hnh voc CTXH bat cac 1f thuygt nay gitip nguai digutri xem xet hanh vi ena khach hang trong b6i canh cac he thong. Khachhang 65 the cai thien chifc nang hanh vi cua minh nhigu Mn bang each xacdinh xem he thging hanh vi nao sai chile nang va sau do tac deng thay dfiiflitting he thOng do. MQt hieu qua khac cua li thuyeet he thong la quan niem rang ban thancon ngttai la met he thong via cog tigu he thong dam nhiem cac chile nang nhu he tilting "sinh hoc", "tinh cam" va "tarn linh". Cac tik he thgng nay Hale hien chile nang la bi? phan nhan each con ngliai va can (Woe ghi nhd khi nhan vien CTXH tign himh danh gia. Cac van dg caa ca nhan co the xay ra a bat cif cap de flex) nhu cap de ca nhan, nhOm, tong &Ong hay cac he thgng xa hQi Ion hon. 73
  • 73. M6 hinh danh gia dua hen cac thirn?nh nhan each Quan diem vg gee the manh cua ca nhan gifip nhan vien CTXH va khach hang tap trung vao viec s>t dung cac the manh do de giai quyet cac van de cuee sling. Quan diem ve cac the manh nhan each cung cap cac nguyen tac chi dao gulp cu the h6a each nhin nhan hAnh vi con nguai theo met each rat khac Met. Nen tang cua If thuyet nay cho rang cac ca nhan ve lau ve dAi se khac plum chide cac van de cim ho nett ho dude h6 try xac dinh, tim ra va sii dung cac the manh, ngueln luc san co trong ban than va mai trdeng cua ho. Tuy nhien, 5 ; twang don gian nay cling duct met sal tee gia cho IA 06 mat lieu cue. CO ngdai cho la quan diem vg the manh cua cac ca nhan la quan diem kha khan va thin gian, rang quan diem tren phit nhan ode thanh tuu trong tam li hoc tri lieu va ngn tang kign thfic y sinh hoc cung cac me hinh then tre. Day IA met each nhin nhan dang ti6c vi cac hieu Net ve the manh nhan each khong phai la phan de trong viec dieu tit DO chinh la phan quan trong cUa giai phap dieu tri. Mo hinh danh gia dua tren cac the manh ca nhan giup nhan vien CTXH chuyen trong tam xem cot Van de, trieu chitng va bia) u hien lam sang. Ho se tap trung tim hieu cac the manh cua khach hang, nguOn luc &la ho va nhung thanh cling da c6 cua khach hang. Me hinh "ROPES" tim hieu the ngu8n, cac 11,a chop, cac kha nang, cac ngoai leva cac giai phap ("resources, options, possibilities, exceptions andsolutions") dtidc Graybeal 3 phat tries. Cling vdi nam yang sue manh nay,m6 hinh cua Graybeal cling xac dinh chide diem trong tam can nhgn manhcling nhu cung cap nhang eau hOi cu the gitip nhan vien CTXH va khachhang xac dinh eau tra lai cu the. Hop du6i day xem rat va the hien cac 376ut6 trong me hinh dieu tri cua Graybeal. Weick, A., Rapp, C., Sullivan, W. P., & Krishardt, W. (1989). A strengths perspectivefor social work practice. Social work, 34(4), 350-354. Saleebey, D. (1997). The strengthsperspective in social work practice (Ti d ed.). Ney York: Longman. 2 Saleebey, sdd Graybeal, C. (2001). Strength-based social wor assessment: Transfonning the dominantparadigm. Families in Society: The Jounmal of Contemporary Human Services. 8, 233-242.74
  • 74. ling dung m6 hinh ROPES • Non& Idc (Resources) - trong tam tim hieu cac ngu6n lit cOa: (1) ca nhan, (2) gia dinh, (3) mOi throng xa hOi, (4) to chit, va (5) tong deng. Cac cau hoi bao g6m: Ban c6 cac nguan/ hay he [Wang h6 try cOa ca nhan, gia dinh, ban be hay ton giao, cOa to chac, hay Ong clang, v.v. nao? • Cac life chon (Options) - trong tam tim hieu cac Ida chon hien tai, nhan manh vao lila chon cOa dal tudng. Cac cau hal bao gam. Ban c6 cac ngu6n hien tai nao giOp ban co dude su lua chon Mut hien nay? • Cac kha nano - trong tam tim hieu vg cac kha nang Wang lai, nhan manh vao tri Wang tonna, set sang too, tam nhin tuung lai. Cac cau hai bao Ban da bIng dinh this lam gi rasing cht.ra c6 lam &roc? • Cac ngoai 10 - trong tam tim hi& xem c6 10c nao da van de Sing da tin then tat ho0c khong han la van a can di6u tri nhu hien nay. Cac cau hOi bao g6m: Da co Ian nao trong ddi ban khi cac kho khan nay khong han IA van de can dieu tri Ma hien nay khong? • Cac giai phap - trong tam IA say thing cac giai phap, khong tap trung vao giai quyet van de ngay. Cac cau hai bao gam. Ban dang c6 giai phap gi chtla va ban c6 the c6 giai phap mdi nao khong a giai guyat van nay caa ban?HOP 2.6 Qua trinh danh gia dua tren cac the manh san co cim ca nhan co theplai hop v6i kha nang phuc hoi nhanh cua nag. benh. Kha nang play h6inhanh ena ngudi benh (Resiliency) la kha nang trong do ca nhan co theOwe hgi hay tt.i digu chinh khi bi sue ep nao do, tham chi ngay ca khi h9 atrong nhUng truang hop khO khan hay dea mat v6i nhUng hoan eanh twangehitng khong the vuot qua ndi. Digu quan trong la khi nhan vien CTXH tiershanh danh gia can ghi nhd khdi niem kha nang to phuc hoi nhanh caakhach hang, xem xet kha nang do cimg viii viec xem xet the he thong hanhvi caa khach hang. Khai niem resiliency da dude cac nha nghien matt nhti Garmezy vaWerner Ira Smith ghat triers. Ho nghien eau nhung tre em van co kha nang Garmezy, N. (1991). Resilience in chidrens adaption to negative life events andstressed environments, Pediatric annals, 20.459-466. 2 Werner, E. E., & Smith, 14. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study ofresilience and youth. New York: McGraw-Hill. 75
  • 75. lap chile nang va Huang thanh tgt ngay ca khi elning sing trong nhung gia dinh ngheo kho cang eve hay bi me co the yin de rar e rea rilut nghien rdeu hoac mac benh tam than. Ashford, LeCroy, va Lortie l dal tgng kgt eac phgm chit ca nhan da gitip nhung dela tre c/6 ching lai nhung trai ngang trong cuec ddi caa chting. • Do la nhung dem tre eh eac ki nang xa hoi tot, chting c6 tam trang Lich cue va la nhung dua tre than thien, de gan. Nhung nguei khac thueng tinning men chting. • Chting co kha nang tudng tae va them gia voi nhung ngitei khac. Chting tiep can va tudng talc voi nguai len ben ngoai gia dinh Ket qua la chting thueng &roc they co glen, ho hang, nguei trong tre va nhung nguei khac Ong vien va he trd. • Chung co nhung kha nang gill quygt yin de. Kgt qua IA ehting bigt tv cha va suy nghi cho ban than. • Chong eo nhung mei quan tam eu the va thuang co 6c sang tao tit. Kha nang di olive hen eang duce gia dinh nued &tang, bii dap. Do lanhung gia dinh may man co dude mang luUi h8 trd v6 tinh cam ena xa hnihay co niem tin ton giao manh me. Nhan vien CTXH can xem xet khanang nay trong khi tign hanh su danh gia va eang can giup gia dinh hayca nhan khach hang xem xet cac the manh ben trong vein eh caa ho haynhung the manh ma co the da dude phat tridn trong qua trinh lam viee veinhan vien CTXH. TInieng thi khi nhigu khach hang tim den van phong to van oha nhan vien CTXH, ho dal bi nhieu ngttai thueng xuyen bao rang ho la nhung nneiehang ra gi, rang ho khOng clang htieng nhung gi da co, rang ho chi la kethit bai, vo tich sp. Xac dinh ra three va nhin manh dude vao the the manheaa khach hang khOng chi glop nhan vien CTXH giai guy& yin de voikhach hang trong tudng lai ma no con gnu) khach hang nhan ra nhungphgm chit tit dm) van ton tai trong ho de ho bat dAu nghi ve nhiing phamchit do voi to each IA nhung tai san chu killing phai la nhung cai ho dangthieu hut. Trong qua trinh xac dinh the thg manh eaa ca nhan, nhan vienCTXH co the can chid ST da. e biet den bat cif vioc gi ma ho thiy khach hangcaa minh lam duck tit dep. Nhan vien CTXH thUang thiy rang h9 thueng Anderson, I. (1997). Social work with groups. New York: Longman.76
  • 76. xuyen chi ra nhang net tinh each ho5c hanh vi tich c4ic du nha nhat haydon gian va n14thl manh vao can net tinh each hay hanh vi do. Dieu nay c6thg c6 nghia la nhan vien CTXH nhan dinh rang khdeh hang den de ducthe trd - va day la met buds di ce dinh htteng Cowger va Snively da phat triers nhiing Intang clan sau cho viec danhgia dua tren the manh cith khdeh hang: 1. Ltiti Y hang &Au den each hieu cua khach hang v6 cac eti kien th4ic t6. Quan diem ceia khach hang ve tinh hu6ng, nghia ma khach hang quy gan cho tinh hu6ng va cac cam gide hay tinh cam c6 lien quail den tinh hu6ng do IA trong tam da viec ddnh gia. 2. Tin vao khach hang. Dieu cot lei trong quan diem v6 cac the manh la met ni6m tin sau sac rang khach hang la nhang ngtthi Bang tin cay... 3. Kham pha nhilng gi khach hang mong muen. CO hai khia canh ma khach hang mong muen c6 the ed eait len met thea thuan giva nhan vien CTXH va khach hang. Dau tien la khaeh hang muen va by vong gi ii dich vu he trd nay? Thu hai la khach hang naueen chuyen gi se xay ra trong mei quan he gicia khach hang veil tinh hu6ng hien tai cua nguoi do. 4. Chuyen viec danh gia ve phia khach hang va ve viec danh gia the manh tinh hu6ng. Hien nhien la luau c6 nhcing trd ngai ca nhan hay trd ngai tinh hu6ng d6i ved viec giai may& cac tinh hu6ng kho khan... Thg manh cua khach hang la phdang ties de giai quy6t cae tre ngai nay met each sang tao. 5. Dua ra danh gia v6 the manh da chieu. Viec danh gia da chieu can dude phat huy trong CTXH. Viee dieu tri dua tren quan diem v6 the manh co nghia la nhan vien CTXH phai tin rang cac the" manh va cac ngutin Luc de giai quygt met tinh hu6ng kh6 khan nam ngay trong cac ki nang lien nhan, deng hie, the manh tinh cam va kha nang to duy mach lac caa khach hang. Cac the manh to ben ngoai co the la W mang ludi quan he gia dinh, nhung ngitai quan trong khfic, cac t& chic tinh nguyen, cac nhem eeng deng... Cowger. C. D., & Snively. C. A. (2002). In a Saleebe (Ed.). The strengh perspective in social work practice (3". ed.. pp. 106-123). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 77
  • 77. 6.sa dung cach danh gia nham ttm ra diem di biet. Tam quan trong caa diem di biet va viec ea nhan hOa da dude Meyer (1976) xac dinh la: "Khi met gia dinh, mat nham hay met ding deng bi ca nhan no dttoc nhan dien qua tinh di biet caa no, mac du rang no clang co diem chung voi cac Ong deng Wong to nhu no". 7. Sit dung lai not cua khach hang. Cac thuat nga chuyen nghiep v6 khoa hoc xa hei khong phii hdp in% phuang pita) tiep can trong danh gia dua tren viec hap tac giva nhan wen CTXH vi khach hang. 8. Dila ra danh gia met hoat deng chung gicia nhan vien CTXH va khach hang. Nhan vien CTXH có the toi thieu hem su mat can din v6 quy6n luc giaa nhan vien CTXH va khach hang bang each nhgn manh vao tam quan trong caa cac suy nghi clang nhu nhu cdu caa khach hang. 9. Dat tdi stt thth thuan chung va viec danh gia. Nhan vien CTXH Wang nen ti6n hanh danh gia bi mat. Tit ca nhung danh gia bang van ban can phai duct chia se WO khach hang. 10. Tranh viec de 1oi. Danh gia va de l& cho can gi do co the bi nham lan vdi nhau. Viec do" 16i la viec di kem song hanh vdi su suy thohi trong mo hinh ctigu tri. 11. Tranh to duy nhan - qua. Viec phan xet chuyen mon va cac gia thiet va nguyen nhan co the la each diau tri gay hat ldn nhit d6i vdi klitich hang. 12. Hay danh gia, dung ce chin doan. Viec chin tri khang bao gid Wang thich, phi. hop vdi quan diem digit tri bang the manh. Viec chin tri duck hien trong hoan canh mac benh If, su suy thoai co ban, va viec nay Iai dua tren quan niem chung va hien time - viec xac dinh cac tinh hu6ng mang yin de theo met each thac gi6ng nhau. Cac mo hinh danh gib khac Ngoai nhung nte hinh danh gia dua tren nhiing quan diem li thuyeetcu the, chi-Mg to thKy con co nhieu mau danh gia phe bi6n khac. Phan ti6ptheo caa chttong nay trinh bay met s6 me hinh mau ma chting t6i tin langudi dieu tri can hieu, dac biet khi ho ph6i hop vdi nhung chuyen giathuec the linh yip khac.78
  • 78. Cach danh gia bing viec lip th6ng ke va chin doan Ban cdm nang thong ke hoc va chin tri del vdi thing r6i loan tamthan (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM) dadude xuat ban Ian dau vao nam 1954. Do la phien ban khac dm clan Cdehphdn loci quth to th the bqnh tqt (ICD), ban in lan thit 6, co bao g6m heth6ng phan loai do TO Chic Y to The gidi sit dung. Trong cuen do, WTO dade cap lan dau tien den thing rth loan tam than. Khi DSM-III due xuatban nam 1980, cu6n sach da co nhung thay dth so vdi hai Ian phat hanhdau. Lan dau lien he thong chin tri da true dude thuc hien ding vdi platingphap tip can phi li thuyet trong viec phan loai cac rei loan. Trong tam dude(tat vao viec mieu to da, c diem che rth loan, ma kh8ng hg cb viec mien to canyeti to la nguyen nhan có the co, ngoai trit khi co thing cd ro rang a xacdinh do la nguyen nhan (Chang han raw thing dien cuing do mat Wh v6 mach matt nal) gay ra). Hon nua, DSM kheng gdi y cac hinh thitc diet tri. DSM-IV-TR the hien 16 kidu danh gia de dieu tri chinh, trong so do cif) danh gia ve r6i loan có lien quan den chat kith thich, rth loan tam trang, rth loan sti lo Lang, r6i loan tam than phan each va cac thing r6i loan tam than khac roi loan nhan each. Trong mei met kieu rth loan tren, lai co tim thay nhung rth loan cu the. Vi du, a chitng rth loan tam trang co tram cam, rol loan Kiang cue I va IL DSM het ke va mieu to nhung dac diem nth bat phan biet kieu r6i loan nay vdi nhUng kieu khac. Ke tit lac ra dal DSM-III, met he thong danh gia da true da chick rip dung trong linh vile site khee tam than. Muc dich la dam bao viec danh gia thau dao ye khfich hang khong chi d nhiing rth loan vg tam li hay r6i loan bOh tat, ma ea rth loan nhan each, cac dieu kien chaa benh, cac van de mang tinh tinh hueng, kern theo met phuong phap hay met thang danh gia mile do thkic hien chile nang tong quit cda mOt cl6i Wong. Trdc I la "nhung rovi loan lam sang". Day la nhitng rth loan chinh, ngoai frit thing cham chap tam than va chfing r6i loan nhan each, co xuat hien khi di kern vdi cac "(lieu kien khac" co the la trong tam theo dth vg mat lam sang. Tren true II la nhung rth loan nhan cash VA thing cham chap tam than. Co the they ri5 cd che phOng ye n6i bat a day. Muc dich cua viec tech rieng hai thing rth loan nay la dd dam bao rang thing dude danh gia la nam trong lieu chi danh gin chung. 79
  • 79. True III nham the hien bat ki dieu kien y to nao eó lien quan den cluingrgi loan lam sang. NO cling gitip cho viec dam bao chc n6 luc digu tri cho cahai: benh tat va Ka loan than kinh. Cac dieu kien benh tat se có the anhhuang true tigp den chiing tea loan than kinh, nhu trong trdeng hdp bi ngedoe thu6e digu tri clan den chiing hoang Wang, hay cac tae deng gian tigpnhu trong truang hop mac chiing viem kilo) man tinh kern theo tram earn. True IV cling liet ke cac yin de mang tfnh tinh hugng va tam If quantrong gay anh htfong den chfing rgi loan than kinh cUa met dOi Wong, viecdigu tri hay kgt cue dia su viec. Cac of du co the la viec ly than hay ly hen,mat viec lam, ngheo khe, Chia ly do nghia vu quan su, viec lam dung gi do,viec mat di met ngUdi than hay viec thigu then Kt he trd cua cOngNhan vien CTXH, nhiing ngitai theo quan diem lay del tUdng cu the trongtinh hugng lam trong tam, dip tren true nay co the can thiep giup de khachhang dude tot hdn. True V cling dude ke den nhu la met each danh gia mite thtfc hienchile nang tong the cUa del hieing. Cac mile de duct tinh tren Thang Danhgia Chile Wang Phe vat (Global Assessment of Functioning — GAF) (APA,2000). Cach xgp loai the mac do Ethic hien chile nang dude tinh Loan theohai lieu chi. Trude het no dua tren mite do tInic hien chile nang "hien thai"cua khach hang (hay mile de quan tam den viec thue hien chile nang tronghai tuan vita qua). Mile dude danh gia lan dau nay dude so sanh vdi mile dedude danh gia thu hai, ye nuic de thue hien chile nang cao nhat cua khachhang trong met vai thang ena nam vita qua, vdi gia thigt muc tieu diet trila h6 trd khach hang gianh lai dude mile de chile nang cao truck day. Cachxgp loai mile do thtic hien chic nang cling co the dude sit dung de danh giasu tign be caa khach hang trong viec dieu tri. Phudng phap danh gia lay nhi§m vu lam trung tam Phudng phap nay dude sit dung trong rat nhigu cac boi canh va ratkhdp vdi me hinh giai quygt van de. each danh gia nay ye cd ban la mot bechi clan each danh gia va that hanh digu tri, von rat hilu ich cho nhan vienCTXH. Phudng phap nay dude phat trien de gitip nhan vien CTXH Henhanh tong viec dieu tri ngan gon trong khoang thei gian gidi hen. Phudngphap tigp can nay trd gidp khach hang VA htiong dan nhan vien CTXHtrong viec dinh hinh nhung nhiem vu ma khach hang mong moon se hoan80
  • 80. thAnh (KW a có the? giai quy6t mat van cre. ca nhan vien CTXH va khachhang sau do co the lap ra met thoa thuAn hay met kg hoach hoat deng vgvigc hoan thanh nhigm vu nhu the nao giai toa mot van d6. Khach hangva ngitoi digu tri can lap ti6p mot thOa thuan hoax mot ke hoach ntia vg vigchoan thanh nhigm vu rant thg nao. Cau true co ban dm each danh gia lg.ynhigm vu lam trung tam dude mieu to trong tac pham cua William Reednhu sau (1978): Cong viac tier hanh ban dau va tiep sau do deu dude dva tren co sa chac nang thiet yeu cua viec (lieu tri nh5m giup giap khach hang den dint vOi cac giai phap cho ntaitig van de tam Ii-xa hQi ma ho xac dinh &roc va hi vong giai quyg. Tac nhan can ban cua sit thay khong phai la nhan vien CTXH ma la khach hang. Vai tra cua nhan vien CTXH la gitip dd khach hang lap ra di6u eau Uric va sat) !Ong thus hian nhiem vu a dal dude dieu cau ubc de. Qua trinh danh gia trong vige digu tri theo &tang hudng nay ea vaitra rat quan trong vi chinh to day. cac qua trinh giai quygt van dg bat daudude thkic hien. Nhang ai dang phai (tau tranh va tim dgn nhan vier CTXHde co syl h6 trd phai t>t danh gia dude tinh hugng cua rieng minh, vdi sti trdgiap cua nhan vien CTXH, va ho cling phai to xac dinh cac nhigm vu ho canhoAn thanh de tai thien tinh hinh cua minh. Trong tam cua giai phap danhgia nay nam ngay trong kha Wang giai quy6t van de cua d6i ttiOng. Trong vigc he trd lgy nhigm vu lam trung tam, nhan vien CTXH tap trung cha ygu van rarang gi ma khach hang xac dinh la co van dg. Cong viceh6 trd mang tinh ngan han va có thg de clang dtiOc nhan vien CTXH ve.khach hang danh gia. Phuting phap danh gia su lam dung chit kich thich Gigng nhu cac me hinh danh gia khac da chtoc thao luan trong chudng nay, me hinh danh gia vice, c lam dung chat kich thich doi hai st,t can nhac va met se; ki nang da c biet Griffin (1993) cho rang muc tieu cua vigc danh gia , s1,1 sit dung chit gay kich thich tam than bao gam: • Xac dinh xem có sa dung chat kich thich hay khong, a muc do nao, voi catang do nao. • Xac dinh xem chat kich thich thuec loai nao. • Khang dinh xem qua trinh sit dung chat kich thich da keo dai chicle bao Mu. 81
  • 81. • Tim hieu xem lieu co su rgi loan tarn than nao kern theo viec dung chat kich thich khting. • 136 tri bien Oat) digu tri thich hop. Griffin Mu y rang khi danh gia viec sit dung chat kich thich, nhan vien CTXH can to y thdc vg thai do cila rieng ban than ho vdi ma hay va viec lam dung ma UV. LuAn if va thai de the ghat co the gay tra ngai dgn viec dinh gia hanh vi cai nghien caa met ca. nhan. Thai do khong phan xet cua nhan vien CTXH co vai tie dac Met quan trong trong viec xay dung mgi,...quag he tot vdi met nguai nghien. Cie can hin trip tip la yeu t6 chi chgt trong viec dash gia nay. Thong finking, met nguai lam dung chat kich thich la bac thay ye che giau ye phi nhan viec co Ming ma ttiy. Hepworth, Rooney, va Lasen (2002, tr.227) gai Y rang khi phOng van khAch hang, nhan vien CTXH nen thing than va tim kigm su tra lai Cu the cila khach hang de khong dinh ye viec lam dung chat kich thich cfm ha. Ha giai thich ti mi rang "viec hOi cac tau hai gion tigp co khuynh httang khign khach hang lang tranh, thodi that va cung cap cac eau tra led khong hau Ich" (tr.227). Khi nhan vien CTXH danh gia cac ca nhan dang nghien ngap, ye ben ngoai caa khach hang co the cung cap cac clan mot chi mile do nghien ngap cila ho. Nhang ygu t6 nhtt thigu ve sinh, viec deo kinh ram de che giau dong i to hi gian, hay each ho c6 che giau cac vet kim tiem met each khac thttang se cung cap cho nhan vien CTXH nhung thong tin quan trong. Cac bao cao phi them tii nhang nguon tham khao to cac thanh vien da gia dinh, bac si, ngttai lanh dao hay he tilling tea an cang can nhan manh. Phutng phap danh gia nhang nguti cao hied Khi s6 ]king nguai gia trong xa hei gia tang, nhan vien CTXH co thechicle yeu tau tign hanh danh gia nhang ngriai cao tu6i do va goi y cac bienphap cai thien chat lacing song cho ho trong qua trinh lao hoa. Mc Innis-Dttrich l cho rang: Qua trinh danh gia nham thu thap thOng fin da dang vg chat !Liana song ye mat tam- sinh-xa-hai cog mat navel gib trong m8i biting cern ngddi d6 khOng chit& quan digm dig ngddi danh gia ma con tit ce quan digm cog ngdoi cao too) da Cach danh gia McInnis-Dittrich, K. (2002). Social work with elders: A biopsychosocial approach toassessment and intervention. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.82
  • 82. tam-sinh-xa-hai hiau qua phai la mot qua trinh clang va Wong tac Ian nhau. Qua trinh nay c6 sir dung den chuyen mon &la nhan vien CTXH vol td each la ngUesi nghien Cal hanh vi con ngadi va nhCMg hidu biet °Oa chinh nhang ngiteri gia ve kha nang sinh ton va phat triOn trong mei trUdng hien tai. Nhang thOng fin thu ludm &lac trong qua trinh danh gia chide sit clung xac dinh xem dich vu 136 trd nao, lieu co, co th4 lam cai thiOn duoc chat lUdng sting cho ngUdi cao tuoi. Cling phii nhan ra rang cluing to can danh gib" ngttai cao tu6i kerntheo gia dinh cua ngitoi do. Bai vi co nhigu ngubi cao tuOi tim den yea dichvu h8 trd trong hoan canh can throe cham soc site khge the chat ma th6i,nen da tiing ton tai khuynh hUdng sit dung mo hinh chila benh truyenfilling lam khung nhan thfic trong viec danh gia d6i Wang nay. Ned eachkhac, theo dUong htiong ho trd do, sue khae cila nguai cao tuth do dude danh r6i Ice dun thu6c, va tien hanh Bien phap sap xep cuec sting nhlim songCOI hon. Nhan vien CTXH dieu tri khach hang cao tu8i can nhan ra rangtham chi ngay ca viec ke don thu6c cling doi hOi met phtidng phap tie) canbao gem ca viec nghien din ve ngitoi cao tu6i va gia dinh cim ngitdi do. Vi du, met nguoi cao titer khong sari long hay khong co kha nang ueing thu6c dung gio dung each don nen khong et.) sit giiip do cua gia dinh ngtkii dky. Phtiring phap danh gia nguoi cao tuoi doi hOi nhan vien CTXH xem xet met dai quang phe cira nhung lue tac deng tam-sinh-xa-hei. Kelley- Gillespie da phat trim mot me hinh danh gia bao g6m sou link vile chinh trong mien song: lanh manh trong quan he xa hqi, lanh manh trong tinh trang the chkt, lanh manh trong tarn li, lanh manh trong to duy, lanh manh trong tam linh va lanh manh trong mai trMing song. CO the thaty re la nhieu linh arc ke tren ggi len nhau va co tac clang fan nhau; tuy nhien chting co the gulp nodi dieu tri tap trung vac) nhiing linh yip quan trong nay khi ha tign hanh qua trinh danh gia. Cach tin hanh cao the nha nghien c3u trong linh uric iao hOa co viec ap dung cac tong cu do lifting khac nhau de xac dinh re hon nita linh we tren Ira cung cap cac chi sot dinh tinh va dinh Wang vg tat ca nhung gi dang then ra trong M91 linh vuc song ciia ngtioi cao tari. Bac biet, phttOng phap danh gia ngtteii cao bath d day la pinking phap Lien can Loan dian. Cal logic rang can gift met ba cu 92 tuoi trong nha Kelley gillespie. N. (2003). Perceptions of quality of life of the elderly. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Utah, Salt Lake City. 83
  • 83. throng nhu nghe chang hop 1f lam, nhung khi tlafc so xem )(et cac cam giac cua ba co, tim hieu moi mat ye chit Wong sing dm ba cu thi có the dam bao se la tit nhit neu IDA cif duoc quanh qudn trong nha. Vi du, ba co Verna, 92 tu6i, sang trong ngei nha caa minh Min 50 nam, 30 nam coil cila thai ki do ba sing trong canh goa chang. Be co luon thfch thu trong viec tai cham soc ngoi nha va cai san nhA cua minh, cho tai 10 nam gArt day khi ba bi mat thi loc. Gia dinh cfm ba co mail be Cu ye sang vdi ho, nhung ba co khang khang doi sing trong ngoi nha caa ba ma HIM. Rd rang rang ba cu can su gills do asa gia dinh trong viec don dep nhA caa, cung tip ngan Wong thpc cham soc manh san va ho san long chip nhan trach nhiem do. , BA Verna rat bang long có cluoc sO gitip da cua ho va luon co gAng lam gi do. thaHickonlgdatipb. BA Verna da phat tri6n tit ca cac kieu "ha trd" trong nhA de tv gifip minh time hien dticic auk nang sing. BA sap xep da dac de de di chuyen quanh nha ma khang bi yip nga. BA a thfic An a nhfing ndi nhit dinh trong to lanh va trong chan, nha do ba có the dang tim ra difoc khi ba can de chain bi bua an cho ban than. BA con a danh mat hap se-co-la mot ndi da c biet dAi khach den than hi , Be Verna co mat khii ung Hai ndi ml mat va dude chuyen den benhvian de phau tin*. Cuac phau thuAt danh diu su khai (Tau trong viecxuing die vg sue khOe cisa ba co, ba cu dude dua vao trung tam cham socsue khae khi ba rai khai banh vien. Sau mat thai gian ngths a do, ba cu dfitkhoat doi ve nha minh. Sau hai ngay ve nhA, ba cu bao cho gia dinh biet leba "da san sang de ra di" va ba da ra di that yen binh trong ngoi nha cfmrieng minh vdi ca nha vay quanh ba. Viec danh gin vg nguai cao tu6i doi hai nhan vien CTXH s& dung Loan1)0 ki nang cua minh ve nguai cao tutli va gia dinh oua nguai do. Gong viecdanh gia co the trd thAnh tong viec Ming cot a ha trd ngUai cao tuOi camthiy dtteic fiat) sue va viec danh gia nay IA phan cua qua trinh quyit dinhchit luting sang cho ngtibi gia. Phgong plat danh gia nguy co tgtg Vin de to 0,1 duang nha dang gia tang trail town the gidi va nhan vienCTXH eths nam ro cac me hinh hanh vi cim cac ca nhan dang co 5i dinh totit Rit nhieu nguai trong nguy cd thi to co gap kho khan a thai the iu, trong84
  • 84. thdi gian thanh nien, va trong thdi tre. NhUng van dg khong giai quygtdude NS the phat trier dgn dinh diem cUa nguy cd to Co le khong co each danh gift nao kilo khan hdn la c6 xac dinh tigmnang to tii eim mot khaeh hang. Nthing nguai digu tri e6 kl nang thuanthuc phai nAm dude cac chi so nguy co to tit, bat ke nthing gi khach hang don6i. Nhung cha diem not bat do mot ca nhan mugn to tii bee IQ ra du/611g lamot cam gide vg so tuygt vong va su thofii lui earn chin. Hai hanh vi haydude bieu hien hdn ca la khong co kha nang ngn va bi sat can. Beck va &Ongeo (1979) m8 to cac Oran Ung cua khaeh hang co nguy co to to nhu sau: • SSng khong cony nghia gi nna. Tea chang eon gi de trong ngong ncta. • Tea thth su khong chin thing dude I -lila. Tai chua bao gid en the hanh thine. • Tai dang earn thay that khg 86 va day la each duy nhat gitip tot thodt ra. • TOi la mot ganh nang trong gia dinh va ho se dude sung stiOng hdn ngu khong c6 tth. Nhigu chuyen gia tin rang cot Igi cua suy nghi muOn to tit co lien quan dgn cam giac tuyet vong va met su suy giam trong kha nang giai quyet vgn Dg danh gia van dg nay, nhigu thang danh gia khae nhau da dude phat trign. NhUng thang danh gia not bat nhat xuat phat tii li thuyet to duy. Beck va Weishaar (1995) da liet kg mot vai thang danh gia thich hdp hon ea eaa ho trong nghien elk va danh gia tinh huOng tu tu. Beck da phat triers cac khai niem li thuygt vg van dg to tit va each ngan than van dg nay. Digu chU dao trong kgt qua nghien citu aim Ong la van dg tuyet vong. NhUng nghien din dAi ki vg nhiing benh nhan digu tri nth trn va ngoai trn eó dinh to tit da tim ra With rang diem sO 9 va tren 9 tren Thang Dcinh gid Sit Tuy0 Vong Beck mang tinh du doan ve vide to to sau do. Si tuyet vong IA met chi se; du doan nguy cd to t& &A dude chiing minh trong nhigu nghien cum vg sau. Cong trinh aim Beck cling da tao ra mot that nhUng thang danh gia vg su tram cam va so to ta, clang bun y hdn ca la Thang Kham Pha Su Tram Cam Beck, Thang Danh Gia Y Turing Tu Tit, Thang Danh gia Quygt Tam T4 Tit, va Thang Danh Gia Su Tuyet Vong. Thang Kham Pha Sii Tram Cam Beck not tieng hdn ea. NO da dude sit dung trong hang tram dm 85
  • 85. nghien eau va thaang xuyen Wide cac nhan vien CTXH, nhang nha tam 11 hoc, nhan vien vat if tri lieu sa dung de theo d5i mac de tram cam caa benh nhan va khach hang eila ho. Them vao cam gide ve vong hay tuyet vong, the chi s6khac cling chi ra kha nang de doa ty tit Coe chi se nay bao gam the lan thin ty to trade day, met kat hoach hien thyc nham ty ti, lich s& c6 nguai ty ta trong gia dinh, co sy lam dung chat kich thfeh va sy thieu the he thong he try. Nhan vien CTXH can dac biet chi den cac chi s6 nguy td ty tit Iran neu ho hinh thanh dude met boat nhang me hinh to duy cu the. Ti 10 ty to 6 vi thanh nien va ngitai tre tuei dang gia tang met each day kich tinh trong yang vii nam vita qua, Thang Kham Pha Chang Cang Thang Tre Vi Thanh Nien (Adolescent Stress Inventory — ASI) da dude phat trien. Thang nay phan biet the tre vi thanh nien phai nhap vien vi this ty ta voi nhang tre nhap vien vi if do berth tat. Met quy trinh phan tich da dem lai tam hang liar phan biet cac cam glee caa ngitai this ty ta vi tuyet vong vg bluing lai nhu eau: cam giac tai kh8ng the nhan daye sy gulp da; c6 suy nghi ve viec ty gay ten nuking cho minh; cam gide ngitai khac la nguyen nhan caa van de cua minh; khong they chic chain ve pham gia caa ban than; kh8ng e6 kha nang bee le re cam giac ca nhan; cd thai de lieu cyc clai v6i cuec sang; cam giac so hai; suy ughf ve van de tinh duc dang quayray ban than. Them vac S mue tren, nhang ngttai tang that ty to cep bao caave cac van de saw viec trail hoc, viec sa dung ma ttly, slit dung rack. Hocling boo cao cac van de ye tinh yeu va sy hai hoa trong cuec sang gia dinhcaa ho va van de giao tiep vdi 1)6 caa ho. Neu nhan vien CTXH xac dinhduct rang dai Wong de dinh gia dang cep nguy cd ty ta, ho phai sin sang cc(deng h6a he thong he trd caa khach hang va ha tri dinh gia vg tam than raic6 the yeu thu nhap vien digit tri. Viec dinh gia nguy cd ty ta la viec kh6khan b6i cuec sang con flak Mon gap rai ro. y Wang ty to di the la met laikeu eau del hOi phai ce dude hanh dog nhanh chong va c6 can nhae caanhan vien CTXH. Ngttai dieu tri cling can nhan fink dude tinh hieu quacua viec sa dung ca the bien phap sa dung thuac men va hien phap ta vantrong qua trinh ngan than nguy td ty ta. Hepworth. D. H., Earley, 0. W., & Grifiths, J. K. (1993). Assessing and treatingsuicidal adolescents and their families In J. B. Rauch (Ed.), Assessment: A source book forsocial work practice (ppl 91-103). Miwaukee, WI: Families International.86
  • 86. Vigo bgt dgu dgt muc tieu trong danh gia Khia canh thu ba tha viec danh gia la dtia khach hang Mn nhiena vudat ra nhang muc tieu thkic tien. NMI cid de. cap a phan (tau caa chtiOngnay, viec danh gia chtec xem kat la met san pham cimg nhti chicle Kern xet lamet qua trinh. Trong tat ca cac ygu to tha qua trinh nay, khach hang can&lee khuygn khich elg tham gia day du vac) viec dat ra muc tieu hay phoonghoax-1g ho mugn tien hanh trong hoot deng digu tri. Qua trinh dat muc tieu Uri the khac nhau duo tren co sa the li thuygtkhae nhau. Vi du vai phtiOng plthp trip can danh gin lay dgi Wong lamtrung tam se cho pilau va khuygn khich khach hang hoan toan to dot laymuc Hen tha minh. PhOdng phap tip can danh gia hanh vi hoc lai dOi hOicó su tham gia tich cue hdn tha ca ngudi digu tri va khach hang trong viecxac dinh van de, sau do nhan vien CTXH se goi Y met kg hoach can thiep Cuthg de khach hang can nhac ltra chon. Tat ca cac 11 thuygt va me hinh da dg cap dgn trong chtiOng nay c6 mot chit dg xuyen su6t tiAm an - khach hang phai chtkic tham gia day du trong vies dat ra muc tieu va phai hap cac muc lieu nay vdi co eau nhan each cua rieng ho. Nhan vien CTXH se thay bile bei neu khach hang t3 chgi viec the dinh muc lieu. Nhung day ce the chinh la 11 do tai sao khach hang cO van de. can su 116 tro cua nhan vien CTXH. Nhan vien CTXH can flip tue xay dking cac moi quan he vdi nhung khach hang do va c6 de hp dupe ttl do 11 qua trinh dat nave tieu digit tri cfra chinh minh. Qua trinh dat ra muc tieu la met phfin chinh tha kg hoach kit Link can thiep, bat &lir ngay to giai down dau tien caa qua trinh digu tri. Dg thug cap chat Wong h6 tra, the ca nhan can c6 kha nang dat ra va thkic hien dude mue tieu. ca khach hang va nhan vien CTXH can phai danh gia ca inn va ngoai hie dang tac &ling din khach hang va lap ra muc tieu nham thay dgicac ho, thing sinh hoc, tam if hoe va mei trtiang. Ben canh viec tao ra su hth hop vol khach hang, qua trinh lap mue tieu di kern vdi viec 1pa chon bien phap can thiep va ki thuat can thiep Cinch hOp la trong tarn cila viec Hap hanh CTXH true ti6p. 87
  • 87. TOM TAT Chuang nay gidi thieu cho nhan vien CTXH khai niem danh Danh gia la mot phan thigt ygu caa CTXH va ea the dude xem nhu IA mo t o sam pham va la met qua trinh. Dd la met qua trinh khi nhan vien CTXH Wong tac vdi khach hang; nhung tai thai didm din ra quygt dinh khac nhau, viec danh gift lai tra thanh met san phfim dinh Inking cho viec lap kghoach true tip va can thiep trVc tigp. Viec danh gia del hei nhan vien CTXH phai ce kha n5ng phat tridn met mgi quan he tong tac tgt dep hay su hoa hap vdi khach hang va su hidubigt cac khia canh Ii thuygt hay me hinh ma ho dp dung trong danh gia.Nhiem vu danh gia cling to ra rat quan trong trong giai doan dan caa quatrinh lap muc tieu. Nhiem vu danh gia trong CTXH rat kh6 khan vi tongviec nay xa li nhung van dg con nguoi trong bSi canh xa hei ma ho song. Chuang nay tang bao gem met mo hinh co eau don gian goi la tacBong nei luc va ngoai lve khuygn khich nhiing nhan vien CTXH mdi vaonghg t6 chile qua trinh W duy cua minh trong cong vier danh gia. Nhungme hinh danh gia khac nhu la DSM, din tren sac manh, 1 6y nhiem vu lam .trong tam da dage gidi thieu vdi to each la nhiing phudng phap gitip nhanvien CTXH Ira sinh vien higu dude rang each ho nhin nhan qua trinh danhgia phai la st„t ph6i hdp cua nhigu Ii thuygt khac nhau, von tang ngay tangtra nen 016 bign hon. Cugi ding, met phan caa chuong daa dude danh ye qua trinh lapkg hoach trong danh gia. Che ca nhan có van dg can ginp dd phai co metkitting khi rung tinh he trd va nhat quan dd &ship ho dat ra muc tieu &laminh va thuc hien chic nang sbyng t6t hon.88
  • 88. Ch uang 3 KIEN THCfC VA Id NANG LAP Kt HOACH Trong chtiong 1 chUng to (la "nhap cuac" vOi to each la met nhan vienCTXH, ti4p the vol khach hang va gidp ho san sang chia se van de enaminh. d chaong 2 chang to da xem xet cac int& can thiet de co the danh giachi tiet nhu can chia se dm khach hang. Trong chaong nay chung to se taptrung vao btroc tiep theo caa quo trinh try ginp - lap ke hoach. De bat dau cluing to hay cling xem xet met tradng hop Cu the sau: Anh Tam /a mot gicio Men tier hoc 35 PA. Anh theta lap gia dinh va de day hoc sinh lap 6 dime 10 nam. Tit tritdc din nay, anh lien cho rang anh tit kiein soot &toe cuec sing era minh. Rai moi Bat thay doi hoan town khi Ong be ue httu ciict anh bi dau tim dot quy; me anh bi ngii dap hang; nzei quart he tit ctep Zeal nay gilla anh ud mot co gido day cling tritang deg ngelt chim dia. Tert cci nhl.tng dieu nay lam anh bi mat ngei eta cam thiy chdn ndn vo cling. Binh Hwang anh Tam chin bao Rid nghi Zd minh se can din trl vein, thdm chi anh cam nghi nger ye tinh than thite cua viec tit van. Tuy nhien, khi bi rdi vao heart ccinh nay, anh mien citang goi ctien din met trung tam tie yin de sap xi() mot euOc hen vdi mot nhcirt vien CTXH. Qua tinh huong tren cluing to c6 the thay la th6ng anteing cac khachhang deli c6 cam gide giong nhu anh Tam trong vi du tren. Ho tim Mn vdidish vu to van nhu la giai phap mai clang va ha cang tiep can dich va naymet each raa, than trong. Li do chit yeu la vi ho khong hieu re Ire tong tac tovan cling nhu khong biet to van se mang lai cho ho nhang ldi ich gi. Co the Me Tau khach hang coi nhan vien CTXH la nguesi la va camthay kh6 c6 the EMI nhan la ho khong thg kiem seat (Wet mac song rimminh nhung sau mgt thei gian tip the vdi nhan vien CTXH, khach hang seeam thdy thoai mai lam va bat dau chia se cac van de caa minh. Khichuyen sang met giai doan mdi la giai doan lap ke hoach to van, met sokhach hang van co the co den chtit lo ngai ve mite dg tram trong trang vande cria ban than ho va lo so ho e6 the phai mat den vai thong tri lieu. Tuy 89
  • 89. nhien nen nhan vien CTXH the hien dude su deng cam vdi khfich hang,khang soi xet, so sanh thi nhiing khach hang hic con dau lo ngai nett he notra van de thi se lam hinh anh dna minh xAu di se cam thfiy de Chia xe hon.Nhcing nhan vien CTXH day dan kinh nghiem Mon tim moi each a quatrinh tu van tra nen gan gui va than thien Min dei TM khach hang. De qua trinh to van duos thuc hien met each a dang Mtn, can thao ramet hop deng thoa thuan tu van dya trait nhang danh gia chi 661 ve nhueau cua khach hang et-mg nhu cac dich vu ma trung tam tu van eO the cungcap cho khach hang. Bay gia chting to se xem xet ki hon khai niem hOp deng noi chung vahOp deng to van not rieng. Hgp d6ng tu van Barker (1999, trung 103) dinh nghia hOp deng tu van IA "mot sit thodthuan bang mieng hoac bang van bdn hodc is met su thod thwim ngdm dinh khcich hang vet nhan vien CTXH ue mue tieu, phdang phdp, tieit trinhthuc hien va trdch nhiem cda hai ben trong bade can thiep sau nay". — Hai dac diem chinh cna met hOp &Mg: + Hop &Mg la met su thoa thuan giCta hai hoac nhieu ben +Hop deng la mot sii thoa thuen bang mieng hoac bang van ban — Qua dinh nghia tren có the daffy met hop clang tu van cO hai dac diem: + ski thoa thuan giCta khach hang va nhan vien CTXH + LA sti thoa thuan bang mieng hoac bang van ban Su thoa thuan a day cO the dude bleu theo nhiing nghia sau day: (1)su &Ong g; (2) su phu hOp Sr hien; (3) ski sap xep phttong attic hanh dong; (4)ski rang buec ve mat phap Khi khach hang va nhan vien CTXH (Tong g hop tac vol nhau vinhiing mue tieu da xac dinh thi co the di den met hop ding tu van. Su thoitthuan nay la ket qua caa hang boat cac cuec thao luan gitla khach hang vanhan vien CTXH de quyet dinh xem dich vu to van nao se dem lai lqi ichcho khach hang. Thong thttang khach hang va nhan vier CTXH co the datdude thoa thuan ngay sau met cuec than luau nhung cling co the hai benphai lam viec yeti nhau them hai hoac ba lan ink de có the di den thoathuan cuoi cUng.90
  • 90. Trong hai bit& datt dm qua trinh to van la huge nhap cups va danhgia, Chung ta nen tap trung danh gin diem manh va diem yiu &Oa khachhang va hieing giai quyet van de. Nhiing danh gia nay clang vai trO ye clingquan trong trong viec gilep khach hang va nhan vien CTXH lap kg hoach tovan dat hieu qua, dap ling duct nhu cau cua khach hang. Met thoa thuan to van cling la met su hoe deng 4 kign hoar met sii&Mg g. Nhan vien CTXH va khach hang cling thoa thuan lam viac vdi nhauvi met muc tieu chung; met van de hoac mat mgi quan tam lo bang makhach hang da )(he dinh trong the buela thao luan. Sau do nhan vien CTXHb6 sung them nhung diem ma khach hang cluta dg cap din. Vi du nhanvien CTXH cho rang vi truck do khach hang da co nhung hanh clang bao lkicnen muc tieu can dat ra la lam thg nal) de kiem sokt au kw glen. CO the khinhan vien CTXH da xuet raw tieu nay, khach hang khong &Ong Sr. Neukhach hang va nhan vien CTXH khOng cling quan diem thi khong nen dua dieu nay vao trong hop dOng. Ngu trong the bu6i thao luan tip theo nhan vien CTXH van thgy can phai dua digu nay vao trong hop deng thi có the thao luan lai van dg vdi khach hang. Met sp thoa thuan cling la su sap xgp each Hi& hanh deng. Trong met hop dgng, khach hang va nhan vien CTXH khong chi thoa thuan [hue hien the muc Lieu chung da de ra ma con phai thoa thuan cu the ye each thitc hanh deng. Digu nay co nghia la nhan vien CTXH se sft dung hien but va kinh nghiem cua minh de gulp khach hang; trong khi do khach hang cling cam kit ne, hic het minh de ding giai quygt van dg. St, thoa thuan nay bao gem viec xac dinh cac viec can lam trong suit qua trinh to yen, vi du nhu nang cao Id nang giao tigp, phat trik ki nang giai guy& van dg, tham gia tap hugn kigm che tut gian va cac each thile hanh deng khac. Cling can phai cd sU thoa thuan ciea khach hang ye the hanh deng cu the cho m6i to van va giUa cac lan to NMI,. Nei each khac, khach hang can cam kit no hit hit minh trong cac budi td van cling nhu cam ket hoar thanh the nhiem vu cu the &dila cac buei to van de tap trung giai quyit cac van de da xac dinh va cac muc tieu da thoa thuan. Met st/ thoa thuan clang co the doge xem nhu mat giao keo co tinh chat rang buck ve mat phap li va co gia tri hop phap. Viec nhan vien CTXH nhan phi dich vu to khach hang clang nghia vdi viec anh ta clang y cung cap dich vu trung &tong vdi khoan phi ma khach hang tra. Neu khach hang 91
  • 91. tigp tut tra phi tu van có nghia la khach hang cong nhan dich vu ma nhan vien CTXH cung cap la tot va phu hop. Thuc chat su thoa thuan tra Lien cho met dich vu lA mot su trao dei nguen Luc. Khach hang dungy tra tign cho dich vu ma ho khgng the tu minh cung cap va ngudc lai nhan vien CTXH se cung cap dich vu trong su hien bigt va chuyen mon cua minh. Mgt hOp long to van cling dude coi la it rang buec hdn mot hop deng phap Cac ki nang phat tri6n mot hpp d6ng to van Ndi Chung de dat duct muc tieu da dg ra hoac giai quygt van dg da duck xac dinh, met hop deng to van giga khach hang va nhan vien CTXH thUang bao gem cac digu khoan eau: 1. Muc Lieu hoac van de can dude to van giai quygt. 2. Cach thge thuc hien. 3. S6 lan to van can thigt. 4. Phi dich vu tu van. Buda dau Lien trong dam phan hop deng la xac dinh muc lieu ma khach hang mugn dat duct hoac xac dinh van de ma khach hang mugn tap trung giai quyet trong qua trinh to van. De bat dau thao luam nhan vien CTXH co the de nghi khach hang mg to chi tigt cac van de eua minh. Nhieukhach hang c6 the mg to cac van de cna minh met each a clang hoac khgngc6 gi ngai ngUng. Trong tam trang tut gian va bye bOi khach hang có the kera hang boat cac van dg eua minh, vi du nhu bi vo hoac thong hieu lam hoackhgng clanh gia &mg; mot Ong chit qua (lei hui va khO hop tae; con trai hoaccon gal narn ngoai tam kiem sok.. Doi vdi nhang khach hang khong the nagto cac van dg cUa minh met each a clang, nhan vien CTXH can tao didukien bang each hoi han khach hang ve cac mat khac nhau trong cuec songcga ho vi du nhu cong viec, gia dinh, ban be, vv. Nhan vien CTXH cung c6 the bat dau bang each bgi khach hang vgdo ho tea gap minh va ho hi vong dat dude nhcing gi trong qua trinh to van.each nay dac biet hat ich trong viec xac dinh quan ctiern cua khach hangva muc dich cUa ho khi di to van. Ngu khach hang va nhan vien CTXH chi tap trung vat) van de cangiai quygt thi qua trinh tri lieu &tang nhu se mang tinh tieu eve chg khgngphai la tich cue. Mgt each de lam qua trinh tri lieu mang tinh tich cue lion92
  • 92. la de nghi khach hang liet ke ra met seek muc ben ma khach hang muohdat dude vdi sq trd gidp cua nhan vien CTXH. Cac muc lieu ce the bao gemcac hanh Ong, of du nhu quay Ira lai Huang hoc, hoe giao tigp met each cóhieu qua hdn, theo duei met sa thich hoac tham gia vao Ong deng Halingqua cac hoat clang tinh nguyen. Met each khac d@ thigt lap mac tieu vdikhach hang la de nghi khach hang dUa ra nhang thay dei tich cue makhdch hang mugn trong cuec song cua minh. Viec tap trung giai quygt theohttong Etch cue se lam giam di tinh tieu cue thlidng xtat hien trong giaidoan &Au cua qua trinh tri lieu va day manh hdn Ma cac tin trien trong qua trinh to yen. Trong hdp deng ttt van cling can ghi re cac each thitc ma nhan vien CTXH se gulp khach hang dat dude muc lieu va giai guy& van dg. Met bien phap tri lieu ph6 hien ma nhan vien CTXH finking thing la digu trf ve mat nhan thtic. Khai niem cd ban trong dieu tri ve mat nhan thiic IA ski tin Wang vao nhiing gi moi ngudi nghi vg minh se tac thing den viec ho cam they the nao va chfnh digu nay anh huffing Ion dgn hanh vi cua ho. Trong cuen "Digu tri nhan thitc ve ski bugn than" (1979), Aaron Beck Cho rang nhung nguati trong trang thai Mien than tIntang nghi vg ban than minh, ye the giai xung quanh va tudng lai cua ban than met each rat lieu cue. Vol phudng phap dieu tri nhan thitc, nhan vien CTXH gitip khach hang tim hieu each nghi cua minh thong qua vies xac dinh nhiing eau not mang tinh tieu cue va goi day la ygu to anh Intang den sai Lech trong nhan thite, ding thdi ginp khach hang et) nhCing each nghi tich cue hdn. Khi Hen hanh phudng phap dieu tri nhan thdc, nhan vien CTXH thuong yeu eau khach hang hang ngay ghi chop lai cac can not mang tinh tieu cue va sau do diing nhiing ghi chop nay de kiem tra xem chting anh huong the nao dgn tam to va hanh vi cua khach hang. Met phudng phap tri lieu khac ma nhigu nhan vien CTXH sii dung IA me hinh tam If citing hoc. Me hinh nay dkia tren quan diem: nhang gi met ngitai da trai qua trudc day trong cuec song cua minh, dac biet la trong giai doan the au va thoi ki tre con et) tac deng Idn den hanh vi cua noel nay a giai doan Huang thanh. Nhan vien CTXH khi sit dung me hinh tam li deng hoc se gitip khach hang xac dinh va tim hieu nhung trai nghiem trtidc day trong cuee song anh huang the nao tai hanh vi hien tai cua ho. Vi du met ngttai phu nd tre sinh ra va Idn len trong met gia dinh chi co me, khOng ce 93
  • 93. b6 có the gap khO khan trong khi giao tigp vdi ngudi khac gidi. SU dung me hinh tam li Wing hoc, nhan vies CTXH cling co the gilip khach hang cila minh xac dinh duce cac co chg tii ve ma khach hang dang sit dung dg del mat vdi thg gidi xung quanh minh, ang thdi kham pha xem lieu nhiing cd chg to vg nay mang Lai loi ich gi cho ban than khach hang. Trong hop &Ong to van cling can phai ghi re seibutii tit van can thigt de co the dat dude muc Lieu hoac giai quygt /Woe van dg. Frau hgt cac trung tam to van gang tong va to nhan deo sit dung hinh ante tri lieu ngan han, trongdo gidi han s6 Ian to van la tit sau dgn tam lan. Trong sugt sau dgn tam Ian to van nay, khach hang va nhan vien CTXH tap trung vao rime tieu hoac vandg ma khach hang da xhc dinh. Trong nhigu tritang hop, trong sugt sau dgntam lan tit van có nhung tign trien (Ling ke trong viec gidp khach hang datchide muc tieu hoac giai quygt clitoc van de. Vi du met cap vd cheng mugngiao tip vdi nhau met each co hieu qua hdn thi can phai dat dude nave tieunay trong sau can tam both to van. Digu nay cling dung vdi ode muc tieukhac, vi du nhit hoc quan li ngan sash chi tieu 06 hieu qua hdn, lap kg hoachcho sV nghiep, cai thigh mei quan he gifia b6 me va con cai. D8i khi van dg hoac muc tieu ma khach hang dg ra khong the datduct trong veng sau dgn tam bugi to van. Trong truang hop nay co hai sVIva chon cho nhan vien CTXH va khach hang xem xet Iva chon. Su chonthit nhat la tang them hai hoac met s6 Mi & to van nua. Rat nhigu t& eh& .c8ng Ong va to nhan ap dung Iva chon nay. Trong triteng hOp s6 buei tovan khong the keo dai them thi nhan vien CTXH va khach hang sung banbac de di dgn mot kg hoach de sau khi cham dtit hdp d8ng khfich hang vanco the to than van Ong de dat dude rave tieu hoac giei quygt dttOc van dg.Trong kg hoach nay co the co cac hoat Ong vi du nhtt doe sach vg to giliquygt van dg tham gia cac chueng trinh gido due trong ding demg va met se. hoatd,ngkc. Chi phi cho dich vu td van cling co nhigu mite. 6 my met trung tamto van ding tong to van mien phi cho khach hang, dac biet la cac dich vudanh cho tre em va gia dinh, trong khi do có met so trung tam, vi du nhttcac trung tam to van cai nghien ma tuy va rum" cling co cac mite chi phikhac nhau cho the dich vu. COn trong truong hdp khach hang phai tra chiphi dich vu thi muc phi thuang dttoc tinh dVa tren thu nhap binh quart dmkhach hang.94
  • 94. Sau khi khach hang va nhan vien CTXH da thoa thuan dude vdi nhauche diet; khoan da hop deng, hai ben se di den ki kgt met van ban hoac chithoa thuan bang mieng. Met sS nhan vien CTXH cho rang chi can thoathuan bang mieng vdi khach hang la dude, sau do nhan vien CTXH se theneac chi tievt da thoa thuan vao mau van ban co san cua trung tarn to van.Van ban nay chinh Hi& hod thoa thuan cua khach hang vdi nhan vienCTXH va tra thanh he so tilting tin ve khach hang do nhan vien CTXHquAnli. Met see nhan vien CTXH sau khi da thoa thuan bang mieng vdi khachhang se ghi lai thanh van ban co" eha ki cua cá khach hang va nhan vienCTXH. Viec ki vao van ban nay se the dinh cho ca hai ben la ho da chinhthitc rang buee trong met hop ding. Van ban nay cling gulp khach hang vanhan vien CTXH di dung trong tam trong sau den tam bu6i to van sau nay.Sau khi ea hai ben da ki vao hop deng thi nhan viep CTXH nen photocoppycho khach hang mat ban de khach hang gilt, tao digu kien cho viec theo doitign trinh lam viec giva hai ben. Thong thuang sau bugi lam viec dau Hen voi khach hang thi hai benda co the hoan thien dude hop dOng. Trong met se truong hop nhat dinh thiphai sau met sg birth tiep the vai nhau hai ben mai có the thue hien dudedigu nay. Neu sau bugi tiep the thU hai ma hai ben chua di dude den thoathuan do su khong ski sang tit phia khach hang thi day có the la h do decham dot dish vu. De danh gia dude thai do caa khach hang, nhan vien CTXH ea the bAt (tau nhu sau: "Trittic hei tea muon not vdi anh I chi va nhiing gi tOt hi yang chang ta có thi dud dadc trong buei horn nay. Be bat ddu anh chi c6 the cho tot biet mot each nein gon mot sd nhiTtng muc tieu hoac vitro di ma anh I chi moon tai glop. Sau do cluing ta se dila ra mot danh sdch ccic mile tieu hoac van de caa anh lchi xep theo trat tie tit vein de quart trong nhdt can gidi quyet; tiep theo chang ta se cling xcic dinh ba hoac bdn udn de quan trong nhcit va hi kit Op &Ong di duct dude muc tieu trong sau buei tit udn tiep theo. Neu sau sau buei met chiing ta vein edm thdy edit them thai gian thi chang ta co the hi hop ddng tiep theo. Anh /chi thdy the nao?" Phildng phap to van theo dinh turfing giai quygt van de Mic the hoacmuc tieu tat& mat rat pile bien hien nay. William J. Reid va Laura trong 95
  • 95. cu6n each mang ten "Nghien ads &fa tren clai trldng eq the oft !cry nhiem uulam trung Mm" dua ra met mo hinh to van kgt hdp cho pile]) nhan vienCTXFI va khach hang tap trung vao cac mug tieu hoac van dg cu thg trongsugt qua trinh tri lieu. Digu nay ginp khach hang bot ma 116, higu re Imn vgban chat am to van va tit do di dgn met hdp d6ng bang van ban va chinhhdp d6ng nay la ngn tang hinh thanh "lieu phap". Trong cu6n "He thong lay nhiem vu lam trung tam", William da chitint hoa phuong phap lay nhigm vu lam trung tam trong tong tac to van.Ngay trong la; not dau cua clan each nay, Ong da tom tat nhung dac diemchinh oua phitong phap lay nhiem vu lam trung tam: Phdcmg phcip ldy nhiem vu lam trung tam la mot he thong the Wore trong gong tcic tit min thick thiei lee" cte gitip moi ngu&i khi gap van de trong cuOc song. Khcich hang chew ginp db. degidi guy& vein de dm mink thong qua cac hanh dOng cua chinh ho hdric nhieng nhiem vu ma to ho lieu chon, lap kehoach vd tiers hanh udi stegiup dd cua nhan uien CTXH. Dick Ent dude sung cap d day dga tren c0 sd nem hcm, có ket edit ua theo hinh nghiem. Nhu vay co the thay phiidng pilaf) lay nhiem vu lam trung tam lapinking phap tap trung vao khach hang va nhang gi khdch hang mugn thaydgi hoac dat &toe trong cuec sang cua minh. Trong khi mO to "cac van dg cua cuoc sang" - trong tam dm plutongphap lay nhiem vu lam trung tam Reid da neu ra nhang van dg ma nhigungitai gap phai trong cuec song, day sung chinh la nhiing van dg gay raphan Idn cac van dg tang thong va hanh vi cu xii. Reid da xgp dm van dgnay theo cac nhom sau day: 1. Xung chit ca nhan: NhOm nay bao gem cac van dg nhu bat hoa tronghen nhan, quan he khong hoa hop Mita be me, con cai va cac van dg canhan khac. 2. Khong thda mein trong the mdi quan he x6, hai: Nhom nay tap trungvao giac quan cua khach hang vg viec ho la ai v & ho cho rang minh dang .thigu/mat mat gi trong cues sang, vi du khong eO nhigu ban be hoac co camgine khong thoii mai vdi nhilng ngudi xung quanh. 3. Cele min de trong cac mai quan he chinh that: Nhung van dg ma khachhang gap phai vdi cac te; chtle, vi du nhit vOi canh sat, toa an, tritang hoc.96
  • 96. 4. Cdc kith khan khi &Mg vat tro cact minh: Nhom nay tap trung vaovai trO ma khach hang cam thdy minh chua thuc hien thing hoac du vi dunhu vai tie) ngubi b6 cua met di ta con trai 16 tu6i hoAc vai tro la ban tinhcua met nguei dOng gidi. 5. Cdc vein de trong uiec dtta ra guy& dinh: Nhom nay bao gem cacvan de ma khach hang gap phai, vi du nhu viec khach hang ban khoankh6ng bit nen lap gia dinh hay quay tra lai truang hoc. 6. Cdc utin da cling thiing tdc Ong den tam to tinh cdm: a day nal tdicac tinh hugng khung holing nhu sau khi ba t, me, thong, con qua (Mi. 7. Thilu theM cac ngudn Vi du nhu thigu tign, nha a, quAn au hoacmet s6 ngugn luc khac. 8. Cdc van do tam li ho6c heath vi khang thuc cdc nham tit:Trong nhom nay bao ggm cac van de nhu nghien ruou hoac thuOc phien. Can Mu y la met ca nhan hoac gia dinh cif) the gap phai mot van debdt ki trong cac van de neu tren, nhung cling có the trong qua trinh danhgia lai xac dinh three nhigh vdn de cling met Khi khfich hang da xac dinh Tdi nhan vien CTXH nhung van de canduet giai quygt trong qua trinh to vdn thi pinking phap ldy nhiem Iry lamtrung tam se tap trung xac dinh va thuc thi cac nhiem va vet mat tam 11 vahanh vi de giai quygt hoac cai thien vdn de. Day la nhung nhietn vu makhach hang se thuc hien voi su tro gitip va khuygn khich caa nhan vienCTXH. Vi du, met khach hang xac dinh vdn de cua anh ta la thigu nguemItfc ve Cal chinh, nhung sau khi xem xet thi vdn de kh8ng phai la a eho anhta thieu ties ma ydn de IA anh ta chua co kg hoach quan li va chi tieu ngansach cua minh met each hop Ii. Trong trdang hap nay, met nhiem vu makhach hang can deng y thac hien la t6ng ket lai xem m&i thong anh ta tigubao nhieu ugh va vao nhiing viec gi. Tip do la khach hang va nhan vienCTXH cling len met kg hoach chi tieu hang thong de ginp khach hang chilieu trong gidi han tai chinh cha minh. Doi TM cac van de khac, khach hang va nhan vien CTXH co the tignhanh cac buds tuning tq nhu trong trueng hap tren. Nuking phap Idy nhiem vu lam trung tam thttang keo dai trong yang tit sau et& anted hai bugi, tuy thuec vao van de cua khach hang. Cach te tt nhdt la bat dau vdi sau hoac tam huei to vdn, sau do neu can thi se keo dai 97
  • 97. them met se- bueb nth. Bien phap gab han vg thai gian nay pith hOp vdi cacphucing thiac digu tri ngan han Bang dude ap dung Ong rai ngay nay. Met dac diem quan trong khac cUa phming phap lay nhiem vg lamtrung tam la met and hinh hoat ding dim tren kinh nghiem. Tim quan trong Mia hqp ding HO ding la met phan quan trong trong cuac sing cua m8i nguai. Dayla nhung so thoa thuan ma Chung to earn kit WS moi ngirdi hoac vii cac t6chug MOt so hop ding dirge hop thlic hoa duel hinh thilc van ban, con mets6 help deng lai chi la cac thoa thuan bang mieng va met cai bat tay hoacmet cai gat eau. Cac hOp ding theo met ngudi t8 khi sinh ra cho den khichit. Cac cap vd chOng khi ang Y lay nhau la dA ki met hOp Ming hop phaphoa hen nhan va viec sinh con de cal sau nay. Con cai cling co hop thing voib6 me trong viec lam mot se cac cling viec nhat dinh trong gia dinh va diilai b6 me se sung cap tin tieu vat hang Wan. Khi nhiing dim tre nay lanhfing thanh thieu nien, chUng cling cam kit viii Ong ding bang each titantheo met s6 quy lac va luat le de co the co ditoc bang lai xe. Khi trtiangthanh ho lai ki kit hop ding vdi cac t6 chile tin dung va ngan hang de muao to, nha 6. Chinh nhung con nglibi nay ding se ki hop ding yeti nha xac delo viec mai tang va chin cat khi ho ra di. Hop clang la nhiing cam kit di dat dude met kit qua nao do. Trongcam kit thiteng ghi re lieu ban thuc hien Imp ding theo dung nhfing gi banda cam kit thi ban se dat duet kit qua cu the. Vi du, nen ban dong § tragip hang thang de mua met ngOi nha trong yang 20 nam, thi sau 20 namngoi nha se la cUa ban ma killing co rig nail viral-1g mac gi Mia; con lieu bankhong thing tign thi ngan hang hoac t6 oink tin dung se tich thu ngei nhacUa ban va dtidng nhien la ban se mat ngei nha do. Trong cac hOp ding Monghi re cac kit qua trong dui; day la yeti to quan trong trong viec thu hilt vaduy tri so quan tam dm khach hang VS. hop &Ong. Hat, het moi ngtibi daukhong tuY tien khi quyit dinh tham gia vao met hop &Ong dOi hei nhigu thaigian va tin bac, vi du nhu mua met ng6i nhA trong met khoang thai gian la20 nam. Cac help (Mug to van ding co tam quan trong Wong hi. Met hap dingto yin gidp thud thi va duy tri cam kit dia khach hang a cai thien cubesing cila dhinh ho. Khi cam kit thoc hien hop ding co nghia la khach hang98
  • 98. hita se thkic hien cac dieu khoan caa hap deng bang ligt kha nang caa minh.Chinh ban than hap clang va nhUng trai nghiem trUdc day dm khach hangtrong cac hap .dgng khac se gitip khach hang that hien lai hfia caa minh.Khi dgng y hap tac vai nhan vien CTXH, khach hang cam kat se cling nhanvien CTXH n6 hie de cat thien chat Mang cuQc sag. Thuat net. ca banmang tinh chat quyet dinh a day la "n6 lac", vi de dat chtac muc tit. dmminh khach hang phai thvc hien met sOnhiem vu nhat Binh. MQt hop dong to van glop thue thi va duy tri cam ket caa khach hang.Cang nhtt cac hap clang khac, hap clang tu van &A trong den tinh nghi8mthe trong cam kat caa khach hang vdi nhan vien CTXH va tai sao khachhang phai tuan tha hap clang ngu mu& dat dude kat qua nInt mong muon.Kho khan cua nhan vien CTXH la khi phai lam viec vai nhang khach hangkhong có Ming Iktc,•nhung ngnai ma vi bat ki li do gi cling khong mugn hanh&Mg de thay clei cuoc song oaa minh. Ban than hop deng khong the giaiquyet &lac van de Mating no se Map rdrac nha khach hang ye tinh nghiemtut cua digu khoan ma ho da earn ket vai nhan vien CTXH. Nhiing khachhang nao co gang n6 Luc de thus thi cam kgt caa minh se la nhung ngtiaithanh ding trong viec cal thien cuQc song. Khi met khach hang phai dea mat vei nhigu van de thi anh to va nhanvien CTXH can Iva chon de tap trung xf.t Ileac van de co the giai quygt dudetrong that gian ngan nhat. Cam giac thanh cong ma khach hang co duqcsau khi giai guy& dude van de day tien se Ian truyen va anh htiang denviec giai guy& cac van de tiep sau do. NM each khac, doi vol met ca nhanhoar mot gia dinh gap phai nhieu van de thi can phai giup h9 dat dudethanh cOng trong met van de nao do tang earn tang tot trong qua trinh tuvan. Ngu khang lam duct dieu nay, khach hang có the cho rang nhang vand6 cua ho la nhang tra ngai khOng bao gid co the vttat qua duct va viec nayse clan den tinh trang than nan, tuyet vong. Day co the la nhung lido danden viec khach hang bluing xuoi va ngiing hap clang to van. Cac y6u t6 eau thanh mot Flip d6ng N6i chung mot hop clang tu van can co hau het cac yeti t6 sau day: 1. Cac muc tiou cua khach hang dude xep theo trot tq ttu tien to vande quan trong nhat den yin de it quan trong nhat. 2. Cac budc hanh Ong hose cac nhiem vu ma khach hang can that thi. 99
  • 99. 3. Cac &Mc hAnh deng hoac cac nhiem vu ma nhan vien CTXH canlien hanh. (Tat ca cac nhiem vu dude de ra cleu nham dat dude muc tieu cUahop ding). 4. Tien trinh thai gian de thuc thi the nhiem 5. ICI nang va phuong phap se sit dung trong qua trinh to van. 6. Cac chi tiat vg van de hau can, vi du nInt thai gian, dia diem to van,chi phi v.v... Vdi met hop deng bang van ban, trong qua trinh Hale hien neu ce. digugi nghi ngij ca hai ben ca the mang hOp &Ong ra xem lai. Cac nghien eiia chothey ea hai hinh thdc hop &Mg bang mieng hoac bang van ban dgu có thechtOc sii dung met each có hieu qua trong cOng tac to van. Trong cuen "Chien lave vd cac mai quan he try giup", Hutchins vaVaught Ming nhah manh tam quan trong dm hop &Ong td van trong trilieu. Ho ktu 5 nhting diem sau trong cac hop deng to van: 1. Met hop thing to van tra gitip se chi re)" the hanh vi can thay va the ket qua kha quan ccing nhtt nhling ket qua tieu cue dat dttoc. 2. Met hop &Ong to van tra gall) ea the la gitia hai ben hoac nhieu ben, vi du nhtt giva gido vien va hoc sinh; giva cac cap vo thong, giva be me va con cai; giva Ong chu va nhan vien; giva cac thanh vien trong gia dinh, ngltdi pham tei vi thanh nien va nmiai quan the giva Ong ba va ngtiai boo ye. 3. Khach hang ce the to cam ket vat minh thay dei hanh vi va se they thoa man vdi ban than. 4. Met hop deing w van tra gitip can phai cu the, chi tigt, ce the thtic hien dude, mang tinh tich m..tc va hUdng toi Wang lai. 5. MOt hOp dong tra gicip ce the dai han hoac ngan han. Nhiing dae diem nay cling gigng vdi nhiing gi Reid va met s6 the giakhae mo to ve hap clang to van. Khi tang ket lai cac yea to co ban trong met hop deng to van, Farleyva cac (long nghiep dm Ong da nhan manh den tam quan trong ciaa viac canthiep eb thin han va cling c6 de cap den cac bai viet trade day cua Ried vaEsptein de minh chUng eho quan diem eim minh. Cocoran va Vandier datrich don cac ldi ich sau day dm chien tact can thiep có thai han:100
  • 100. I. Dich vu có thai han se mang lai hieu qua vg mat chi phi. Met hop (long co thdi han van có the dat dupe ket qua twang to nhu met hop deng dal han voi mile chi phi Hap han nhigu. 2. Nhieu khach hang ditec phut vu hon. KM cac trung tam to van dp dung hinh that sung cap dich vu tren co sa hOp deng se giam thieu Bang ke van de cac khach hang phai xgp hang chd den Mot tit van. 3. Giai han thei gian cling gnip khach hang lac quan thin khi nhan vien CTXH bay to s>t tin Wang rang trong met thai gian ngam có the dat duck: met se tign then nhgt dinh. 4. Dich vu to van co that han cling tao dieu kien cho qua trinh can thiep bang each de cap dgn van d6 nay trong giai doan dau dm hop deng. 5. Dich vu to van co thai han cling phan Chia quy trinh giai quyet van de thanh ba giai doan rach rOi.: giai doan ma dau, giai doan giUa va giai doan ket Hine. 6. Vigo chi tra phi dick vu cling de clang han vi tinh cu the cUa muc tieu va sit gidi han HIM gian. CO the nOi rang hen deng la met ygu to quan trong - ygu Lei quyet dinhden su thanh tong ciia qua trinh tri lieu. Neu khach hang va nhan vienCTXH khong the . &t rig yr voi nhau ve muc tieu, vgn de can giai quyet hoac "nhiem vu can lam thi hai ben se a dang bi mgt phlicing hiking va di lac&tang. Hop deng to van giiip khach hang va nhan vier CTXH luau di thingtrong tam van dg. Ngu khong cif) trong tam nay hoat Wang to van c6 the ditech thoo hudng khac va kheng ce tign trien gi. Mac du vay cling co nhung diem bat lai cua hOp deng to van. Hutchinsva Vaught da trich dan met s6 nhUng bgt cap sau day: 1. Met hOp thing thttang tap trung vao met hanh vi cu the va kgt qua la met so hanh vi khac dang le can throe chu trong thi lai bi b6 qua. Co the can phai có met vai hop deng de gitip khach hang giai quygt nhigu hanh vi. 2. Met hop deng co the la su thoa thuan gliva hai hoac nhigu ca nhan. Nhung trong nhOm khach hang nay lai co ngudi hao hung trong viec thitc hien hop deng hem ngubi kia nen the khach hang, khi da ding cam ket thite hien hop deng phai the hien sit tin Wang lAn nhau. 101
  • 101. 3. Cac ygu t6 ben ngoai có the anh htiong din hdp dang. Vi du met hoc sinh hop ding veil met gilt) vien nhung sau do giao vien nay dtioc phan gang cong tac d mat twang khac. Digu nay co the clan din khO khan trong viec hoan thanh hop dimg ban dau. 4. Cac hOp ding thttong dude viit bao quit qua nen kilo co the bigt tnitic la lieu hop d8ng da dale hoan thanh chua. Can co the hanh vi cu the, vi du nhu theo doi so bugi co mat de danh gia kit qua east met hop ang. 5. Cac hOp ding co hieu qua la cac hOp ding kheng tap trung vao giai quygt qua nhigu hAnh vi. Thay vac) do, hop ding can phai do Wang dude, co the thOc hign dude va ce the dat dude kit qua trong khuon khi thbi gian cho phop. 6. MCt digu can tint la hop ding phai MiOng tdi cac hanh vi mang tinh tich cue chit khOng phai la lam giam cac hanh vi tieu epc. Cac hop ding cling can chti trong din nhung thay dgi tich cue bao gam nhung phan thliang thOc to va hap din, vi du nhu viec mua met ha quart ao dep khi ba me có thai de Lich coc hdn WO con sau met tuan. 7. Met ca nhan cang can phai cam kit co nhung thay dgi vg hanh vi da m6 to trong hOp ang. Ca nhan nay ding can cam kit b6 qua mat so ldi ich nail hop ding khOng chtoc How thi day Xac dint va Iya chyn myc lieu Mot trong nhung each tat nhat de dam phan met hap clang vdi khachhang la hOi thing khach hang xem ho ratan thay dgi hay cai thin nhung gitrong cuec sing hien tai cua ho. Quay tra lai vi dud &Au chuong ve traanghop cua anh Tam, khi bat dau trao dgi voi nhan vien CTXH, co the anhTam not yea nhan vien CTXH la anh mum gitip dd bg me nhigu hdn Iramugn hoc each gaup del ho clang choi vOi tuei gia dang din. CO thg anh Tamclang cho bigt, so tan va trong mai quan he caa anh voi ban gig lam anhcam thay btain va tring vAng, anh mugn tim hieu nguyen nhan cua sti viecIra each de anh cam thay khi hdn. Cuai cling anh Tam cho hay nhilng digunay dang lam anh mat ngii bugi tii, hau qua la ca ngay hem sau anh camthay cau kinh, digu nay anh huang lon din viec day hoc cua anh. Trongtrttong hop nay nhan vien CTXH co the bg sung them vao danh sach cac102
  • 102. van de caa anh Tam la anh phai hoc each dei mat vii eac hat en trong cueesong met each tich cue hdn. Met se khach hang cO the nhanh thong liet kera muc Lieu ma ho mugn dat dude trong qua trinh to vain. Trong hau hetcac truing hop hic &au cac mum tieu nay (Wee de cap den nha la cac vSn dehoac mei quan tam. Met cap vg chOng men midi di. the not rang ho lien tuttai nhau ve van de hen nong va neat van de nan giai nay khOng dupe gillguy& thi no se anh huang den hOn nhan caa Dpa vao phan trinh bay caa khach hang, nhan vien CTXH se the dinhdoge muc Lieu cho cap ve cluing nay la tim hieu xem tai sao ho lai cai nhauve vgn de tign nong va lam the ilk) de hai ben bay to tam to tinh cam meteach có hieu qua hdn. Met khach hang khac có the not rang co ta Mien vathan nan den mac co cam thgy met ngay troi qua that kh6 khan. Nhu vayc6 the suy ra la muc tieu dm qua trinh to vin trong throng Mir) nay la timra each de lam cho cuoc seng vui ve va di. nghia. hon. MOt khach hangkhac noi rang anh ta buem, kheng toai nguyen vii cOng viee caa minh denmac anh ta có the gao that len. Trong truing hOp nay muc Lieu la tim eachde lam cho tong viec caa anh ta c6 y nghia Min hoac xem xat tim kiem caccd hei viec lam khac ma anh ta cam thgy co thaeh that hdn. Cac muc tau phis Welt trong qua trinh to van Cac muc tieu thitang gap trong qua trinh to van kha da dang, phuthuec vao tinh hueng cu the caa tang khach hang. Li thuyet "Ccic he thoilg"hiking din khach hang the dinh muc tieu. Mei ngliai hang new tiep thevii rat nhieu ngudi va to elate xung quanh, do do hinh thanh met he thengtrong cuec song aim ho. Bang each tim hieu he theng nay khach hang eel . thede dang xac dinh ditec vgn de can giai guygt nana a ch6 nao. Cac muc Lieu phi bien thang nam trong nhang khia canh sau daytrong he, theng: 1. Mol quan he gia dinh. 2. Cac mei quan he khac gala cac ca nhan. 3. Vgn de vg tai clanh. 4. Cong viec. 5. Hoc hanh. 6. Xa 11khang hodng. 103
  • 103. Van de ye gia dinh la met van de kha ph6 bign trong to van vi hethong gia dinh la he thong tiem an nhieu thay del va no doi hOi cac thanhvien trong gia dinh phai lien tut dieu chinh de thich nghi. COng vine cuanhan vien CTXH trong trUang hop nay la giup cho cac thanh vier trong giadinh hoc hal nhUng ki nang mai a doi mat yen ma trAn Mon thay del cuahe thong gia dinh. Met van de khac ding kha ph6 bien trong qua trinh to van la cac meiquan he khac giva cac ca nhan ben ngoai he thang gia dinh. Doi khi rawlieu a day la phat tri6n cac mei quan he giUa cac ca nhan a no coy nghiahdn chit khong phai IA tap trung vao giai quygt nhling mei quan he da hipha va. Van de ve tai chinh cang dang ngay cang ph6 bign hdn, day clingchinh 1a nguyen nhan cd ban don den the vu li hen va sp ban than tronghen nhan. Doi khi van de IA thigu ben nhung thong thuang trong tam lacac khoan thu nhAp dude quoin Ii va chi tieu nhu the nAo. Nhiem vu cuanhan vien CTXH la gitip cac ca nhan, the cap vO cheng va cac gia dinh xemxet lai viec chi tieu cua minh, tit do thiet kg chi tigt met kg hoach chi tieu c6hinu qua. Bay gia cling co nhieu khach hang tim den vdi nhan vien CTXH vdicac van de do lien quan den cang vine. Met se khach hang Hay ding viecminh dang lam Mien Chan, met se khac lai than phien vdi sit cang thing yeviec cat giam bien the va nguy ca that nghiep. Nhiing nhan vier CTXH cling tier) xtic vdi nhieu khach hang có van devg chuyen hoc hanh. Cac khach hang thuang phai quygt dinh xem co nenquay tra lai trUang de hoc cao len nua khong va ngu co thi hoc nganh gi, lienhoc phi lay a clan ra. Ngoai ra con co cac van de nhu sap xep thai gian nhuthg nao cho hOp li de tranh anh Intang den tong viec gia dinh va cac viec canhan khac. Trong nhitng truang hop nay nhiem vu cua nhan vien CTXH lagitip khach hang dm minh co nhung guy& dinh thing don va phu hOp. Met rime fieu khac ma cac khach hang thueng hay tim kiem giai phapqua tit van do la cac van de ve mat mat, de doa hoar thach thitc. Day la metphan cua vine xu li khUng hoang. Khi khach hang bi rdi vao tinh trangkhUng hoang thi se tic clang den cac mei quan hg xung quanh va vao thaidiem nay, khach hang - nhung nguai chtta bao gia nghi IA minh can den104
  • 104. dich vu to vAn se tim den nhan vien CTXH Tan (tau tien trong dtli de timkaa sit glop dd. Trong pinking phap tri lieu tap trung vao giai phap hoac theo dinhhiking giai phap, vai n de dat ra la khach hang muen thay d6i gi va each totnhat des din dein thay d6i la taint the nao. Thay vi chi tap trung vao tim hieunguyen nhan, pinking phap tri lieu tap trung vao giai phap tim hieu xemkhach hang muOn thay del gi trong cuoc song cim ho chit khong phai lanhan vien CTXH va moi nguoi xung quanh cho rang ho nen thay nhuthe nao. PIntOng phap tri lieu tap trung vao giai phap chit trong Oat trien cacrule tieu cu the nam trong kha nang cila khach hang va tim ra nhung giaiphap hoAc chien lttoc de tien tai hoan thanh &Ng rime tieu d6 ra. Co the notday la pinging phap theo dinh hiking phai trien chit khong phai la pinkingphap theo dinh hhdng van de trong to Vain. D de ra duct cac muc tieu ding (ran, met dieu quan trong niita la cantap trung vao cac muc tieu nho chit kheng phai cac muc tieu Ion vi cac muctieu nhO bao gia cling de dat dude hen. Khi cac muc tieu nhO dA dat dttOc,khach hang cam thAy to tin hun de tiep tut thay d6i nhiing gi anh to muein thay d6i trong ettec sing ci‘a minh. Nhang (16 xult cho viec dat muc Woo Berg va Miller (1992) da thao luan viec lam th6 nao de a, fieu cuapinking phap tri lieu tap trung vao giai phap throe ro rang, chinh xac hoactheo thud, t ngit ho la ding nhait va dua ra cac de xual sau day: 1. Lua chon cac muc tieu quan trong d6i K khach hang. Khach hangmu6n dat &due nhiing muc tieu nay ye chting dude dien giai theo nen ngildim khach hang. Nhan vien CTXH chi nen phan dal khi nhitng muc lieu makhach hang dua ra co the gay ton hai cho khfich hang, vi du nhtt khachhang dat ra muc tieu chiim diit cuec dtli cua minh hose nhiing rime Lieukhac, vi du nhtt tra thu met hanh dOng sai trai. 2. Bat ra cac muc tieu nh6 vi nhiing muc Lieu nay de dat dude hen cacmuc tieu 3. Cac muc tieu de ra can phai cu the, re rang va mang tinh hanh vi.Dieu nay se giGp khach hang va nhan vien CTXH theo sat tien trien trong 105
  • 105. qua trinh to van. Vi du muc lieu dat ra IA "di an trita vdi ban be ba Ian met tuan" la met muc lieu dat three cac tieu chi not tren. 4. Xac dinh cac muc tieu ma co m6 to siti hien dien dm met cai gi do, vi du nhu "di be" thay vi me to su thigu yang cfla mat cai gi do, hay "khong cam thay nan chi /lila". 5. Phat trign cac muc tieu co khdi nguen, nhu sap xgp "met nghi he vui ve vdi vlicheng mita he" thay vi cac muc tieu co kgt cue, vi du nhu "metcuec hem nhan vui ye". Dieu nay giup khach hang hinh dung duct Vac boricdau tien ma ho can lam de dat chive kgt qua mong muen. 6. Lua than the muc lieu mang tinh chat thVc to ma khach hang cothe dat duct trong hoan canh thing tha ho. 7. Phai dam bao rang khach hang higu clitoe la cac muc tieu dat ra chico thg dat dude vai su thug tac va ph61 hOp chat the Qua khach hang. Cacmuc Lieu doi hOi phai co su thay del trong hanh deng tha khach hang va dgthay &di duoc la rat kho khan, not Chung can khuygn khich khach hang n6lye hop tac de dat duct cac muc tieu mong main. Trong mein each "PhOng vtirz vet cac chieit hide thay et& heath vi chongzthi try gulp", Cormier Ira Nurius da ban th nam (Wang hiking phang vansau day cre xac Binh chive muc tieu: 1. Phan Lich nguyen nhan. 2. Dg xual kgt qua mong dot. 3. Tim kigm muc tieu tren cd sd thien chi, tich 4. Xac dinh muc tieu. 5. Can nhac nhung uu diem va nhttec diem cita mix tieu da xac dinh. Buac dau tien trong the Binh muc Lieu la nOi cho khach hang bigt dotai sao cac muc tieu lai dOng vai tr6 quail trong trong cuec song am. ho. Meteach a lam duce (lieu nay la hei khach hang vg nhung gi ho da dat ditoctrong cuec song va da dem lai cho ho ski thoa man, to hao. Doi vai mot sokhach hang digu do eb thg la viec da tat nghiep dai hoc, del vai khach hangkhac digu do lai co the la Itha nang choi dan piano hoac vie trong duct matyuen hoa dep. Vigc dat muc lieu gitip cho nhigu ng -tthri co dinh hieing vetmac dich trong cuec song, ngttoc lai cling chinh vies dat ra muc tieu lam chokhach hang tim duct dinh huong va muc dich cua cuec sting. Khi dat three106
  • 106. flitting muc tieu da de ra, khach hang cb chicle cam gide tai hAo va thaa man.Khach hang khi dat ra muc tieu se than hieu hen nhiing gi ho muen datchicle trong cuec song, con nhung ngttoi kitting co muc tieu se cam they metpinning huting va kh6ng muc dich. Khi khach hang da cam ket dat ra mue tieu thi nhan vien CTXH cangitip ho the Binh flitting muc tieu nao ho mu6n dat duct bang cacti dat caeeau hat dan &At, vi du nhtt: "Gia sa met ngttoi he, hang xa ena anhlehi tau rei anh/cht kh6ng gap den gap anti/chi sau khi to yen thi c6 dieu gi khac bi8t so voi bay gie kitting?" "Gia sit cluing to thanh tong, anh/cht Wang Wong tinh the se thay dei the nao?" "Anh/chi by tag se thu dude ket qua gi sau qua trinh to van?" "Anh/eht dude lei gi sau qua trinh to yen?" "Anhicht mien lam gi? Nghi gi? Cam they gi?" Nhung eau hat nint tren se giup khach hang the dinh duct mix tieu Ito muen theo duet trong qua trinh to yen. Neu khach hang c6 kite khan trong viee xac dinh muc tieu thi nhan vien CTXH can danh nhieu that gian cho giai doan nay. Met s6 khach hang chi cb the xac dinh duct Inv tieu sau met set buei tiep ruenhet dinh. Nhiing muc tieu thanh tong IA flitting muc tieu mang tinh tich eve chit khong phai la tieu cue, vi chting tao ra to Wang tich cue trong khach hang. Vi du, muc tieu dat ra la khong cat nhau v6i v0/thong nita thi day la muc tieu mang tinh tieu euc vi dieu nay am chi IA viec thao luan bet ki van de gi vat vel/cheng dew ce the dan den cat nhau. Trong trtiang h9p nay met muc tieu mang tinh tich cue hen 06 the IA c6 gang gift binh tinh khi thao luan bat ki van de gi yen vq/cheng. Mue tieu nay se tang co hei thao luan mot each CO hieu qua cho ca hai ben. Met vi du khac la neu khach hang cam thtly anh to dang lang phi that gian xem ti vi thi mue tieu dat ra khong phai la kitting xem ti vi nua ma la hay tham gia vao cac hoat Ong khac hitu ich hen vi du nint doe sash, nghe :nhac c6 dien hoar di den yen ban be. Khi khach hang da ski sang de de ra mue tieu, trong tam bay giel se la khach hang mu6n ban than ho thay dei gi chit khong phai la nguai khac thay el& gi. Doi vdi hau het khach hang, xu hang ban dau la ho del& cho 107
  • 107. nguai khde va tap trung vao hAnh vi eita nguai do chit khOng phai la hanhvi ciia ban than minh. Vi du khi khach hang xac dinh muc tieu IA can lamcho dita con trai 16 tuei cna minh thoi khong cai lai nita thi co nghia la bame dang d6 16i cho eau con trai va khong cho rang minh co Mi. Met muc tieucot Mtn trong taking hop nay la phai lam sao ba me khi not chuyen segiii giong binh tinh, ton trong cau con trai. Khi dat ra muc den nay, khachhang se nhan troth nhiem ve minh, tap trung vao nhiing gi ban than minhcan lam chit khong phai la eau con trai. Met each khac de xem xet su viec IA hoi khach hang xem ai la ngitai có trash nhiem Ian Min trong viec giai quygt van de khach hang din ra. Re rang la nhtt trong vi du not tren thi ba me se phai co troth nhiem Ion hon va la ngitai kiem soot van de vi ba la nguai Ian, con eau con trai thi mai chi la met eau be 16 tuth ma th8i. Bltdc cuOi ding trong viec the dinh muc tieu la can nhac Uu va nhule diem caa muc tieu cu the da duos dat ra. Trong vi du ve truing hop ke tren thi re rang la se rat e6 10i nett ba me có the nOi chuyen veil thu con trai makhong co tranh cal. Vai h.%) cua ba me la gig) cau con trai vUot qua nhungroi loan trong giai doan hoc lam nguai Ian. Mat khac, se khong c6 loi chotau con trai ngu cAu lai dun ba me vao met cuee tranh luan nOng nay.Nhung vi ba me did khong phai la eau con trai da nhan troth nhiem giaiguy& van de cho nen 10i ich dovi vai ba me la nhieu hon so vii 10i ich del viieau con trai. Va khi ba me khong tranh cai vii thu con trai nua thi thethanh vien khac trong gia dinh cling se cam thay cue° song gia dinh binhyen va hanh ph& hon. Trong cu6n "Thgc hanh tong tie xei hOi", Hepworth, Rooney ye. . Larsen(2002) da chi ra la "the muc lieu can cu the hoa nhung gi khach hang mugndat throe va chinh nhung muc lieu nay se duct dung nhtt phuong tien de(14t <Woe kgt qua mong mu6n". Nhfing Intang clan cua ho trong viec Iva chonva xac dinh muc lieu bao gom the buds sau day: 1. Muc tieu phai lien quan den kgt qua cu6i ding ma khach hang trong ddi. 2. Dol vii nhung khach hang khOng tinh nguyen can phai tao ra deng luc cho ho. 3. Muc tieu phai re rang va có the do luting duct108
  • 108. 4. Muc tieu phai kha thi. 5. Muc tieu phai Wong inang vdi su hien biet va ki nang cna nhan vien CTXH. 6. Cac muc lieu phai mang tinh tich cue, chti trong den ski phat trien. 7. Tranh deng y v6i. 11111:Mg muc lieu ma ban than nhan vien CTXH con de dat, Ong hi. 8. Muc tieu phai phi hop vdi cMic nang hoat deng cua trung tam to van. Nhfing rime tieu ma khach hang c6 kha nang dat dude chinh la nhiingmuc tieu ma khach hang cam ket hoan thAnh. Khach hang tInking tim dento van khi ho khong hai long vdi met se van de trong cuec song. Ski killingthoa man nay chinh la met deng hic Ion, nhan vien CTXH can dua vex) diemnay de ginp khach hang xac dinh muc tieu. Khi dat done nhfing rave tieunay, su khong thoa man ban dau caa khach hang se &toe thay the bang suto tin hdn vg kha nang thay dei cuec sting cua minh. Hatt het nhiing ngti6ilam tong tae to van &au xac nhan met yeti t6 co ban dan den thanh congtrong qua trinh tit van de la ban than khach hang phai c6 deng lkic de conhfing thay d6i tea dep hon trong cuec sling. Neu phai lam vies vdi nhfingkhach hang khong co deng luq nhan vien CTXH gap phai met tr () ngai 16n .cho nen del voi nh3ng khach hang nay nhan vien CTXH can tao ra cho homong mugn thay del cuec song. 0 met mile do nhat dinh, digu nay c6 the thgchien &ltle bang each co eau lai van dg cua khach hang tit met van de ma ho bi ap dat sang van dg ma ho quan tam. Trong qua trinh tik the vdi nhfingkhach hang khOng CO thing 1pc, digu thigt yeti la phai khuyen khich ho xac dinh rei rang ha muon dat dude gi trong qua trinh to vain. Met each de lam duct digu nay la Men khach hang thanh nhfing "chuyen gia" trong viec xac dinh ho can thay dOi gi trong cuec song. Dieu nay thuang lam cho nhiing khach hang khong co &Ong luc tra nen hao hung hdn vi ho lam nhfing gi h9 muk chit khong phai lam theo nhfing gi nhan vien CTXH doi hai, dang thai gOp phan lam cho cac giai doan khac trong quy trinh to vain vi du nhti giai doan danh gia, hop &kg, digu tri, cha:m Mit v.v... thanh cong hdn. Cac muc tieu trong to vain can phai xac dinh nhfing thay de;i cu the ma khach hang milk va nhiing thay ci6i nay se dude do liking, danh gia nhu the nao. Vi du, met khach hang cam thay ce doe thtiong dat ra muc tieu la phai danh nhigu thei gian hdn cho ban be va gia dinh. Muc tieu nay 109
  • 109. can phai dUcic lam re hdn de co the do Kiang va danh gia. De dat duoc muc tieu nay, khach hang demg Y se goi dien cho ban be hoar nosed than trong gia dinh met Wan met In va Sap xep met float &Ong vui chili giai tit nhung nett den cuoi Wan khach hang van choa lam dodo dieu nay thi ho se chuyen sang antic hien met muc tieu khke la di den buei lea nha the vao chit nhat va gap ga ban be el do. Khi hoan thAnh met trong hai muc belt tren, khach hang da dat duoc ke hoaeh de ra. Cac rime tieu de ra can phai nam trong kha nang cua khAch hang. Neu khach hang de ra nhUng muc Lieu khong hdp h va kho dat duoc thi chi lam cho cam gide that bai da có tra nen tram trong hon. CO met each de gitip khach hang de ra nhOng muc tieu viia tam kha nang, do la hiking cho khach hang tap trung vao nhung rime tieu co the dat chicle khi mot loat cac muc tieu nho da hoan thanh. Vi du met cap vo cheng có the nOi vdi nguai Lo van rang he muen co met et* hen nhan tat dep hdn. Nhan vien CTXH co the cu the hoA muc tieu nay bang each b6 sung cac muc tieu nh6 hdn, vi du nhtt nang cao Id nang giao tiep, ki Rang giai guy& xung dot va k3 nang giai guy& van de. Mue tieu to van can pha hap vdi su hieu biet va ki nang cua nhan vien CTXH. Dieu nay co nghia la ngtfai to yin phai eó du nang luc de gill]) khach hang vdi bat ki muc tieu gi ma ho de ra. Neu nhung muc lieu nao khach hang de ra vUdt qua kha nang, nang lye caa nhan vier CTXH thi khach hang can xac dinh muc tieu khac. Vi du met cap vO chang den to vanva de ra muc tieu chit-1h cua ho la giai quyet van de khong hoa hop trongquan he tinh dyc. Dieu nay narn ngoai kha nang cua nhting nhan vien CTXH ye hOn nhan va gia dinh nen trong truang hdp nay, ngliai to van cangith thieu cap vl chang nay den bac si chuyen khoa. Cac muc tieu dat ra can mang tinh tich cue. Vi du thay vi tu van chomet cop vu chang lam the nao khong cai nhan nua thi nhan vien CTXHnen gidp ho hoc each giao tiep co hieu qua hdn. Cue9 eiing cac muc tieu dat ra can phai phii hop vdi cht nang cuatrung tam to yin. Hau het cac trung tam to yin deu cung cap met senhung dich vu nhat dinh va nhiem vu caa nhan vien CTXH la phai hoattieing theo &mg khuon kh6. Met trung tam tu van nhan con nuoi se khongthgc hien cac dich vu nhu cai thien mai quan he hon nhan cua met cap vocheng muen nhan con /mei. Tudng to nhu vay met trung tam to van cai110
  • 110. nghi5n rigiu va thuec phien thi khang nen tri lieu cho nhang dfia tre ea vainde ve hanh vi. Neu khach hang dtta ra nhang yeti eau khang n5m trongpham vi cua trung tam thi Let nhat IA gidi thi5u ho den dung not ho can; vithe nhan vien CTXH can phai nam yang cac chitcing trinh to van hoat (tangtrong tong thing va cac dich vu ma ho cung cap. Du lieu ban au caa khach hang Da lieu caa khach hang la yeti to rat quan trong trong qua trinh hatro va qua trinh W van. Mitt da not a tren, c8ng the to van can gan gui vaikhach hang va tap trung giai quy6t nhang van a ma khach hang mu6ngiai quy6t. Trong to van kheng bao gid de ton tai tinh trang co hai nhommuc tieu, met tilt raw tieu ma khach hang va nhan vien CTXH ding hOptac de dat dude va met nhom muc tieu ma nhan vien CTXH bi mat giap dakhach hang hoan thanh ma khang cho khach hang hilt. C6 met se bac si trilieu cho rang ho cif lang le lien hanh giup do khach hang, khi nao c6 tiktrim thi ho se not vai khach hang. Tuy nhien dieu nay khang tea chat nao.Trach nhiem cem nhan vien CTXH la nett ho th5y muc tieu nao do la canthiet phai ham thanh thi can chia se dieu nay raj khach hang va thuyetphuc khach hang biet tai sao nhang muc tieu nay la quan trong. Neu khachhang khong clang Sr thi nhan vien CTXH van nen tInte hien cac muc tieu makhach hang muen dat dude. Neu tinh trang cim khach hang khOng thay &itsau met vai n6 lue thi quay tra lai thuyet plum khach hang vb. dam phanhop ding. Met lai khuyen cho nhan vien CTXH la nen bat dau voi nhang gima khach hang muan. Ca met dieu km Sr la dei vai met se khach hang, nhan vien CTXH languai xa la va ho ngai ngang khi phai not ye vain de eua mink, vi the ho sekhang chia xe. Nhang khach hang nay có the the dinh nhang moo Lieu hoaxvan de trong khi van gia bi mat ve ban chat cim van de. Chi khi nao hocam they tin Wang a nhan vien CTXH va they nhan vien CTXH thtfc stt quan tam thi ho mei bat dau chia xe bi mat dm ho. Vi vay sau na8i bu6i ti6pran, nhan vien CTXH can hen khach hang xem lieu nhang gi dang then racti dung yea nhang gi khach hang mong doi khong hay la can phai damphan lai hop ding tit van. Han het cac khach hang dgu tra lai la hai ben dang di dung hutting nhung tang co met so khach hang nhan co hei nay dUa ra nhang muc lieu hoac van de ho thug s1 muen giai quyet trong cuec sting dim ban than minh. 111
  • 111. Trong cu & "Bai tap thuc hanh tong tdc . Cournoyer (2000) not rang vide xfic dinh dung muc Lieu la yeu to quan trong thit hai trong qua trinh tu van sau yeti t6 dau Lien la lam re nguyen nhan ena van de. Neu khach hang kheng dat row lieu re rang thi cuSi cling se clan den lc& qua ma khach hang killing mong ratan. Cournoyer gdi y la khi nhan vien CTXH xAy dung muc tieu vOi khach hang, ho nen sit dung and hinh vdi nom tieu Olt& sau: 1. Cu the 2. Do Mang dupe 3. CO the thuc hien dude 4. Thuc to 5. Dung Mc Cfic muc tieu to van có hieu qua phai la nhfing rime tieu: 1. Mc dinh re ket qua se dat dupe 2. Cu the va re rang 3. Do Mang duos hoac co the kiem tra dude. 4. Co co hei thanh cong 5. Cie muc tieu ngu dat dupe phai du de thay deli tinh hinh. 6. Phu hop vdi cac he thong ve chuan muc xa hen va van hofi cua khach hang. 7. Co tign trinh thOi gian cu the de timg bude dat duos ket qua mong muon. Tu van co hieu qua vita la met nganh khoa hoc vita la met nghe thuat.Met phan quan trong trong nghe thuAt giao tiep la nhan vien CTXH phaithiet rap dude met mei quan he tri lieu vdi khach hang th6ng qua vie, c chid Ylong nghe, sang be thong tin, cam thong va cac ki nang giao tiep khac. Ltta ch9n muc tieu de bat au Bang each su dung ma hinh tu van tri lieu ngan han, khach hang vanhAn vien CTXH throng cam kgt thuc thi ba den bon muc tieu hoac giaiguy& ba den bon van de. Sau sau buoi tu van ngu ca hai ben that da dat(Wee muc tieu de ra thi dich vu tu van clam dut. Ngu van chin hoan thenhmuc tieu thi hOp d8ng có the dude keo dai them hai buei nfia. Vi sObu di to -112
  • 112. van chi gidi han tit sau den tam buei nen khach hang va nhan vien CTXHcan thue thi ba den ben muc tieu da dg ra ding met Mc. Mei buOi to Win setap trung vao met nhiem vu hoac hoat deng ma khach hang can hoanthanh dal three muc tieu. Clang có nhung muc tieu ma khach hang phaihoan thanh trong sugt the bud to van. Nhung nhiem vu va boat deng makhach hang thue thi la met phan then ch & cUa 11 thuyet hoc hed va ngn .tang caa viec thay del hanh vi. Khi khach hang da xac dinh muc tieu thi bOdc tiep theo la bat dau vdimuc tieu nao trOdc. Khach hang va nhan vien CTXH co the hia chon di theomet trong ba hoeing sau: thu nhdt la xac dinh muc lieu nao se dem lai thoaman nhigu nhdt cho khach hang trong thdi gian ngn nhdt va bat clan vOimuc tieu do. Met each khac, de IA the dinh muc tieu nao tign hanh nhdtva bat dau vdi muc tieu do. Phudng phap nay dac Met phn hOp vdi nhungkhach hang da ding di to van nhung khong thanh ding lAm. Phthing phapcugi ding la thuc hien tat ca cac muc tieu ding met Mc. Xac dinh cac nhiem vu va cac LIU ti8n M6i muc tieu hoac van de ma khach hang xac dinh can phai duet chiathanh cac muc tieu nhe. Trong mO hinh to van ket hop, de dat muc tieu daxac dinh trade, the nhiem vu hoac the hoat ding se ditec de ra va sau dodude thue thi. Met s6 nhiem vu hoac hoat &Ong vg ban chAt mang tinh tamIi, trong khi mot so nhiem vu hoac hoat deng khde lai doi hai sO thay doi vghanh vi cua khach hang. Khi cac nhiem vu hoac cac hoat deng dude hoanthanh clOng nghia vOi viec dat dude muc bet dm qua trinh to van; cac vande da &Pic gili quygt hoac it nhal cling three cai thien. Lap he hoach de giao tilp c6 hiau qua Trong nhigu loai hinh to van, ke ca to van vg hem nhan, muc tieu phO bign cua cac khach hang IA hoc each giao lid) co hieu qua hdn. De giao tiep ce hieu qua doi hei phai hoan thanh met se nhiem vu hoac hoat &Ong dim tren ngn tang co ban li thuyeet hoe hoi. Nhung nhiem vu hoac hoat deng hat flail bang cac nguyen tac co ban, sau do chuyen sang cac hinh Huh giao Lien phile tap hcm, vi du nho each dud ra cac cau tra lilt clang cam hdn. M8i nhiOm vu hoac hoat thing can phai danc hoan thanh theo mot trinh tg nhat dinh va dat den met mite hieu qua nao do truck khi thuc hien oat nhiem vu hoac hoat deng tigp theo. 113
  • 113. Co rat nhigu mo hinh day each giao tigp co hieu qua hdn va hau hgt cac m6 hinh dgu nhgn manh cac diem sau day: 1. Muc dich °Cm giao tigp. 2. Muc tieu ciia giao tigp et) hieu qua. 3. Nhung rao can IMO bign trong giao lieu. 4. Nhi-ing rao can cu the mia khach hang. 5. Thuc hanh có twang dAn de xoa bo cac rao can caa khach hang. 6. Tam quan trong c5a thong diep "cai tor. 7. Thuc hanh ce hudng clan each a di thong diep "cal toi". 8. Tam quan trong caa giao tigp the hien su cam thong. 9. T155 hanh c6 hudng dan each g5i di cac thong diep the hien su cam thong. 10. T6m tat va tong kgt. De giup khach hang giao tiep cO hieu qua hdn, nhan vien CTXH cO thethao luan vdi khach hang vg muc dich caa giao tiep va trong qua trinh thaoha, khach hang can phai di den kgt luan mot trong nhung muc dick cdban dm giao fiat) IA a di met thong diep se dude moi nguai tigp nhan vahieu MOt thong diep dude 65 di la su khdi dau dm met boat cac thongdiep khac se dude trao del qua lai. Cie thong diep co the dude a di dualhinh thlic lei noi hoac khong lbi nhu cac bleu hien tren khuOn mat hoac thecu do, ng cua cd the. Johson va Yanca (2004) cho rang "giao tiep co hieu qua khi nhungnguai tham gia vao tinh hu6ng hien thau dao thong diep cua nguai khac vatilling diep dude giii di phai tao digu kien cho ngudi tigp nhan thong diepdap lai hoac hanh clang met each c6 Iqi cho muc ouch giao tigp". Ho dua ranhung muc Bich sau day trong qua trinh to van: 1. T5p hop cac thong tin can thigt cho sit menh he tro, bao gam ca cacdiem manh va nguan luc cua khach hang. 2. Tim bleu tam W tinh cam va cac each co the de dap ung nhu eaudua tren cac diem manh va nguem l to trong pham vi cua khfich hang vamai truang xung quanh. 3. Bee la cam giac va suy nghi 4. Co eau viec tiara hanh cac hanh deng 5. He trO, thong bao, khuyen giai, deng vien va dinh hudng khi can.114
  • 114. Myc tiau cua giao ti6p c6 hihu qui Khi khach hang da hieu rd hdn va muc dich caa giao tiep, ha da sailsang de chuyen sang nhiem vu tiep theo nham giao tiep thanh tong. Trongqua trinh khach hang bay to quail diem va giao tiep c6 hieu qua, nhan vienCTXH can gitip ho hieu ro met dieu la mei thong diep a di khOng chi cónei dung ma con c6 ca tinh cam di cling yin no. Muc dich caa giao flip cóhieu qua IA phai hieu hoec the hien ST to va tam to tinh cam thong qua coothong diep gei di hoec nhan Giao tiep c6 hieu qua la met qua trinh g6m nhieu giai doan. Try&tien thong diep duoc gUi den mat ngudi khac. Trong thong diep chila clangnhung lai lath va clam dung ca nhUng sac thai tinh cam; vi du nint vui ve,gian du, b6i r6i. Thong diep cling có the dude gib di cling the cif chi khOng16i; vi du tau co hoec khuon mat dam chieu. Sau khi thong diep dude gai di,ngudi tiep nhan thong (lien se xa li thong tin va dap lai bang mot thongdiep Mang có the bao gam ca lbi not va cac ca chi khOng Ibi. Khi dap 10,ngudi tielp nhan thOng diep co the phan hai Lai nhfing th8ng tin ma ho nhan&lac hoec c6 the gai lai mot thOng diep hoan than mei, nhung not tom lai muc dich cea giao tiep co hieu qua la ngudi gat va ngudi nhen dau co the hieu nhau, ngudi nhan nem bat &Mc dung y caa ngudi gai, hieu dUoc nhung gi ngudi gei naan noi va npiec Cac rho can ph6 bien trong giao trip Btelic Una ba trong viec hoc giao flap co hieu qua la xac dinh met s6 raocan Old bign trong giao ti6p. Nhiing rho can do la: 1. Se ngAt 16i khi ai do dang noi. 2. Khong nhin vao mat ngudi minh dang noi chuyen. 3. Dang dung khong nghiem Enc. 4. Cudp loi ngudi khac. 5. Im tang. D6i v6i nhieu khfich hang, rao can ph6 bien la viec ngAt ldi, khong decho ngudi kia noi h6t nhung gi can noi. Do vay nhiem vu dau tien ciaa nhanOen CTXH la lam sao de khach hang phai nghe het r6i mili duct ngAtDieu nay dac biet thing trong to van ve hen nhan va gia dinh. Met rao canphe; bik khac la viec khong nhin thang vao mat ngudi minh dang nth 115
  • 115. chuyen voi. Vi du trong suet butii to van hors nhan dau tien, ca hai khach hang chi nhin nhan viers CTXH ma tranh khong nhin nhau. Khi met trong hai rigUai trao del vai nhan vien CTXH thi dUang nhu trong phong khong con ai ncia. MQt rho can cang kha phS bien nria la clang dung khong nghiem Ede. Trong khi vo dang not chuyen thi thong nhtin vai, quay sang mot ben va cau may, dieu do the hien ngay la anh thong nay khong quan tam den nhfing gi v0 nOi Viec cudp Rh dm nguai khac cling gay can tra trong qua trinh giaotiep. Nhigu ngttai cam they kho chin khi doi the mai chuyen vol minh cu notnhu the la anh to doe duct suy nghi caa nguai khae. Dei vdi cac cap vathong viec met ben hoac ca hai ben im lang cling gay kho khan cho viec giaotiep co hieu qua. Trong mot vai tntang hdp hai ben con thi nhau xem ai imlang dude Tau hon. Xac dinh cac rao can trong giao trip Sau khi da than luan cac rao can nay, budc Rep theo IA xac dinh cac ran can nao dang gay can trd cho khach hang trong qua trinh giao flap. Delvol met s6 cap vo chong, nhan vien CTXH tien hanh thu dm hoac quayphim lai butte to van dau Hen va khi nghe lai hoac xem lai nhung doan bangnay, khach hang va nhan vien CTXH nhanh thong nhan ra nluang rho candang gay tac dang xau den mei quan he ea a ha. Neu dem ra so sanh thi viecquay phim lai buei lam viec dau tien dem lai nhign thong tin hon so vaihinh that thu Am vi khi xem bang khach hang va nhan vien CTXH con cothe danh gia dude cac cu chi, hanh dong caa cac ben. Cac hinh thlic giaotiep khong nhu clang dung, bleu hien ciia khuon mat, cac ca (hang taythan co the b6 sung hoac lam giam di gia tri cua giao Rep bang lai. Vi du,mat Ong ch6ng vira ctlai nhan nh8 vita xin 18i v0 y6 viec y6 an corn tai muonc6 thgf bi vo coi la khong that long xin 16i. Thtrc hanh c6 hutng can a loai b6 cac rao can 6 day, nhan vien CTXH se chi cho khach hang thly la can phai lam giva Inidng dAn, digu chinh hanh vi mai cim khach hang sao cho plin hop. Vidu sau khi quan set mo cap vo along giao tiep vdi nhau trong buiSi to van otdau lien, co the nhan viers CTXH they la rb rang ca hai ben khOng ai chiu116
  • 116. nghe ai noi ca. Khi mot ben bat dau noi thi ben kia lai ngat lei loon. Saukhi chi cho cap vics cheng thay digit nay, nhan vier CTXH se dua ra met gOiST de hai ben pith lang nghe nhau hon. Nhan vien CTXH dua ra met cay Mithoac met cay but chi va de nghi la khi nao ai dang cam btit hoac Mit chitren tay thi la ngttei not trong khi ngOth kia nghe va khOng dugc ngdt loi.Sau buOi thuc hanh, nhan vien CTXH khuygn khich cap va cheng do trongthe bugi to van con lai Ap dung pinking phap nay khi giao tigp. Trong nhting bugi to van dela tien, TM cac nhan vien CTXH, ro rang lakhi the cap vu cheng dang noi chuyen vdi nhau, ho tlniang nhin lang di vakheng duy tri tigp xne anh mat. Met vi du khac cua thuc hanh có Ong din, nguoi nhan vien CTXH khich le cac cap vu cho/1g duy tri tip xuc anh mat trong phan con lai cua bugi to van vdi vu hoac cheng minh va khi not chuyen vdi ngtibi can be. Cac cap va cheng con &lac yeu tau tigp xUe anh mat khi not chuyen vdi nhau gitia cac bu6i to van. Thue hanh có hoOng din Mon la met phan cua bai tap lam gifia the bugi to van. Cac cap vq ch6ng ttnic hanh theo Inking don trong cuee song hang ngay da hoc each giao tip hieu qua hon. Tgm quan trong cua th8ng diep "Tor NMing ngtthi giao tigp co hieu quA deu co dove niem tin va camHo khOng dO 16i, buOc tei hay coi thoong nguoi khac. Khi ho giao tigp, hatap trung vac) cam xtie cila ha, khong phai la ban dai hay ngttai khac trongeuec dol. Sau day la met boat nhung thong diep de 161, buQc tei hay coithttang có thd pha hOng cuec noi chuyen: - Anh khong bao gid Using nghe dietit em noi. Em khong sao em cu phiii not chuyen vdi anh the" nety. - Anh khong bao gia ddnh gid cao dieu em tarn. Anh chi phe phcin v lot em ra lam trb erten. - Sao anh khong gientg em hon crave nhi? Bo em tot va you thadng em the: Em nha bo guci. - Horn nay anh lai but bin rdi. Sao anh khong vui ve hon chtdc? Anh lam sao the? Khach hang can phai ce chtuc niem tin va cam rile. Met each alamvay la giii thong diep "tor cho nhung nguoi lang nghe ho. Va thong diep toinot vdi ngodi nghe su cam nhan cUa ban chti khOng phai cUa ngtidi nghe. 117
  • 117. Cac aging diep "toi" khOng dg 16i, buoc tei va coi throng nguai nghe. flay sosanh cac cau dig 18i, buoc to, i va coi thtiang di kem.voi thong diep t6i: - Anh khong bao gib* nghe em noi. Em khong bitit vi sao em czi phdi noi chuyen vol anh thd nay. - Em khong bao gia biot anh co king nghe em khi em noi khong. Doi khi em thdy that ()wig ud em khong mudn condi natl. - Anh khong bao gio dcinh gici cao dieu em lam. Anh chi phe phdn vet led em ra lam tre Wei that - Em mien anh dcinh gici cao nhang viec em lam Mn.Em mudn cdm thdy em quan trong uoi anh hon. Sao anh khong giong bd ern hen chive nhi? Bo em tot va yeu tinning em the: Em nhd bid quci. - Em muon anh giong bid em hen. .13d em la mat nguei tot ud you thdang. Em thttc see nhd - Ham nay anh bat luic bat rdi. Sao anh khong vui vi hen &lac? Anh lam sao the? - Em phdi net hem nay anh lei bctc bat rdi. Em thdy tot han trait anh vat va. Em muob em biet ca the lam gi di anh out. Thyt hanh theo Wong dAn vA gin thong diep "tor Nhigu nguai thgy ktall giii thong diep "toi". Qua then gian, giao tipcaa ho tra nen mang tint d6 16i, buoc tOi va coi throng nhigu hen. Changhan, vai nhigu cap v9 cheng, s9 thd hien thigu ton trong nhau la met trongnhiing h do clan den cac van dg trong hen nhan. Se mgt nhigu cong luyentap c6 hang dan de rei nhigu ngUai mai bigt each giii thong diep "toi".Mailing Give hanh theo huang clan giita cac bugi to vgn clang chicle you eautrtlac khi nhung cap vo chOng c6 thd a thong diep "t6i" cho nhau met eachthrong xuyen. &the dgu tien trong hoc each gui thong diep "toe la ngtiai nghe vAngtiai giao tigp noi lai vdi nhau nhang digu ho nghe ngroi kia noi. Co thd la:"Em nghe anh nth la...". Sau khi ca hai earn thgy thoai mai trong viec nhSclai nhang cligu nguai kia noi, buoc tigp theo 1a ngthi nOi them Nilo nhiingdigu nglioi de cam thgy ve lai noi oda ngtiai kia. Luc nay, 01 nhgt la chonuii ca nhan met danh mac nhang thong diep dg 161, buQc tei va coi thuang118
  • 118. giOng nhu dash muc 0 tren. Sau do, nhan vien CTXH gitip moi ngubi xaydung va gib nhung thong diep "tgi" phu hdp hon. Cac cap vd cheng co thedeep tut chuyen nhung thong diep dg lei, buec tei va coi thuong nhau thanhthong diep "tgi" gala cac buei W van. Btidc cugi clang la en thong diep "tbi"de tap trung vao giao tigp then ra clOng thati trong va gitla cac buOi tu van. Tgrn quan trong cua giao trip cam Mang Giao tigp cam thong la met hinh thuc giao tigp tinh t6 ddi hai luyentap rat nhigu (Farley va Ong su, 2003). Giao tip cam thong se dude thaoluanchi tigt hdn trong cac chudng khac, chtidng nay chi cung cap Van tat vghinh thifc giao dep nay. Khi cac cap va cheng giao tigp vdi nhau, mOd thongdiep ha di cO it nhat hai phan. MOt phan cua thong diep la not dung haythuc to va phrin kia la cam xtic hoac tinh cam dude truygn CM. Chang han,mad noel chOng co the noi vdi vd khi anh ta vg nha vao buOi "Anh dilam muan vi tdc &tang! Nan anh khong thi di lam dung anh se meltviCe. Nei dung hay thgc to dm thong diep la anh ta hi di lam muen, trongkhi cam xtic va tinh cam cua anh ta IA si ti tut gian va that vong. Giao tigpcam thong xay ra khi met nguoi ban ddi chuyen met thong diep khac thehien rang nguoi do narn dude nOi dung va tinh earn cua th6ng diep trade dociia ngubi ban ddi. Rogers (Robbins va &Ong ski, 1998) va nhigu nhA tri lieu khac(Cournoyer; 2000; Stuart, 1980; Westra, 1996) coi giao tip cam thong lAmet ygu to quan trong trong thigt lap met ski hoc hdp va tao dieu kien chothay ddi trong tu van. Khi nhan vien CTXH tra lei met each cam thong vdilai noi caa khach hang, khach hang se co su tin Wang cao hdn vao kha nanghieu.va ghip dd ciia nhan vien do. ag dap lai eau hai: "Anh cam they thgnao?", khdch hang tra lei: "Toi cam they to ram. CO ve nhu moi thU chang cotac dung gi vdi tea. Tgi cam they that that vong tgi khOng bigt lam gi!". DayIA met ed hei cho Than vien CTXH tra Rh cam thong, chang han nhu: "Thattide IA anh cam they te. Khi moi vies khong din ra nhu kg hoach cna cluingta, digu do co thg rat gay su that yang". Day la met vi du vg cam thong Iannhau, nAm duce Mad dung va cam auk cila thong diep cua khach hang mAkhOng lap lai eau noi. Cac cap ye chOng hoc each tra lei cam thong vdi nhUng van de va moiquan tam caa ban ddi phai giao lig") a mite do cao. Ha dang Tat ban thanvao vi tri cua ngudi ban ddi, trai nghiem dieu ma ban ddi trai nghiem va 119
  • 119. cam thgy digu ma ban dai cam thay. Moi ngudi duy tri mile do giao tigp caonay trong tat ea the trao dgi lA khOng phi]. hop. Viec dap tai vdi su camthong cho moi thong diep nguai noi giii di dei hOi mot nang htc va su thentrong cao. Su earn thong eó the chap sit dung han cho" hay to do. Khi dude sudung hop 11, no IA mot tong cu giao tigp manh me chuyen tai su thgu higuva quan tam. Nell sit dung thudng xuyen qua, nO lai tao ra mot bau kh6ng )khi qua the cam. Thyt hanh gal th6ng digp cam thong De tra lai cam thong phai mgt nhigu gia luyen tap. NO &a hal cac canhan phai có mat mile da gam bo nhat dinh vdi nhau. Met cap vo thong haymot gia dinh có van de trong quan he co the thigu su gan bo trong giai doandam to van. Khi quan he cub ho dude tang Wang, se thich hop Ilan cho ngttainhan vien CTXH ginp phat trien ki nang nay. Cling nhu nhung Id nang giaotigp khac, nhan viers CTXH se bat dau vdi thth hAnh có huang dan trongbu6i to van. Thtte hanh ob Inaing clan nen tigp dien giga cac bu6i, va no clingnen la mat phan quan trong cub tign trinh kgt thiic; trong tign trinh dO,khach hang throe khuygn khich tip tut nhung hanh vi ho TA hoc dude trongto van. Mot trong nhfing hanh vi quan trong nhat 1a tra lei c6 earn thong Ianngthi nOi, du lA cha me, ban dai hay nthang nguai quan trong Day la mot phan not qua vg to van co the giiip dat dude muc tieu hocgiao tip hieu qua. Dieu quan trong hdn nth la dU muc tieu, van dg va suquan tam la gi di nga, nguai nhan viers CTXH va khach hang phai tangnhau phat tries mat bat cac nhiem vu va hoat dog de dat dude rage tieu.Hang tram nligng cugn sash va bai vigt &tang dan k5 nang vg giao tigp,quan li ngan guy, gild tinh, lam cha me, cuac song gia dinh, quan li khUnghoang va nhigu van dg khac. Nguai nhan vien CTXH co kinh nghiem se tranen quen thuac vdi nhung nguan nay va each sit dung eh-Ling de thigt kg cacnhiem vu, boat dOng dat throe bat ki muc tieu hay giai quygt bat ki vandg, moi quan tam nao cub khach hang trong to van. Nliling Id nang nay IAquan trong vi no gidp khAch hang hoc dttoc digu ho can bigt song hanhphtic, 06 hat ich hdn. Cfic dgc tinh cub nhihig muc tieu 66 higu qua Vi cox muc tieu, cac van dg va moi quan tam trong he thong cuac songcub khach hang la trong tam eth to van, Chung phai dude cac khach hang120
  • 120. va nhan vien CTXH thao luan ctin than. NM Chung, cac muc Lieu hay cacvan de va moi quan tam trong to van nen (1) co the dat &Jac, (2) có tinhthde day sit phat trien, (3) ngAn han, va (4) có dinh Mk:Mg nhiem vu. Met s6mue tieu khach hang mugn tap trung trong cac ho alai -1g cuec doi hoac lakhong kha thi hoac la khong hOp Ii, ehang han nhu "TM muoii khOng baogio lai butin niia" hay "UM muon hoan thanh moi muc tieu tei dat ra". Nhmuc tieu hop If hdn la "TM mu6n hieu vi sao tai buen va toi phai lam gi decam that}, tOt hem" hay "Toi muOit thanh tong han trong ceng viec". Mvc tieuto van t6t nhat IA nhfing mite tieu xac dinh dude met nave Mau Cu the, changhan nhu "TM muein giao tigp co hien qua lion TM. ITO caa tea" hay "TM mu6ngiai quygt hgt no va. hoc each kiem soat tai chinh cua toi t6t hon". Cac muc Lieu cling nen cO tinh auk day sV phat trien, thing han nhu "Tai mugn hoc each giup da cha me UM nay da len tuei" hay "TM mu6n tp tin hdn khi Uoi tigp the vdi phu na". Kliong phai nho ngtiai nhan vien CTXH gitip do dat dude nhiTing muc Lieu cu the, nhieu khach hang muen tap trung vao nhang van de va nhang moi quan tam trong cuec song nhu "TM thay bat hanh vdi vO Lei nen CM ghet phai ye nha moi tel" hay "Con gel mitai may tuei mia tei dang lam tei phat Bien". Cac van de va cac moi quan tam có the dttOc phat bleu lai de cluing nghe tich cue lion TA thtic day Hen ho han: "TM mugn cO quan he t6t hon vdi vo" hay "TM mugn tra nen Wan gin wit con gai OM Min". Cau hai cai c6c cb phai IA day met nita hay vii met nita kitting phai la eau hai to tit Tel nhat la duy tri met sv dinh httOng tich cite va thlic ddy phat trign trong to van han la chi tap trung vao cac van de va moi quan tam. Khach hang va nhan vien CTXH nen tap trung vao nhCing muc tieu ngan han, thOng qua do co the do luting mite do thanh ding trong 6 hay 8 bu64 Du nhan vien CTXH có thich hay khOng, viec cham sew cO quan If dA thay dang ke theo each lien hanh cua cac dish vu to van &toe cac chtiong trinh bao hiem tra truck (Farley va ceng su, 2003). Hau hgt the chuong trinh cham s6c eb quan 11 han ehg khach hang tit 6 bu6i tra xu6ng va cO the chon them 2 Imo) them neu cling ty bao hiem phe duvet. Dieu nay et.) nghia la cac khach hang va nhan vien CTXH phai thuang Wang nhang mue Lieu trong he thong et* seing cua khach hang có the dat dude trong 6 hoac 8 bugi. VI sv ngAn han, giai doan kct thtic trong to van tra nen quan trong han trong qua trinh to van. 121
  • 121. Cac mue tieu to van can cu thd va re rang. Chung ciing nen bao grimnhung muc tieu c6 thd chia nhO thanh dee nhiem vu va hoat Bong c6 lienquan dgn mue lieu tong the. Nhung nhiem vu va boat deng nay dude dattren nen m6ng cua thuygt hoc tap. Khi m6i nhiem vu hay hoat (Ring dudehoan thanh, khach hang tien gan hdn dgn viec dat dude muc tieu. Changhan, viec hoc each quan li tien hieu qua hdn bao grim met 86 cac nhiem vuva boat deng c6 lien quan. Met trong nhung nhiem vu hay hoat Ong dautien cua khach hang la bigt dgn nhting viec can den tien trong m6i thang.Met nhiem vu hoac boat deng khac IA xem xet danh muc nay va guy& dinhcai nao IA "nhu cau" va cai nao la "ode mugn". Khi met nhiem vu dan dgn •met nhem vu kik, khach hang hoc each lieu ties c6 hieu qua hdn va hivong IA c6 the giai quygt no va tranh dude tinh trang nd nkn. Cac mud lieuc6 thd chia ra thanh nhUng nhiem vu hohc boat deng nhO hdn la nhCingeach tgt nhgt cho to van ngan han. Danh gia va do Wong cac muc tieu Chong to co nhigu each dd danh gin lieu eke muc lieu tu van da divehoan thanh chug. BIM each thtiong thy nhgt bao grim danh gig bdi (1)khach hang, (2) cac thanh vien gia dinh va ban be cua khach hang, (3) nhanvien CTXH va (4) cac ceng cu chudn hod. MOi chtiong trinh danh gia c6nhiing didm manh, didm ygu rieng. Du c6 dude hay khong chung tea offingkhuyen ban si dung ca ben each danh gia de danh gia mite Olden thanhmud tieu. MQt each fig quyet dinh xem mud. tieu to van da dat dude data la hal khach hang. Nhung sti danh gia cua-khach hang thuong la chit quan va c6 thien kign. Hatt het .khach hang iniign till , rang tu van da ghlp ho. Ho dadau tu liking thdi gian va tien bac clang .1td dd to van va ho mugn tin rangtat ca n6 Itic nay*u xiing ding. Bdi. vi muc dich cua to van la dtgitipkhach hang, viec ho la mot .phan cualioa trinh danh gia co ye la digu hop 11.Ngu muc dich cua khach hang . hank phtic hdn va it tram cam hdn sausau buth to van, thi•khi dich vu kgt thnc, cau hai otat ra theo logic se lakhach hang dA dat dude time dich.hay chua. Khach hang có thd tra ldi dahoac chua hay dua ra met cau tra ldi chi tigt hdn khi sit dung mot thangdigm hoan thanh muc tieu nam mite de theo tigp can lgy nhiem vu lamtrung tam trong to van: (1) kheng dat dude muc bell, (2) dat dude chat it122
  • 122. rime Lieu, (3) dat &Jac muc tieu trung binh, (4) dat dt.tac muc tieu clang lieva (5) hoan thanh muc tieu. Sp danh gia caa khach hang cling co the diesdat trong mat bai vigt ve lien bo ma khach hang thgy có trong to van, baivigt nay c6 the c6 ca nhat Id vg nlAng viec xay ra vdi khach hang trong quatrinh to v6n va nhung thay del tich cue ma khach hang thay minh c6 dttactrong cuac song. Mat nguein danh gia Mia la cac thanh vien gia dinh hay ban be cimkhach hang. Nhan vien CTXH trao d6i vOi khach hang chi trong khoangmat gia moi tuAn. Cac thanh viers gia dinh va ban be noi chung danh nhiguthai gian vdi khach hang bon, doi khi tdi 20 gia m61 tuAn hay nhigu hon. Hoco dieu kien tot hdn nhigu danh gia su tign ba cua khach hang so vdingudi can ba. Cac thanh vien gia dinh Nth ban be trao d6i vdi khach hangtrong rat nhigu hoan canh khac nhau, c6 the a nha, not lam viec, a nha tha,hay la mat cha nhan mai khach dgn choi nha. Ngu ngudi can bo su dung thanh vien gia dinh va ban be khach hang trong qua trinh danh gia, nen co su clang g throe da khach hang. Trong viec danh gia nhang tign ba ma khach hang da dat dttac, thanh vien gia dinh va ban be c6 the trA loi có hoac chua dat dude muc lieu hose su dung thang diem 5 mile da to mo hinh Lgy nhiem vu lam trung tam. Su danh gia cna ha ding c6 the la mat bai vigt me to nhung thay dei tich cue ma ho thay khach hang da dat &lac trong cuac song. Ngdai nhan vien CTXH ding nen la mat phan cua qua trinh danh gia. Mac clau ho cho rang ho khach quan hdn khach hang trong danh gia muc da thanh Gong caa viec dat duac muc tieu, cac nhan vien CTXH van c6 mat quygn loi Cu the trong kgt qua to va-n. Nhan vien CTXH mugn tin rang ho da g6p phan tao ra nhang thay del tich cue trong he thong cuac song khach hang dm ho. Gigng nInt su danh gia cua khach hang, su danh gia cis nhan vien CTXH cling la cha quan va c6 the c6 thien kign. Du vay, nhan vien CTXH &Ong mat vai tre quan trong trong qua trinh danh gia. C6 1f luan rang vi nhan wen CTXH da c6 nhigu nam dude dao tao va co kinh nghiem, ho dude chuaM bi tot hOn de dua ra mat danh gia chinh xac vg nhang lien bQ ma khach hang (la dat dude trong to van. Li luan nay c6 the la dung, mac Reid, W. 1. & Epstein. L. (1972). Task-centered casework. New York ColumbiaUniversity Press. 123
  • 123. dau su danh gin dia ho van mang tinh chu quan hay it nhat la co doi chdt tinh chU quan. Khi tra lot lieu cac muc tieu to van da dat duoc hay chtta, nhan vien CTXH có the tra lei da hoac chua giang nhu khach hang va cac thanh vien gia dinh va ban be hoac sit dung wing met thang didm 5 mac do v6 hoan thanh muc tieu nhu da neu a Iran. Nhung cong cu chuan hod cting thLtang duet su dung de" danh gia muc dO thanh cong ciaa vtee dat dude cac muc Lieu to van. Trong khi vies danh gia cua khach hang, thanh vien gia dinh va ban be cim khAch hang, nhan vien CTXH có thd la chi quan, ski danh gia khi sit dung cac tong cu chuan hod dude cho la khAch quan va it Chien ]den hon vi chuag chive xay dUng de có de tin cay va gia tri cao hen cac do Wang khach quan. Do gia tri la met khdi niem do Wong dam bao rang ban da do dude chat luring va dac tinh ma ban tin rang ban dang do, con do tin cay IA nhiing ling dung lap lai ciia cong cu cho ding met ket qua. Cac tong Cu chuan hoa dude sii dung trong danh gia mac de hohn thank]. inue Lieu nen co he s6 do de tin cay va do gia tri va chap nhan duoc. Hang tram cling cu chuan hoA da duoc xay dung do rat nhiau a nhCing dac tinh khac nhan nhu su hai Ring, do to tin, dO thoa man hOnnhan, de thoa man tinh due va quan he gia dinh. Be troll g6i Do luring Leanslings da three cac nhan vier, CTXH sii dung lion 20 nam vi no co 9 cling cuchuan hod co the sit dung de do luting cac mac de" dat dude cila muc tieu tovan. Ca 9 ding cu duet tinh didm don gian va bao gem nhUng thang didmlech chuan va trung vi nhu nhau. Met trong chin cong cu do IA Thang diemHai king Tong quest, do lifting cac mite do hanh phtic va burin ran khannhau. Dues titan thang diem tit 1 din 100, cac diem trung binh hoac trung vitren danh muc IA 30 vdi dim lech chuan IA 5. Neu 1000 khAch hang hoanthanh danh muc nay, khoang 68% se ghi diem tit 25 d6n 35, 95% ghi diemtit 20 den 40, va 98% diem tii 15 den 45. Diem 30 hoac it lion tren thangdiem có nghia la khAch hang hai long hoac hanh philc, diem 50 cho biet cacmac do tram cam khac nhau 3 . Cac thang diem tren 70 cho thay tram cam Rubin, A., & Babbie, E. (2001). Research methods for social work (4 th ed.). BelmontCA: Wadsworth. 2 Hudson. W. B. (1982). The clinical measurement package. Home wood, IL: Dorsey. Corcoran, K., & Fischer, J. (1994). Measures for cllinical practice: A source book (2 91 ed.)NwYork:FPs124
  • 124. nghiem trong, cac thang diem tren 90 chi ra rang khach hang c6 the cónguy ca tu cao. Neu khach hang c6 met trong the muc Lieu la 0-6 nenhanh phtic han va it tram cam han, Thang chain Hai king Teng quilt có thedude stt dung cho khach hang trong buei to van dau tien va sau do this leikhi cite dich vu to van eta ket thlic. Met so sanh diem tat& khi va sau khito van se cho khach hang va nhan vien CTXH met danh gia khach quanhan xem muc tieu to van de hanh phtic hon va it bu6n rau Han da dat dudehay chua. MOt diem khdi clan IA 50 va met diem kgt thile ia 30 cho thdykhach hang hanh phim han nhigu so vdi trade khi to van. Chi so TV tin la met cOng cu chuan khde c6 trong Ba tron gni Do !yangLam sang. Cong cu nay a do Mang Mlle de to tin cita khach hang. Alatren thang diem tit 1 den 100, diem trung binh hop trung vi la 30 voi diemlech chudn la 5. Diem 30 hoac it han tren thang diem cho thdy met dO to tincao, diem 50 cho they mite de khae nhau cua su thieu to tin. Digm tren 70cho thSy mite do to ti cao, diem 90 cho thSy miie d8 to ti cue cao. Chi sic TVtin cO the sit dung a xac dinh cai co the tat deng den su tram cam eimkhach hang. Chang han diem 70 hoac tren trong Thang diem Hai ZangTong quilt chi ra do tram cam cao. Diem 30 hoac it han trong Chi snTv tincho they mite do to tin cao. So sanh hai mite diem v&i nhau to they rang skitram cam nghiem trong cua khach hang co ye nhu bi tac &Ong bai nhungyeu t6 ben ngoai nhu mat di met nguai than yeu chic khong phai ben ye"tt toben trong nhu nhang suy nghi tieu cue. Hai mite diem nay cling cho thykhi tinh hueng ben ngoai dude cai thien, mite tram cam nghiem trong tangse dude cai Chien. Met diem 70 trong thang diem Hai long Tong quat vadiem 70 hoac tren 70 trong Chi s6 Tv tin cho they su tram cam nghiemtrong cua khach hang c6 the la do the deng eita nhung yeu t6 ben trongnhigu ban nhiing yeu When ngoai. Hai mite diem nay gang cho they khachhang co the da chiu tram cam trong met thdi gian dakkhoang 6 thang hoachon. Bai vi su tram cam nang cua khach hang c6 ye nhu la tit ben trongnhigu hem la to ben ngoai, se kho giup khach hang lion bdi vi sit tram camda tra thanh met phan trong euec song hang ngay cita khach hang. Chi s6ThoA man Win nhan vb. Chi s6Thoa man Tinh due la hai cOngCu trong Bq tron goi Do Wong Lam sang c6 the chtec sit dung trong to vanhOn nhan. Chi s6 Thoa man Hon nhan do muc do, de Idn hay de cao cim Hudson. sad 125
  • 125. thoa man trong hen nhan, Chi s6 Thoa man Tinh due do luting mite do, do lan hay do cao cna thoa man quan he tinh due. Diem 30 hoac thAp hem a ea hai ding cu cho thAy met mite de thoa man hem nhan hay tinh due cao, con diem 50 hoac cao Mtn cho thAy mite de thoa man hen nhan hoac tinh due thAp. Mite de 70 hoac hen trong ca hai ding cu cho thAy cac mite de thoa man hen nhan hoec tinh due rat thap, mite diem 90 hoec hun cho thAy mite de thoa man cue thAp. Mec dau nhung ding cu nay de do Mang nhung van de tthing tu, chUng thttang dude sit dung tech biet. Mac deli do thoa man tinh due la met phan quan trong song cac yeu to khac ding (Tong gap den de thoa man hem nhan nhtt long ton trong, su tin Wang, Yong chung thug va tien bac. Hudson tin rang VII nhAt IA sit dung mei tong Cu rieng biet bai vi cluing do luring hai khai niem khac nhau. KhOng cong cu nao c6 the thay the cho cong Cu kia. Be troll gel Do luring Lam sang ding c6 nhung tong cu chuen hoa sitdung trong W van gia dinh. Thai de ciia con clea vai me va thai de caa condai vdi cha la hai cling eu chuen hod do luting cam nhan cua tre em ye chame chting. Ca hai cong cu do hieing mite de thoa man cim tre em ye hai m6iquan he nay. Aguas lai, Chi so" Thcii dp cua cha me do Mang mite de thoaman cilia cha me del vol con cai. Chi se Quan he gia dinh do Mang mac dethoa man dm cac thanh vien gia dinh vdi town be gia dinh. Chi soMuan heBang nghiOp danh gia cam nhen ena ban ve nhung ngtroi ban sung lam viesphan lem thai gian. Vdi cac ding eu khac, B§ tron got Do litatng Lam sang c6diem 30 hoac dueri chi ra mite do thoa man cao, diem 70 hoac thap hen chira mite de thoa man rat thep, con diem 90 hoac Min chi ra mite de thoa mancue thAp. Cac ding Cu chuen hoa Mut tit có the doge sii dung de? do Mang macdo hoan thanh muc tieu va giai guy& van de hoac mei quan tam dm khachhang. Khach hang c6 the hoan thanh nhung ding cu nay vao nhung thaidiem khac nhau trong qua trinh to van, bao gem giai doan dau giai doan ,tien hanh, giai doan sau va Eel) theo. Cac ding cu chuen hoe nen dude sadung In eau tien la khi khach hang bat &Au tM van, nhat la thdi diem batdau cita bum to van dau tien. Diem khdi dau hay diem giai doan co sa manglai cho khach hang va nhan vien CTXH met tIntOc do v"e earn nhan caa Hudson, sad126
  • 126. khach hang khi bat dau tit van. Cac cong eu chuAn hoa ding nen dude Lienhanh trong suet qua trinh to van. Diem trong qua trinh tU yin cho khachhang va nhan vien met thitOc do ye sit tien be ma khach hang dang co saumei buei Lu van. Vao cual hal to van sau ding khi ket aide dich vu, to nensit dung cling met cong Cu ehuan hoe do. Diem sau tit yin hay diem kitthile cho ca khach hang va nhan viola met do Kiang ye cam nhan caa khachhang vao cuei to vin. Sii so sanh giva cat diem try& va sau to yin tren clingmet tong cu chuan hod se cho chi bao ye viec lieu to yin có thanh tong trongviec lam cho khach hang cam thiy tot Hon hay khong. Gong cu to yin do cothe dude tiers hanh Lai khach hang met hoac han met thang sau khi to vanda kit thile. Diem sau nay se cho khach hang va nhan vien met do hieing yeanh hUang dai han cba to vin. Dieu quan trong la danh gia tee deng dai handm to yin va the diem Lieu sau la met phan quan trong dia danh gia de l .Neu met nhan vien kheng bang each nao do danh gia dliec khach hang earnthiy ra sao met hoac lion met thang sau khi to yin kit auk, nguai can be dokh8ng danh gia dude ye anh huang dai han cua tit MO to chi tiet ve each sU dung the ding eu chuan hod nhu the naonham danh gia mite de thanh tong cim viec dat mug Lieu tit yin la vudt rangoai khuOn kh6 caa chitong nay. Tuy nhien, met danh muc the cong cuchuan hod thubng dude su dung de danh gia cong viec caa cat nhan vienCTXH da dude trinh bay trong cuen "Ccic do hang cho mue dich Icim sang",Cal lieu do Corcoran va Fischer viet (1994). Dieu quan trong IA cat &Ong cuchuan hoa nen dude sit dung la met phan ena danh gia bit cu khi nao cothe. Met danh gia khi quan caa khach hang, thanh vien gia dinh va ban becua khach hang hay caa nhan vien CTXH dude them Ira° hal met danh giacua cat cong cu chuan hod se mang lai met bang chUng re) rang ye viec themuc Lieu cua khach hang da dat dude va to yin da thAnh &Mg. Cac cong cuchuan hoe la met phan quan trong ena qua trinh danh gia trong to yin vala cit lei caa eel da dude biet den nhu thific hanh dinh billing nghien elmhay thuc hanh tit nhat. Coicoran v a Fischer, sdd 127
  • 127. TOM TAT ChuOng nay tap trung vao qua trinh lap kg hoach trong thue hAnhtrue tigp vei cac ca nhan va gia dinh. Nhigu linh vile kign tithe va Id nangxac dinh trong chuong nay c6 the dude sit dung vOi nhom. ChitOng nay taptrung chU y6t, vao viec sit dung cac hap d6ug to van girth nhan vien vakhach hang a Op phan lam re cac muc tieu, nhiem vu va cac Liu tien trongbale lap kg hoach. Met linh Ric tap trung quan trong nCia lA giao tigp vi n6 dai diOn chonhiing kh6 khan thttOng tho:y ma nhigu ca nhan vA gia dinh gap phai. Mucdich, muc tied va cac rao can trong giao ti6p hieu qu6 dude gidi quygt. CacMt& Cu the can d@ cai thien giao tigp hieu qua dude mg ta, tong vat viecdung cac thong diep "toe. Chtteing nay It& tilde voi viec hudng clan khach hang va nhan vienCTXH nham den ode mue lieu c6 hien qua va each do luring va danh gianhu the nAo. Viet sit dung cac tong cu chuan hoe dtteic thao luan cling nhuthao luan viec danh gia cUa khach hang, cac thAnh vien gia dinh va ban becua khach hang, dm nhan vien CTXH.128
  • 128. Chuang 4 KIEN THCIC VA KT THUAT CAN THIEP Chthing nay co trong tam IA kign aide va ki thuat can thiep throethgc hien nhu the` nao dua trail cac 1i thuygt da Iga chon op dung cho matqua trinh can thiep da duck lap kg hoach. Viec lua ehon ki thuat va viecdinh ra muc dich nal) can dat dude la do thOa thuan gala khAch hang vangdoi tham van. Ngdai tham van can giai thich rS cho khach hang ye nhiing me hinhtham van va ki thuat digu tri ma ngdai do se sit dung va nhung chuyenbign mong muen. Dieu nay cho phep khach hang hien re lam muc dich cudviec thuc hien nhung Id thuat nay nham lam tang mite do can thiep. Nhan vien tham van can giai quygt duck cac van de va mei quan tamcaa khach hang. Chi frit nhiing truang hOp dac biet thi su can thiep mai dingudc Iai clai hOi cim khach hang. Do co the" IA khi nguai do 11 del tdOngnguy him cho chinh ban than ho hay cho nhung ngttai khfic hoac bi benh lithan kinh va. klaing dua ra dude nhiing quygt Binh sang suet vg cham secva an tit co. nhan. Nhung tinh hu6ng khang hdang do nhin chung canducic chuyan dgn giai quygt a benh vien trdoc khi xem xet kha nang tamthan co cho phep chide digu tri bang he trd tham yin dude hay khong. Viec xem xet nay phai dirge dua trail mat sit danh gia th‘u dao 176trang that tam 11 va he thgng nhung bien phap ha trd dg ap dung bien phapit khac nghiet hon. Sau day la tong quan ve qua trinh can thiep va cac bien phap ce lienquan dua trail nhung li thuygt co so. Khong phai tat ca cac khia canh cua 11thuygt hay quan digm dude ohm ra xem xet, ma chi nhaing dAc diem trongygu ditoc gioi thieu lam rtgn tang dg phat trik viec thus hanh ding tac xahQi mot each true tigp. Lieu 91.10 va ki thuat dub tit cci sa tam li hoc ban nye Mac du nhung ngitai sit dung mo hinh tam li clang hoc khac nhau yequan digm Ira trong tam chit li hoc ban nang, ban nga, quan h@ caadel tudng, tam 11 hoc to than), ho en xu Iniong sit dung &tang hdong digu tri 129
  • 129. gio-ng nhau. Dieu cot yeu nhal cua tam li hoc ban nga trong &tang hUong 116trd la au dung nhung ki thuat nham giup tang cuing ban nga ciia khichhang (do la phan ban nga a Wing khong co xung del) hoac gait) bin ddi yeca ban trong nhan each khach hang (do la phan lien quan tOi xung dal giaaban nang thu nhan/ hay cai ay (ID) va cai sieu toi (superego) maa yang tamlinh ce t6 chile). Hai dill:mg htudng nay dude Goldstein (1995) xac dinh la(Kiang hudng he trd ban nga (ego-supportive) va chinh sua ban nga (ego-modifying). Bien phap can thiep ho try &in ngei nham muc dich kh8i phut, duy trihoac tang curing viec thue hien chic nang thich nghi cua ca nhan tang nhula tang Wang hay xay dung ban nga neu ban nga co su suy sup. Trai lai,hien phap can thiep chinh sua twin nei lai nham muc dich thay dth m8 hinhnhan each hay cd cgu nhan each cd ban. Nhang ki thuat chinh sua ban nga thuong keo &Ai va keo theo ratnhieu nhung ki thuat phan tam hoc ca din nhu ki thuat tim higu trip gine,kl thuat tao chuygn dich tinh cam, ki thuat phan tich gigc md, ki thuat timhi4u mei quan he thai the au viii nhung doi Wong quan trong. Tieu chi ddi Outing hutling chinh sera [Wang hiding hd try ban nga chieu ban ng a- Hanh vi hien thai, suy nghiva cam giac CO Hanh vi qua kW va hien tai,Trong tam can 9 thitc, mot so" trong tam ve qua khCt suy nghiva cam giac coythigp thac, fiem Oak va vg thUc Thau to ban nga, tim higu tang Wang, hieu Flieu bang frac giac va gi5iBan chat bigt va nang cao tinh tich cuc, trai nghiem Ma xung dotcoa su bign tinh cam dung, trung hoa xung Of, hoachuygn . nhap tot hdn gab con ngUdi va mOi twang. Trai nghiarn quan he that, chuygn dich tinh Chuyen did) tinh cam caSir dung cam tich cuc (xu60, quan he ding, quan he tinh nth cuc (xuoi) va tiguquan he dm nhan vien CTXH vol nhimg nguqi trong cuc (nguqc) mot each rO rat m6i tritemg ctia khach hang Mang tinh dinh Wang, duy tri, giao due, c6 KhOng mang tinh dinhTest tam Ii ca cau, mat chOt phan anh Wong, mang tinh chat phan anh va Ii alaiLam vice vai Chinh sua mang tinh mai trUdng va tai ca Kh6ng nhan manh, nhungm6i twang cat, cung cap va huy dOng cac ngugn, c6 co the cc:, set dungxa hOi digu kien de cai thign m6i trUang130
  • 130. Nhang nguti phai dal mat voi chuyan d6i Nliing gi di kern sac manh cuac ddi, nharig khang hoang tinh the hay ban nga tich cut vdi nhang cap bath, hoac ap lut, nhang gi di kern vdi m6 hinh thich nghi sai, c6De) Wong suy sup ban nga, vai m8 hinh thich nghi lien quan Rh lap chat nangnh6m khach sai, chiu dung raj loan tarn Ii mac than va tei w, trong mat vai fro:mghang filch hop kiem scat xung lut hdp c6 me hinh thich nghi sai nghiem trong, phan khang, suy sup ban ngaThdi gian can Ngan han hoac dai han Nhin chung la kelp daithiepHINH 4.1. SU khac nhau giaa clueing Wang he, try ban nga va during Wang chinh saa ban nga Dat trong the so sanh, nhung ki thuat tang cueing ban nga cling ce the?lien quan den viec tham van nham thay d& ca nhan, cling có the phol hdpvdi set thay deli vg mei trliang; hdn neth, trong tam dude dat it hdn vao khiacanh qua khit hay khia canh ye) thfic eeta nhan each va nhieu hdn dennguyen trang, mei quan he tile then va sit phat tries cna mea quan he trilieu tang cueing. NO cling dude lei sang mei quan he hO trd ngan han hdn. Met trong nhung khia canh tich cue dm me hinh nay la no long. Nhanvien tham van co the ho trd bang each Ltd& het tang curing ban nga va saildo, dua tren set clanh gia va muc tieu, bat dau chinh seta ban nga, hoacngudc lai. Hinh 4.1 so sanh hai throng httang dua teen tam Ii hoc ban ngatrong viec duy tri muc dich can thiEp. Hollis phan chia nhfing nhom ki thuat chinh dude bet ke chteii day.Nhring ki thuat nay phol hdp vdi viec sit dung giao tiep khi lam viec truetigp vdi khach hang. Nhfing ki thuat dude set dung d@ thay doi mai tritengkhang dude chia van nhung nhom phan loaf nay. Hdn nila, Hollis to chilenheing ki thuat nay Ghia tren each xem xet "(tete hdn la chla trail viecnhung ki thuat nay la he, trd hay chinh sila ban ngd. Sat, ki thuat 65 Li: 1. Duy tri 2. Di8u tri true tip 3. Tham do, me to va lam thong thoang (Ventilation) Hollis, E. (1972). Casework: A psychosocial therapy (ri ed.) New York: Random House 131
  • 131. 4. Phan anh dya tren tinh hitting ca nhan 5. Phan anh me hinh citing 6. Phan anh phat trien Hai Id thuat (tau lien co lien quail vdi mei quan he giCia khach hangva nhan vien CTXH va phu thuec vao mac do ma khach hang cho phepnhan vier CTXH tic clang de digu tn. KT thuat thu ba cho phep khach hangbee 10 ban than, trong khi ba ki thuat con lai lien quan dgn hinh thdc phananh nao do vg phan khfich hang. Cu thdlir 1. Ki thuat duy tri lien quan tai ki thuat giao tigp chung chung dekhfch le (gat dau, nhung lbi nhu yang, da, va tiej) di a, met ca chi chnnao d6) ding vii su cam thong, quan tam tich cyc va sU than tinh dich thkic. 2. Ki thugt diet tri trgc tip phai hdp vies sit dung IM khuyen haygdi y giai quygt. Nhan vien CTXH c6 the gip y ve nhling hoat ding ma kinkhach hang nen tign hinh. Khi sit dung nhung ki thuat nay can phai thantrong, can y kign dua ra can phai tinh tg 3. Ki thu3t tham do, mo to va lam thong thoang &roc thigt kg degulp khach hang to beck) thong tin chil quan vi khach quan vg nhung kinhnghiem, trai nghiem quan trong va giilp ho the hien cam gide ena minh.Viet cho phep khach hang bee le ban than thoang khign ho dude giai toa.Viac giai toa dat dude thong qua viec lam thong thoang, co the dude h6 trdqua viec sit dung ki thuat ciing c6. Khi khach hang cam nhan dude ski thongcam cua nhan vien CTXH va nhfing khieh le ma ho bec le, cam gide tra stt loAu, vo yang, tai loi (Wang nhu giam boa. 4. Ki thu3t phgn anh tinh huang ca nhan dude thigt kg dii gitipkhach hang phan anh ve tinh hugng hien thdi caa ha va ye nhfing mgi quanhe dia. ho. Hollis (1972) Chia ki thuat nay thanh nam chieu: • Khach hang nhin nhan ve sue khoe vi nhiing khia canh khac nhau cua the gidi xung quanh cling nhu sy nhan thilc va hieu bigt ona no ve nhiing nguai khac nhu thgnao. • Khach hang hieu hinh vi cua rieng ho nhu the nao trong viec nhung hinh vi do anh twang den ngtiei khac vi ban than ho.132
  • 132. • Khach hang hien nhu the nao ye viec tai sao ho cu zit nhu vay trong nhCing tinh hueng nhet dinh nao do. • Nhan thiic cua khach hang ve dieu gi gay ra hanh vi cua ho khi ho tudng tae vdi Malang nguai khac. • Khach hang danh gia nhu the nao ve ban than ho hay met phan eau thanh nao do eim hanh vi cua ho (theo met he theng gia tri, Liu the, hay toy niem nao do). Viec the dinh Kern can tap trung vao yeu t6 nao phu thuee vao su danh gia va loai van de ma khach hang dim ra. Hai chieu Tau lien ce dinh clang den van de vita hien the vita httong ngoai dei vdi khach hang, trong khi ba chieu con 10 xugt phat tit quan diem ehu quan hen cua khach hang khi ho mac phai van de do. 5. Ki thulat phan anh mO hinh dung bao gem viec gitip da khachhang can nhae, qua viec phan anh, nhfing me hinh tam li nao co lien quanden hanh vi aim ho, ding veil co the phOng ve dude sit dung vdi su trq gin")cud nhan vien CTXH. Khach hang dude khuyen khich xem xet Id htengnhitng mei quan he Ong ce lien quan den hanh vi cua ho. Muc clich la khienkhach hang Wet len nhfing phan ung khong finch hOp va can nil& nei dungtarn if ben trong ce lien quan den hanh vi. De lam dude viec nay nhan vienCTXH phai del dau vdi hanh vi thfch iing sai va khOng nhgt 6. Ki thunt phan anh phat tri"411 dude su dung de khuyen khichkhach hang phan anh xem cac khuynh Mt:mg tarn 11 cua ho dude phat triernhu the nao. Hai vi 11 thuyet cho la con nguoi nei tam hoe nhUng trainghiem quan trong trong qua khit tdi mite do eMing tier) tue gay anh httongden hei dap hien tai, nen nhfing trai nghiem qua khfi dude xem xet NIA xit h.Khach hang tham de mei quan he giiia met khia canh nao do trong hanh vihay trai nghiem cua ho vdi met khia canh khac khi cluing xay ra trong quikhi. Khach hang phai dude danh nhieu thai gian not ve ban than vi tinhhueng eiia ho tritdc khi nhan vien CTXH va khach hang xem xlet nhangkhia canh tam If NIA khia canh phat trien cua van dg. Khi su clung ki thuat chinh sita ban nga, nhan vier CTXH trugc hetphai danh gia khach hang de" zee dinh kha gang chiu dung cUa ho trongphan tich sau ya lieu viec al) dung nhfing Id thunt de co to ra la co 1di haykhong. "NhCing ca nhan co su phOng ye thich ung sai va cling ran khien ho 133
  • 133. bi rei loan se tang rei loan hOn neu nhu su phong ye cna ho bi thaeh thitc".Nhung k3 thuat theo during &tang nay dua tren nhCing ki thuat c6 dien nhutim hien bang true giac, d6i pho true dien, chuyen dich tinh cam va nghien ki Wang mei quan he thai the) au. Muc lieu la de hieu mei quan he dungtrong nhiing trai nghiem dau thai ki au the), cam gide va hanh vi trong thaiki do vai mei quan he hien nay, cac cam giac va hanh vi hien thei iing vaicac giai doan phat trign. Ki thuat chuy6n dich tinh can xuoi/Kithuat chuOn dich tinh cam nguvc Met ki thuat quan trong trong phan tieh tam li co lien quan den khainiem chuyen dich tinh cam xuoi. Chuyen dich tinh cam xuoi duye dinhnghia la nhUng cam giac, ao vong, su phong vo va phan ling tinh cam makhach hang co dei vai nhan vien CTXH. Nhung phan ling nay ce the tichctic (cam gine tin clay, an toan, to tin va tinh yeu) hoae lieu cue (earn giacWe gian, bi phan b0i, tan tinting va cheng dei). Nhang earn giac nay dttyccho IA tang len khi khach hang bat clan mei lien he vai Ilan he tro gigngnhu IA ho da quan he rad nhung nguai quan trong trong cuec dai caa ho, dacbiet la cha me va nhung ngttai sham sec ban dau cua ho. Nhung nguari h6try sit dung lieu pilau nay aa? oat (mac su hik bigt vg nhiing mei quan hexung dot trong qua khU ma khach hang da co voi ngudi khac va vg viesnhung H niem va trai nghiem nay c6 lien quan va tiep tut gay anh huangnhu the nao den earn giac va hanh vi cua khach hang trong mei quan hehien thai. Trong Phan tarn hoc truyen theng, viee phat tries cim su chuyen dichtinh cam xuoi (Wye coi la met phan thiet ygu va binh thttang dia qua trinhhe try. Met khi su chuyen dich tinh cam da dat dude, nhan vien CTXH giaithich chuyen gi da xay ra, nhe do khach hang có the biet duyc va r6i ho setin hanh giai quygt xung dOt va sau clang gitlp khach hang thay dei nhaneach. Ki thuat phan tich giac mo va su lien hei to do de tap trung vao cat kiniem thai tho Ku la nhung ki thuat hay dude sit dung de dat muc tieu nay. Trong Tarn li hoc ban nga, nhung ki thuat nay dude phei hap trongquan he he try, dac biet la khi viec chinh sita ban nga Era thanh muc tieu.Khi k3 thuat he try ban nga dude thuc hien thi nhan vien tham van duringnhu khOng khuyen khich su phat tries cim su chuyen dich tinh cam xuoi,hay chi khuyen khich no a mac aa km chop. Muc Lieu thUang IA Oat trign134
  • 134. su chuyen dick tinh cam xuai Lich cue nham h6 trO Ira giiip do khach hang.Them vao do, nhan vien CTXH se tap trung vao cai hien thai thao luannhitng Mang lutc3ng tien be nham giai quyet nhang van de cim khach hang. Chuyen dich tinh cam nguoc yen d1dc dinh nghia la nth:Mg cam giackhong hien time hay khong thich hop ma nguati he tre co dttOc vdi khachhang. Gieng nhu chuyen dich tinh cam xuoi, nth-mg cam gide nay cling dudecoi la bat nguen 6 mite de v8 thitc va có lien he vdi nhcing xung dot trongqua khU cna ngU6i he tre. Theo Tam li hoc ban nga, dinh nghia chuyen dich tinh earn nguoc dadude m6 rang bao gem nhUng phan ung chja tren thuc tai Mita nhan vienCTXH va khach hang "nghia fling han cua chuyen dich tinh cam nguoc comet ham Y quan trong, do la nhan vien CTXH thuang thay khong thoai maihay phai kim nen cac phan iing do khach hang khai day chit kitting phaixuat phat tit xung dot cith khach hang". Vi vay nhan vien CTXH co the batclan hieu xem nhang ngttai khac trong the gidi cua khdch hang phan iingnhu the nao vdi each cu su cua khach hang dua tren nhang cam gist vakinh nghiem cim chinh minh. Nhan vien CTXH co the sit dung thiing tinnay a gulp khach hang hien han ve nhu can cim ho va cai ho muen clingnhu a lien he co hieu qua han vdi nhiing nhu can khac. Tuy nhien nhanvien CTXH phai than trong nham danh gia dude chinh xac stt khac nhaugifia chuyen dich tinh cam nguoc va viec sit dung cai ten khong hieu qua cimkhach hang trong viec hoan thanh mue tieu cna ho. Tim hieli bang true gist Tim hieu bang true gist la ki thuat duct sit dung rang rai trong vieccan thiep, la met su Ii giai hay hieu hilt do nhan vien CTXH cung dip chokhach hang ye § nghia cua cac khdi niem. Viec tim hieu bang trip gist naytap trung vao viec dtta ap ltfc deny thitc va nhitng xung dot v8 thtie mangtinh minh hoa cling nhu gitip khach hang hieu nhung xung dot nay se dienra trong cuec ddi hien tai cua khach hang nhu the nao. Dac biet la khi ho canduy tri nhUng mOi quan he va nhiing hanh vi thich ting sai. Nhan vien CTXHdung quan tam tdi viec glop da khach hang hieu duoc su phOng ve ma ho sitdung de xft If nhUng tinh hueng trong cuec ddi cim minh. Vi vay muc tieukhac la gulp del khach hang tang curing va sit dung Men phap phOng ye thichhop, tranh nhCing bien phap khong ce Iii; dinh hudng lai each phOng lie gayrat rei thanh nhUng each phOng ve mang tinh xay dung han. 135
  • 135. Kithuat tang curing ban nga Duct tren li thuyet dm Ericson, can nha tam li hoc ban nga quan tamtai viec tang curing ban nga cna khach hang va su sii dung kha nang Ii Maisan co cila ca nhan de xac dinh van de va giai phap kha thi. KT thuat tangcuang ban nga cho phep khach hang nhin thay ea hei phat trim va hoc heitren lien khung holt-1g hoac trai nghiem. Khach hang cling se duos tro giripde c6 duct su hieu biet it han ye ca nhan ho thong qua tim hi4u mue tieu,n6i so hai, ma ttac, h Wang va su that vong. Thong qua Wang tan gith nhanvien CTXH va khach hang, nhan vien CTXH se ha Erg khach hang be di cacvai va cac cach cu xu khong co hieu qua. KIMch hang (kW chi clan rangcal cling ho phai chin trach nhiem cho tinh huiing hien tai cim h9 va choWong lai ma ho d6i mat. Cac ki thuat khac NhUng nhan vien CTXH sit dung thuyet tam li hoc ban nga c6 khanang su dung nhieu ki thuat khac nhau de giup khach hang lien be, baogam ld thuat giao due khach hang nhiing hanh vi va ki nang mai va ding cocac n& hic giai guy& va chien hide doi oho van de. Cac nhan vien CTXHcling sit dung mei twang de "cung cap them cac co hei va dieu kien cho viec )su dung kha nang caa met nguai" (Goldstein, 1986). Cho pile) khach hangduct thong thoang ye cam cac ding la met ki thuat co the sii dung &Ate.MOt loi (eh cim tarn li hoe ban nga la Hem nang tham gia vao cac hoat chingpining cheing de flung cao chile nang cho ngUai khac - khong chi la cac khachhang - trong xa KM (Goldstein, 1986). Li9u phial, va kith* dip troll tam li hoc hanh vi Lieu phap clua tren tam li hoc hanh vi khong duos clua tren Wan be lithuy6t nhan cach hoc. Muc tieu cea lieu phap nay la giilp khach hang hocnhUng k5 thuat den phO hay loai frit th6i quen to ti. KT thuat caa J.Wolpe Joseph Wolpe gioi thieu met vai Id that dua teen nguy8n tAc phan xuco diau kien dm Pavlov, li thuyet kith thich - phan ling cim Hull ye viechoc, va 11 thuyet cua rieng Ong ve viec lam giam lo au bat dau W moo. Sau Wilson, G. T. (1995). Behavior therapy. In R. J. Corsini & D. Wedding (Ms.), Currentpsychotherapies (5 ed., pp. 197-228). Itasca, IL: Peacock.136
  • 136. khi da Mc dinh sy lo au trong dong vat sit dung ma hinh K — F (kich thich -phan ring), Wolpe viit rang viec hoc din ra khi: Mat phan &roc gay ra trong sit Wang quan tam then veil mat kich thich de cho va ngutti to ket luan rang chinh kich thich do co the gby ra phbn tang do mac du trunc day no chua teing gay ra phan (mg nhtr the. Neu kich thich co the King gay ra phan do to Won Mating sau d6 lai kich thich ph5n tang da nhieu fain, thi plain xa co dieu kien c6 le clang &roc cho la da xay ra. Wolpe da tim each lam giam va loci ha phan xa co digit kien nay quaviec sir dung "Dai man cam he thing" hay "Lap digu kien ngudc". Giai man cam he -Clang dude dua tren niem tin rang niu phan ringlo au la phan xa co Hen kien hay dude ran luyen ma thanh, thi phan ling Syciing co the khdng dude ren luyen MM. DO có dude ski x6a bO digit kien nay,Wolpe da gia thuyit rang, niu mat phan ling c6 the dude xac dinh la khongliking ling voi sit lo au, khi phan dng ay dude sinh ra, ne c6 thd tao cap vOikich thich gay ra ndi lo au va se ngan than su lo Au Sy hay han chi dinmite tii thidu hail qua ciia no. Nguyen tac hinh thanh tit khai niemnay dude goi IA sit ile Lein nhau, cho rang "nil mot phan ling the day sulo Fang o6 thd dude tao ra khi ea mat tac nhan kich thick gay lo lang, no selam yiu di su rang butic gi3a tac nhan kich thich va sit lo tang. Qua thangian va vOi du cac lien kit cap (tac nhan kich throb lo Fang va tac nhAnngan can lo Fang), s>t lo tang se Min mat va mot phan ling mei c6 hieu quahOn se dude thay Wolpe tim ra rang nth:111g tac nhan fie chi lo lang can dude khai daubang viec hen kit cap *A mot tac nhan kich thich lo Au d Wang dO thgp hay h6a. Khi sty lo au dude vudt quad cuang dO thgp, ca nhan dan clan sechuydn len mile flip theo cith kich thich gay lo lang. KT thukt nay dudemieu to la su mein cam he thehg, bai no dich chuydn mot each cO he thingtit the nhan kich thich lo au cuang do thg.p din Wang di) cao va tac nhannay duct lien kit voi tac nhan can tra su lo Au. C6 ba guy trinh co ban trong sii dung k3 thukt man cam he thing.Trude hit Wolpe thay phan tang thu gian co thd khong tuang hop yeti lo Au.Mudn ki thuat thu gian to bap tang clan dia. Jacobsen (1938), tang bttekWolpe ban dau day va sau do digit tri cho khach hang bang ki thuat naycho tdi khi ho dat dude sit thanh thao. Wolpe, I. (1973). The pracetice of behavior therapy. New York: Pergamon Press. 137
  • 137. Buac hai caa qua trinh la tao ra mat chai nhUng the nhan kich thich lo Lang va xep thii hang tit mite kich thich lo Lang thap (hoac vita) tai mac cao (hay manh nhet). Mat bien phap thay the la da khach hang mien to nhang tac nhan kich thich theo mat chaii thOi gian va khong gian, nhu la ngay hoac gio truck mat sy kien (vi du: mat 16 cUM) hay khoang each giaa khach hang via mat d6 vat gay sy hai (viec dung each xa eon ran deoi vdi viecthin con ran trong tay). Khach hang throe you eau xep mite do lo Lang tren thang diem tit 0 den 100 (0 IA khong lo lung — 100 IA lo Fang tea da hayhoang sy). Thong thuang, khoang each &a eac kich thich tao ra to lAngtrung binh khoang 10 diem. Khach hang tang mieu ta, tang chi tiet tangtot, nhiing tinh hueng gay lo Lang cho ho. 131tac ba phei hop hai budc tren de lap digu kien ngtioc cho kich thichgay lo Fang. Do la viec yeu eau khach hang thu gian. Mat khi khach hang dathu gian, hay yen eau ho Wang Wang tang ra rang tang tat, truck hgt lanhting kich thich gay lo Au a mite da thep nhet trong danh sash caa ho. Neuho they to Au, ha phai bao hieu bang ngon tay trO. Sau do khach hang ductchi dun thOi kh8ng Wang Wyng nua hay x6a. 66 canh gay to Au do va thugian tra lai. Khi ho da thu gian, ho lai dude chi dun tap trung eau 6o vaocanh gay lo long, eau do lai thu gian. Cach thitc digu tri nay se dude lap laicho tai khi khach hang thyc sy thu gian hoan toan. Khach hang thtiang baocao khong cOn lo Lang naa khi canh gay lo Tang xuet hien. Sau khi Wang Wong den mat canh gay lo Fang ma bao la khong cOn lotang gi nua khach hang dude you Mau thi:i lam lai trong khoang 10 giay nita ,va quay tra lai trang thai thu gian. Neu ho lam lai ma khOng co lo Au naocan they nita thi canh tiep theo trong bac thang the kich thich lo Lang dudedua ra. Neu khach hang van khong tao ra dale lo au, nhan viers CTXH cóthe mien to canh WOng gay lo thing cang chi tiet tang tot de h6 try khachhang dat dude trang thai nay de ho c6 the tien hanh sy thu gian va kiemsoot to lung, chi khi lo Fang duoc trai nghiem. Vdi bat ki canh Wong nao, semat den chiing hai hay ba man trinh then loai ho dale lo Fang, hay no c6the mat dgn mat, hai, hay nhigu ddt tri lieu Min chi tap trung vao mat canhWong duy IAA nao do twee khi x6a tan lo au ve. dat &roc cam gide kiemsoot lo Au. Khi cam gide hay mite thong thao da dat dude cho tinh huOng giaWang, khach hang dttoc khuygn khich thtte hAnh ki thuat mdi chtOc hoc138
  • 138. nay trong the tinh huOng that ngoai ddi. Trong qua trinh nay, Id thuat thugian clang vai tro quan trong, ming vdi viec tiep can len dee bac thang kiththich gay to Tang to bac thdp den bac cao de xay ching su to tin va datdude thanh ceng. Kith* hum luy0 su quyet doan K1 thuat man earn he thong la each can thiep có uu the del vdi nhanglo au hay sd hai ve can di xay ra trong cac tinh hueng kheng dinh dang dencon nguai. Del veil ski lo Au mang tinh xa hei - nhang lo au co su hien diencud con nguai — Wo1pe da phat tri6n Id thuat hudn luyen su guy& doan. Sktquyet doan, von dude coi la kheng tuong thich vdi su lo au, can dude hudnluyen cho nhang thi sinh thay kJ-Le khan trong viec the hien cam giac did hohay the hien nhung gi ho thich hay kheng thich. Nhung nguai nay thtionghi lo Au trong cac tinh hu6ng xa hOi. Met cam giac to ai do that) ding co thedude coi la dac diem ph6 hien eila van de nay. Hanh vi quyet doan dudeWolpe (1973) dinh nghia la "each the hien tot bat ki met tinh cam nao ngoaisu lo au del vai nguai khac". Quyet doan ce nghia la ngUdi do ea the thehien su gian, buc minh khi can, ding vai viec the hien tinh you va suthan thien khi nhiing tinh cam nay la thich hop. Trong dieu tri, khach hang dude you eau tap duot met tinh huOng canden su quyet doan. Nhan vien CTXH ap dung met chuei hanh vi phan cap.Trude het, khach hang dude chi dan each eu xii nhu the nao (vi du: dudehudn luyen each dung dieu be co the, net mat, anh mat, va giong noi). Ti6pdo, nhAn vien CTXH clang vai ngtidi "khac" trong tinh hueeng cho sari do vachi dAn khach hang each sit dung cac hanh vi quyet doan mai dude hoc (Cadieu be ed the va nen tit). Bade ti6p theo la khien khach hang Hug hanhcac hanh vi mdi trong dat diOu tri nham phat tri6n cac chitin hide sit dung dude trong tinh hu6ng ngoai Gi6ng nhu ki thuat Tan earn he thong, khach hang xac dinh cac tinhhu6ng xa hai gay ra nhieu lo rang cho ha va phat trim cac kf nang kiem sok tang tinh hu6ng met. Met quy tae quan trong phai theo khi sit dung dttang huang nay la "se kheng tad ra met hanh clang quyet doan nao dem lai nhang hau qua trong phat lai khach hang". Goldfried va Davidson (1994) tin rang viec thieu quyet doan cim khach hang kheng dem lai su dei thay doi vdi hien trang eua ho, dac biet del vat nhang phu n3 bi lam dung. 139
  • 139. Rimm va Masters (1974) da dua ra met "phan ung hieu qua nhd nhat" co itkha Mang dude dap lai vei met phan ling hung hang hoac thu dich. Khachhang cling phai dale day a the hien it /Mat nhung tinh cam tieu cite de eatdude 1(61 qua mong mugn (Prochaska va Norcross, 1999). Kithunt phan tich hanh vi img dung Ki thuat phan tich hanh vi ling dung dua tren nhung nguyen tae dieukien h6a co the dung, kidm tra cac lieu qua di sau met hanh vi. Nhung hauqua mang tinh mei truang nay, hay tinh ngau nhien, chi la tac nhan cling eshay tac nhan trong phat, deli co the deng dgn viec lieu khach hang se tigptuc met hanh vi thich nghi sai hay hoc dude met hanh vi mai. Tinh ngaunhien mang tinh mai truong lien tuc lam hanh vi cua cluing to dinh hinh.Viet phan tich hanh vi ung dung la co gang nham kiem soat hay thay dginhung neau nhien do de thay del hay sila chda hanh vi thich nghi sai hayde hugn luyen cac hanh vi thich nghi mdi. Ki thuyt kinm scant sy viec ngiu nhien, six tuc thdi va lich trinhding c6 Hau het cac chuong trinh digu tri dua tren hanh vi deli c6 khuynhhuOng de khach hang tang dude them met hanh vi mong mu6n nao do quaviec cling co hanh vi do. De viec cling c6 e6 hieu 14c, khach hang can phaihieu va thuc hien nhung nguyen tare de lam tang xac suit thanh gang. Dethe nhan cling c6 chide sit dung met each hieu qua, can thigt lap met sv viecngau nhien. De viec nay thific hien dude, mot m6i thong quan phai dude xaclap girth viec san xual ra met hanh vi dich (met hanh vi can hinh thanh)hay met hanh vi Cu the nao do va tiep not ngay bang met tac nhan clang colTac nhan cling c6 nay se tra nen nrau nhien nha viec ra dai cua met hanhvi mong mugn. Tac nhan cling c6 tang Ee) net ngay thi cang hieu qua vamanh me Mtn trong viec thigt lap hanh vi dich. Ngu too nhan clang c6 khongdude dua ra sem sau khi hanh vi dich dude sin sinh, no se mat hieu luc.Dieu nay rat quan trong khi khach hang dang co gang thigt lap met hanhvi m6i. Khi mei tudng quan ngau nhien da dude thigt lap va hanh vi dichBang dude san xugt ra, lich trinh mang co can phai dude xac dinh. Ban alit,met lick trinh lien tuc three ap dung, sau do la kieu ltch trinh gian loan.140
  • 140. Qua trinh chuyen of mat lich trinh lien tut sang mat lick trinh gian doan(khang lien We) dttac goi la "lam thin thdt di". Theo Sherman, viec quan li s‘t viec ngiu nhien cO hieu qua bao g6m 6 1. Nghien effu thao tac hanh vi dich bAng each xem )(et van de theo cac quan di6m hanh vi. Can phai xac dinh cac phan Ung thich nghi sai cling rant cac digu kien chi phdi cac phan ring nay. 2. Xac dinh xem lieu hanh vi dich tang len hay giam di. Tiep do, xac dinh mite dia) nhan dude trong viec thilc hien hanh vi dich. 3. Dinh gia hanh vi dich va xac dinh vach bien do Vach bien do nay la ti le hay mite tan suit xay ra mat hanh vi. NO Cho phep ban do dive, nhu cO, sti thay dal xay ra trong hanh vi dich. 4. Quan sat khach hang trong h6i canh cua nail de d6 xac dinh viec ngau nhien xung quanh hanh vi. Luu y tdi cac viec neau nhien la cac tac nhan cling cai 5. Xfic dinh cac tac nhan ding co, xem cluing &lac digu hanh nhu thd nao, e dieu kien nao thi chting dude hay kh8ng dttac dua ra. Viet nay se dem 14i mat sti dal thay trong cac digu icien (hay cac viec ngau nhien) ma gay anh huang den hanh vi va dem den su thay d6i. 6. Sit dung du lieu vg bien do, tidp tut dinh gia hanh vi dich can thay dSi. Neu k6t qua mong mudn van data dat ditoc, can chinh sua 14i nhang viec ngau nhien. Cac the nhan cUng c6 co the do cac d6i Wong khac nhau en dung, baogam mat clai li tham van ben ngoai, mat ca nhan chinh ban than khachhang, hoar su kdt hap cim nhung nguei do. Khi toan be mai trttang dude xayding Ata tren cac nguyen the digu kien Ilea co tac dung, n6 cluoc biet dennhu IA mat "he th6ng quy tide". Nhiing gi von dudc coi 1a cue tac nhan dingco tich cue (vi du: xem truygn hinh, thdi gian ranh, di clan,...) dttac bidnthanh ngAu nhien del yen hanh vi tich cue va thfeh hap. Viet ding c6 ngayPap We se la viec Wang trung; khach hang dimc cip mat quy tide, thueing adang met the. Dtia tren mat he thoeng gia tri da thidt lap trade (vi du, quy Sherman, A. (1973). Behavior modification: Theory and practice. Pacific Grove, CA:Brooks/Cole. 141
  • 141. ttdc mall de gifi tri bang 10 diem va mau trong gia tri 25 diem), khi metngubi da kiSm dude du] diem, ea the trao so diem quy tide can thigt laythu uu dai mink mugn en. De he thgng trao dei quy tide cO hieu qua, town be nhiing nguai can betham gia phai ph6i hop vdi nhau, co gang dat dude su thgng nhat trong viecdigu hanh chtidng trinh quy tide. Cac quy trinh cu the phai dude vach ra, vamoi ngudi phai tuan theo de tranh nham lan. Chc nhan vien can dude nhacnhel phai cling co hanh vi Lich ckic caa khach hang de lam tang tan suatxuai hien the hanh vi mong mugn. Qua thai gian, nhiing phan thuong huuhinh (cac quy tide bang the) can phai dtiOe thay bang the phan thttang it xacthus hdn (lai khen) de auk day dtioc Let hdn ngoai men trtiling digu tri. Neu muc dich dieu tri la lam giam met hanh vi trong khi s& dung thutue cua he thong quy tide, thi m6i lan mot hanh vi dich can 136 song khengdude thi ngttai do bi "phat" bang each thu Kai met s6 hiOng the hay diemquy tide nhat dinh nao do. KT thuat nay da to ra thanh cOng trong viec dieutri tat not ca lam, higu deng, an nhigu, htit thuek, hoc kern, can mong tay vanhfing hanh vi chgng dea xa hei d nhung ngtioi tre tu6i pham phap. Ki thuat lap hlp d6ng cam 881 ve viec ngau nhi8n Met hop &Mg earn kgt ve viec ngau nhien la ban giao keo nghiem tut&toe vigt ra gifia hai hay nhigu nguei nham xac dinh cac hanh vi cu the canmong do (the hanh vi can tang len hay giam di), ding vdi the phan thudnghay phat co lien quan. CO narn ygu t6 can thief, oho ban hop dgng. Trtidehit, no phai xac Binh re m6i ngtidi se dude nhan gi khi hoan thanh hanh vimet each tot dep. Thu hai, cac ben tham gia phai ce kha nang theo del chiochanh vi. Thu ba, neu hanh vi kheng dude flute hien dung theo tieu chuanthea thuan, thi can phai thi hanh hinh phat da dinh ra t8 trudc. Thu tu,phan thuling phai chioc trao tang khi tong viec ducic lam dting nhu hOp&Ong. Va thu nam, viec co ung thuan hay kheng phai dude vigt ra bang vanban de cu phan h6i nhat quan vg hanh vi dich va viee cung cap cac tae nhansung co. Sy ung thuan vdi ban hap deng tang len khi tat ea the ben có lienquan tham gia vao qua trinh tien trigin ciia hap deng do. Kithuat sir dung then gian kheng cling c6 Quy trinh nay chive xep vao hinh flak trUng phat vi hau qua lamgiam hanh vi. No loaf be del tuOng khoi bat cu co hei dude sung c6 hanh vi142
  • 142. nao trong met khoang that gian ngan. Khi met hanh vi dich xay ra vdi rawdich lam giam hanh vi da dinh thi sau do la met khoang thai gian khongsung cg. Thong thuang, met dila tre bi dat flea tren met ch6 trong etc haymet ndi vang tang eila met can phOng trong met quang that gian quy dinh.Trong sugt thai gian do, no khong nhan dude bat ki met hinh thile cling conao. De Id thuat nay dude hieu qua, nguai ldn khOng Wong tac vdi diia trengay ea khi dude thuygt phut la phai lam Tay, ngoai frit trudng hop khancap hay nguy hiem. Trude khi stiff dung Id thuat nay, nhan vien CTXH canxem xet hanh vi dich met each can than. Vi du, neu dila tre tranh dieu tribang each doff thai gian khOng cling cg, thi phai tign hanh met Id thuat khacthay thg. Kithuat dinh hinh cho hanh vi Khi met hanh vi mdi phai dude hoe, thudng phai Chia thanh cacmOi phan nen day tech biet nhan, hay theo tign trinh lien tigp cho den khiante hien nhiem vu cugi de chgt lai. Cac hanh vi dude day thanh chu6i titdam tdi eugi. Khi mdi hanh vi dude thtic hien dung, no can dude ding co.Tudng t,t nhu vay vdi hanh vi tigp theo.Viec nay se tigp tue cho tdi khi hanhvi dich dude ti6p thu. Met vi du có the la viec hoe di xe dap. Trude hgt nguai hudng clan chicho diia tre bigt dieu chinh ban dap trUdc khi len yen. Sau do dita tre hoceach can tay lai dung. Lk nay, no hoc each leo len yen xe. Khi a tren xerot, ne. hoe each gift thang bang trong khi dap. Thttang vie( nay dude lienhanh vdi viec lap them banh phu. Khi banh phu dude thao ra, met nguei Ianse ehay theo ben canh ngtioi dap xe va gilt yen sau xe trong hie dila tre hoeeach vita dap, vita gift thang bang. Khi dua tre dap xe dude chat than net, ngttei ldn do se ho tay ra. Ngudt nay ban &Au be tay ra chili it thei, sau doAu clan len cho tOi khi dita tre thuc skt dieu khien dude toan be cai xe makhong can trd gidp Sau mdi Miec thue hien chide, dua tre dude cling cobang nhung lai khen va ghi nhan thanh tong. KT thu4t sir dung nguyen Vac Premack Ngu roue dich la lam tang met hanh vi thuang kheng hay dude thiphien, thi met hanh vi thuang xuyen can tre thanh met tae nhan cling co akhuygn khich viec san sinh ra hanh vi a tan suet th6p kia. Met vi du c6 thela viec met dfia tre kheng chin lam viec vat trong nha. N6 thuang xuyen 143
  • 143. ngoi tntec may vi tinh chdi tro chdi. De lam tang hanh vi giilp viec vat trongnhA, no dude thong bao la thai gian dung may vi tinh marl no se dude cho phepnelu no danh met thai Wong nhac dinh de gidp viec trong nha hay sau khi noda hoan thanh met se: nhiem vu da giao. Va the la cai may vi tinh tra thanhthe nhan cling col glop lam tang luring tong viec vat phai Kith* ding co phan brat d6i vdi nMing hanh vi kh8ng tudng hclp Mtn dich cim viec ding col khong phan biet clOi vdi nhilng hAnh vikhong tudng hop (xung khac) la de lam giam met hAnh vi cu the bang eachcang c6 cac hanh vi khac co can thiep tad viec san sinh ra hanh vi clich. Vidu, nen hanh vi milt tay giam di, dila tre co the dude chdi tro chdi dienkhien no phai sa dung ca hai tay. Khi dim tre mai me vdi tro chdi, tay nokhong con rOi va khong milt tay dude MM. Met dna Ire hay cay mun ha cothe (kW yew eau cho tay vao toi va nen khuyen khich dOi vdi hanh vi nay. Kith* lam man do tren li thuyel hoc tat, Thla tren tong trinh caa Bandura, viec lam mat da dude sit nhula met Id thuat chila benh try giup viec hoc nhitng hanh vi mei hoac trogiup sv phat trim cua nhung hanh vi del ph6. C6 narn chile nang cc/ bincua viec lAm mau: day, nhac bai, (King vien, lam giam lo Au va thOi khuyenkhich. KM day met hanh vi mdi, ngtioi huang clan co the thao tic mau chonguai hoc. Met hutin luyen vien bong &á thing han, thUang lam mau eachbat mot qua bong tren san co nhu the nao. Viec nhAc bai la de cho ngudi hocsail sang hoc tiep. Khi met nguai lam mall, chi ll a chelc gal ra va nhac dengUai hoc dan lam dude nhu mau. Mot giao vien cep met co the nhAc baicho hoc sinh ena minh trong viec giai town sau khi ngudi do da hudng dantren bang xong vi noli a ban giao vien. Viec deng vien co the xukt phat titviec nhin thky phan thliang ma nguai khac dude nhan san khi hoan thanhmet nhiem vu. Nhiing eau be va co be muen tro thanh van deng vien haynguai bleu (lien chuyen nghiep co the dude clang vien nhieu Ilan de theoduei sU nghiep sau khi nhin thky khan gia tan tlatang man bieu dien cimnhang nguai chuyen nghiep nhu the nao. Viec lam may co the cling dude sitdung a lam giam nhung hAnh vi rat rel. Vi du, khich hang co the lamgiam lo au cim minh ve mot doi tudng hay met tinh huOng sau khi ho daxem ai do x& li del Wong do hay vudt qua tinh hueng do met each thAnhcling. Cac caw be c6 the khong nhay xueng he tii met mom (la dude cho t6i144
  • 144. khi chUng nhin thay nhung d3a tre khac ding tuOi lam dude. Thong tkt nhUthe, met ngudi co the kite/1g dam cam met con ran, nhung neu ngudi docthing kien ban tet caa minh lam chitin ma kheng lam sao, thi ngudi do cothe quyet dinh la viec x& li con be sat do ding On ma thoi. Trong viec digu tri true tiep, viec lam mau co thg doe ap dung theonhigu each khac nhau. VI du, met mau sting dog en the dugs thue hien dekhach hang quan sat. Doi khi ngtthi lam math thktc hien hanh vi met vailien trong khi khach hang quan sat, do sau do khach hang thqc hien dudehanh vi do. Hanh vi malt c6 the mang tinh tueng trung: met doan video,tranh, anh deli có ich ea. Vied clang vai va tap duct hanh vi la met hinh thitc lam mau cho phepkhach hang nhin flatly ngudi khac xV li co hieu qua met tinh hueng mdihoac gay lo Lang. Vied lam mau cling cho phop khach hang thus hanh cad kinang hay cad chien hide dal ph() mai dude hoc trong khi can nhac nhang khanang va ke hoach thay the. Vied dOng kith phan vai tatting dude sU dungde ginp khach hang phat trien cac ki nang guy& doan. Vi du, met nglibi rutre co the thuc hanh cac ki nang phOng van nghe nghiep va hoc each dap laica bang lai va phi lei del voi eau hen caa Ong cha Ewing lai. Cac kithtat dip tren lieu Oar, nhan thac Ki thuat nay de sit a Chia viec x& li thOng tin sai lac va phan doan sai, )nhd do khach hang se thay deli dude ye tinh earn va hanh vi. Lieu phap nhan tilde la met phttdng phap tiep can cha deng, dinhthong, co co eau gidi ban ve thoi gian, thick" Ring de tri lieu met loat nhtingrei loan tam thAn. Lieu phap nay Oa tren co sa 11 luan ngn tang la "anhhuang va hanh vi cua ca nhan phan ldn do each ea nhan de nhin nhan yg cocgu the gidi quyet dinh" (Beck va Ong skt, 1979). Khai niem then ehet colien quan den li thuyet to duy nhAn manh vao anh lutang trong suy nghicna met ngUdi len tarn trang va Minh vi caa ngudi do. Dac biet la viec dieutri tap trung vao nhang suy nghi kheng Hitch nghi hay sai chile nang vaeach the hien cith ho trong nhung van de tinh cam va hanh vi. Mue dich caali thuyet can thiep nay la sita chua viec x>t li thong tin sai va phan doan sai,nhtt do khach hang se co chicle skt thay trong tinh cam va hanh vi. De dat&roc dich nay "nlifing ki thuat tri lieu dude thiet ke de xac dinh, kiem trathus to va sita lai nhung rei nhieu trong quan them va niem tin sai chiicnang" (Beck va tong ski, 1979). 145
  • 145. KT thuat sir dung quan he sang tac Thiel lap met mei quan he tri lieu Hai ckic IA met phan then chet cuakik tri lieu nay. D6 dat dude mei quan he nay thi nhung bien phap gaythien cam cost lai (su cam thong, su than thus va quan tam tich ale) dime sUdung. Dieu quan trong a mei quan he nay IA nguai tri lieu va khach hangplan Imp de giai quyet van de. Kh6ng gieng nhung ma hinh tri lieu khac,kinh nghiem nay gui y rang ca khach hang va ngltdi tri lieu phai tham giatich cue vao qua trinh dieu tri. Muc (Itch cith moi quan he nay la de nhan vien CTXH tham gia cangkhach hang nha met del tac, trong vies hieu va giai guy& van de. Ban dau,trash nhiem dau tien dia khach hang la xac dinh va n6i ro nhAng suy nghiva hinh anh tinh than, eung vdi nhung tinh cam va hanh vi di kern da gayra van de. Vai tro cua nhan vien CTXH tai thai diem nay la hidu chi gikhien khach hang vitang vao van de do. Nhan vien CTXH thuang thien velAng nghe khach hang ma to nhiing cam gine, hanh vi khong thoai mai haymet ski kien khong en dinh hoac phien nhik trong (Alec dai cith ho. Barntheo ]di mieu to cith khach hang va danh gia thau dao sac van de, nha trilieu se zee dinh lieu c6 nen sit dung ki thuat to duy hoac ki thuat hanh vihay phOi hap ca hai. Muc dich cna tri lieu se tap trung vao vies sAa chilaeach thong tin sai, nhUng suy nghi to phat va chinh sita phfin doanthich nghi sai. Kt thuat sv dung bai tap ye nha Nhiem vu lam bai tap do nhAn vien CTXH giao la met phan dm quatrinh can thiep va phai dude hinh thanh giva nhung dot dieu tri. Hai tapnham met s6muc dich • Khien khach hang van con tham gia va la day n6i vdi nhan vien CTXH gicia nhung dirt digu • Gidp day nhanh tee de dat roue dich bAng each khien khach hang that hien nhung ki thuat mai hoc dude. KT thuat sit dung m6 hinh A-B-C Trong qua trinh diet tri, dat muc dich tao thay dei trong tti duy, canhan vien CTXH va khach hang deu xem xet nhung gi to phat trong suynghi, phan doan cUa khach hang, can thiep va ket luan 4 ban than hoac146
  • 146. nguoi khac dya tren each khach hang 11 giai qua khi, hien tai hoac tudnglai cita anh ta. Suy nghi va nigm tin dm met khach hang dude lap duUidang gia thuygt va sau do kiem tra thing cif he tro hay phi nhan tinh hienlye city gia thuygt. Qua viec s& dung eau hOi va thao luan, nhan vien CTXH khai that ductnhiTing thOng tin Cu the ve suy nghi, earn gide, hanh vi va dac biet la khiChung xay ra trong sugt va theo sau nhung ski kien khiing hoang. De glopkhach hang hieu xem mei khia canh cua hanh vi con nglidi dien ra nhv thenao, Ellis va Harper (1975) chi dAn khach hang theo me hinh A— B — C. A: nhung ski kien hoac kinh nghiem ma khach hang nhan bigt dude. Su kien do co the do met ngtidi trong mOi trtiOng ena khach hang gay ra, NTTdu: nhan xet tieu cue dm Ong chit ban vg ding viec cita ban hoac sV kien do co the la kgt qua cUa met dgi tuong hay met then bign nhu nhan diem kernCho bai vigt hay nhin ra cifa se va thy rang dem qua met tran bao lOn da quet qua. Trong mei tinong hop, ski kien gay kich dOng phai (We nhan ra va cam nhan theo met each nao do. Kgt qua cila A la khach hang co met kieu suy nghi hoac niem tin B nao do vg A. Doi vdi khach hang eV di tim kiem each lam tam trang bdt tang thang hoac sita chila hanh vi tieu cue thi suy nghi hoac niem tin nay theo each nao do so bi khimg hoang. Theo Beck va Weishaar (1995), suy nghi xay ra a ea, mac de khac nhau. o met mite de, do la nhilng suy nghi to phat, suy nghi tp phat xay ra ngay lap the hoac ngAu nhien de dap lai met sV kien gay kich deng. Khach hang thttang có the duct chi dan a the dinh nhung suy nghi to plant nay bang each Chu § tai chting khi eti kien gay kich deng xay ra hay xay ra ngay sau mot sv kien. Mite suy nghi ti6p theo la "phan doan nen tang" va `Thai de", dOi khi duOc coi la hide d6 to duy dude phan tich qua nhilng trai nghiem khach quan. "Nhilng phan doan dinh dang kich thich cna nhan thite vao to duy, xac dinh rave Bich va cung cap each giai thich va nghia cho sp kien. Chang co the kha en dinh va narn ngoai ski nhan thitc cua khach hang". "Nhung suy nghi to phat cling chrOc sinh ra t3 nhung phan donn nen tang". Khi cc) the, ngtfai tri lieu this xac dinh va sita chila nhung phan doan hay nhinig nigm tin col loi co sat sot nay bang each ph6i hop vdi khach hang de xac dinh nhung van de tren va tro gitlp viec phat trier cae ki thuat lam cho nhtilng van de do phai chuyen bign. 147
  • 147. C: nhung ket qua lie cam giac va hanh vi ma ngUdi to tit qua yenla ket qud cua nigm tin B ma dude khai xudng to su kiln kith hoat A.MOt s6 earn gide c6 the bao gem so lo du, lo sd, thinh no, thu dich, tramcam, boon rau, hen hoan hay thoai mai. Nhiing earn gine nay ce the aBang phirc hop hoac dang den le. Hanh vi c6 the ducic the hien can bangnhung khong chi gidi hand rill -Ling hanh vi ne tranh, hieu chien, thoaitrao, lieu linh qua mite. Nhfing cam giac hoac hanh vi nay c6 the clan denso tram earn mang tinh ca nhan hay )(a hei khien nguai do phai di tim suha tro t3 cat chuyen gia. Sit klen kith hoac Cab hAu qua ye cam gidc hliek tin (Belief) va hanh vi (feeling and (Activating event) behavior Consequences) Bit& vao nha, dila con Tai sao n6 khong bill cach lam gi Cam glee: tut gian, met vi thanh nien goi Si tai tat hdn the trddc khi tOi vl nha? mai, cau kinh tot klac. CO mot bong N6 thlt rig& khi choc cai bong Hanh vi: la het, sap cria, nude tren tran rd ri. nude ay ra; moi nguei ai cOng bill bao con S al ngu, n6i nhy Con toi a choc n6 ra la phai treo len mai nha de" thu ra lenh vdi St ca moi bang mot con dao de don nit& titan do. Tai sao Itic nao ngveri xung quanh. nu& thoat di. tbi cling phai xet Ii nhung viec nay? T6i se phai mat ca dem a giai quyet VU nay mat, va tli se chang &roc nghi ngdi gi ca.BANG 4.1. Vi dy cua mot so dl A B C - - Ki thuat giao chic khach hang Theo Berk va deng nghiep (1979) each tat nhit d@ huen luyenkhach hang then ma hinh nhan thfic clime tien hanh thong qua nom bit&ca ban sau: 1. Xac dinh suy nghi to phat (tit duy) 2. Trinh dies mei quan he gifia ht duy va Anh Intang/hanh vi sit dung nhung vi du cu the 3. Trinh dien so hien dien tit duy to trai nghiem eda ban than 4. Giao benh nhan vile can lam de tiep thu nhdn thee 5. Xem xet lai nhung dieu benh nhan ghi &fee (bai tap da lam) va sung cep phan hei cu the148
  • 148. Nhan vien CTXH vdi tU each la hudn luyen vien, gitip do khach hanghieu dude the nguyen If co ban dm me hinh mik va lam the nao de cacnguyen If nay ap dung dude vao vain de cua khach hang. Met trong 56 cacbuck dau tien cua phdong phap tiep can nay la giang giai v@ mo hinh tuduy, nhan manh ddn mth quan he gills, vies khach hang nghi ve ban than,nmidi khac, the tinh hhong, Laing lai nhu the nao va each ho earn nhan vaed Mot each khac minh hoa cho anh wag cua suy nghi len cam giaeva hanh vi la hOi khach hang xem hy earn thy nhd the nao tren &tang tdicuec hen nay vdi ban va trong khi ng6i JO ban. Khi cam gine da xac nhandole r6i, nhan vien CTXH se hai khach hang h6i Wang lai cac suy nghi makhach hang da cO. Si lien hot nay gitip bee 10 mth quan he girth suy nghi vevies den tim stifle try va cac cam gide he qua. NhAn vien CTXH sau do gitipkhach hang test the gia thuyth cua ho a de chinh xac dm suy nghi cua ho.Tai thbi diem nay, nhan vien CTXH c6 thd bat dau vies huan luyen khachhang quan sat Ira ghi nhd the suy nghi rSi loan chile nang dm minh. Cac kithuat nhan auk Khi can suy nghi a B dude xac dinh, nhan vien CTXH co the thdm trabang each shi dung cac eau hot a tim b6t cu 16i to duy nao (khong nhdtquan hay mau thuan). Cac Id thuat nhan thiie se &hoc sa dung sau do desaa chlia nhung ni6m tin eheeh hdOng nay (Ellis va Harper, 1975). Viectham tra va tra. c nghiem thick td cac suy nghi va hinh anh tu phat la kithuat cd ban theo me hinh dieu tri nay. Niue dich la de gitlp khach hangmieu to ehfnh xac Win va phAn tich chile each ho nhin nhan ban than,ngtidi khac va the su kien trong cuec den nhd the nao. Chudn trac nghiemphai phai hop vdi ai khong tram cam, hoang se hay tile gian. Cac stl that,chit khong phai cac fr kien can dude rut ra qua the cau h6i, va khach hang&tee yeu cau xac minh de tin eay cua luan. Vi du: "Tea hieu la chi nghirang anh ay dang lanh nhat vdi chi, nhung chi ce bang chfing nao de ketluan the kitting?". KithOt tai xac 11:t Ki thuat tai xac lap khuyen khieh khach hang hay e de trong vide xacdinh van dS of quan diem khac. Thay vi nhin nhan van de la "TM killing cóki nang thi eii gi ca", ho se dude khuyen khfch de tai xac lap vide nay la "Poi 149
  • 149. can co them kinh nghiem vg thi cit". Van dg phai (bloc tai xac lap theo cacthuat ng8 cu the va chinh xac hdn. Ki thuat tai quy gan Ki thuat nay mai khach hang xem xet the nguyen nhan khac gay vandg. DOI voi nhUng ai hay thien vg viec nhin nhan ban than la ngttai ganhtrach nhiem met minh, thi ki thuat nay khuygn khich ho xac dinh nhiguygu tgda gay ra van de cho ho. Khi cac ygu tgda xac dinh, khach hang duckyeu eau phai quy trach nhiem vao that thing chO. Ki thuat phan tan chn 9 KT thuat nay la met Id thuat nhan thitc khac, dung cho nhiing nguaihay lo au, luon cho minh la trung tam dui Y cua moi ngttai va ai cling bigtho dang cam thay thg nao va suy nghi gi. Qua chili van, khach hang ducekhuygn khich tim kigm bang chting cho thdy thkic ski moi nguai dang chi"tam tot ho va xem xet nguai khac doe to duy cua ho nhu the nao. Khachhang duos giao nhiem vu di tali nhdng boi earth xat hoi khac nhau. 6 do hophai d@ y" nhung nguai xung quanh xem ngudi to co chti tam dgn ho khongva a miie de nao. Tip do, ho phai tim hieu xem nguai khac nhan bigt vgminh nhu th6 nao trong khi ho gia ho IA ckic ki quan tam, chu y dgn banthan minh. Niue Bich caa viec nay la de gitip khach hang xoay trong tamchn y ra khai ban than ho va hudng no tea nguai khac. Cac ki thuat hanh vi Cac Id thuat to duy co muc dish chi/1h IA chinh sit a hay thay dea suynghi va phan doan claa met nguai., met trong, nhiing thanh to gitip dat ducekgt qua la sit dung cac k i thuat hanh vi. Cac kT thuat hanh vi dttOc thigt kgban dau de thach thiic the phan doan va suy nghi to phat ding vai h6 troviec hoc nhang hanh vi mdi. Khach hang sii dung met clang platcing phapkhoa hoc, su hinh thanh kinh nghiem de xac dinh ski thing clan hay sai ldmtrong suy nghi cua ho bang each hanh dung hay cu xit theo mot Intang naodo roi kiam tra kgt qua cim hanh deng dE chiing minh hoac phan bac cacgia thuygt. Cac ki thuat hanh vi có the lam tang cac hanh vi va ki nang clOipho hay giai quygt van de. KT thuat lap lich trinh hoat Ong Giao bai tap a nha la met Id thuat chudn muc dude sit dung trong mehinh nay. NO cho khach hang cd hal kiem chUng cac phan doan cua ho va150
  • 150. thpc hanh the ld nang mdi hoc. Khi khach hang dang thkic hien bai tap anha, ho thueng dude yeu cau theo del the suy nghi (B) va tam trang canghanh vi (C). Khi ki ding tign trim, ho hoe each kiem tra va thi thach cacphan doan sai vi thay thgchting bang nhiing phan doan ehinh the, logic hdn. Dgi vdi nhfing khach hang khOng linh hoat trong to duy, hau hit doho qua tram earn, lo au qua mUc, thi ki thuat lap lich trinh hoat Ong labien phap can thiep ginp ha chgng lai hanh vi cg luau eaa minh. Berk NIA&Ong ski (1979) dg xual rang bin nguyen tae sau day can dude phgi hop khithuc hien theo lich trinh. Trade het, khach hang can dude thong bao rangchang ai hoan thanh hit dude kg hoach ma ho Lung vach ra. VI thg khachhang khong can phM bugn khi ho khong thanh tong 100%. Thti hai, khach hang dude khuygn khich the dinh kik hoat dung chiOcties hanh vat) hie nao thay vi the dinh xem ho lam dude bao nhieu. Cac ygut6 ben ngoai co thg anh huffing din so itiong tong viec ho lam duct vi namngoai tAm kigm soat cua khach hang. Thu ba, khfich hang can dude nhac nha rang c6 gAng Hug hien hanhdeng la viec quan trong nhgt, chit khong phai la moc thanh cong caa viecHive hien no. Viet c6 wing thuc hien hanh dung met each ddn thuan da chonhan vien CTXH va khach hang Hying tin can thigt va heiu ich. Thil tzl, can danh thai gian mdi ngay de bg tri ke hoach cho ngay horn sau. Bugi tog la thoi diem tit, khong nen a d n trude hie di nga vi nhu thg e thi vies lap kg hoach co thg gay ra cac suy nghi khign khach hang mat nga.Viee bigt rang n6 hic thi quan trong hdn la thanh tkiu khign khach hang vudt qua dude the suy nghi tieu cue ye nhiem vu dude giao. Nhan vien CTXH cAn gang co ST Wang do khi ho thuc hien ding viec, khong nen danh gia moc de giai hay kern caa ho, ma phai quan sat xem ho cam thgy nhu the nao va xac dinh cac suy nghi (B), lien hop thong vdi cam giac vi hanh e vi (C) va hoat deng (A). Lich trinh co thg mat den vii ngay hay mat tuan, thudng la the hoat Ong Cu th4 ca ngay. Cac hoat Ong tren lich trinh gem the hoat dung sinh hoat hang ngay nhu day vao hie 7 gia sang, rim mat, in sang, ... hay no co the bao gom kg hoach cho mat ski kien hoac nhiem vu dm met thing viec nao d6: nhu goi dice, n thoai cho khach hang tif 9 gie din 9 rual, 151
  • 151. Kith* xe-p hang sythanh thao va thoii mai Khach hang thtiOng dude yeu cau xep hang ski thanh Chao va thoai mai cila ho trong m6i hoat deng theo lich trinh hang ngay. Su thanh thaola mac de cua viec thtfc hien hoat deng, hay no chi ra nguai do dap hien met nhiem vu Vit den dau. Ski thoai mai la mac de thIch the ma ngdai docam thgy khi thkic hien nhiem vu. Muc dich cua kT thuat nay la h6 trdkhach hang nao khong bigt lam tot vies gi hay kh6ng c6 su thick thtl trongcling viec dude kiem chung doi vOi phan doan caa ho. Khach hang khi no tranh nhang hoat deng thoai mai. Qua viec heitwang, ngttai h6 trd va khach hang tim kiem nhitng thdi diem hay nhung sukien trong qua khu ma khach hang thAy la ho dude thoai mai. Sau dokhach hang dude giao nhiem vu d nhu la tham gia vao bat ea hoat thingthoai mai nao va cep hang cho mac do thanh thao cang nhu thoai mai. Wetqua mong muCin IA khach hang the dinh dude so- lacing nho cam giac a chintrong viec tham gia vao the hoar. Ong cling nhu la they dude cam glee hoanthanh hay thanh tkiu, to do thy dung ski dei thay trong suy nghi va tamprang. Cac tilling tin tao ra bai hoat Ong do cho phop khach hang xem xetmet each chinh the him va saa chaa dale nhung suy nghi tieu cue, moo m6. KT thuat giao nhiem vu theo tang mac dO Ki thuat nay dung de chuyen khach hang to viec thuc hien met hoatdeng it khe khan len cac hoat deng khO khan Min (dac biet huu ich chokhach hang hi tram cam hay hi Cie ch6) va rei tdi viec hoan thanh cac nhiemvu dude giao. Nhin chung, viec time hien thanh cling Olin tang mac d6 totin dm khach hang va cai thien tam trang caa ho. Nhan vier CTXH canphai gun gui th khach hang va guilt) ho trong nhung n6 Ipc cl6 kim nen hayla di cac thanh tun da dat dude cila chInh minh. Trong k3 thuat giao nhiem vu theo tang mac de, van dg va bien phapgiai guy& chmc xac dinh va chia thanh tang bitOc to phae tap den don gian Khach hang dude yeu eau thkic hien va cung cap phan hoi theo tangbade, that Cu the va co law y den kha nang hoan thanh nhiem vu caa ho.Khach hang va nhan vien CTXH sau d6 xem xet thkic to hoat deng cimkhach hang, danh gia lei viec dat dace muc tiou hay khong dkia tit nhungno he cua ha. Khach hang tang dein mac de khb cua cac nhiem vu cho teikhi ho dat dude num dich. Ki thuat nay e6 the dude ap dung cho met khach152
  • 152. hang có than doan la In am anh ve khong gian, hay not sd hai khi a nhungndi tong cling hoac lam digu gi de, clang thu he. Muc dich cu6i cling ceiakhach hang la phai di mua sam mot minh a mat quay hang. Mac du daykhOng phai la mot rave dich thus te, do co the la met nhiem vu qua Ion dexU 1f trong ch6e lat. Do do, nhiem vu phai dude chic nhe ra thanh nhungphan vine de lam Min, nhu la lai xe tdi ch8 gin xe va nged lai do cho tdi khicam thMy cam gide thoai mai nhung. Sau do, khach hang phai di 60 vao leidi, sau do bUdc vao quay hang, va di lai trong dO trong vOng xap xi 30m.Qua giai doan do, khach hang se co the di xa hdn va it can d6n su h6 frohon. Hien nhien la Id thuat nay giong yell Id thuat phi vd su man cam hCth6ng. Tuy nhien, each digu tri co kern theo twang digu tri vg to duy. Ki thuat hudn luyen tinh guy& doan va d6ng kith phan vai Gi6ng trong lieu phap hanh vi, khach hang dude huMn luyen cac kinang nham giup ho giao lieu vdi nguoi khec va the dinh cac phtking phapthay the trong viec cU xei vdi moi nail hay nhiing tinh hueng khac nhau.mei truing digu tri, ho Hive hanh cac ki nang mdi va dude nhan vien CTXHhuMn luyen hay lam mau cho minh. Nhan vier CTXH au dung viec lamman kiem tra cac suy nghi cu the cira khach hang co lien quan den viecthuc hien cac hanh vi mdi trong n6 he the dinh va siia cheia bat ki nhungme° m6 hay 161 nao di ken the hanh vi do. Ki thuat sii dung lieu phap Fly con ngthai (d6i arcing) lam trung tam Qua trinh digu tri bang ligu phap lay d6i Wong lam trung tam batclan ngay to lan gap gd dau tien. Bai trong tam la khach hang, ho dudequygn quyet dinh can chii trong nhUng gi trong dot digu tri. Nguoi he trokhong tham gia vao bat cu met hinh their danh gia hay tham tra qua khilcua khach hang hoac met chudng trinh nao 06 gay anh Intang den muc lieudo khfich hang dat ra. Nhan vien CTXH the hien su ton trong viii khachhang va ling nghe trong khi bee 10 sti nOng hau va thai do tiep thu. Khfiehhang chinh la ngnai phai quygt dinh xem ddt digu tri se di theo &tang naoVA co chuyen tr.() trao d6i, th610 tinh cam hay chi im lang. SO- hieing dot digutri ding phu thuOc vao khach hang, et-mg nhu phu thuec vao tan suetnhUng cuee hen gap digu tri. Lieu phap digu tri se tiep tuc cho tdi khikhach hang quyet dinh rang ho khOng mugn tiep tut viec nay c6 thexay ra sau met hay nam mUdi ddt di6u tri hoac hdn the. 153
  • 153. "Li thuyet nen tang cua liOu phap 16y doff Wong lam trung tam chinhla viee nhan vien CTXH thanh tong trong viec the hien tai nang(genuineness), mei quan tam tich cue ve diet kien, r6i khach hang se daplai bang nhung thay d6i trong t6 chitc nhan each. Nhan vien CTXHdung chinh nhung pham chit ea lei nay a gitip khach hang dat dude mucBich hien thtic hoa ban than (self-actualization), kha nang phat Erik tidmnang met each day du. Hai Rogers tin rang loci ngUdi ce sa Mill met xung bam sinh trong nthing hanh vi xa Ma, tang viee dat ra trong quan heOng tat dieu tri la gitip khach hang than b6 nMing trei buec co trong sUph& triers (growth) (Miller, 1999). Kr thuat sit dung HO phap cam th8ng "Cam thong la met qua trinh tich cue, tile thin, lien tut. Nhan vienCTXH co Ong tea da de nam bat dude va song trong nhfing thai de makhach hang the hien thay vi chi quan sat nhiing thai do iy, than downnhung thai do do, hay nghi each khien cho qua trinh dieu tri tie en triersnhanh dat dude digu nay. nhan vien CTXH phai chti y xem khachhang dang truyen dat gi qua nen W va phi nem tit, chit y dae biet tdinhung cam gide me khach hang da trai qua va the hien ra. BAng each c6gang hieu toan bo nhung kinh nghiem cua khach hang va truyen dat sUhieu biet d6, nhan vien CTXH tang Wang dude met quan he cua minh vdikhach hang. Qua Hap to diet tri, nhan vien CTXH se co the vudt len trennhung hieu biet Wang Lu ve cam giac cua khach hang va nho do dat dude sUhieu biet ii hang nhan thile sail KT thuat sir dung lieu phap quan tam tich cut Lieu phap nay chinh la thai do khong phan xet cua nhan vien CTXHdel vdi khach hang. Khi khach hang cam thiy dude va quan sat dude phSrnchit khong gia tao do, ho se thiy thoai mai Min a thd hien tit ea nhungcam giac ma ho co vao luc do mA khong sd hi tra dim hay len an. Do do, hoco the thing nhit trong viee TIM len nhang cam giae that, dem lai chuyenBien tich eye trong didu tri (Rogers, 1986). Raskin. N. J. & Rogers. C. R. (1995). Person-centered therapy. In R. J. Corsini & D.Wedding (Ed.), Current psychotherapies (5 h ed.. pp. 128-161). Itasca. II: Peacock. 2 Barker, R. L. (1999). The social work dictionary (4 h ed.)Washingron, DC: NASW Press. Raskin via Rogers, sdd. tr 142.154
  • 154. Kithuet sir dung lieu phap thi hien syluting ding vi su chin thvc Dac diem cilia lieu pile) liking clang va lieu phap than thtfc la dita chokhach hang met thong diep rang nhan vien CTXH dang chfnh la ban thenho. Nhan vien CTXH khong gia va hay (long kich, ma mu6n ho trd khachhang met each that lOng. Chinh hai sn than thee, nhan vien CTXH cling sethay thoai mai vdi nhiling cam giac ma ho dude trai nghiem trong suol dot(Egli tri. Theo Rogers (1986), nhan vien CTXH la chfnh ban than anh ta khidel dien vdi khach hang cna minh. Khang can ye ngoai the day, anh ta renglong vdi nhcing cam giac va thai tae Ong tin anh ta vao hie do. Nhanvien CTXH d6i mat true tigp vdi khach hang, gap anh ta true then. Anh tacan phai la chfnh minh, chU khong plait nhan anh ta. Din tren stl xem xetcua nhan vien CTXH, vao bat c thai diem thich hop ilk), flitting cam giaccua ngUlT ha trd dude bac le nham lam tang cuong men quan he khach hang- nhan vien CTXH. Khong gi6ng nhiang mo hinh truygn thong trong d6 nhan vien CTXHcat nghia cho khach hang nhUng khia canh trong hanh vi, giac mo hay suchuyen dick tinh cam cua ho, lieu phitp lay d6i tuong lam trung tam khignkhach hang tlf than to ban than minh. Vige at bleu ban than cho phep ho dua "nghia mOi" vao "kinh nghiem cim rieng nhu cho phep ho hieu m6i quan he nhan-qua hay he qua cna hanh vi vg ho tit met quan niem emit Rogers khong tan thanh vdi &tang hUdng cho phep ngttai ho trd ditcicchin doan hay danh gia theo bat c5 each nao. Mei quan he digu tri phai layd6i Wong lam trung tam, cho phep khach hang giao tigp 66i m6 ve ban thanho va sp to clanh gia cua ho. Digu nay cho phep khach hang tki quyet dinhxem cai gi la quan trong va cai gi thi khong quan trong d6i vdi ho. Viec hobigt rang nhan vien CTXH chap nhan ho nhu ho von c6 (su quan tam tiehcric khong digu kien) la du dd cho phep khach hang bat (Tau qua trinh danhgia lai. Vai cua khach hang phai la vai tp nhien vdi lath nhiem dich thticcaa ho chit khOng phai la kik nguoi ma ngttbi khac mu6n 119 tra thanh. Dodo, nhan vien CTXH phai khign khach hang tin city va tin rang ho c6 khanang lam digu c6 ich nhat cho chfnh ho, Oa tit cam gific dich thic makhach hang ea dude. Qua trinh sita den nay San ra xuyen suott mai quan he Roger, sdd, t 174 155
  • 155. chicle thigt lap gitta nhan vien CTXH va khach hang. Khi nhan vien CTXH thd hien met thai dO quail tam tich cue, su earn thong thing va lien he vdi khach hang vdi ea nhan, vdi nhung Wong clang vg cam giac Aga ho, khach hang se bat (tau lien he nhu nhUng con nguoi birth dAng. Li thuyet he th6ng, lieu pilau va cac kith* ling dung Anh httang mang tfnh khai niem tien guy& nhat dei vdi nhung ngdai di lien phong trong vies su dung lieu phap gia dinh la If thuyet he, theng. Tren tint( td, lieu phap gia dinh va cac he thong gala nhan den muc ma Chung gan nhu tra thanh deng nghia. Theo Nichols va Schawrtz, Thuyet HO thong Tong quat (CST), do Lugwig von Bertalanffy phat tridn, cm thue su dude phat tridn nhu la met mg hinh nhieu hon la met li thuyet. D6 la "met each to duy hay met be nhfing phan doan ma c6 thd dude an dung cho tat ca moi 1041 he Hieing". Mac du c6 nhieu khai niem thwec GST trong lieu phap gia dinh, mo hinh nay duqc cho la khong gay anh twang tai cong taehe tre ban dau den vice giao tiep trong gia dinh; tong tac he trq nay da doGregory Bateson va thing nghiep tign hanh tai Vien Nghien elm TamThan, bat dau tii eu6i nhung nom 50. Bateson nh6n manh den tam quailtrong cua tinh nhan qua Juan hdi trong giao tiep. Theo &tang Inking nay thimuc dinh can dat &A la digu tri nhfing van dg xuat phat to nhung giao tiepco true trac. Vai tr6 cUa nhan vien CTXH la lam giam thidu va scta elnlanhitng 16i lap Jai, do do clan tOi hanh vi giao tiep sai muc Bich. Nhang nhan vien tri lieu bang lieu phap gia dinh duang nhu da apdung if thuyet he th6ng vao thgc tg met each thanh ceng nhat. Mac dukhOng co met If thuyet hay &tang Inking can thiep don thuan nao chi duatren GST, nhung khai niem trong if thuyet nay da dude dUng ph6i hqptrong rat nhigu kidu lieu phap gia dinh. Vi the met trong nhieu lieu phapgia dinh phi Bien hon ea dkia tren If thuygt he thong la lieu phap co chit giadinh, rat can duqc neen citu. Lieu phap co clu gia dinh Lieu phap co eau gia dinh cua Salvadore Minuchin, cling gitMg nhucac if thuygt ve digu tri ca nhAn, sung cap met phttong phap c6 t6 chile va e6 I Nichols. M. S. & Schwartz. R. (2001). Family therapy: Concepts and methods (5 ed.).Boston: Allyn and Bacon.156
  • 156. he thong de can thiep vao cac van de thwie v6 gia dinh. Lieu phap co eaugia dinh "co loi the phat triers v6 mat h thuyet kham phe ciM nha tam li hoctri lieu v6 li thuyet he thong va cac ki thuat cb dinh hudng gia dinh ngay titban (tau". Theo if thuyet nay, gia dinh dupe coi la ce van dd khi ton tai vaduy tri nhcing ed cgu nil loan chic Jiang trong he Hieing gia dinh. Dieu nayco kha nang xay ra a nhung gia dinh kheng cc) nhung (lieu chinh can thietkhi gia dinh phat tries qua thdi gian. Theo nhu Simon, (1995), vai tro dm.nhan viers CTXH la gidp gia dinh tee dOng vao nhung co call dang ngu quen tao ra nhung dgi thay nham giai quyet van De thuc hien dude nhiem vu nay, vai trei hang dau cua nhan vienCTXH la "nhap vao" gia dinh <lei tUOng de he- try ho tan ra nhung dgi thaymang tinh co eau. Thay d6i nay xay ra khi nhan vien CTXH hb trd gia dinhbi6n dgi nhang ranh gidi chia cat ho va bin dgi nhung tik 4 thong, haynhung quan he co cgu, qua su can thiep cua minh (Minuchin, 1974;Minuchin va Fishman, 1981). Met khi cd cgu gia dinh da dude chinh saahay Men dgi theo hudng tfch cac, gia dinh ce kha nang giai guy& van decia ho bang nhigu each thay vi roi Nino tinh trang rei loan chelic nang lap laima ho da khong to dieu chinh dupe. Tien do, viec digu tri la nhiem vu ciachinh gia dinh. Gia thuyet phe hien vg gia dinh trong dieu tri la met trong nhungthanh vien cim gia dinh do ce van dg. Lieu phap cc) cgu gia dinh cling giengnhu cac lieu phap co dinh ht./Ong he thong khae, khOng xem ca nhan la covan de; no xem xet gia dinh nhu met tong the, va thay dude van de v6 cdeau ngay trong he thong gia dinh. Cu the, each thite digu tri nay coi van denam trong nhung mei hinh Wong the nhgt dinh. Cach thue nham cai thiennhang me hinh Wong the lap lai va khong hien qua nay la digu tri trieu thong: co cgu gia dinh va thuc to gia dinh. De cai thien ed cgu, rat nhigu kl thuat co" the dupe sa dung. Theo Nichols va Schwartz, "Chien hide dieu tri bang lieu phap co °Su gia dinh bao gem nhang hide sau": 1. Tham gia va thich nghi 2. Lam viec có Wong tae 3. Chan tri 4. Neu bat va sita chaa Wong tac Id. tr. 251 157
  • 157. 5. Tao ranh glad 6. Tao bat can bang (bat Wang xung) 7. Digu tri nhfing phan (loan khong 06 lei Tham gia va thich nghi Khi nhan vien CTXH gap gii gia dinh, ho phai hOa nhan vao he th6nggia dinh. "Nhap vao mot gia dinh phai la met j thtic thai de Han IA met Idthuat, va do la cai 6 the the tat thay nhung giao dich tri lieu vg sau"(Minuchin va Fishman, 1981, tr. 31). H6 dat dude digu nay, nhan vienCTXH phai the hien rang ho a do la vi khach hang, cling voi khach hang c6gang hieu dime van de cua gia dinh ding nhat m6i thanh vien trong gia dinhay. Nhan vien CTXH phai Chao 116i vA ten trong tad ea cac thanh vien cuagia chub, ved su quan tam dac biet tai nhung flan Lon tha gia dinh do. Degitip duy tri thii bac va sti ten trong, dau then can phai han cha me, chitkhong phai yeu cAu nguoi con giai thick xeni tai sao gia dinh can h6 trd vayeu cau ho mo to van de. Ngay khi nhan vien CTXH da thich nghi dude vei gia dinh, cac thanhvien cua gia dinh phai chap nhan nhan vien CTXH met ngUdi khac, trongnot he he th6ng gia dinh ho. Gia dinh cling can phai tao dieu kien cho vaicua nhan vien CTXH la nguai he trd va nguei thin dat. That bai cua nhanvien CTXH trong viec tham gia vao met gia dinh se dar n den su ch6ng doicUa gia dinh Nth nhan vien CTXH va can tra bat cline lue dieu tri nao. Lam viec có tucmg tac Theo lieu phap nay, co eau gia dinh dude Wong tae giQa cac thanhvien. Chat van gia dinh vg phong thai Wong tac cua ho dem lai it thong tinchinh xac hen IA quan sat no true tiep trong sued ddt digu tri. Khi cac thanhvien gia dinh Wong the ydi nhau, ed eau cu the se bat dau n6i len (Nicholsva Schwartz, 2001). Nhan vien CTXH phai dude dal:, tau de quan sat tientrinh han la nei dung Wang lac. Nhan vien CTXH khuyen khich cac thanhvien gia dinh Wang the vOi nhau trong sued dot dieu tri. Vi du, neu mettre ngat lei beim?, nhan vien CTXH co the yeu eau cha me vui lOng gitip noim lang va dui den Mat nO n6i. Vi du khac co the IA viec you eau nguei medap Lai IZn Binh Men tha ba hoac cua nguoi bo ye each thdc lam me ena cb Viet nay dude goi IA "su trinh (hen" (enactment).158
  • 158. Si/ trinh dijn le met Men the cim ski tucing tac. Muc dich cua ne lanham tim hien xem cac quy tac duce the hien va cluing hien hinh nhu thenao qua giao dich trong gia dinh. Khong phai moi Wang tac gia dinh canLien hanh, nhung viec trao dth vg. vai vai de ma ho coi la e6 r6i loan chilenang va thlicing thuyet nhung belt deng, vi nhu trong viec ce gang kiem soatditOc met dria con kheing ngoan,... gitip cal b6 nhung gi nam ngoai tam kiemsoat cua gia dinh. Cac quy Lac da thanh tap (man dien ra, cac giao dich tkithan bee to di sau nhu nhung gi dien ra ben ngoai dot dilthi tri. Vdi to each Fa ngoai dan clat, nhan vien CTXH mei cac thanh vientrong gia dinh tat) kha nang hay tien hanh cac trao dui co the (Wee xem xOtnhu la c6 rei loan chile nang. Theo Minuchin va Fishman (1981), ski trinh dien cO the chicle xem xet ha giai dean. Truck het, nhan vien CTXH quan sat dien Hen cim nhfingtrao d6i xay ra trong cuec gap go tr6 chuyen. Sau do, nhan vien CTXH youcan gia dinh trinh diem va phoi canh ma ho cho 1& gitip the hien nhiing traodOi sai chile nang va kieu ranh gidi can dude Chi& lap, hdu het la xoay xungquanh van de do. Thu ha la nhan vien CTXH goi y nhung trao d6i thay the. Nhan vien CTXH dac hiet quan tam tim kiem nhung diem lien dem laiski Wong mac hay ski thodi lui. Ski vtieng mac có the the hien ra bang "skithuring xuyen ngat loi In nhau, not ho ngoai khac, lam ho cho tre nhiing gichring tki lam dude, hay bang each lien tuc tranh car, va nhieu bieu hienkhac nila. Nhiing hanh vi the hien ski thoai lui la "DOM chOng ng6i thudeng trong khi vo anh ta keu gao, ski yang mat Roan town cUa xung det, skile di met cacti clang ngac nhien dei vOi nhung thong tin quan trong y6 concai, ski thieu quan tam den sa thich ciia nhau". Ch Sit tri NhAn vien CTXH yeu cau cang ce nhieh thanh vien chtl ch6t (nhungngitei can tiep can nhal hay gay anh htieing nhdt) trong gia dinh cang totkhi tham gia vao dot diet] tri Wait tien. Nhan vien CTXH can thu hicimnhi6u ngu6n khac nhau de gitip benh nhan ciia minh yeti van de cua anh tahoac cb ta. Mue dich cua nhan vien CTXH trong viec nay la de quan satchdt hiring va kieu tUdng tac caa toan ho gia dinh theo met he thong, cangnhu cac Wang tac giria va trong cac lieu he thOng. Day la lieu phrip <kW tiachueng lion de danh gia so vdi viec sU dung cac eau hai chudn muc nao do 159
  • 159. de hei one thanh vien gia dinh ye 5 kith) caa ho, ye kieu va chgt Meng diattiOng the trong gia dinh ho bbi no cho phep nhan vien CTXH xem xet hethong trong hoot (ling va cac c6 gang xu Ii van de. Nhan vien CTXH duovao cac nguyen tac va khai Mem aim li thuygt he tilting (Li thuygt td dieuchinh (homeostasis), ranh giei, tieu he thong, phan het nhan qua Man heiv.v...) de xac dinh muc do cua chic Mang va mde de rei loan chile nangtrong Wring tac gia dinh. Neu bat va sub chile thong tac Khi gia dinh tticing tac, nhan vien CTXH tap trung vao cac trong tamciia 66n trinh, thdang bang each quan sat xem ai nal gi vdi ai, xac dinh xemai gni im lang, luu y xem ngtthi ta del xV nhd the nao trong Wong tac vangudi ta duet dinh vi nhd the nao. Khi met kieu Wong tac nao do bat dau,ngdoi he trd ea the you eau cac thanh vien trong gia dinh cU tien toe Wangthe. Vi do, ngdei me có the boo con rr inh ng6i xueng va ye met bdc tranhhay gift im lang trong khi ngdei ion ndi chuyen. Neu dta tre khOng yang -lei, nhan vien CTXH c6 the yeu eau me no tiep tut va bat dila be im lang.Muc dich eim viec nay IA nham ngan than ngdoi me va dila eon roi vao mehinh lap lai tutlng tU eim viee ttiOng tac hay giao dich vdi nhau va pha vbtrong thai can bang ven co. De lam dude viec nay, nhAn vien CTXH cantang Wang cdang de Wang tee, co the bang each you cau eha me met thigunien bat con gai minh doi den Met trong khi ngdai khac dang n6i, hay tiptoe thao Man ye nhung cam down danh cho nO kern theo nhung gidi han mano khOng deng y. De( dam boo rang gia dinh nghe dude thong diep - va bdi vl ho thdengFang nghe nhan vien CTXH met cach eo chon lac - cdang de cua thong diepcan phai gia tang, nhAn vien CTXH c6 the lap lai thong diep hay you eaugia dinh tigp We ttiOng the Mu Min ho mong mu6n. Muc dich IA d@ gitip giadinh thy dude cac me hinh elide nang trong arcing Mc bang each tao batcan bang hay me hinh lap lai, eting ran trong Wring tae. Viet nay se chophep gia dinh tlm ra each mai a giai guy& van de voi nhau. Tao ranh gidi Ngudi ta loon thve hien chdc nang chi bang vai eim ehinh minh. Lieuphap died tri tiem tang có the throe Men time hOa rigu ea nhan bat dau dOngcac vai khac (diYM trong tieu he theng khac), hay ban ehat vai dien cria anh160
  • 160. ta trong met lieu he, theng bi thay 46i. Met Id thuat trong &tang luting lieuphap co eau gia dinh la thay lei hay gay anh httang den the tieu he thengbang each tang Wang hay loai ba khoang each gicia ho, de gay anh httangden tudng tan Bang each khien the tieu he thong tudng the khae di, ranhgidi gifia ho se chuyen lei, sU chinh den se dien ra. Nhan vien CTXH danh gia coo fief he theng a xac dinh xem lieuloan be hay Oen nao do trong the tieu he theng gia dinh co inking mac (tilela co ranh gidi khuyech tan) hay thoai lui (the la ranh gidi khat khe thaiqua). "Trong nhiing gia dinh co ski vuting mAc cao do, nhUng can thiep cuanhan vien CTXH duet thiet lie lam sao de tang cueing (Wee ranh eel giiiathe tieu he tilting va tang thong sU doe lap caa the ca nhan". dot doltdigit nay, nhan vien CTXH co the tao khoing each gift ho, vi da, net metnguai my eó vudng mAc veil con gai minh, nhan vien CTXH ea, the yeu dunguqi be; va con gai thao luen yen de caa no trong khi ngutai me &toe maiquan sat taring tac, nha the lam tang khoang each giva my va con. Nhiemvu thong to Sang co the &toe chinh saa va ma rang sau dot dieu tri. "Nhang gia dinh co sU thoai lui co xu hudng no hoac vong tranh xungdot, do do giam thieu tudng the". Nhan vien CTXH can dAt muc tieu la cantra nguai nao day "yang tranh" yen va khuyen khich ngudi ta xa li yende bang each thiet lap ranh gidi va cho phep tudng the may ra kitting can skican thiep to ben ngoai. Vi du, nett met cap vo thong co mei quan he thoailui bieu hien di loan chile nang, dila con co the tao ra kik van a gi 46 decha me phai ntang the va gay tang thong. Nude di nay tha dila con se danhlac httdng, tit 46 khien ngtthi b6 co vueing mAc cua no phai ne tranh hieingthe vdi vo minh. De ngan than dieu nay, nhan vien CTXH co the boo dilatre la "Chau da dung yea cu xti nhu vay khi ma be me ehau cam they co ap nhung ho se co kha nang tp rd 11 van dg, va.y hay dgy ghg ra day ng6i .via c5/ chii". Ngudi Ith va con gai co the 14 vuong mac va nguai be thoai lui ekhei nguai me vi (mg ta tin rang ring ta khang bang long vdi va mirth. Viectitling the giaa Ong ta va con gai se cho pit ring ta tranh vita di li van Clgtrue tiep vdi vg minh, do do dieu chinh chick kha nang tim lei thoat cho yende caa gia dinh ho. Nichols va Schwartz. 2001. Irg. 256 161
  • 161. To bgt can bang (bat toting xting) Muc dich oua ki thuat nay la nham thay del mai quan he thii bactrong eac thAnh vien cna gia dinh1 De thuc hien doge viec nay, nhan vien CTXH haa nhap vao met thanh vien cna gia dinh hay met tik he thong.Dia vi hay thil bac con thgp cua ngtfai do se dude nang cao do viec hoa nhapcua nhan vien CTXH. Met vi du co the la met ngtfai me van bi buen nankinh nien va khang duoc y den mai khi can dua ra quyet dinh gi do vecon cat. Trong truong hop nay, nhan vien CTXH có the guy& dinh nang diavi cua bA ta len, va trao nhieu quyen Etc hen bang each tim kiem a ba tariMing lot khuyen ye viec can lam dal vdi met van de cu the nao do cUacon. Met phtfong phap khac la hea tai sao gia dinh ba ta lai bi !Inn can lauden the va bac ba ay rang da den hie ba can dua ra nhiing quyet dinh quantrong trong hoat thing hang ngay eim con cai minh. Digu tri nheing phan down kh6ng có lei Nhan vien CTXH eb the this thanh gia dinh bang each tim hieu xem ban than ho cam nhan ve nguai khac nhif the nao. `viec this thach each ma cac thanh vien gia dinh nhin nhan thuc t6 cho phep ho thay dei each thlic quan he dm ho"2 . De dat throe dieu nay, nhan vien CTXH cO the eau true laihay day gia dinh do ye co eau, hoar dua ra lei khuyen ye thU bac va ranhgidi. Nhan vien CTXH co the can nhitc sir dung ki thuat tao dung lai, giilpkhach hang nhin ra van de theo each nhin nhan mdi hay tif quan diem khacbiet. Vi du, nhan vien CTXH co the chin down met dila tre bi rai loan vi quahien &Ong va thiau su quan tam la mot nguai hay to mO vA Vic nao cling cankham pha. Them vao do, nhan vien CTXH co the dua ra met chi thi nghichIi. Bang ki thuat nay, nhiing khach hang hay phan khang dtflc yeu eau gayra nhieu rat rai trong bat cif van de nao de co the hieu duet y nghia cuaviec do. NV& ho gay ra nhieu rat roi hdn, ho dang the hien st,f sari lOng Mnhdn trong viec nghe theo chi den va the hien met su kiem soat nao do. Neuho it gay chuyen di, ho da cai thien dude van de caa minh va do la do thai lingtich cite hudng t6i dich dieu tri. Vi du, nhan vien CTXH co the yeu cau metkhach hang bi am anh hay di am anh ve van de din minh nhieu hdn thla,hay lap met lich trinh am anh dtt do, i him ca hanh vi am anh trUac day. Tuy Minuchin va Fishman, 1981 2 Nichols v5 Schwartz, 2001. tr. 259162
  • 162. nhien ki thuat nay nen &Mc dp dung mat each than trong de kheng gay haigi den khAch hang. Nhan vien CTXH nen tim kien sit gidm sat W ai do datang dude dao tam sii dung Id thuat nay thing clan. Quan diem ve nhitng diem manh Mae du quan diem VO diem manh van clnia due phat trier thanh hocthuyet, no thue su gay anh huang den each suy nghi va each lam cilia cacchuyen gia. Cac phdong phap dieu tri thuc hAnh xuat phat tit quan diemlay diem manh lam nen tang se dude mieu to dudi day vdi cac m6 hinh nhulieu phap sit dung chuyan gia dinh, lieu phap lay giai phap lam trung tam,lieu phap phat trien tong deng,... Lieu phap ley giii phap lam trung tam Phudng phap tievp can nay do Steve de Shazer va Insoo Kim Berk khaixdong. Phudng phap nay trai ngdoe vdi the me hinh giai quyet van de va m6hinh chlia benh bang y hoc yen tim each xac dinh nguyen nhan cu the chomat van dg caa ca nhAn hay caa mat gia dinh (Vi du nhu mat gene gay benhnghian rdau ham sinh hay mat van de bAt ngu6n tit su phat triOn &in thdi kithe au). MO hinh nay tim ra each hUu ich hdn a xay dung nen giai phap. De Shazer Met throe rang phat hien ra nguOn gay benh va lien hai novdi mat giai phap kha thi khang nhat thiet se clan khach hang tdi dich caaho. Thay vao do, cac ea nhAn, cac cap vO thong va car gia dinh can taptrung vao cac he qua ye cac giai phap ma ho mong muen dat cldOe. Theo deShazer (1985), "each hint ich nhat de quyet dinh xem canh cUa nao ma radude mat giai phap la ce gAng mieu to xem khich hang se lam gi khackh6ng va/hoac ehuyan gi se xay ra khfie biet voi hie trutic mot khi van dedude giai quyet, nha do khach hang se mong co chicle su thay der. Quan diem digu tri nay silt dung hai hoat clang not bat de tro gitip vioctim ra giai phap. Trtidc het no glop khach hang xay dung dude nhung Invtieu hoan chinh phii hop vdi nhUng gi ho mong muen. Thu hai la tim giaiphap cho van de cim ho. Bang cac ki xao rang nghe va chat van, nhan vienCTXH gitip khach hang tim kiem "nhiing ngoai le", de la nhung lan khi vande khong xay ra hoac xay ra it thdeng xuyen hdn. Saleebey. D. (2002). Introduction: Power in people. In D. Saleebey (Ed.). The strengthsperspective in social work practice (3" ed., ppl 1-22). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 163
  • 163. KT thuat ma to yin dg De Jong va Berg (2002) da xac dinh cac giai doan co ban dm viec xaydung giai phap: me ti van dg, phat tries raw Bich hoan chinh, phai hop caceau hei ce phep 19, tham do cac ngoai va ket thtic phan hoi cila ddt digutri. Khi gap gel khach hang lin clau Gen, nhan vien CTXH nen chao haltong ngwai mot, tim hieu mot chUt vg 119 bang each hat he xem horn nay h9thgy thg nao. Cang can thigt phai gill thich cho ho sa dung nam budc cdban vg viec se tign hanh cac dot digu tri nhu thg nao de khach hang bigtduos tong viec se tintrign ra sao. Tai that diem nay, nhan ten CTXH cethe chuygn trong tam vao viec mo to van da bang each hal. "Tot ce the gitipda gi dude kitting?" hoac "Ban mugn horn nay tittle hien chide viec gi trongbuei gap mat deu tier) nay caa cluing to?". Nhan vien CTXH sau de se lAngnghe met each dtly ton kinh vdi tat ca nhung gi khach hang phai not ve vandg caa ho. Hai chi tigt la viec can thigt, nhung nhAn vien CTXH bang Idthuat lgy giai phap lam trung tam clei hei it chi tigt vg van de caa khachhang hon so vdi nhung nhAn vien CTXH sit dung ki thutit giai quygt van dehay citing bien phap y hoc. Khach hang can &tee nghe, can duos tau co hQike chuyen cita minh, va nhAn vien CTXH can san long lang nghe ho nei. Khi su dung quan diem digu tri nay, nhan vien CTXH hai nhung cauhoi tren lap trliong "clta bigt gi ca" de nhin nhan khach hang nhu lanhung nguai co nang luc, oat ho vao nhiing vai chuyen gia vg cuQc sang vanhung gi ho mugn dat dtidc cting nhu la each tat nhgt de dat chide awe dichcua h9. Ctic cau hfid trong sugt giai doan dau ben nay nham tim hieu xemvan dg gay anh huang nhu thgnao del vdi khach hang, hay tai sao nfi lai trothenh met vain de cua khach hang. Nhan vien CTXH co thg mugn hid khachhang xem ho da thii lam gi chat dg giai quygt yin de. Khi khach hang trinhbay nhigu van dg digu can nhgt la tim ra xem van de nao khach hang chola quan trong nhgt hoAc muan gill quygt truck. De lam dude viec nay, nhanvien CTXH phai t6m tat nhung gi khAch hang bee cao minh va hoi xem yinde gi la quan trong hon ca, nhu o vi du minh hoa saw "Giang, anh viia xacdinh met so van de. Chting bao gem cac yin dg d cito lam, vg hen nhan citaanh va ve sue kith cua anh nua. The yin da nao la quan trong hon ca dgivdi anh vao hic nay?". Khi khach hang thu hap lai trong tam yin de nho khe; tref cua nhan vien CTXH, bode tigp theo la chuygn hUting cufic pi-long vansang viec dat muc tiou xem khach hang mugn c6 chuygn bign gi.164
  • 164. KT thu4t phat trithi cac muc trey !loan chinh "Cac muc lieu hoan chinh cO met vai dac digm. Trong dO: cox muc tieudela quan trong vii khach hang, muc Lieu nha va cc, the, the Men ski khoiden ciia cal gi do khac biet chu khOng phai la su chem het." (DeJong vaBerg, 2002, tr. 16). Nham dat duet cac muc lieu nay, nhan vier CTXH dinhhiteing nhiing cau hai de gdi khach hang mieu to cuec song cua ho se ra saomet khi van de dude giai quygt. D khach hang Ling thuan nhigu hdri Mkt, rime Lieu can phai mangtinh quan trong vdi khach hang. Mac chi khach hang von duce thg gidi benngoai dat nhigu ki wing (toe An, dich vu xa hei vol gia dinh, cha me, dgitic), the ki vong nay phai chicic dap fang, digu quan trong la can phai tangnghe, ton trong khach hang va ph6i hop die muc tieu ena khach hang vaoqua trinh diet tri. Khi cac muc tieu dUde ap dat tit ben ngoal, khach hang itcó khuynh Intang tuan theo. Thu hai, the kik cau Ma them de h6 HO cho sti phat Hien cac mucLieu holm chinh IA nhiing eau hai ma goi cho khach hang nghi vg viec nguthi-khdc se dg y gi Mn khdch hang met each khac biet so vdi trtidc day khi vandg dude giai guy& Vi du nhan vien CTXH c6 thg hai: "Khi anh cam they itbugn nan hen, nguiii khdc se de y gi Mn su khac biet cua anh?". Met kikhai khac co the la: "N6u ngudi quan chg cila chi dang a day, chi to se nalviec chi sap lam la viec gi khign chi dupe tha being?". Tha ba, vii muc tieu gitip khach hang cu the lion de tranh quan niemrang vah dg xay ra "quanh nam Ka& thane, hay hei he xem chuyen gi senhu the Tian tai mat thdi diem hay met not cu the nao c16. Vi du, "761 hOmnay chi duce a nha va mei chuyen gida chi va ch6ng chi dang tra nen tot dep, chi se lam gi tefi nay?". Thu tu, cac muc tieu phai cu thg, do luting &Vic va. &toe the dinh vg mat hanh vi. Khach hang thitang nbi Mn muc tieu bang ratting ttil tritu Wong, kh6 the dinh nhit "khong bi tang thing qua", "c6 the giao tigp tgt bin". De dap lai ban ea thg sit dung cac eau hOi khign khach hang dinh hinh lai nhiing muc tieu eon ma ao. Vi du, ngitai nao ratan giam tang thing c6 the dude hal la "Cho HA bigt anh/chi se lam gi khi khOng can bi tang thing nt-ta". Del vii nhfing cap vo chtng mugn giao ti6p v6i nhau tot hdn, ban c6 the heti "Khi ch6ng chi giao tip v & chi tot lm, chi se thgy anh ay . 165
  • 165. lam viec gi khac biet khOng?" hoac "Hai anh chi se ming nhau lam viec gi cu the de the hien rang giao tiep cua anh chi da dude tai thien?". Thu nam, mot dieu then chat trong viec dat ra va hoan thanh muc tieu la de khach hang nhan ra vai trO cua ho trong viec tro giup nham dat dude muc lieu. Thong thuang trong cac van de ye quan he, khach hang hay not vg viec nhUng ngttei khac can phai thay del nhtt the nao. Neu dieu nayxay ra, hay lang nghe nhitng y kien cua khAch hang met each chars chti. Sau dO, khi nao có the, hay hei cac cau hei clan dat khach hang kiem tra vaitre cua ngtiai ay trong qua trinh chuyen d6i. Vi du, khi mot ngudi cha hayme can giai quy6t van da la hAnh vi cua con gai dang d tuaii vi thanh niencan thay dei, hay Fang nghe met each that cham chn va d8ng y (n6u thaythich (tang) vai each lap luau cua ngUiji do. Sau do ban co the tiep tue bangeach hei cau hei kik nint "Khi con anh/chi kinh trong anh/chi hon no se,thay anh/ chi dap lai no khac nhu the nao so vai each anh/chi dap lai nonhtt bay gia?". Thu eau, khach hang doi khi lo Fang va muon hoan thAnh cua mucdich ngay lap tic. Naming thttang thi viec nay se khong tray ra ngay. Honneta, dieu ma khach hang mong muen thttang tai khong Hap to bai hokhong co kha nang kiem soat mOi trUang cua ho mot each bao gnat. Nhanvien CTXH co the khign ho di theo met &tang hudng tich cue dan ten dichcuSi Ming. Dieu nay co the giilp khach hang khOng phai trai qua sit bileminh hay that bai khi thay sy thay ddi ma ho mong nation kh6ng xay rangay. Khi muc tieu cua khach hang la "kitting con cam thay tram elm, bulknan nua", ban có the gilp ngUai do bang each hei nhung cau hai "phan bac",met ki thuat pho Bien gitip khach hang chia nhe muc tieu tong quilt. Sitdung mite de tit 1 den 10, ban se co the hOi khach hang xem ho dang thaybuen nan nhti the nao. Sau do thay vi ngay lap tile hOi muc 10 Hite IA kittingcon cam thay ham nan nua, ma thay fat tuyet van), ban co the hai xemkhach hang cua minh se lam gi khac di nett mite do tram cam hay ban nan W 3 den 4. Mel phuong phap khac la hOi ho xem ho se lam gi vao thoidiem nhat dinh nao do trong ngay, vi du vao buei tai hay sOm mai, bei dayla nheing thai diem to nhat trong ngay cua khach hang. Kithuat h6i nhihig cau h6i c6 ph6p 16 Met ki thuat co met kitting hai trong (liking htiang lay giai phap lamtrung tam la hei khach hang "cau Mil co phop la". Trong khi pheng van met166
  • 166. phu nu ye viec earn nhan van de cim nguai do, Berg noi: "Ban they can phaithay del de thai gian cluing ta dang 136 ra la co ieh cho ban?". Khach hangnoi "Th. khong chat lam. Toi co nhieu van de qua. Co le chi met phep la meigiilp toi chive thei. Nluing toi cho rang nhu the thi qua ki yang red". BerghOi, "Dude, gia sit co met phep la, va van de khien ban phai toi day da dudegiai quyet, thi có gi khhe biet se ctgn trong ark dOi ban nao?". Va tit kinhnghiera ke tren, eau hOi co phep la ra dal, bay gid ne dude sit dung nhu metki thuat chap imp trong dieu tri. Wit nhat khach hang duec hOi each cosuy nghi thau dao va kich tinh met chtit. CO hai 11 do a hia eau hOi co phepla. nit& het, no cho phep co dude each nhin nhan theo kieu then dich vgviec tim giai phep, va thU hai, eau hOi gei cho nguai ta nglil vg chuyen gi sexay ra trong tudng lai thay vi viec cu be tac mai trong qua khii. De Shazer(1985) da dua ra mot vi du vg vier sii dung eau hai ce phep la nhu the nao. Bay gin; toi muon hal ban mat cau hat la. Gla sal khi ban dang ngongide tell nay va toan bq ngoi nha dau yen tinh, mat phep la xdy ra. Dieu kidieu do let van de ban mang toi day duac gidi guy& tai dep rdi. Tuy nhien batvi ban dung ngd, ban khong biet lit phep la det xay ra. Vi the khi ban tinh dayvao sang ham sau, chuyen gi se khcic di so yeti track dd mach bdo cho ban butla dieu ki dieu da xay ra vet vein de khien ban tc?i day lilac gicii quyet? Met khi nguai do bat dau xac dinh duct nhUng dei thay, viec hoikhach hang se dude tiep tuc de khuyen khich khach hang noi cu the va rorang hen ve thay del can thiet trong hanh vi. Nhan vien CTXH mei vaonghe thttang chap nhan ngay met lei dap 10 md he va chung chung. Neukhach hang bao anh ta khong tin vao phep la, hay yeu eau anh ta gia yetin, bai day la cau hOi bat thueng. Tiep tuc hei nhfing can da dinh sari de hetrd viec hinh thanh muc tieu xac thuc. Ki thuat than. d6 Mang ngoai la Khach hang bat dau xac dinh dude muc lieu sau khi nhan vien CTXHgitip ho mieu ta cu the chuyen gi khac biet se xay ra trong cuec song neuyin de duce giai quyet, nhan vita CTXH chuyen sang giai doan tiep theo.Bang kieu cau hal dua ra, giai doan nay htldng trong tam vao viec tam kiemnhung khoanh khac trong cups dei cua khach hang van de khong ton taihay khi no xay ra it va vei cuffing dp nhO. Theo De Shazer (1985), nhung"ngoai le" xay ra vao thai diem khi khach hang cho la yin de xay ra ma 167
  • 167. khang thgy. Digm math chgt a day la yin de khgng phai 100% the nao clangxay ra; tuy nhien khach hang thuang quy kgt chung chung va chi tap trungvan flitting thoi digm khi yin de da thvc sv ruing bong. Ngokti le c6 the g&n vfii dieu gi d6 ma ban than kthich hang to nhan rahoac chting ething co dau m6i do tim nao cigi vOi kthich hang ca. De Shazer(1985) gqi nhcing ngoai le nay la ngoai lg "th chit tam" Ira ngoai lg "ngaunhien". Qua viec su dung Su hth, nhan vien CTXH gitip khach hang cogang nhan ra, khi c6 the, nhilng bien so kigm soat chine cua khach hangdem lgti ngoai 10 86. Nhan vien CTXH phai ling nghe that sat nheing khacbiet girth hai ngoai 10, rgi eau nay se phan anh &roc digu klthe Met do vaocudi dot dik tri nay. Khi tim kigm cac ngoai nhan vien CTXH au thing mot qua trinhdigu tri hai giai doan. Trong giai doan dau, nhan vien CTXH hoi khachhang Kern lieu ngoai le da Bing xay ra ches„ Viac su dung cac cau hat vaquan he ding c6 thg cfi fch dgi v6i nthing khfich hang kh6ng the xac dinhdtfOc ngoai 10. Vf du, "NMI ban dbi, ban gai, ban than nhgt, dOng nghiep,hang x6m, con ch6 hay con moo, hoac la bg me ban dang a day thc nay, h9ea n6i (Lucie rang ban da tVng c6 nhcing the thy kha thin trong than qua haythang qua khang?". KM ngoai le da &the chi ra, giai doan ti6p theo la hoi cac chi tigt vgngoai le d6. Dieu nay se gitth khach hang thgy rang ngoai le ngau nhien thvcra la ngoai 10 c6 chit tam. Nhan vien CTXH gqi ra each higu nay qua viec hOixem ngoai 10 gi xay ra khi nao, a dau vet c6 dfnh dang dgn ai. VI dyi, ban c6thd hoi "Vtto ngay thit bay, ban cam thgy Mc nao thi minh It tram cam vetban min hen, the do ban a Mu va a vdi ai?", "Chang ban se nth gi ntu anh aythy ban co kha hen m9i khi?", "Ban co nhd ra la bon dang lam gi hie boncam thily kha hen?". Khfich hang can dtmc gqi $ chi tint, thi phan hgi cla h9,ding nlin nhiem vv digu trj a cugi dgt digu tri nay se ding Owen xficGiup khach hang xite dinh the ngoai le se gitip nhan vien CTXH va khachhang nhgn ra (Heim manh tha khach hang, UV do xay chtng &Mc giai phap. KT thult phi! h61 Van cugi dQt digu trj then timg ki thuat then, nhan vien tri lieu theom6 hInh digu trj lg.y giai phap lam trung tam can xe:p xi 5 phut nghi giaileo till xem lei than bQ nQi dung va qua trinh digu tri. H9 t6 chits phan hattrong thai glen nay va se phan h6i khi h9 gap lai nhau.168
  • 168. Ki thuat phan hot dude t6 chile theo ba phan ed ban: khen ngdi, baccam, va gdi y nhiem vu phai lam. Khen ngdi can tap trung vao diem manhva tinh tich cue cua khach hang. Viec nay se khien khach hang tan tamhdn. Doi khi nhan vien CTXH cO the they viec nay kW, lam ngu nhan vienCTXH Met rang day la met phan trong qua trinh phin hai, ngtiai do senhan thitc re hdn vg tam quan trong vg nhung dac diem tich cac cua khachhang khi ho lien hanh phOng van. Neu loi khen cua ban chuAn xac theo hetheng nigni tin cua khach hang, khach hang se co kha nang tan deng tat canhang gi ban not ve ho. Khi ket thdc viec khen ngdi, nhan vien CTXH dtia ra cau not bac cau,flea nhang lei ngdi khen vdi nhung viec khach hang phai lam ma ban sapgdi ra cho ho. Vi the khi phat trien cau not bac cau, nhan vien CTXH phailien ket cac diem manh, muc fiat va ngoai 10 vdi nhiem va se giao. Nhiem vu giao cho khach hang thUang rdi vao met trong hai loai sau:nhiem vu hanh vi va nhiem vu quan sat. Voi nhiem vu hanh vi, nhan vierCTXH gdi y. rang khach hang lam nhieu viec da tUng dem lai nhieu ngoai lehon. Dieu nay do nhan vien CTXH ludm let dude trong suet cube placingvan. Nhiam vu quan sat doi hOi khach hang phai d hdn nua den nhungIan van de chtia tra thanh tra ngai ya khong phai la dieu xatt - not eachkhAc - do la nhung lan ngoai le. Moc dich chinh la a khach hang biet nhieulion den cac thdi diem khi van de sang sue hdn, va xac dinh xem viec do laviec gi, key ra a dau, khi nao, a ch6 nem va yeti ai cling vdi sU clni dac bietden W co mat cua khach hang trong so kien do. Khach hang cang xac dinh re mac lieu cua mink thi cang de dUa ra nhiem vu phai lam. Nhieu nhan vien CTXH they sp hing tilng cua khachhang khi ho chi co muc tieu me nhat. Khi muc tieu re rat va co the, nhiem v11 se re ret va co the theo. Hon nua khi khach hang nhan ra rang he co vai trie trong viec gay ra van de clang nhu la viec tlm giai phap, tien trign vg dich cang de co kha nang hen. Khi khach hang tin rang met ngttai khac hay tinh huffing khac can thay trUnc khi ho dat den muc tieu, thi tinh huOng chang dude cAi thien gi nhieu hal vi khach hang khOng kiem soat dude het cac van de. Kith* da van h6a Harper va Lantz (1996) xac dinh tam "ygu to chua tri mang tinh giaovan Ma." co the he try qua trinh gitip da moi ngtfai W nhung nen tang van 169
  • 169. h6a khac nhau. Tam yen P6 nay bao gem: "Quan diem nhin nhan ve the gi6i, hy vong, su lii eu6n caa ngitai h6 tro, sit kiem soot, cac each filth Hen hanh, the each lam each 16i 1&m, sin nhan dien ten tai va sin can thiep the chat". Nhang ne 114c he trd khach hang qua vies ap dung nhung ki thuat vuot qua, cai thien, dining dau v6i van de can phai th6ng nhat hay pha hOp Nth quan diem nhin nhan caa khach hang ye each thine cai thien van de nhin the nao cang nhit each he tro nao ma ho tan thanh. Su deng be do co the dat throe bang each phai hop cac phuang phhp Hong - Tay hay ton giAo, hayxin phep met ngitoi ton kinh trong nen van Wm eaa khAch hang duos apdung ki thuat ang dung nao do. Hi vong throe cho la met meu s6 Chung ea a tat ca nhang nen van hOakiem tim su h6 tire. Ngitei he tro hieu dude khai niem nay se di tim hy vongthem trong to duy caa khfich hang qua nhung phuong Hen van hoa nhumac the hien trinh do dao tao, kinh nghiem, kik tithe va su tin tin. Ste thubut caa nguili hi, try nhu Rogers mien to bao Om the dac diem the hien (vidu: su chart thite, cam filling, quan tam tieh cue) caa ngitai he tro vet dokhach hang the Binh tam quan trong trong mei quan he nail h6 tro -khach hang. Dap diem nay caa ngitai he tro da throe nghien cum ki trongtam li hoc phiaing Tay, nhung nhung nhu nghien eau giao thoa van h6ading they dude tam quan trong caa no ngith he Ho va han gun throng nodten trong cac nen van hoa klthe. Viec gulp da khheh hang dat tai met mac do kiem soot the van de hotrinh bay la muc lieu phi bien trong nhieu nth, van Ilea. ViOc kiem sootthudng dat dude bang thkie hien hanh vi mei. Trong tam 11 hoc phiicing Tay,sit soot dude the hien qua vie, c hoe cac ki thuat thu gian bang nhungtong cu phan hei sinh hoc (Woe sin dung m6i khi có hp hie gay tang Wang.NIRing nen van hoa khac sa dung nhung phitong phap klthe. NOM TrungQuec chang han, ce the sin dung Thai cue quy6n, luyen tap, hay the eachkhac do ngitai Trung Querc pltht trik theo each ng6i thigh, dat den trangthai binh than va can bang. Ccic each thud Bert hanh khai ngu6n W khainiem ye sin ehuyen dei &toe met giai ki nao do dem lei. Dac biet, Harper vaLantz (1996) bao con rang each thac tign hanh nay la giai loan lining Hangcho viec chuyen to cai chat (rai IsO hanh vi Cu) sang tai sinh (bat &du cachanh vi mdi). Met vi du trong van h6a phiicing Tay 11 khAch hang theo metchacing trinh cho toi khi het tit Ca cac cap va tot nghi4 met each thanh170
  • 170. tong. Qua trinh nay la bieu trung cho met ski chuyen del den phuang thilesing mai t3 16i song eu, khOng lanh manh. Khach hang to nhigu ngn van hoa xem each lam each 161 lam la each nhung gi chua hohn hao, la each lam sach nhung 161 lam ma met nmiaimac phai, hay lam sach nhung that 64i hoac hart chg cua nmiai do. Viet lamsach nay cho phep nguai do quay ve trang thai can bang dude. Khi khach hang kheing con cam thay y nghia gi nila, sit niOn diOn tontai gitip ho thay lai dude y nghia do. Met vi du la: met nhan vien CTXH cothe gnip cha me thay y nghia cim cuee song caa ho sau viec mat mat metdata con. Ho trai qua met su trgng yang ral can dttOc xua tan di bang eachdi giup nhung nguoi co cling canh nge. Ho roi se tim lai &roc intic dich maicho cuec dai cua ha va cam thay digu tit dep dang den tii su mat mat cimchinh ho. Sy can thiOp thi chcit la viec ap dung each digu tri the chat Yhoe phttang Tay tim each Mia lai su mat can bang trong sinh Ma qua viec sii dung the pinking thiic y hoc hay giai phau phan nao do cua ed the. Metvai xa hei khac lai sit dung nhung ki thuat va bien phap khac nhu Mai tea tttOng trung hay gay phan than tinh than. Digu then chit trong viec dung nhilng during huang tren la dam bao rang the bien phfip do co gia tri trong ngn van Ma va thich hop vai tinh hugng ciia khach hang. TOM TAT Chuang 4 da xfic dinh the kien thiic va ki thuat can thigt ct6 can thieph6 tra khach hang. Cac kign thitc va ki thuat nay bao gem nhung digu ducnit to cac quan diem li thuygt khac nhau nhu 11 thuygt tam 11 hoc ban nga,li thuyet tam 11 hoc nh4n thfic, lieu phap hanh vi, lieu phap lay d6i WInglam trung tam, 11 thuyet he thing, phttang phap tip can ve diem manh va11 thuyet da van hoa. Cac k5 thu4 Cu the cling duoc xac dinh Judi min quandiem chinh, Ming vai nhiing giai Hitch a lam sao ap dung duoc vai cackhach hang. Tat ca cac ki thuat tren la cam nang co dong ve nhung ki nangcan ce cim nhan vien CTXH true tigp. 171
  • 171. Ch uang 5 PHAT TRIEN KT NANG D61 PHO CUA KHACH HANG Jerry la met giao vien trung hoc obi; thong 50 tu6i, chtta có gia dinh. Ong nha la minh mac chling hen hop va kho tha trong phan ion men doi.Mae du Ong da la Ono vien dude gun 25 nom, Ong van bi chung hoi hop itnhat met Lin met thong. Khi có nhting Ian nhti the, Ong Jerry de y thay tim minh dap nhanh hdn va bat dau va me hoi va bi thong mat. Jerry phai rakh6i phOng hoc khi chUng hoi hop xuAl hien va bad vdi hoc sinh ena mirthrang Ong to se quay tra lai trong yang 5 phut. Sau khi ngei trong phOng hoideng khoang 5 phtit, Ong to mai c6 the quay Ye lop. Ong to muein nhan vienCTXH gidp Ong it hoi heplan va mu6n hoc each thu gian. Rat nhieu nhiing loai ki nang del pha khac nhau có the dude sit dungde gitip khach hang dat dude muc &eh cua minh hoac giai tea dude van deva mai lo Fang ena ho. Nhan vien CTXH tham du cac kbOa duo tao taidoe tap chi chuyen nganh, du hoi thao, tham van vdi the nha vat if tri lieukhac hang Wan de hoc cac each mai gitip khach hang dei phO voi van de rimho nhtt lam dung rum, ma try UM lam dung tre em hay ba rdi tre em, lythan va li hen, tai benh Alzheimer. Chuang nay nham mieu to va thao luannhang ki nang deil phe thuang dude dung de h6 trd khach hang: (1) lieuphap to duy, (2) huan luyen tfnh kien dinh, (3) kiem soot We gian, (4) kiemsoot tang thAng, (5) kiem soft khUng hoang, (6) cac chien hide tinh than vanhan van va nhcing chien hide kiem soot cuec song khac. Lieu phap IV duy Mau the ki ngitai to tang viet ye van de cac suy nghi cua chting toanh Intang the neo den earn gilt Ira harth Tang. Cac triet gia Stoic a the kiIV truck Cong nguyen da thAo 114n ve lac deng Jinh hoat cua suy nghi, camgiac va hanh gong. Epictetus da viet trong "The Enchiridion" la "con nmiaibi phien ha khong chi bai vat chat xung quanh ma con bai nhang quandiem cUa ho ve nhang vat chat 4" (Beck, Rush Shaw va Emery, 1979, tr 8).Tam diem chti ve suy nghi va nhang anh Intang cua chang dea voi cam ;giac, hoat dong da dude Aron Beck va deng sti (1979) hoan thien hdn trong172
  • 172. bai vigt "Lieu phap to duy chlia chang tram cam". NI-lung the gia khac nhuDavid D. Burns trong "Cam glee tot lieu phap tam trang mdi" (1980) va -"Cam nang hltong <ran each cam giac ter (1990) tigp tee phat than lieuphap tU duy (LPTD) va ap dung no vao rat nhigu cac van de vg sue khaetinh than khac nhau. Met trong nhfing khai nigm co ban cua LPTD la qua trinh to duy cuarat nhieu ngudi bi moo mo. Cacti to duy meo mo nay gay anh Imang dgneach ho nhin nhgn ban than, nhiling trai nghiem cua ho va ca tUdng lai cea.h9. Tigp do nhilng suy nghi moo mo nay gay anh Mang clgn cam Mac vahanh Ong, ngan can ho hoan thanh nave tieu hay giai taa cac van d6 vanhUng mgi quan tam. Trong tam dm lieu phap to duy la khign nguai tonhan bigt vd nhUng suy nghi moo me cua ho va sau do thay thg bang nhtingsuy nghi tign be hon. Khi cac suy nghi moo mo dude thay thg bang nhungsuy nghi hdp II Min, cam giac va hoat Ong cua khach hang (Wee cai thien.Trong truang hop bi tram cam, khach hang se It bi tram cam va bat dauhanh trinh dgn vdi nigm hanh plata va sr toai nguyen. Wing moo mo vg td duy 1316e dau tien trong lieu phap to duy la cling khach hang xem xetco nhung meo me to duy ph6 bign nao va nhUng meo m6 nao dung veiltrUang hop cua khach hang. Burns (1980) da xac dinh 10 moo me ve ttiduy nhu sau: 1. Cach nghi loan (hoac IA tat ca hoae la khong co gi). Ban nhin nhan m9i viec theo pham tra den - va - trong. Ngu tong vice cua ban chua hoan thien ban thgy ban than ban la ca met stt thgt bai hoan toan. 2. Qua maling dieu (qua khai quat h6a): Ban nhin nhgn met sV kien tieu cUe rieng le nhu la met ma hinh them bai khOng co hei kgt. 3. Sp sang* cue, to duy: ban chon met chi tit Lieu eye don le va tran tra vdi ne khign nhan quan ye toan be thuc to bi den t6i di, nhu la met giot /alp lam d6i mau Loan be cgc nude. 4. Danh gia sai chgt lacing the tich eye: Ban phu nhan nhUng trai nghiem tich nee bang each cho rang chting "khOng dang ke" vi ii do nay hay li do khae. Bang each nay ban co the duy tri met ni6m tin tieu cite mau than voi nhung trai nghiem hang ngay cua ban. 173
  • 173. nghiep dude trubng nay!", thi khach hang cling to ghi nhan rang can dodude that len vao buoi sang thi hai Mc 10 gid sang khi bai kiem tra giaa kimon Lich sit dude tra lai voi mot diem C. Sau do, khach hang va nhan vienCTXH se xem 14i nhung lint tril do cua khach hang trong titan tritdc va xemc6 nhung mho m6 to duy nAo khang. Viec nay se c6 the dude tip tuc trongmet hoac hai ddt Nhiing phin ang (bi0 phap digu tri) cap tiaM Bude cuei cling trong lieu phap to duy la thay nhung eau tieu citebang nhung phAn tine Lien be. Khach hang nen c6 gang lam dieu nay kh8ngchi hang deem khi on lai nhung viec va bout deng trong ngay, ma con ca vac)ban ngay khi nhung y nghi hoar can n6i tieu cite xugt hien va dude that lenlbi Ian Tau Lien. Vi du, ban sinh vien ma bung nOi cau tit phe la "Minh thatqua dot nat; minh se chang bao gio tat nghiep dude trtiong nay!" se to saalai can Lieu cue ay bang can phan ling cap lien sau do la "Khang, minh dauphai ngu gi! Dgy chi IA suy nghi meo mO thei - thitc to thi dgy la each minhnib/1g dieu van de len — minh TIM vay la vi minh nhan dude diem C cho monLich sa giaa ki. Minh co dot lam data, minh da nhan day diem A, B ma. Taiminh khang hoc an thi giaa ki thoi. Neu ma có hoc thi da nhan dude diemcad. Minh se tat nghiep dal hoc chide thai". De lieu phap to duy dude thanh cling, khach hang phai nhgt tri hoacthong nhSt vOi hai tin dg co ban cua me hinh dieu tri nay. Tien de thdnhgt la suy nghi va y twang ma chang to co, kinh nghiem cua chting to vatotlng lai cua chting to c6 the deng lon den each cluing to cam nhan va cu Tien de thu hai la nen chting to muen thay doi each cam nhan va citcua minh thi phai thay dai suy nghi va § hen. Mat khi khach hang chapnhan dude the ties dg tren, ho da saM sang sit dung lieu phap to duy, trongdo cac thu tieu cue dime xae dinh, goi la nhung moo m6 to duy va thay thebang nhiing phan ling cap lien hdn. Lieu phap to duy digt, tri chang tram cam Lieu phap to duy da dude sit dung trong nhieu nam de gulp nhung !ngitai bi tram cam thay kha hdn vg chinh ban than minh. NM-mg nguai bitram cam thuang nhin nhan ban than, chc trai nghiem cua minh va bidnglai cua minh theo nhitng kik tieu cue. Beck va &Ong su (1979) goi viec nayIA "be ba nhan thile" (cognitive triad). Ho cling nOi ve gian da (schema) hay 175
  • 174. kith ban eutic doi day tieu ale va to phi nhan ban than ma nhfing ngtfai tram cam (la via len cho minh. Khi diet tri nhfing ca nhan bi tram cam, trong tam la sda ehila nth:Mg suy nghi tieu cue ma khach hang Lung c6, mat s6 trtiong hop thMing xuyen co. Viet nay duct tien hanh bang each: (1) Xac dinh nhung eau tieu cut ma khach hang suy nghi hoar not ra vg ban thanho. (2) Quy no vg nhung dang suy nghi moo inO co the, va thin ding (3) thay the nhitng eau tieu cite do bang nhfing phan ling cap tien hon. Khach hang theo &tang Intong dieu tri nay nen phat tridn =lit each nhin nhan hop li vatich cue Min vg ban than, nhling diet da trai qua va thong lai cia ho. Beck va (tang so (1979) trinh bay and hinh dieu tri chling tram camtrong 15 dot dieu tri. Trtith dot dieu tri, ngudi (lieu tri gin tdi khach hangthan cam nang "DM AO vol chitng tram cam" va yeu eau khach hang doecuOn cam nang do trude khi dot dieu tri dau Lien bat dau. Trung binh,khach hang hoan thanh mat dOt dieu tri mat Ling hai 15n trong mot tuancho ban tuan dau Lien, sau do mat lan mat tuan cho bay tuan kg tiep. Beckva dang so tin rang nhung khach hang bi tram cam d6 nguy cap den dOtram trong can ngay (kit dieu tri hai lan mat tuan. Sau m6i dot diet, tri,khach hang duce giao hai tap th nha de he, tro lieu pile) tit duy. Nhung baitap vg nha nay la met phan quan trong cila qua trinh can thiap va se dudexem xet lai va thao Man trong dot dieu tri sau. Dot diet tri dau lien tap trung vao nhang nhiem vu sau: (1) xem laithe trieu chfing tram cam (2) danh gia nguy cc to ti va tuyet vong, (3) thanluAn the each suy nghi va to thoai gay anh }Wong den cam giac va hanh vi,(4) xem xet lai muc (la hoat clang caa khach hang. Bai tap/nhiem vu th nhabao gem (1) ghi lai nhung hoat ding hang new (2) tien hanh danh gia tambenh If (psychopathology) bang Test nhan each MMPI va tra lai bang canhoi digu tra lich si4 chiing benh (Lazarus, 1972). Dot digu tri thu hai taptrung vac ha nhiem vu: (1) xem lai trieu °Ming tram cam, (2) xem lai ghichap tit tuan truck ve cat hoat clang trong ngay, va (3) alio luan Inta quanhe giva suy nghi, th thoai, cam gine va hanh vi bang each tap trung vannhung trid nghiem cu the cila khach hang. Nhung nhiem vu giao vg nhabao g6m: (1) tip tut ghi chap nhung hoat deng trong ngay va (2) xac dinhvan da yea the thanh viers trong gia dinh, voi ban be va vol nhilng ngtthikhac co thg da gap phan vao chiing tram cam dm khach hang.176
  • 175. Trong dot digu tri ba, khaeh hang va nhan vien CTXH (1) xem 10 vi0cti6n hanh va muc thoai mai hoat deng cim khach hang (khaeh hang xacdinh mile de thoai mai co lien quan den the hoat deng) va (2) thao luannhfing suy nghi hay to thoai di lien quan den not ban (su bu6n rdu) cuakhaeh hang. Nhiem vu giao v6 nha cho than tigp la ghi lai nhilng suynghi hay tit thoai trong suet then gian thay bugn ha, lo au, gian du, ve camhay lanh dam. Nhiem vu va hoat clang cua giai doan digu tri bon bao g6m: (1) liet kenhiing suy nghi hay tv thoai Lieu cue den trUdc cam gide buen r6u, to au, sehal va ye cam hay lanh dam va (2) xem lai xem khach hang trai nghiemnhung gi khi suy nghi va to thoai tiou cue xay ra. Bai giao ve nha la: (1)tigp tue ghi chep nhung Buy nghi hay tki thoai tieu cue va (2) tign hanh methoat deng ma khach hang da the dinh trade la met hoat deng dg chin vadanh gid xem lieu hoat clang de co mang lai su thoai mai hay khang. Nheing nhiem vu chinh cam dot digit tri nam la: (1) thao luan nhungsuy nghi hay to thoai tieu cue co trong tudn trade cua khach hang va (2)xac dinh nhung chu de va trai nghiem tai dien hay ph6 biers co lien quand6n nhung suy nghi hay hi thoai tieu cafe. Nhiem vu giao vg nha g6m: (1)lam theo chum neon "giudng ie 4 ngia" (n6u khach hang khong ngu duetsau 15 philt nghi ngoi, khach hang cdn ra khed giuemg va lArn gi do de giandoan suy nghi) va (2) tigp tut ghi chep the suy nghi hay tai thoai va quan hecaa ehung via nthing thanh vien Cu the trong gia dinh, ban be va nhungngttai khae. Dot digu tri 6, 7 va 8 tap trung vao nhung suy nghi tieu eve hayLa nhan xet to danh such nhiing gi "nen lam" lion la t8 danh sad nhung gi"mu6n lam". Nhiem vu vg nha a ba dot kg tigp nay la tap trung vao (1) suy nghi vato thoai lieu cue va nhang gi dang xay ra yea khach hang e thei diem do va(2) nhfing each giai ditch khac nhau cho eae suy nghi tieu eve nay (vi du:van de thuee v6 noai ban dui chit kheng phai thuec v6 khaeh hang). flat dieu tri 9, 10 va 11 tap trung vao (1) sv to phe binh eita khachhang va phut trign nhfing phan ung thue to hen, cap tign hon Ndi nhang sutat phe binh do va (2) lam theo nhung gi khach hang "moon" hon la nhiinggi khach hang "nen". Nhiem vu giao vg nha bao gem (1) thay the nhung suynghi va to thoai tieu eve bang nhung suy nghi va tai thoai thVc t6 hon hoarcap tien hon, (2) thuc hien met hoat deng trong danh each nhung gi khaehhang "mugn". 177
  • 176. [kit diet) tri 12, 13 va 14 tiep tuc tap trung vao (1) ski to phe phan ciiakhach hang va phan dean co ban cho hanh vi do; (2) nhung hanh clangkhach hang can tien hanh, vi du: kien dinh Min trong viec xi1 li nhfing taiphe binh cim ngttoi khec. Nhiem vu vg nha a ba giai (loan nay la (1) liet kenhfing digu "muOn lam" a hien tai va Wong lai; (2) xem xet lai nhfing hanhdang ma khach hang có the lien hanh nham dat ducic nhung digu "muenlam" a hien tai va ttidng lai. Trong suet dot 15 va cuoi sung, khach hang va nguOi digu tri xem laical gi da hoc &toe hay dat dude trong flitting dot digu tri cu. Met trongnhiing dieu quan trong nhat ma khach hang hoc dude la nhung suy nghi vato thoai c6 the clang quan trong den cam giac va hanh vi. Met bei hoc nita lacac suy nghi Lieu cue c6 the dan den nhting cam giac tram cam ve thayminh ve dung. Khech hang cfmg dttoc hoc rang thay the nhung suy nghitieu cue bang nhfing suy nghi thkic t6 hoac cap tien hon, ski tram cam sequa di ve ho se" hanh pink hay hai Ring hon. Met bad hoc khac Mua la nhung -gi tren danh shell "nen lam" se Op phan vao chfing tram cam, trong khidanh sach "mu6n lam" OCT thoat kh6i chfing tram cam. Khfich hang clanghoc dive rang hoan thanh mat boat clang thoai mei de chin it nhat metWan mot Lan thuong thay the nhung earn giac trAm cam bang nhung camgine de chin va hai long. Nguy ccl ty tit t Wang, &in hien va c6 gang to ti thtiong co lien quan d6n changtram cam. Rai ro tu tit dac biet nghiem trong khi c6 nhung rail loan tontrong tram cam. Nhfing r6i loan nay thuimg xay ra phd hien khoang 15%trong ddi cila dan ong va 25% cim phu nil. 3000 vu to vong dude bao caohang nam a M9 co lien quan den ty tit. Them vac) do hon 15 ngan tre em vavi thanh vien phai nhap vien hang nam vi nhung de doa va hanh viTi le ty to tang len cling do ttSi. Mac dU nodi gia c6 xu hieing ty tit ft hdn ,nhting nguoi tre tudi, ho lai hay thanh tong hon, tao nen 25% cac vu to titthanh cling, mac du ho chigm co 10% tong dan cu. Ti Le ty tii gitia nam vanu de tuSi 75 va tit 75 gap ba tan ti Lo ty Lit cUa nhung ngtioi dO Wel 30 vatre hon. Kaplan, H. 1.. & Sadock. B. J. (1996). Consise textbook of clinical psychiatry.Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.178
  • 177. Bai tp ta la nguy cd th lc su vdi nhung khach hang mac chi:Mg tramcam, nhan vien CTXH can phai danh gia nguy co nay ngay ffi dau quatrinh can thief). Burns (1990) Rol ST rang can hdi nht-ing cau hOi eau ngu metthanh vien trong gia dinh hay ban be. dac biet tO ra khOng phan ung hoac bingan can: 1. Ban da tiing cam thgy buOn hay bgt hanh hay khong? 2. Ban da tung cam thy tuyet vong khOng? Moi chuyen có phai la khong thg cai thien dude gi Mia phai khong? 3. Ban c6 bao gig nghi v@ cai chgt khOng? Ban c6 Lung nghi rang tot Min hgt la chgt di cho xong khOng ? 4. Ban c6 bao gig Wing coy dinh to tg thpc su chua? Ban cid bao gid co mot thoi thlic la to gigt minh khong? 5. Ban cg cam thgy la minh c6 the khong cu lai nhung EWA thlic d6 khong? Hay dot khi nhung that thtic 116 cam dO dude ban? 6. Ban c6 met kg hoach time su nao da tutu khOng? 7. Khi nao thi ban lap kg hoach tu tit? 8. C6 cai gi niu keo ban lai khong? Vi du gia dinh hay tin nguong ciia ban? 9. Ban da tiing co thu to tit trong qua khii chua? 10. Ban có san lOng nth chuyen vdi ai do hay tim kigm st/ gulp do ngu ban cam thgy bi tuyet vong khong? Ban mu6n nth chuyen vdi ai? Nell eau tra loi cho met vai cAu hOi Hen day la "co" thi nguy cd tkrkhOng nhling c6 the rat thAt ma con cO the sap xay ra den nth r6i. Nhanvien CTXH luon luon phAi than Hong va xem xet danh gia thAu &do venguy cd to van da khAch hang. Hay xem bang 5.1 de? có bien phap danh giAcu thg hdn raTia co the gitip xac dinh nguy co tkt van cua khach hang. Met each khac nth* de danh gia rui ro la ghi nhd ba eau hoi va hoikhach hang nao Hong co ye tuyet vong: Ban có nghi phai lam cho minh ton thudng khong? Ban lam ton thtiOng ban bang each nao? Cai gi ngan can ban lam bdn throng cho ban? 119
  • 178. Thang ddnh gid ngKOi tram cdm (The SAD PERSON SCALE) nit cong Cu danh gia hiiu ich del vai nguy co to tit la The SADPERSON SCALE. Thang nay xac dinh 10 yen to cO lien quan den tv 1. Mai tinh. Dan Ong flaking hoan thanh dude vies tv to va sit dungnhung each thitc de gay chat ngtteii han. 2. Tugi. Cac eh nhan With 18 togi va tren 35 tudi thuec nhem nguy cacao hon. 3. Tr5m cam. Khach hang bi tram cam c6 kha nang to tit nhieu han.Da, c biet neu ho bat dau cam thay kha hon va co nhieu nhiet huyet hon saukhi bi tram cam Mang rig. 4. Nhiing Ilan thit trade. Khach hang da titng this tv ti try& day c6the they de this lai Lan nita hon. 5. Niing do chkt kich thich. Su hien dien cua rttyu con va cac chatma lily cO lien quan den sv to tii, 6. Mgt suy nghi lien b*. Neu met ngttai co rol loan ye suy nghi,ngtiesi do c6 th se khong the tim dude each clOi pho vbi nhung khong hoang. 7. Thigu sai ho trd cita xa hOi. Neu khach hang cam thay bi co lapva khong co du mOi quan he ce y nghia, co hed to to tang len. 8. Kg hoach da lap. Ngu met khach hang co met ke hoach dude lapsan, dieu nay nghia la miic do chat nguoi rat cao. 9. Khong ban ded. Nhitng ngtteli song dec than et .) khuynh huffing tvtit cao hon. 10. Om dau. Mtn met khach hang c6 benh the chat tram trong, nguaide a tv to hon. Cac chi6n Ittqc can thitp C6 rat nhieu align hive dieu tri khac nhau co th tien hanh voi nhungkhach hang muOn tv tu, [hat tries hc thOng hci trd va tham do the each ,thay the la met each kh8i dau digit tri rat tat V6i nhung khach hang c6mite nguy co tv tit tit than den trung binh, c6 the yeu eau ho ki cam ketkhong tv tit trong met then ki nhat dinh hoar ki met hop deng thoa thuanyin nhan vien CTXH tang se lien lac vin nhan vien CTXH avec khi can I Patterson, W. M., Bird. J., & Patterson, G. a, (1983). Evaluation of suicidal patients:The SAD PERSONS scale. Psychosmatics, 24(1 ), 343-349.180
  • 179. nhdc dinh to tit. Khach hang c6 nguy (xi to ta t8 trung binh dgn eao c6 thecan dgn viec nhdp vien hoac can thiep bang thugc. Cling can thOng bao chogia dinh va ban be khach hang khi nguy cd to to cao. Ski h6 try va deng vien ho co th6 la sue ngan can quan trong cho vies tti tU Nhung align Mac an town khac de khi lam viec vdi nhilng khach hangmu6n to tit ce, the bao g6m ca viec Bide di hay da be) tat ca vu khi gay neC,dao va nhung vat gay then thming chgt ngudi khec d trong nha, danh giatat ca nhung chan tri vg benh tat va thuds men dang sii dung cim khachhang, xac dinh nhung khu vuc nguy him trong nha nhu eau thang d6c, haynth:Mg khu vuc bao hoe kin, klaing 16 thong hoi nhu ga ra d to. Lieu phap to duy diau tri skt lam dung wan con va ma My Lieu phap to duy da tra thanh met phan quan trong trong the chUcmgtrinh dieu tri nghien ntou va ma ttly (Miller, 1999). BAng each xac dinh vasila chiia nhung meo m6 trong suy nghi thudng co khi lam dung rude quamite, khach hang kigm soat dupe telt Min viec sit dung laical con eua minh.Burns (1990) kiem tra ski meo me suy nghi eua rat nhigu khach hang dg h6Bid ho t3 ho viec tang c6 hai do. Vi du, met khach hang cO th6 to nhu: "61,agu c6 vai bia vao lac nay thi mai stiang lam sao. Se ngon lam da:yr Burnsgoi su meo m6 suy nghi nay la met vi du cim "boi toan" Lich cut bai khachhang dang tien doan met digu hoan toan khong ca that. Mac du met s6khach hang trai qua su thang hoa ngan vg tam trang khi bat dau ugng, hoLau nhu luen red vao kett cue cam gide tai tr.; lam bai vi met vai bia bignthanh ba, bgn hoac nhigu vai bia hon. Sau khi khach hang tang den vai biathit bon hoac thit nam, ho tra nen cau gian va tram earn ve thudng cal nhauvai gia dinh va ban be. Digu tei to hcin la ho thtiang tra day vao bual sanghem eau vdi mat cam glee khO chiu khimg klagp. Hay la klatch hang c6 the noi, "Cuec sting to nhat qua, minh dang raphai c6 daft xiu niem vui chit", su meo me suy nghi nay la vi du cim vieclap luan theo cam tinh. Thing la along ta ai cling xiing clang c6 nhieu nigmvui hdn trong dai chling ta, nhung viec tang emu, bia khong lam cho cueeddi vui ye len chafe, dac biet la deli vdi ngudi ugng rtiOu kinh nien. Thay vaod6, viec tieing qua mac eua khach hang khan anh ta bi tram earn kinh nien,va than dai. Chang nghien rudu caaanh ta cling tao ra nhung van d6nghiem trong d nha va noi cOng sa. Chang c6 gi clang vui v6 viec u6ng rtiOuqua da ca. 181
  • 180. Khach hang khac co thg nei rang: "Oi, loai bia do ngon thg. Minh nghila minh se lam met vai Ion MM. Minh se cam thgy kha han ay chii!". Daylai la met vi du caa vice lap Juan cam tinh. Mac da vai bia dau thi ngon,chang co gi dam bao rang ba hay bk vai Mita se cai thien dude tam trangcua khach hang. Viec tieing qua mite khOng lam khach hang hanh phticno khign khach hang gian d3 va nan long hon. NO ding lam tang clang kOnhfing cd hoi xung det cua khach hang vdi nhung nguai khae. Viec tangqua nhigu se khong giai tea dude nhfing van de lien nhan each va nhUngxung dot lien nhan each ma con lam tang tan xugt va mite de ding thangc-aa nhting van de va xung dot ay. Lewis, Dana, va Blevins (2002) sU dung met no hinh lieu phap to duyma ho goi la vies tai cd cgu tit duy. Trong chttong trinh nay. khach hangdude khuy4n khich the hien niem tin va nhfing yr Wang ccia ho ve ban than "va nen tit dm he bang nhfing each gan gal vdi thue tee Min la ao Wang. Metkhach hang ma nei rang "Thi chang the thay d6i dude hanh vi cua minh" cóthe se thay can do bang eau "Minh se khong thay doi hanh vi cua minh".Can Wong tki nhtt the phan anh chinh xac hdn cam giac cith khach hang vaginp khach hang the di/1h vai tre "so luau" hanh vi cua minh hdn la do" hanhvi do cho ai khac hoac ngttai ngoai cuec. KT thuat nay duck thigt kg de khignnhfing Idi Wang t>i n6i tra nen tign be hdn bang each loai 66 inning suy nghime° m6 nhtt la khai (mat hoa qua mile va kik to duy hoac la tat ca - hoacla kheng c6 gi ea (Burns, 1990). Lewis va ceng sq (2002, trang 60 - 61) daykhach hang trong chuong trinh dieu trj cai nghien higt each hai nhang eauhai sau day a dank gia dude suy nghi va cam giac c-aa ho. 1. Viec toi suy nghi ve tinh hukg nay la dpa tren met skt that hie nhien hay dkia tren ao Wang? 2. Lieu suy nghi cua toi trong tinh hugng nay co kha nang gitip tOi bao ye chiqc cuee song va sue khOe cua minh khong? 3. Lieu suy nghi cua tai se gitip hay can tra toi dat dude nhfing mue tieu ngAn han va dai han? 4. Lieu suy nghi cua toi co gin") toi tranh &tee xung dot vdi nhang nguoi khac khOng? 5. Lieu suy nghi cua toi c6 khi6n tOi thy nbling tinh cam ma tai mugn minh cam nhan dude khong?182
  • 181. Theo Lewis uez dthzg szt (2002): "Kigu tat co cau nhan [h&c nay se lam giam nhang cau td thoai tieu eye, nhang Idi lien tri tieu cdc, nhung tuygt vong, le au so hai va lam tang nhan thdc thug tee, lam hinh anh ca nhan tro nen tich cut va tang sit to trong. Viec nay doihOlso chi y nhat quan den nhung gi khach hang dang nal va met dinh huong lien tyc tOi thdc to". Tom lai, lieu phap to duy di6u tri benh nghien nt9u va ma Lily taptrung vim ba nhiem vu: (1) the dinh nhilng cau to thoai ma khach hang sitdung de bao chfia cho viec lam dung nhiing chift nay, (2) guy clung v6nhung kiau to duy meo me nhaI dinh, (3) thay the nhung eau tkt thoai bangnhitng phan iing cap ti6n hOn de 116 trd khach hang trong n6 h.fc loaf b6rticiu WI ma tny. Khach hang ti6n hanh qua trinh tai co cau ttt duy hangngay se tang dude kha nang Toni bo nhiing ehA kith thigh nay mot eachBang ke. ISO pilau td duy dieu tri hanh vi pham phap Met trong nhung Ting dung thti vi bon cua lieu phap to duy la trongdi6u tri khach hang la cl6i trung thu6e he th6ng phap Ii. Trong eu6n "Nhaneach tai pham", Samenow va Yochelson (1976) thao luan rat ki v6 nhungsai lam to duy ma tei pham sit dung de bac) chila va duy tri hanh dOngpham phap cua minh. Mottonen (1987) liet kg 14 lei to duy ph6 bien cua tOipham, nhfing 16i nay da titng dude gidi thieu trong cOng trinh truck day dmSamenow va Yochelson: 1. TOi phai canh chUng chinh ban than minh. 2. Bao lye hay lita dao la each tad nhgt de lam dude viee. 3. Chiang ta song trong rang rain va ai manh nguoi do song sot. 4. Ngutdi ta se hai toi nail nhd tea khong hai ho truce. 5. Viee gift lai hita va bho an la khling quan trong. 6. Nci dgi va lita dao se khong sao ea chitng Mao ma anh khong bi tom co. 7. Mi. (IA tiing bi d6i xit bat eong va throe quy6n dai 10 ding bang bUng brit eft each nao ma toi NS the lam. 8. Nhung nguoi khac thin y6u dugi ea va fling clang phai chiu nhu th6. 9. N6u tea khong xo day nguoi khac, toi so bi ngdai ta x6 183
  • 182. 10. Tlii nen lam bars eit vied gi co the de dat dune nine dich. 11. Nhting gi nguai khac nghi va toi chang anh twang gi ca. 12. Neu ten muen chi gi, toi nen lam bdt c3 viec gi can thiet de dal dude eai do. 13. C6 thd minh muSn thi se on ca nen toi chang can lo gi vg hau qua xau. 14. Neu ngai La khong to lo cho ban than, thi ddy la chuyen cua ho. Mottonen (1987) them van danh sach trail nhung thao luan eau ve 16itv duy va nhen each tee. pham: 1. Lap triteing "toi khong the". Khi toi pham nal "ten kin-J. 1-1g the",dieu ma ho thkie su muon n6i la "toi se killing". Hanh vi do the hien ski Ivachart each song vo trach nhiam. Bei the gidi c6 trach nhiam khong the demlai cho tQi pham ski vui strong ma ho mu6n, ho da uon "nhang mong muon"thanh "nheing cal can co". Khi "nth:Mg chi can co" khOng duet clap ling, that nhan flay su bad chtia cho hanh vi khong lam gi ea (hanh vi vei trachnhiem). Muc lieu a day la thay den thai do "Lei khong the" thanh thai dQ "taico the". 2. Kenh &nig. Thong thuang tei pham the gidu nhfing suy nghi cemminh va bat ngdoi to phai doan xem ho dang nghi gi. Ho not ra met nda suthat bang each nth "phai, it dung" va "khong" hay "toi khong biet" khi hoQua ski co biet diau gi do. Day la each khien ngddi to bi mu me vg cam giacthus su ena ho. Thay dei se khong then ra neu ba diet khong xity ra. Trtidchet cat ca nhan hat dau a 1.0 suy nghi va cam gine cim ho. Thu hai ho yeticAu phan hei tit nhCing ngdai khac. Va thu ba, ho hoc each net vkie hay chdtvein suy nghi &Oa ban than ha. Muc Lieu can dat chap la m6 nhung kenhgiao tiep co § nghia TM nhung ngttoi khac va de nhung ngdOi de) gitip nhiingbAi hoc euele dui. 3. tai phu kieu tang. Tlii pham to nhin nhan ban than theo eachkhOng thkic te, ho tin rang ho co the lam dtioe hau nhu tat ca moi thit varang ho sieu (tang bon nguei khac. Bao nhieu nhung digu sai dgu throe nhinnhan nhu la su ha be hay chi trich cern nhung nguai khong co tai Wang bangho ma lai con hay ghen ti. Muc tieu a lam giam lai ttt duy nay bang eachlam giam nhung ki vong ena ho del veil ban than. Bang each ap dung luat184
  • 183. Murphy —"n6u co gi co the sai lam, no se sai lam" — khach hang xa gian khiho khong dat dude nhang gi ki vong. 4. N6i sd sit sd had. Tpi pham thudng co xu hudng phu nhan sti sohai, coi do la mat diem yeu. Nei so can thiep vao muc dich Lim kiem su vuistifling khi ho pham met 16i nao do, va vi the ho choi bo nO. Muc dich dieu trihl khien tei pham hieu rang so duct la dieu tit. Nei so hai Bak cid} , viecgiai quyet van de milt each có trach nhiem. Khi tei pham chic b6 hay loaitrit dude not so hai. hanh vi tei 16i se dien ra. 5. Sac manh quyen pham thdang cam thgy ho sieu clang viho có the chengu dude ngudi khac bang nem tit, tinh cam hay bang the Luc.Bang each the hien la nhang ngudi keo kiet va khi chiu nhat, tai pham tinrang ho c6 the bat nguai khac elm cap nhang gi ho main. Muc tieu dieu trila khien khAch hang nhan thiic dude hanh vi cem ho gay anh httang dennhang ngudi khfic nhu the nao. Viec. Met tu phe binh gitip ngudi to phattrien sti cam thong vdi nhang each nhin nh an cua ngudi khac. - 6. Lap tritang la ngtthi tot. Tai pham han the -Leh da nhang ten haiho ad gay ra cho ngudi khac hang each chi nhan thile v@ nhang dieu tit depma ho eel le J5 tang lam dupe. Khong can Met nhang gi ho da gay ra, nhangtoi pham nay van cho rang ho la nhang ngUai. Pitt. Chang nao ma tei phamvan xem minh la ngudi tot, ho to cho phep ban than vi pham bat ca methanh dung nao mA Eo laa chon vi nhang dieu flit dep ho lam dude cho la nangcan him nhang di6u x6u, toi te. Muc lieu dieu tri la say dung duck met sucan bang gifia chi tit va cai tei 16i. Muc dich la chi ra -xem tei nhan do da gayra bao ninon tin hai va cuec deli qua lihit da bi lang phi nhu the nao. 7. Lap tratring ditng cb phat dien len - ca binh thtiang thrg. Tficdien len van khang dn. Ted pham tin rang ca binh thuang thei va gaythitong tich la each tit nhat de day cho ngudi kink biet tranh xa khoi lit dicim ho. Thong thuang nhfing ngudi nay nhu the cO ngOi no san sang lam notung ra khi co kich thick du la rat nhO. Muc tieu di6u tri IA nhan ra vieckhong gift can bang c6 the gay ton thuong nghiem trong cho ngudi kink nhuthe nao. Dieu by vong dat dupe IA nhang tin pham kieu nay cif) the hoc &taneach tt, ghe tam bAn than vi có trier 11 gay hai nhu vay. 8. Dgi tra. Day la met 16i ph6 thong nhat, trong si rat ca. the 16i. Bangeach dal tra, ea nhan tin rang ho dang lam nhang gi moi ngudi khac lam de 185
  • 184. dat duoc nhung gi ho mugn co. Neu moi ngudi khac cleu lua d61, tai sao holai khOng dude? Muc tieu dieu tri la cham &fit so dgi tra bang each trainghiem vdi nhfing tai pham khac cling thang n6i dal Trong nhfing tinhhugng nay, ho kh6 co the der tra duoc bdi vi nhiing ngudi khac trong nh6mse nhan ra digu doi tra ngay tric khac. 9. Sy doe tan. Tei pham tin rang by la ngudi c6 mot khOnghai vaxiing clang duoc d6i dai dac bier Bch ho la ngUdi dac brat, by dung tren luatphap va khOng phai IA dgi Wong cua chc their luat va nhung quy dinh go 66nhu nhung ngudi khac. Sue manh ca tinh eim by rift 16n xuat phat tit nigmtin cho rang minh la ngtidi duy nhat. Moe tieu digu tri la cho ho xem nhiingngudi "binh thuang" xU 11 cac tinh hugng song vdi su dep de va gian di nhuthg nao. Bang each xem nhfing ngudi khac, tpi pham von hay to chi trich senhan ra dude ho cling ca nhung thigu but nhu ngudi khac. 10. Lap trdeing la mat nan nhan. Tai pham to xem minh la nhUngnan nhan khgn kh6 bon nhung nan nhan khac. coo di:il da khOngdingbang vdi ho. Ngu ngoai ta chi bigt nhfing digu t6i to Lung xay ra vOi ho, hose vien ed d6 hay tham chi hoan nghenh hanh vi pham Oahu cim minh. HokhOngchiu trich nhiem gi ca cho nhung hanh clang cua ho va luon luon d6tai cho "he theng quan lieu" da khien by trO thanh nhiing ngttbi nhu ngAynay. MOt s6 them chi con vien den nhung giai thich tarn Ii hoc va xa hai hocnhu la ho lOn len trong "mOi twang ngheo kh6" d@ bao ye cho boat do ng cua ,minh. Muc tieu (lieu tri la trung hOa lap trttang nan nhan bang each xemxet nth:Mg gi tOi pham da chop lam, nhUng rui ro mao him ho cO, va nhungdong gap cua ca nhan vao Minh vi pham phap. 11. Sat egng nhAe. CnOc song chi la den hay trAng, c6 hay khOng -khong co nhfing vOng xam. Tai pham tin rang nguti ta hoac se ling tra hoacphan dal ha. Phu nu thi khOngdang tin clay. Canh sat thi Men ]lion chimugn lam ton thuung cho ho. Mac tieu la dtta stf chti y cua khach hang vaonhilng ngoai le von lutin xay ra trong nhiing suy nghi den va trong nay. 12. Thigu ski sang suOt. tai pham phan nan la ho thigu nhiet tinh.Ho khOngsari long lam gi ma ho cho la to nhat hay ho khOng d6ng tinhnhung can cu va ski tin than, ding vOi con dau than kinh la nhfing chu dgn6i bat thang dune dua ra cre tranh song cO trich nhiem. Thai da lA "NeutOi thich digu gi, digu d6 la tgt. Neu tOi khOngthich, ctigu do la xa"u". Muc186
  • 185. dich dieu tri la chi ra rang khach hang c6 rat nhieu sinh lye a lam nhunggi ho thyc sy muein lam, dac Met la khi dinh liu vao nhfing hoat deng phamphap. NhOng khach hang nay dine gidi thieu khai niem "sy n6 lye" mdi —lam nhfing gi ban killing main lam va doi khi eo tranh lam nhung gi banmu6n lam. 13. Midi niem so Khi tei pham nhin Way nhUng gi ho muOW,cai do se tot bang cat cua ho. ThOgi6i no tei pham. Ho hi vong &doe moi thisbai vi ho la ngudi qua quan trong. Neu ho khong dude cho, ho se lay di maChang can hOi bat vi do la cal ma ho sa luau. Niue Lieu dieu tri la khien hochap nhan rang khOng ai no ho ca, dac biet la gia dinh va ban be. Khachhang }Mai hoc dd chap nhan va tran trong nhung ranh gidi xa hei cua ho. 14. VA dieu cuoi ming. Ban chang bao gia c6 the dam bao chat chAntdi pham Bang nghi gi, tharn chi ngay khi ngudi do clang d trong Lu r6i. Khi lam viec vol khach hang thuOc he thong phap luat, nhan vienCTXH tap trung vao nhung 161 to duy nay va nhung 16i W duy khac nua(hay nhung moo mO duy) va xem xet nhting 16i do &toe vien ra nhd thenao dd bao chtaa va duy tri hoat &ling pham phap. Khach hang ghi chop lainhung suy nghi khong thich hop va nhung tau ty thoai cua minh, xac dinhnhung 16i to duy cu the ma ho co, va thay the bang nhung each suy nghi vaty thoai cap tien hon. Phdong phap tiep can ve to duy khac la khuyen klatchho suy nghi ve nhung nan nhan cua ho. Bang each tap trung vao xem xeteach cam nhan va cu xd oua ngudi La sau khi bi bi6n thanh nan nhan,khach hang doi khi ce &roc sy cam thong nhieu hen vdi nan nhan cua ho vatra nen mi6n curing bon trong hanh vi pham phap cua minh. Chi thai gianmOi cho Met lieu c6 sy thay d6i thus sy dude hay kheng. Theo led cuaMottonen (1987), nOu ban la met teii pham, - "ban chi co ha sy lya chon -thay doi - c3 tiep tut pham phap - hay ty ta. D6 la each song 666 ban, haynghi ve dieu d6".Thifc hanh Hay lap nhOm ba ngudi vA guyed dinh xem ai la nhan vien dieu tri,khach hang va met ngodi quan sat. Hay doe v6 mot s6 trudng hop, chip ramet twang hop va (long kich phan vai. Xhe dinh nhang hoat deng can lamtrong cues phOng van dau Lien va dua ra met guyed dinh tam thai ve nhungviec ban can day cho khach hang biei de xoay xa nhung kh6 khan cu the 187
  • 186. ciia minh. Hoan thanh met dot digu trj 30 - 40 phtit, sau do thao luannhfing ket qua dieu tri then Lung vai mat trong 10 phtit.C5u hoi suy nghi: 1. Bon se gidi thieu y hieing tij dew tao hi nang cho khcich hang nhrt thenew? 2. Ban se ha" tro khdch hang bang each nag de thdy ditch tam quantrong ceza oh& dao tao kl nang? 3. Neu Vlach hang laming quan tam den dem tao ki nang, ban se tie)tqc dithz tri yet tiev Ric ha trek khcich hang can nheic Wee dao too ki nang relict pthe new? Kithu5t huan luy5n kien dinh Khi khach hang n6i vg nhiing muc tieu ma ho mu6n dat duct haynhang van de ma ho muen giai quyet, nhigu ngudi nOi rang ho mu6n camthay to tin Min, to khang dinh Mtn hay kiem soat dude ban than nhigu hon.Mat vai khach hang to mieu to minh la ntifing ke khong cuong quyet, (lacbiet la trong nhung tinh hu6ng lien nhan each nhat dinh. Vi du mat ce gairat We gian vdi ban than khi co ay khong the chit dUng throe ban trai cuaminh khi anh to gi6u cot quan diem chinh tri ena co ay. Hay mot ngdoitrung lien cam thay eau bai ski rang buac gia dinh. Hay mat ba cao tuSicam thay minh bi b6 roi va con chi der truang thanh eua ba kh&ng lang nghenhung gi ba to not vg vi0c nuoi con. Nhfing khAch hang can dude nghe, hamunh dude hieu, ho mu6n gay rac rgi cho ngudi kilt. Lieu phap hut luyensu kien dinh se dem lai loi ich cho Theo Kirst — Ashman Ira Hull "vice huan luyen tinh kien dinh khienkhach hang nhan ra va hoat clang dua tren nhan dinh rang ho c6 quyonban than ho va the hien cam gide cva minh mat each to do". Viec huanluyen tinh kit dinh la met phuong phap dude sit dung Olt; Bien de chinhsiia hanh vi lien nhan each thich nghi sai, (lac biet la hanh vi bu6n ba vahien chitin (Buttell, 2002; Hull & Kirst — Ashman, 2004). Viec huan luyennay phoi hop ca li thuyet ve hoc va nhung nguyen tac chinh sua hanh vi,tau su phan biet rti rang gifia hAnh vi kien dinh va hanh vi hieu chien. Kirst-Ashman, K. K., & Hull. G. H., Jr. (2001). Generalist pracitce with organizationsand communities (2"d ed.) Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.188
  • 187. Hanh vi higu chign thuang dude boc to bang la het va de doa, bang Cu chitay than, cd thg. Hanh vi nay de doa ngUai khac. Hanh vi kien dinh, ngudclai, la hanh vi co kigin sok, co muc dish va tap trung. Hanh vi nay dudethigt ke de nguati khac tham gia va chit Sr dgn nhung gi nguti tao hanh vinot ra. Viet huan luyen hanh vi kien dinh tap trung vac) nhung hanh vi cuthe eg the hoc dude va ap dung cho met boat tinh hugng khac nhau. Albert va Emmons (2001) trinh bay me hinh huan luyen sp kien dinhtheo tang buck met nhu sau: Blierc 1: Xem xet Minh vi cua ban. Ban et; hai long v6i mgi quan hecila ban khong? Ban ce kien dinh vol ban than ban khong? Hay danh giaban than cam thay nhu the nao vg hanh vi cala ban &Jac 2: Ghi lai nhung bigu hien kien dinh dm ban. Ghi lai nhungtinh hugng trong do ban phiin ting met each kien dinh va nhang tinh hugngnguoc lai, ca nhung tinh hugng ban tranh de: ban khong buec minh phai thehien tinh kien dinh. Bdeic 3: Dat ra nhung muc tieu thUc tgcho ban than. Xac dinh nhungtinh hugng trong do ban mugn to ra kien dinh hdn. Bat (tau bang met tinhhugng nha, rui ro thap dg co co hei thanh tong lem hdn Bute 4: Tap trung vac) tinh hugng Cu thg. Nham mat vao, WangWong ban xa li tinh hugng nhu thg nao. Hay Wang trung cite chi tigt thatsinh dong. Cam giac caa ban tai thai digm de va sau do co nhung gi? Bade 5: Xem Iai cac hanh vi caa ban trong sigh met tinh hugng cuthe nao do flint la giong nOi, net mat, cif chi, anh mat... Hay nhan bietnhung hanh vi phan anh hanh vi khong kien dinh va nhung hanh vi phananh dude su kien dinh. &the 6: Quan sat met me hinh the hien su kien dinh. Xem ai do xa Ifmet tinh hugng trung tij veil hanh vi kien dinh. Nhung dieu gi trong hanhvi ena ho the hien cu the su kien dinh? Bit& 7: Can nhac nhung phan &ng kien dinh khac. Xac dinh nhungphan ang bang lai va phi ldi khhe có thg dude su dung trong tinh hugng cuthg ffiteic 8: NhAm mat lai va Wang Wong ban than dang su dung nhunghanh vi khac tren. Qua tri Wang trung tich cue, hay thUc hanh su dungnhang hanh vi kien dinh do a tinh hugng that en the. 189
  • 188. Biteic 9: Bong kich phan vai nhUng hanh vi kien dinh nay vOi nhanvien CTXH hay veil ngathi ban. Bit& 10: Tap &Mg vai cho den khi ban cam thay thoai mai va gulpdat dime digu ban mugn. Balk 11: Hay kien dinh trong met tinh hu6ng c6 that ngoai &di Bade 12: Xem Jai tinh hu6ng thgc sti do. Ban c6 to ra kien dinhkhong? Ban co binh tinh kheng? Kel qua ciaa nhUng hanh vi kien dinh do?Ban se lam gi trong tinh hu6ng do 8 Mn sau? Bade 13: Tien tut et" xit kien dinh trong mei quan he lien nhan eachciia ban. Bung c6 thold lui vi nhfing can tra tam thai. Hay xem xet nhungthanh tong va ca nth:Mg can tra ciaa minh. Ban co the hoc gi tU do? Bade 14: Hay tU chtic mUng ban than. Hoc each song kien dinh khongphai la met viec de clang. Hay chu y den viec tittle hien chicle van dg do. Viec hugn luyen tinh kien dinh OCT khach hang tai thien nhiing kiMeng del pile va din khach hang toi nhung m6i quan he lien nhan each hailong hon. Viec nay dee biet ce ich trong each lam thay dea moi quan be liennhAn, trong do khAch hang cam thay ho dang phai da"u tranh de dude lingnghe va doge hien hoac trong do c6 sU phan biet quygn 18c ro fgt. Viec hug,luyen tinh kien dinh co the gill) nhung nguai rut re tra nen to tin hon vanhung ngtioi higu chitin tra non ft thn dich hon. Than trong lam can di kemvai viec hulin luyen tinh kien dinh. Hay by vong IA cO thanh wing trong lieuphap nay nhung cling se co khOng it nhung van dg. Nhan vien tham vanphai he tro khach hang vdi sU quan tam va than trong. De tra giup viec higu khai thorn su kien dinh, Lange va Jakubowskiac dinh va thao luan nam kik kien dinh chfnh: (1) kien dinh co ban, (2)kien dinh co cam thong, (3) kien dinh tang cuong, (4) kien dinh dUang clauva (5) kien dinh ve tai tOi. Lange. A. & Jakubowski. P. (19756). Responsible assertive havior. Champaign. II:Research Press.190
  • 189. Lange va Jakubowski (1976) thao luan toi ich cua viec phat trien he thong nigin tin kien dinh nhu sau: 1. Bang each Ong ho ban than va khign ngudi khac Nit toi minh, chung ta dat duoc su td ton trong va tan trong nhung ngdesi khac, 2. Bang each song theo cach khong gay t6n hai den ai trong bat cd tinh huang nao, °king ta chain clitt duds viec td gay Mn hai cho ban than va nhung nguai khac 3. Khi chimg ta Ong ho ban than va bac la cam giac va suy nghi than thanh eta chung ta, moi ngitesi deu co loi ve lau ye dai, 4. Bang each hi sinh tinh hem chink va to choi cac cam giac Ca nhan cua chOng ta, nhung mai quan he thdang bi pha vd hay can tit phat trign. 5. Quan he ca rthan fro nen thdc to bun va clang hai long Flan khi chUng ta chia se nhung phan Oog than thanh cua chUng ta vai nhung rival khac. 6. Kh8ng de nhung ngdoi khac Nit chUng ta nghi va cam they gi thi Gang ich ky bang viec thong de jf den nhCmg suy nghi va cam giac cua ngua khac. 7. Khi cluing ta thdang xuyen by sinh quyenlOi cua minh, chiing ta cho naddi khac tan dung duoc chUng ta. 8. Bang each kien dinh va cho nattoi khac bigt hanh vi cua ho gay anh hdang den chung ta nhu the nao, chung ta cho ho mat co hai de" thay hanh vi va chting ta cho ho bit chOng ta tran trong quyen &Igo bigt quan digm cue chOng la.BANG 5.1. L0i ich Goa sit kien dinh Stt kien dinh cd ban la viec gi3 yang quygn, nigm tin hay V kign caMain. Sp Hen dinh co ban khong dinh Ming dgn chc ki Mang tong tac xs heikhde nhu la lieu phap cam tieing. 14bt vi du dm sit keen dinh co ban khi bi có thg la yeah not rang: "Xin 1oi, tOi muan nOi hgt mining digu teadang nbi dO (TA". Khi bi hOi met eau ma ban klaing dude °ban bi trade, metcau chip 0 mue kien dinh ca ban eg thg la noi "TM main c6 met vai phut suynghi vg van de d6 de". Khi tg chea met yea cau, met cau dap lai cO thg"Khang, chidu nay khong pila hop cho anh va Lai a di clad. Sp kien dinh coban clang bao gYm viec thY; hien tinh cam va danh gia vdi nhiing nggoi khac.Nhung vi du c6 thg la: thich ban", "TM quan tam dgn ban", "Viet c6met nggoi ban nhu ban khign tOi cam thay that hanh phgc". Sit kien dinh earn thong xay ra khi ban thg MO ski nhay cam dmban We nguai khac. Day la kidu kien dinh trong d6 khach hang cO thg nhanra Miele cam giac va TIM-mg trai nghiem cua had kik. Khi hai nguai noi tovii nhau trong met cuoc hop, met eau dap cam thong tit nguoi thg ba có thgla: "Co the hai vi khong nhan ra, nhung cuoc nOi chuyen cua hai vi khigntai khi nghe duoc din hi6n cup cuoc hop. Xin hai vi noi nhO xu6ng duce 191
  • 190. }thong a?". Hay khi ban killing chat than khi nao nguai to giao cai le miangmai mua cua ban tot nha, met tau dap clang nay có the la: "Tai beet, thatkho de not chinh xac xem khi nao xe tai tai, nhung tee muein beet thoi diemtrong ngay la Km nao?". Su keen dinh cam thOng có sue manh dang ke viban nhen biet ye ngtiai do truck khi ban truyen dat sit nhay cam hay sdthdu hieu ye tinh huthig dang can ra. Kieu hank vi kien dinh nay tang denhoe nguai not suy nghi can than ve cam gide cem ngUai kbac truck khi tra laingttai do. Su can nhac co suy nghi nay gidi han Cal da co hei nguti nOi phanhai qua hieu chitin. Sit kien dinh tang cdong. Vi du, met phu nil dang d trong quan barvdi met ban nit cern minh, met ngtiai dan Ong cet ded mai hai nguai u6ng.Met lai dap tee thieu Tee nguai dan Ong dO co the "Anh that tot bung damai chUng tai, nhung chting tai tai day a bao tin tire cho nhau. Da saocling cam do anh". Neu khong co tam dung ngan can ngttai dan Ong mai lieu,thi met titian hei tiep thee co the la "thong, cam On. Chting tbi muOM notehuyen vat nhau thoi". Neu nguai do di dai Ming mai, met lai dap thich hopcó the lie "flay la lean thu ba va cling la lan cuel cung tea mu6n anh beet lacheing tee khOng mu6n co anh a day. Xin anh hay de chUng tei yen!". Khi sitkien dinh tang cuing tra nen ding ran han, phan (Mg cang se tra nen keendinh han va thing thong hon. Hai da so mot ngttai nam dude thong deeptruck khi "khdu thdn °Ong gam len" va etgie trao dti tra nen thing St/ kien dinh d6.1 dau dttac set dung khi lai not cua nguai khac mauthan TM hoat dang cem ho. Kik kien dinh nay bao g6m viec mieu tonhung gi nguai do da hem hen va nhfing gi nguai dO thtfc ski da lam dude, vacac cam gide ceia nguai MC. Met vi du co the la "Deng tOi phai tham vantrudc khi de xuat cuei ding dupe dinh may ra. Nhttng tbi thdy tint ki dang&AIM may ban d6 vao hic nay. Trade khi anh to lam xong, ten man xem laiban de xuat do va seta chfia lai nhung oho can thiet. Sau nay tai muOM dupexem de xuat truck khi gUi sang cho thu nghi cluing to clang le dathong nhtit la chi nen An cdn viii sinh vien hon. Tuy nhien hem nay tee dade y that rang khi hai sinh vien hei thOng tin gi do chi not rang chi co viecquan trong han a lam chit khOng phai la ngei trong tre nhu the. Nhuchting to da tang thao Man, t6i thdy la viec to ra An can rat quan trongtrong nghe nay. Ted mulin biet r6 co ehuyen gi a day khong?".192
  • 191. Stt kien dinh ve cai tot. Su kien dinh nay clac biet huu ich chokhach hang the hien (lac nhung cam giac tieu cue khd nOi. NO bao gem bgnphan: (1) "Khi: ngudi nOi mieu to hanh vi ena ngudi kia", (2) hau qua langudi not mieu to xem no anh Midng dgn cuec dbi hay cam giac cua ngudinot nhit the nao (3) TOi cam tar (ngudi nOi mieu to cam giac) (4) Poi man (ngudi nOi mieu to nhung gi anh to mugn). Khi phan dng lai met dgng sktluen ngat lei, khach hang co the not "Khi tea lien tue bi ngAt lei, toi matmach suy nghi cua minh va Lei bat dau cam thay Ia y kign cua t6i khOngquan trong vdi anh gi ca. TM bat Tau cam thay bi ten thitOng va tile gian.TM man anh hay tam thai hoan nhung gi dinh nOi cho tdi khi Vol notxong". Lange va Jakubowski (1976) tin rang viec quay phim khi cac hanh vido cO hieu qua Min. The gia (Ida ra nhung lai khuyen sau: Ban dau, cac vaidien nen có eiing gidi tinh vat tang gigng trong cu xu cua khach hang tangtot. Nhung tinh hang tren phim nen tap trung vao cac trai nghiem hangngay ma khach hang co the a nhan ra. Thd hai, khi quay phim, hanh vikien dinh phai dem lai kat qua tich cite. NM each khac, vai dien nen kgtthuc a kgt cue Lich cut khOng nhung cho ngothi dien vai kien dinh ma concho nhung ngudi tham gia khae trong vd dien. Thu ba, vd then nen ngan degitip ngitdi xem duy tri (lac mite tap trung eao Mtn. Thu tit, cac vai dienphitc tap nhit dam phan v6 met vi tri vise lam mdi vdi Ong chi" nen duceChia thanh nhigu doan khhe nhau: tigp can Ong chU, trinh bay yeu eau, dilagoi V, dam phan v6 vi tri ding tae mdi va cugi cung, nhung khia canh quantrong cqa va dien nen dude neu bat tren phim ding vdi nhUng me to chi tigtvg hanh vi eau thanh hanh vi kien Li6u phap ch6nga can tac gi6n Rat nhigu khach hang tim dgn cac dich vu tham van vi ho khOng cokha nang kiem soat dude con tilt gian cilia ho. Met vai khach hang tham chise phai ra hau tea vi viec kiem soat can the gian khi xay ra mau thantrong quan he vo thong dan tdi hanh hung. rift gian la mot tinh cam lieucue ma rat nhign khach hang mac phai va thttang clan tdi cac hoat dOng baoWc. Lac gian khOng kigm chg dude tham chi co the dan tdi nhiing hoat dengpham phap vdi ket cue la tit lei, nhan vien CTXH can co kinh nghiem tilttrong viec Ai) dung cac ki thuat dieu tri kiem goat cdn toe gian bdi khachhang thlidng xac dinh bac gian la van de hay mgi quan tam ion nhat oda ho. 193
  • 192. Nhung lieu phap the ngit tic gian thttang dime sit dung gitip khach hang atrong bei canh met nhem nguoi co the xii li con tic gian cua ho met eachthich clang hon. Nhitrig chitong trinh he tro digu tri day cho khach hangeach kiem soot con tic gian tha ho duo troll met , sg 1i thuyet va nguyen tticchinh sita hanh vi. Hatt het cac chitOng trinh kigm soot tut gian &du he tro khach hanglam nhung vice sau: (1) nhan ra rang We gian da trd thanh met the h e cohai trong dai sting tha ho (2) mieu to cac tinh hugng lien nhan each trongdO dac biet la can tile gian MI6 the ngu (3) xac dinh the (tau mai boo hieucho khach hang bigt can tic gian cna ho dang gan diem sei sue (4) benhanh the ehien luoc the ngkt khong cho nhung can ate gian bung phat ra (5)danh gia hieu qua tha nhung chitin Moe nay (6) thue hanh cac chitin Wee cohieu qua nhat viii tUng khach hang. Quy trinh ki6rn suet tac gian Smith WI Beckner (1993) va Smith, Smith va Beckner (1994) da thigtkg va that hien met quy trinh the con tie gian gem ba dot dieu tri chonhung phu nil a nha tit hang Utah. Mei dot dieu tri ken dai thp xi ba gib vabao gom ca nhfing nhiem vu giao vg nha ma nhiing to nhan phai hoanthanh giUa nhfing det digu tri. Olt digu tri clgu tier) Dot digu tri bat &Au bang su gidi thieu te;ng (plat v6 mac ditch tha quytrinh, sau do nhung phu n8 to nhan din vao thang bieu hien tic gian(Novaco Arger Scale) (Burns, 1980). Phan con lai caa dot dith tri tap trungvao nhung trieu Chung pho bien cna con We gian (APA, 2000). Viet thaoluan xac dinh ra nhung triau Ching tinh cam, the chat, to duy va hanh vima ho trai qua khi ho tic gian. Ho ding thao luan nhung each ma ho sit) dungcatihlm1dovenra"thpicunemcho nhUng boat deng eita chinh ho (Dyer, 1976). Dot digu tri dau tien ket thtle bang vice, e thao luau xem cac nu to nhanco the theo dot con to gian cUa ho nhit thg Mao truck khi digu tri dot hai.Ho dude yeti cAu ghi lai nhung cam giac hang ngay trim ho theo thang b6nmite de sau: khong tie gian, tic gian met chtit, tut gian va rat tie gian.NhUng phu nu do ciang dude yeu eau the dinh the trieu chting hay clau meichi ra cho ho thay la can tic gian da len dgn mac nguy hiem. Bki tap theo194
  • 193. clai eang hadng dan the ma tit nhan xac dinh the su kien c6 the da gop phanvao viec gay ra con tile gian. Dot digu tri thu hai Dot this hai bat clan bAng viec xem :tea; nhiem vu da giao ve viec theodoi con tue gian cem the nil tit nhan. Ho dark yeti cau binh luan vc nhangdanh gia doi vdi con tic gian ena ha cho med ngay trong tuan vita qua, thetrieu chung khien ho danh gin nhu Tay, Ira the ski kien co the hen dot dencon tic gian. Cuo:c thAo WTI cung tap trung vao xac dinh the trieu chungva dau mod de chi ra eho nMing tU nhan rang con tic gi6n cua ho da denmite nguy hiem. Phan cell lad ena viec dieu tri tap trung vao viec lam thenay ma ho eh the the ngu con rite gian eta ho co hieu qud hon (Monat vaLazarus, 1991). Cac chien hide qudn the con tic gian bao gem be) ra ch6khac, dem den 10, hit the eau WI tap nhung bai the due thu gian, yeu eaungeing hai, ho di khOi ennh xung det, va bat dal. hoot dog the chat kW;hanh nao do va suy nghi Iai toan be xung dot (Burn. 1980, Tavris, 1982). BM tap giao cho ho trong tuan tigp theo la tiep tue theo doi con tilegian cua ho m6i ngay cling vdi the trieu chung va the ski kien gop phan vacon tut gian. Ho ding ditoc you c6u thkic hien met chien hide the ngtit contut g-* vao vied ghi nhd ye viec do. Dot digu tri tha ba Dat dieu tri mat tap trung vao the hoot dung ma nhung phu nil nay datien hanh o tudn trade do d@ thay doi con tut gian va hiOu qu6 cha ntaingboat deng. Thao luan xem cot hai nhUng chien luxe pha Men d& kiem soatcon tue gian, tap trung vao vao the chien lame co ve luau ich nhal. Quy trinh dieu tri khep loi vdi viec xem xet tong the nMing gi theto nhan cia hoe dime ve tile gian trong ski& ba dot dieu tri. Cac nU to nhanse dude chain &It dieu tri bang dign vao thang danh gia mite de rite gianNovae° (Novato Anger Scale) Ian Hui hai. Kit qu5 cua quy trinh di& td Diem ghi dude trade va sau dot (lieu tri tren thang danh gia mite do tutgian Novaeo da chi ra rang the nit tU nhan cam they it tue gian hon met eachBang ke vao cued dqt dieu tri so vdi hie ban (LAM (1 = 4.39; df = 10; p = 0.5).Trong viec mieu to the trieu chang khien ho cam they "rat tut gian" hay 195
  • 194. "tiic gian", nhung phu nil nay throng nhan thay he. bi do mat len, nhip timtang len, nhung kith dOng thong thuang, c6 nhung con dau dau, rung lac,nghign chat rang, khong ngu dive. to duy am anh. Tinh hu6ng khien ho thay"rat tic gian" hay "We gian" bao gem viec dea mat vdi can be quan gido, vdinhung deng pham, met cuee cai nhan vdi ban hoac nguai than trong met Mntham vigng, khi khong co ai den tham hay khong c6 Hut tit, viec Inc soattrong nguc, cong viec hi to nhan khac truygn cho. Khi cat na to nhan dudehOi la ho da lam gi de" kiem soot chide con the gian, hau het deu noi rang ho136 ra khiquang canh xung dot tang sem tang tot va c6 gang binh tinh tralai a khu viekhac trong nha ti. Rat nhigu nu to nhan khong thoat ra dudequang canh xung (let thi da sit dung bai tap hit tha va chitin Jude W duy de kiem soot con tie gian. Met nil ti nhan da noi "Tai vg phong va to trach dade cho em ho cia minh treu choc. Sau d6 cuoi pha len". Chu)* hoang &Ong vg con tac gian Alberti va Emonons (2001) than luau bOn chuyen hoang dtiang tang cóvg ski tile gian. Chuyen hoang claang 1: Tire gign lit met hitnh vi. Tic gian banchat khong phai khong phai la met hanh vi. NO la met earn giac, met tinhcam. Tie gian khong giOng vdi stfi hung hang. Bai nhUng cam giac tic gianthttang bi nham Ian vol nhigu hanh vi gay su. Rat nhigu nguai thay kh6 xili thich clang kieu tinh cam to nhien rat con nguai nay. Neu ai do bao "Taithong bao gia biet tic gian ca", ngttai do da nham. Moi nguai den tic gian.Tuy nhien có met s6 nguei rat giOi trong viec the giau con tic gian. Khi hotic gian ho khong tong khai the hien earn gide cia minh. Thay van do, hotim den nhung each khOng tieu cue de xi li con We gian cia ho. Khi ho hockiem soat con -Lite gian ho cling hoc each kiem soat cat hanh vi gay st/ co thexuat hien sau khi eon thinh no bung phat. Dieu then ch6t trong kiem soattic gian la hoc each x& 11 hop 11 Min vdi con the gian do. Chuyen hoang &tang 2: Ban nen bigt sd cdn thinh no citachinh minh. The gian IA mot trong nhiing tinh cam kh6 the hien nhat baing-ttai to thuang khuyen khich ho chOn yin no xiang. Vai nom sau khi ai dokhuyen khich ho bee to no ra, ho lai sd rang con thinh no caa minh cO thegay hal nghiem trong cho nguai khac. Ho tiep tut chin dung ski im lang visd lam ten thuong nhiing ngttai khac. Trong khi nguai gian du im lang,nguai kia flap tut hoat Ong theo each lam hang quan he. Cho tOi khi ca196
  • 195. hai ben cai ma hon vdi nhau, ea hai mdi thAy ho giai (my& dude van de totnha:t. MOt phan quan trong ciaa viec kiem soat the gian la bee le tic gian va no tong khai, than thanh. Chuyen hoang /Wang 3: NOi hdi con nguti. Trong nhteu nam,tong chting deu da tin vao chuyen hoang during am cua Freud do 1a tinhcam con ngttai nhu cai ndi hdi. Khi nhfing tinh cam quyet liet Ion len ben trong met con nguai, di& quan trong la nhung cam giac do phai ckalc giaitda trudc khi ngttai do bung phat ra bang nhung hanh vi gay teal hatNhung pheo Klan suy v6 cai ndi hdi thi sai. CM thkic su xay ra IA nhung sukien gay but minh dude km tail met hie nao do vao ngan hang tri nhd caachting ta. Khi met su kien Cu the throe ghi nhd, su gian du di kern Nail nocang dude ghi nhd. Dieu tut gian met ngtfoi trai qua khong phai la tong s6nhting trai nghiem Ittu trt trong ngan hang tri nhd, ma chi la cai trainghiem Cu the. Tile gian khong tich luy IM. Thay vao d6, the gian lien hdivdi met tinh hu6ng, dia diem va thai gian cu the nao do! Chuyen hoang &tang 4: Viet xa gian tat cho sue khOe ena ben.Nhung nguoi nghien ctiu ve tut gian den khOng c6 li khi ho thao luan ye giatri ciaa nhCing cam gide duct xa gian. Trong khi met s6 tin rang viec xa: gianIA met Phan thiet you giai guy& su tut gian, cac nha nghien cUu khacthing tinh rang viec xa gian chi lam tang edn tut gian. Nhung nguoi nay tinrang viec xa gian bang each dam vac) gei hay het len tut tiu chi khuyenkhich nguoi ta xu li con the glen met each hung hang hon. Theo Alberti vaEmmons (2001), "Chung ed tot nhat va can k6 nhat sing he no ret quan diemcho rang earn gide duoc xa gian la hdi chUng tam li khong khOe manh".Cacti the hien ski aux dich ra bang tay than chang giai (my& dude van de.Carol Tavris da chi ra nhung chuyen hoang &tang nhO hon minh hoa choChuyen hoang dtiang nay. Chuyen hoang during 1: Hung hang la ski phAn chgn ro ret cua [ticgian. Time te: su hung hang la met that quen tim den RI phah chgn. Chuyen hoang &thing 2: Viet nOi ra dtiqe con tUe gian giGp giai quyettdude tiie gian. nue te: ski the hien ding khai co the lam tap trung haytham chi lam tang su t&e gian. Chuyen hoang &tang 3: Gin thinh ne la nhting the hien Oh gian lanhmanh. Thkic t6: Thkic to ra con thinh no, neu bi bao oan, se day cho met duetre pinking phep khong ch6 ngttei khac. 197
  • 196. Chuyen hoang chidng 5: Titc gian can phai dnide xa ra. 20 namtruck hAu het cac among trinh kiern sok tile gien sd dung nhung duringhudng the chat nhu dam g6i de" gin) ngtidi to xa gian. Nghien cuu sau chira rang khi ngtfai La hoe ki thuat dam gel nay ho sd dung ea trong va ngoaidot digu tri ma chang c6 kit qua tich cue. Neu chang có cai g6i nao trongtam tay ma dam chang han, ho co the dam nglibi gan ho nhat. Trong tamgiai phap bay gib chuygn sang nhcing each xa gian bang lai khong gay hai,trong do nguoi to dude khuyen khieh nee ra khi ho bac gian. Viec xa gianbang lai ngau hung bay gib dang bi nghi ngo vi hau qua xdu cua nO tren timva cac be phan ciia co the khac. Cac chuyen gia cling ding Y rang viec xagian bang Ibi le tich cue thi tot hon nhidu so vdi viee xa gian tong khai bangboat thing hung hang, thin djch. Chuyen hoang (hieing 6. Hay not cho ngtidi khac, thing not vonnnoli ban tang We. Nhigu ngUdi xa gian vet ngutoi khac chi bang nhungbien phap gian tier), gay ten thtiOng ma him khi khign ngt.thi kia thay delhanh vi. Neu Minh vi cua ngudi kia thay dgi, can can nhac each xa gian trctetie"p hon. Nhung cap vo thong khOng san long del mat vdi ban ddi cua minhvg nhung van de nhu thoi quen ho khong thich chi khign cac thoi quen dotang cuong hon. De xa if con t&c gian, ho throng chon met each an Loan athe hien eau gian - ho tin vao met thanh vier) cua gia dinh (nhu cha, me, vaem gai). Kik "Xem Kern Ongibalanh (n6) to nhu the nao" thilang di met kitqua t6i to ve quan he. Con tile gian cua vo/ch6ng vol ban dbi tich to lai vihanh vi caa nguoi kia khong cling Inc do su thu ghat cua ngtibi kiacling tich to lai vi khong ai phan hai ve viee tai sao ngoeii vo/ch6ng trumenhung hang. Khi cam giac tut gian tang cueing, ca hai bi Wot be Cd he) xU Ifcam giac tut gian theo mot each ceii ma hoac than thanh. Neu kiem soat aftgian dttOc tot, ea hai ben phai cai mti doh dau va tae thing thang than. Pinking phap tied can ba Won ci‘c114ngilskt tic gian Alberti va Emmons (2001) gidi thieu met phuong phap tier) can thengu su tut gian bao gem ba bUdc: (1) han chg tea da su tut gian trong et*sang cda. ban, (2) giai quy6t truck khi con tut gian Ming len, va (3) phanling met each kien dinh khi ban tfic gian. De han ehg t6i da sij tut giantrong ethic sting cilia ban, Alberti vii Emmons (2001) sung cap nIning gdinhu sau:198
  • 197. 1. Cai thien mtil quan he ciTa ban vol nhiing ngtiai khac qua tong tic h6" trci °Pa cang dohg, qua ski chili thing, tha thu va them chi nuang chieu. 2. Chap nhen thai de tich cute trong cuac sang bang phong each hal hitac, qua tin ngUdng. bang each song nhu th6 hOrn nay la ngay cuel cuing cua dal ban. 3. Tranh bi kith thich qua miic bai thugc men. cang thing cOng viec, ski en ao, giao thong. 4. Hay Ring nghe nguai kink. Hay tin nay nguai khac. 5. Hay kigm mat ngithi ban tam giao. Hay kgt ban, trO chuyen dal dan, than chi ngay trade khi ban cam thay ski cang thing dang tich dan ten. 6. Hay cacti cot ban than minh. Ban thay day, ban ding that buen cacti. (Dieu nay rat ngttoi day). 7. Hay ng6i thign. Hay tinh tam lai. Hay lien lac TM tam linh ben trong dm ban. 8. Hay tang curing su cam thOng dm ban. Hay can nha. c kha nang rang cO ai do dang gap ruff ro thne 9. Hay khoan dung chili dung. Ban co chap nhan dude rang con nail chang may khi dude toan mi khemg? 10. Hay tha thil. Hay b6 qua chuyen la ban can de; 1 8i cho ai do vi . nhung digu clang tie da xay ra trong cuOc sting. 11. Hay huffing [Ai viec giai quygt van de cling ngudi khac, ch& khang phai chitin thing nhung nguai khac. 12. Hay khign cuac song ciia ban chick; trong sang. Hay giai quygt van rig ngay khi ng mai nay sinh, khi ban cam nhan dude no - chit kheing phai sau hang gia/ngay/tuan lien ap 0, hay ngam no trong dciu. Ngu ban khong giai quyet loge ngay, hay b6 tri thai gian cu thg khi nao ban co the va se giai quygt van dg do. Alberti va Emmons (2001) kgt luan bang met 86 nhung dieu quan satdime n6i chung ve sit bac gian: 1. Hay nhd rang ban chiu trach nhiam cho chinh nhang cam giac ciia riOng ban. Cacti ban nhin nhan tinh hoeing cho ban quygt dinh hia ()Ion each phan Ung ve; tinh cam. 199
  • 198. 2. Hay nhe rang su tut gian va RI hung hang khOng phai la met. Mc gian la met earn giac. Ski hung hang la kik bieu to hanh vi. Nguai to có the the hien ski tat gian met each kiln dinh — con ski hung hang all khOng. 3. Hay hien lay ban than ban. Hay nhan biet cac thai de, mOi truang, ski kien va hanh vi gay ra can thinh ne cac ban. NMI met nha thong thai khuyen: "Hay tim not khai ding Pei ban biet ca ski van hanh nhu the nao". 4. Hay danh chat it thoi gian xem xet vai trO cUa can tiic gian trong cuec seng cua ban. Hay ghi chti nhung dieu khien ban tiic gian va nhung gi ban main lam dei vdi can tut gian do. 5. Hay lap luan vai ban than ban. Hay thay rang phan ling elm ban se chAng lam nguoi khac thay duck. Ban chi c6 the thay ddi ban than minh ma thai. 6. Hay danh chech hiding cac suy nghi ich kY dm ban bang each neing suy nghi, lam Lang tri hay thin dinh. 7. Dung co minh rai vao nhung tinh hueng do eau gian! Neu hay set runt khi ban phai xep hang Cho ctcJi lau, hay tim den ba di each nao khac de hohn thinh nhiem vu ma It phai set rapt hon. 8. Hay hoc each thy gian. Hay to phat trien ki thuat thu gian va hay hoc each ap dung ki thuat nay mdi khi ban bi choc gian. 9. Hay phat trien mot vai nhfing chien Woe ling ph6 vdi can tat giAn m6i khi no xua Men, bao gem kit thuat thu gian, ki thuat sii dung nhung eau "khong gay fie chi" va the quy trinh khac. 10. Hay danh can thinh no lai cho den khi that can thiet. Thay vao do hay tap trung vao duy tri mei quan he tea clap vai nhUng ngubi khac. 11. Hay phat trien va thkic hanh cac each kiln dinh de hoe le can the gian, nhe do ma cac plulang phap nay se hien huu khi ban can den chting. bliac cuSi ding phan ling hang su kiln dinh khi co" cau gian, Albertiva Emmons (2001) gioi thieu cac gei j eau:200
  • 199. 1. Hay danh vai phut de can nhac xem tinh hueng do ce clang cho ban bo thei gian va site lgc vao do khbng va oat hau qua có the c6 neu ban bOo 7o sg eau gian ra. 2. Hay danh vai phtit de guy& dinh xem lieu day co phai la tinh hueng ban muan giai quyet yin nguM kia khOng, hay chi la tinh hueng ban phai Mai quyet met minh. Neu ban guy& dinh hanh dOng: 1. Hay nOi vai eau ve cal digu ban dang ban long. 2. Lap "lich trinh" de giai guy& van de Neu ban ce kha nAng giai guy& lien, tin on thlii, nen kheing, hay sap /cep met thidi gian nao do de xfi 11 van de sau nay. 3. Hay the hien cam giac cna ban met each true tiep. Tranh not cham biem va n6i bong gib. ; sit dung each nOi than thanh, Ink cam; hay " de on chi, net mat va giong nOi ham chita cam giac cna ban; tranh vice goi ten, lam be mat, danh ngtiai khac, giu loi the vg minh, sg thn dish; hay lauding Uri each giai quyet van de. 1. Nhan trach nhiem cho cat cam giac ban en. Met chuyen gi d6 chit khang phai met nguai nao do da lam cho ban tra nen ale gian. 5. Hay nhin vao van dg cu the, vao tinh huMag hien tai. Tranh vo dua ca nom. tiling co dao bdi ca Lich sit len! 6. Hay huOng tdi giai phap cho van de. Rea cuec thi ban se chi giai guy& dude con buc tic khi ban da loaf nil &roc cac nguyen nhan gay ra sti but rift do. Lieu phap the ngg sg tang thong lieu het khach hang deu trai qua su tang thong hay ap ]pc rat lentrong tuck sting cua ho. Sg tang thAng do gay ra su lo Lang, va su lo Fangnay den den nhting rgi loan nghiem trong ca v 6 the chat va tinh than .(Kaplan va Sadock, 1996). Nhang van de co lien quan de sir lo long co le lachimg rei loan tam than phg bi6n thU hai sau chang rei loan co lien quantii chat kith thigh . (APA, 2000).. khach hang c6 the hoc dt.tOc each thengu str tang, thong, ho da phat .tries dude met ki Ming fang ph6 cO the gulpxu 11 mot each hieu qua met Oat kilning van de khac nhau, hao g6m cachUng cang thing va sg lo lang. 201
  • 200. Monat va Lazarus (1991) xac dinh met s6 cnc chien kw de iing phOvOi chUng tang thing. Ba trong s6 nhang chi& ht6c itng pile duct silt dungplo8 bien nhet ap dung li thuyet ve hoc vat nguyen tic chinh saa hanh vi: (1)hinh tiOing tich cue. (2) luyen tap hit the, (3) luyen tap thu gian co bap. Dayla nhfing ki ming giai guy& yen de filling thudng ma bgt e& ai cling deu cothe silt dung met each bleu qua, bat ke tu6i Lac hay trang thhi sift khae. Hinh tuang tich a/c Trong hinh Wang tich Nu, nhan vien CTXH la ngudi taking d&nkhach hang qua met inking doan Wang thuat dune )(Ay dung len nham gitipkhach hang thu gian va tinh tam lai. Khung canh hay hoat dung c6 theduce nhan vien CTXH gni len hay do chinh <Mich hang ti,( xac dinh lay. Vidu nhan vien CTXH co the mieu to quang canh mot vung nit yen binh, viecnay 06 the OM khach hang thu gian. Hoac nhfin vien CTXH co the de nghikhach hang xac dinh met canh hay met hoot ding khien ha throe tinh tamva thu gifin, saw do phat trien ra the chi tigt ciia canh hay hoat thing do.Hinh Wang tich (40 can dude dua ra bang giong not binh tinh, thu gian vathong the. Nhin Chung, vie° Wang thuat met hinh toting tich cue se keo daiit nhai klmang 5 phut. Phu thunc vao not ma khach hang cu ngu, hinhWang do cO the la met canh nut non hay bai eat ben be biers. Luy4n tap hit this Viec luyen tap hit this cO the gitip lam giam ding thing than kinh.Day la mat trong nhiing ki thuat chg. ngki su tang thing hun ich nhat bai nOco the dude sit dung b rgt nhieu firth hung kliac nhau, ca tren xe buyt, tauhem, may bay clang nhu a nhfing goo rieng to nhia. Bai luyen tap hit thedude thiet ke de gitip khach hang tap trung vao cam gill° hit thet Su taptrung nay gidp khach hang chuyen trong tam ehti 9 tilt nhiling dielu khachhang dang lo king den viec hit this ma thei. Viec hit the saw cling cung capnhieu oxi hors cho nao ba, WI dem lai hieu qua thu gian tren co the. Chongto hay xem nhan vien CTXH gitip anh Jerry thu gian nhu thenk: Jerry, WI ;man anh nheim melt Nao hay cam the& ding thodimdi rang t6t tran ghingai cda anh. Tai mann anh loci bd tit cci nharng gi eatrong tam tri anh va tap trung veto giong not eUa tot. Tot /thong mudn anhnghi lie aril gi ed ngoai trig nhiing gi tot clang not day. Hay de dein ac trangrang uci tha gian trong udigiay. (Ngitng lai 60 giay)202
  • 201. Jerry, ... tai ninon anh hit that Mu veto vet gift hai the/ dO veti giay. Baygill hay the/ ra vet tiep tue thd binh nuking. Nao, bib! gill Lai hit veto that set uvet gift hai this do tat veto gid y. Tha ra vet Jul tiep tyc the binh thiteing. Anhdang ram thdy this gidn vet binh tinh, vet tri at, anh dang this theta.. Jerry, ... tfii nylon anh hit sa u vet thd ra, hit thu vet the ra, hit Mu vetthJ ra. Khi anh tiep tue hit sdu vet th.d ra, hay cam nhan edm gide tidy@ veileau luang khong khi veto vet ra qua mai anh. Hay de y xem anh cam thdythat gian vet tinh tam nhbe the new. Hay tidy tut hit veto vet the/ ra vai giaynita vet tap trung veto vice cam nhan luting khong khi veto vet ra qua mai anh... (No:mg lai 60 giay) Jerry... tai muon anh tiep tut hit Mu vet th) ra, hit Mu vet thJ ra. Khianh tiep tue hit Mu vet tha ra, hay (fly den Min gidc hieing khong khi veto vetra hai Id phoi. Hay cha y tat ldng ngtfc phang rdi xgp xuang khi anh hitveto vet thO ra. Hay tap trung veto earn gide Luang khong khi veto vet ra hai ldphdi nhtt the nao trong vet/ giay. Hay Ma 35 den vies anh dang cam thdy thugidn vet tinh tam nlut the (Ngiing lai 60 giay) KM Jery tap trung veto hai tho cern minh, anh ta then kheng nen. v6nhung digu anh ta lo King nua va tap trung chti y veto lang khong khi vac)vet ra kiloi cd the cUa anh ta. Viec nay khong nhiing gitip thu gian va tinhtarn, ma net eon lam tang Meng mau len nap va klnen anh ta sang suot tinhtao hon. Viec luyen tap hit the eh the sit dung trong 5 phtit hoac nhigu hon.No gitip Jerry c6 (Moe mot ki thuat giam stress WI lo lang ma anh ta ce thghp dung a moi Luc, moi ndi.Luy5n tap thu gi5n cc b5p Met ki thuat khac Mem soat stress va van sit dung dude a vet seinhang tang Mahe nhau. Kai luyen tap nay gitip khach hang chuyen trong tamchti y tit nhang gi anh ta dang lo lang sang cam gidc khi ed bap tang len vadude thil long ra. Viec nay se giup mang Lai cam gidc thu gian va tinh tamcho khach hang. Cach luyen tap nay clung lam tang luu thong man len naobe) va gni) khach hang cam they sang suoi tinh tan hdn. Chung ta se xem vidu sou day: Jerry, .. tai muecn anh nheim mdt tai vet ngdi tren ghe Gang thodi muicling tat. Hay hit mot hai that Mu, gift hai the do trong mot vai giay, vet rdithe ra. Tiep tut hit vet the, hit vet tha Jerry, tot mudn anh ndm chat ban tay 203
  • 202. phdi lai va ea gift nhtt the rdi dein den 10, .. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Hayxbe ban tay ra met win rigon tay ra clang truck, ra dang sau. Nao bay gid t6imuoit anh nom chat ban tay trdi lui va et? gig nhu the rdi dem den 10, ...1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Hay xbe ban tay ra ma uoit mon tay ra clang truck,ra dang sau. New bay gib tot math anh ndm that chat ban tay phdi lai vet Yet giftithit the rdi dein den 10, ...1, 2„3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Hay xbe ban tay ra maVon ngein lay ra dang trade, ra Sing sau. Toi mann anh lam tidp nhu the:Khi anh lam Day, anh hay dem cdm gicic kheic biet tit ban tay cUa anh lacanh lam tang no ra vez thd Lang nO. Hay ad], tau lam nhu vay vdi ban tayphdi ceta anh. Nay anh hay lam nhu vay vdi ban tay trdi cua anh. Hay nom thatchat ban tay trdi lab vez cu. gift nhu the rill dein den 10, ...1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9, 10. Hay xbe ban tay ra ma teat ngdn tay ra dang trade, ra ding sau. Totmudn anh lam tidy nhu the Khi anh lam Day, anh hay de g cdm gidc khdcbiet tit ban tay caa anh lac anh lam yang no ra va thd king no. Hay tidp tuclam Out vay vdi ban tay trdi ctia anh. Bai lumen tap ant gian cd nay có the ti6p tut vdi bap tay trai va baptay phai, rgi bap chain trai, va bap Chan phii. Met hal luyen tap day du c6the mat khong 10 den 15 phut. Met kien tang dung khac cO the la de} khachhang cam tren tay met qua bong cao su, khach hang se bop qui bOng tai, rgitha king Lay ra. Qua bong do cO the du nhO de khach hang cho vao tin an vasfi dung bgt cti ndi dau , bat cu ltic nao. Kt thuat ngan ngita su tang thing: Mat phuang phap tie-p can vghanh vi • to duy Su tang thing la met phan caa cuec sag con ngudi. Neu khach hangs6ng cuec s6ng Lich clic, he phai dudng dau vdi nhigu Gang thing hdn. TheoMeichenbaum (Cormier va Nurius, 2003), co it nhat bgn su kien gay tangthing khac nhau: 1. Met .sti kien co gidi han vg thai gian va khong dien ra lau dal, nhu la lam sinh thiet, philu thuat, chila rang, hay met cuec thi n6i. 2. Met su kien ma gay ra met boat nhung phan Ting Gang thing, nhu la thet nghiep, fl hen, tai eh& cim met ngtidi than, benh tat ti.,t nhien hay to tan, bi lam dung tinh due.204
  • 203. 3. Nhung su kien kinh nien nhung khong lien Luc, nhu bieu lien am nhac, thi ddu th6 thao, chinh chien, nhfing cdn dau (tau tai phat. 4. Nhcing ski kien kinh nien, lien tut, nhu b0nh man tinh, tam than man tinh, xung dot trong hart nhan, ski lam dung tinh cam-thd chat, hay su lam dung tam 11, mot vii nghe nghiep: (lieu &fang, day hoc hay lam canh sat. Miechenbaum (Shall, 2000) da phat trit mat me hinh didu tri de xd11 nhiing ski kien gay cang thing noi troll dui tren Ii thuyet hanh vi Ira toduy la chit ye"u. Trong viec hudn luyen ki thuat phOng thong stress, khachhang hoc each phong ch6ng stress bang each thay d6i nigm tin cila ho vaonhung hanh vi va nhung cau to thoai Bach nhO co lien quan de ski dingthing. a dot digu tri dau tign, khach hang dUdc bier rang nhung § nghiahoot each nhin nhan cua ho vg ski cang thing - chti killing phai chinh skicang thing do - da thqc su gay cang thing cho ho. Noi each khac, eachkhach hang nhin nhan mot tinh hu6ng cu the nao d6 chinh IA yeti t6 guy&dinh xem tinh hu6ng do co gay cang [hang hay khOng. Vi du met khachhang chide biet rang not sd hdi phai di b0 di lam la xuat phat t3 eau to thoaiLieu cue nhu: "Minh se bi trail bit dot during mat". Hay mot khach hangkhac dude biel rang co to so di het vi co to t v nhil rang: "Minh elect nitminh chang bao gio co the hoc hanh gi duoc ca". Giai doan tido theo cum dot dieu tri la viec hdc cac ki nang des khachhang sd dung nhu nhUng chi6n ludo ting pho khan nhau de giai tOa not sdhai va ski cang thing ma ho dang phai trai qua. Wit chien hidc Ung ph6 baog6m hang boat cat, Id thuat hanh vi nhu luyen tap hit tha va dui gian cobap. Se rat kho nen cang thing cao do trong khi co gang thu giant Chebai luyen tap thu gian lam giam nhe tic hai cila su cang thing qua viecthay the no bang cam gine thu gian do chiu. Vi du khach hang dang bi cangthing co the to nhu la: "Hay thus hign thing tic nay mot let da. Hit tha thatchain va that thoai mai". Met chien hide ung ph6 khac bao g6m mot boat cacId thuat to duy nhu tao hinh Wong tich cue va thao luyen hanh vi. Clingthat kho co the Wang twang not mot canh Wong thanh binh, hay mot hootdi.ing a chiu trong khi dang thay cang thing cac do. Khach hang có thethay the nhCing cau to thoai nhu la: "Minh e IA minh chang lam throe gi ca"bAng eau: "Minh sap Wang Wong ra nguoi ban than nhat cUa minh dang tlcanh minh va minh se chang con e ngai gi Mia". 205
  • 204. Sau khi khach hang da hoe va ti1c hanh chc chitin hide iing 016 nay,giai doan cuei cling cua dot dieu tri la thre hanh cac chien hide do. Doi raikhach hang s) di bC? di lam, buck dau Lien BO la luyen tap di be tdi ging sotrong khi hit 616 that cham va that thoai mai. Trong viec thao luyen hanhvi nay, khach hang dude khuyen khieh hieing Wong ra cdnh via he tren(Mang di trong nhu th6 nao, khong khi e6 mai gi, va am thanh cua xe COngtioc )(LIM tren (Meng ra sao. Sau khi cac chi& kW nay (la dude luyen tapthanh than ren, btidc cu61 cung la de khach hang thuc ski di ho di lam. KMngtidi do clang cal Mt& tren dieing, anh to phai hit thd that cham vat thatthoai mai, va chi y den cac earth tudng va Am thanh tren 16i di cling nhttrung quanh. Trong met vii trang hop Ian di be. dau tien nay di the dudehe VC/1g bei met hay hai Nhiing lan di be tkep theo co the co nguei disau each 10 den 15 feet. Lin euna cung thi khach hang to di met minh. Cac claming trinh co may mot he trd eung da dude Oak trien va dudekiem chung cho viec }man luyen each ngan ngtia ski tang thing. Timmonsva citing ski (2000) da &Intl gia hieu qua dm cac claming trinh d6 trong vieche trd cac cuu chien binh mac phdi chiing hay tile gian. Ho da d6i °Ming ketqtrA cua chtiOng trinh do TM met phtiong phap tiSp can thong thuang dieutri theo nhom. Kett qua chi ra rang ed hai bien phap cho hieu qua nhu nhautrong viec (lieu tri chiing hay LOW. gian. Tuy nhien, phudng phap do may h6Cr() tiet kiem dude nhien chi phi hon. Cac chi6n htqc ki6m scat kining hoing Met con khUng hoang la trong thin mat can bang trong quang thUigian gi6i han nao do thudng bi den dong lai sau nhiing min mat len nhu chichat cua met nguai yeu dau hay ski chin tay hoOe li hon. Theo GeraldCaplan (1964), met cuee khong hoang thuang din ra trong b6n giai doan:Trude het la ski gia tang tang thing ban dau do met ski kien gay khUnghoang dem lai. Khi su tang thing nay chat cheng hen, ca nhan se co" ganggiAi tea khilng hodng bang each sa dung nhung me hinh quen thmic trongcac hanh vi gidi guy& van de. Giai doan thit hai cias con Malang hoang dudedanh &du bang ski eang thing tang cuing do eh nhan van chua giai quyetdude khiing hoang. Trong suet giai (loan thu hai, the ki Mang giai guy& vande khrin thuang dude sii dung de lam giam ski tang thing. Khi nhungeach giAi guy& khi(n cap nay khong co hieu qua, ea nhan budc vao giaidoan thu ba ciaa cube khong hoang.206
  • 205. giai doan the ha nay, su cang thing Ion deal mite ca nhan co the trotqua nhfing lo hang hay tram cam nghiem trong bdi ho cam thdy tuygt wingva thua (mac. &Mc vac) giai doan euga cgia cued killing twang, ca nhan sehoac la trai qua ski sup de tinh cam hay tinh than rat Ion, hoac la se. giai taakhung hoang bang the hanh vi thich nghi sai do lam giam cang thingnhung lai lam phudng hai den chic nang xa het trong Wong lai. Vi civ, matngLidi hi sa thai co le se bo nhu di nail the co gang tam vied lam tigp Luc thdtbat. Ca nhan se dieting trdi qua bon giai doan klning hoang nay trong vOng5 den 8 tuan. Trong vice dig ngki khung hoang. ngegi dieu tri theang pip dung matphedng phap tip can chung chung hay rieng le (Smith. 1990). Diem co lt 161cgta phtidng phap tigp can chung chung la viii m61 Ichung hodng riengbiet, khach hang phai thee hign nhung nhiem vu tam It cu the hay nhungboat dOng giai quyel van dg cu thg de giai tda edn khUng hoang met eachthanh ding. Kieu can thiep nay cnng dip mot mat k6 hoach can thief:, pipdung chicle cho moi khach hang bi kb:Ling hoiing nhu nhau, kheng can higtden dac diem eh nhAn. Trai ngunc lai, pinking pilau tigp can ea nhan taptrung vac) the nhiem vu tam li hay clic boat demg gidi guy& van de l cu thema moi khach hang phai hoan thanh dg giai quygt kluging hoang. Khong conhung nhiem vu soon thao spin cho Lung khAch hang. Thay vac) do nhanvien CTXH lap eac kg hoach diet tri tap trung vao nhu eau cilia tang khachhang rieng biet. Nheng khach hang do mit ngtiai than co the can ski h6 try qua mat sonhiem vu ma ho phai thud hien. DO la: + Ho phai not ra nhung cam giiic &Ian ha, dau don do mat mat. Nhanvien CTXH se khuyen Mitch khach hang khoc nell ho dinh khoc, va h6 tryho nhan ra rang cAc cam giac phai dune the hien ra. Do co thg la tec gian,tgi I6i hay mat sUtinh cam khac xulit hien to cac tinh huang nhu vay. + Nhan vien CTXH tham do moi If do co thg clan tdi su mgt mat daudin va koo dui do. Nhan vien CTXH co the gillp khach hang xiic dinhnhung phan ging thai qua do mat mat do ckm lai va xem xet cg so dmnhting tinh cam nay. Nguen ho try nen ednh glee vii nhfing suy nghi muontv to do nhfing tinh cam tren xui khien. + Tai thigt lap hay tai kgt n6i mang ltgla quan he xa het. Ngu canthiet, co the kelt ban mai, hay khach hang can h6 try de lien lac vii nguili 207
  • 206. than hoac ban be. Nhan vien CTXH co the xac dinh hay goi the ed hai chokhach hang hi khUng hoang quay tra lai vdi chile nang xa lagi thong thuangena ho. Cac dich vu can thiep giai guy& kining hoang cling rat can thiet chonhang phu nil hay nam giOi hi lam dung tinh due. TuY thuge vac) vigc sukign do de xay ra dupe bao Lau rei, ca nhan ed the can den su cham sac y ta,can thiep tha pilau luat, quan tarn cua gia dinh, ban be va su he trothe van cig ve tinh cam. Cac tinh cam ph6 hien nhal la nigm tin, thegian, eang thong, sO hai, tram cam, h6 then. Francis (1993) rill the dinh bagiai doan thuong they d nhung nglasi bi cgang doat tinh due nhu sau: Giao doan bi nil loan: Phan ling cua khach hang trong giai doannay la tae gian va so hai di kern bankhoan la ho dang le cla tranh dude tinhhugng tei to de. Giai doan chg ngif phan Nhan vien CTXH eó the dg kien lakhach hang binh tinh hem va co the ngg hdn so Nai hie su kien mdi xay ra.Mac du mQt vai nan nhan se c6 nhung phan ang the chat va tinh cam khac,giai doan khach hang co ye diem tinh thaong ph6 Bien hdn ca. Dieu quantrong can dupe nhan ra la khach hang van cam they gang thong khi trongho khong (xi ve nhu the. Giai doan dan xep lai: Giai doan nay dirge the hien hang mile dgdigit chinh hay thich nghi nao do vdi vice bi eggng doat. Thai gian trade giaidoan nay có the koo dai tii vai thong den vai nam raj. Nhung nan Main datden giai doan nay thong con song trong not sg hai cho su an Loan cUa minhnua va da chuyen sang su so hai khac va mat di long to trong thgang eO cuanhang ngudi vita bi °gang bac. Ho se co lai dupe kha nang tin cay nguaikhac va phol hop trai nghigm do vdi cam gine tha ricng minh. Qua trinhnay cO the (iliac he try bAng each sit dung the nhom tro gidp hay gia dinhnan nhan. Cac nguyen tae thuee li thuyet he try khUng hoang va thgc hanh cladupe ring dung a rat nhieu llnh vgc digu tri sac khOe tinh than khac. Metling dung dac higt quan trong la sit dung the nguyen tAc hd trO khunghoang a xac dinh xem the sinh vien va nhang ngara Mahe co nguy ca Gluehien hanh vi bao lac hay killing. Trong cugn "Coe yeit to giap can thiCpkhang hocing" Greenstone va Levinton (2002) gioi thieu met danh sack cac208
  • 207. "dgu hieu ctinh bao Om" c6 the dace sit dung a sac dinh can sinh vien c6the dinh tdi bao lue hay khong. Cana c6 nhieu ydu to dude danh dgu, nguyGO host dqng bao hic cua sinh vien calla cao. 1. The hien 9 tddng 4: hay hopi hay glet nguti. 2. Nai ra cac ki hopch cu the ye viec gay hai cho ban than hopc ngdoi khac. 3. Dinh vao viec bait nat tre con. 4. Dinh vao viec lam dung chat kith thich. 5. Co tham gia cac bang clang. 6. 05 thing lam hpi clang vat nha. 7. Oa king dinh vao vu viec hOa hoan. 8.Cho khing cac tai san. 9.D5 ding hope la nan nhan cia viec lam dung tre em. 10. Co tip can sung eng. 11. aa tang mang vi khi din (Wang. 12. TO ra c6 sue hoc kern cOi. 13. Hay tron hoc. 14. TO ra lanh dam. 15. Oa tUng trai qua mat mat Ion.BANG 5.2. Nhring dac diem cOa sinh vien c6 ti6m an bao lac Danh each kiem tra nguai traeng thanh c6 nguy co bao lac marlGreenstone va Levinton (2002) Lao g6m nhfing diem sau: 1. Co ben sa phai during dau vdi canh sat hay vdi nhtng nha chic trach khac. 2. I-lien tai hay trong qua khU co set dung tre nha lam tong cu, vat rib) chat, hay vu khi did deri pha lai ban ddi trong mei bat h6a gia dinh. 3. Ngitdi nay to ra co mac de bat man cao vdi cuOc dai cOa minh. 4. NIgudi nay hay clUa ra cac tuyen lad lien quan din viec giit ngueri hay Id tit 5. Nguidi nay Nita tuyen 66 bit gia con tin, dac 644 la ngudi nha. 6. Nguti nay co bin sit hanh clang hoc clang. 7. Ngadi nay mdi bat chat mua va khi va dan dude ma trUdc do kh6ng co mei quan tam ay, 8. Ngirdi nay dadc chin doan c6 ail loan [Pm than. 9. Nguoi nay co tien sd hanh clang bao Ivc vdi clang vat trong thdi thd au. 10. Trong gia dinh ngddi nay, bao Ida thuong ducic de cap din trong giao tiep. Khan vien CTXH tharing hay hai khi Mao viec dieiu trj can thiep vac)kinimg hoang nen chgm diet. Viet diet tri nen keit thilc khi khach hang da 209
  • 208. hohn thAnh dupe nhfing nhiem vu tam li hoc de giai tha khiang hoang va datden trang thai can bang trong viec thee hien cac chile Mang xa hqi. CO nedala khach hang it nhat dat den mac thee hien eh& Mang da dinh trudc, c6danh thoi gian vdi gia dinh va ban be, vui ye trd lqi trong cuec song. M6t vaikhach hang c6 the quay tra lai mitt truck khang hoang trong khoing 6 Wan,trong khi nguiii kfthe can den 12 Wan hoac hdn the. vi cac chUdng trinhh6 tro hiem khi vtiot qua 10 dot tham van, trong met s6 tinh hu6ng khianghoang, khach hang se van elnia quay tra lai dude mug eh& nang trade khachhang khi dich vu he trd ket thlic. Neu c6 tinh hue/1g nay, nhan vien CTXHphai giao cho khach hang nhting nhiem vu hay hoat dung tam 11 hoe dekhach hang tiep tee to thee hien sau khi ket thtic tham van. Cac chien hicic tam linh hoc va nhan hoc NhAn vien CTXH dee xuat phht t3 cei re tam linh, vdi thing lee cUatarn huh de lam cong the trd gitip gieng nhu ban chdt cua the hoat dingnhan dao xa hqi sd khai. Khi nhan vien CTXH tap trung nhieu hdn vaohoat dOng nghe nghiep ei a minh va cac boat ding trd giup phi ton giaophat then, se quan tam den tam linh va ton Oho giam di. Khong giengnhiing ngUdi tien phong trong CTXH, nhan vien CTXH trong thd ki XXtranh nei tdi ton giao hay hnh idle tam linh ei a khach hang. Doi khi skimien cudng nay xual phat n6i ski c ngai rang ho se bi coi la ngtidi thuyet dudao. Doi vdi nhting nhAn vien CTXH khac, dieu nay lai phan anh rang viectham dO ve tin giao ciaa khach hang NS the bj cho la ski ap dat ye gia trj cuanguoi dieu trj len khach hang. NhCing nguoi khac tranh noi ve chit de nayvi ho nghi ngd lieu do co phai la each sit dung thoi gian didu tri hOp Ie hoac ieh elm khach hang khong. D01 khi ngUoi diet tri tham chi lai sanghtiong khac khi khach hang thin van de nay ra. Gan day, nhiing ngddi lam CTXH va nhung tong viec trd giup khac dabat dau nhan ra sue manh ma nhiing niem tin tin nglidng nay c6 the demlai trong khd nang plane 116i cac clidn thddng va hi kith den hen den 161nhal. Huang hudng giai gam nhieu niem tin vao van de nay la cila cac taegia nhd Canda va Furman (1999), Van Hook, Hugen, va Aguilar (2001). Hoda hieu dude Sae manh va tam quan trong cua nhung gia tri tam linh trongviec nAm bat va ho trd khach hang. Canda va Furman Km y rang "CTXH vd cd ban la nghe cida tam linh —N6 giai thich do ton tai va nlidng Uu tien hang &hi can danh cho n6 trong210
  • 209. Bich vu tham ven". Nhieu nguai ehon CTXH la sq nghiep cua minh do tinnguang hay ton gee) cua tieing hp. Sq earn thong, quan tam den gia tri vapham each cua con netioi the hien d teeing nhan vien CTXH e6 lien quantrkie tie() den lOng tnic an trong tam linh cua ho (16i vai nhung not thongkhi cua nguai kirk. Canda va Furman cling tuyen laa rang "Tam linh e6 the(Woe coi la mat phan trai nghiem dm con ngudi va vie( lam ngtiai cua hocling vai cac khia canh sinh hoc. tam li hoc va xa hei hoc". Tam linh gin])met s6 ngudi c6 gang ley lai duoc nghia khdi the gidi vo nghia. Doi yeinguai khac, ne gitip ho hien re hon ban than va tra eau lied "Mac dichcua minh la gi?". Lint Nap tarn linh va tin nguang clueing nhu ngay cang c6 vai trO thiety6u hon (16i yin nhUng khach hang dang phdi devi mat vii cae sa kiennghiem trong nht( benh tat thap tit nhat sinh, met nguai than hay van desite klieg tram trong. Trong nhung tinh hieing nay va the tinh hueng Wong nhan vien CTXH nen dun ra vein de ton giao hay tarn linh vdi khachhang. Nhan vien CTXH da tong nhan ra tam quan trong cua nhilng yen denay trong ret nhieu nhOm nguai thik so. Del vii nhfing nh6m kik nay,nha tha VA ton giao clang vai tro chinh trong cuec sting hang ngay cua ho vatrong no" lac hieing tdi that dai dae thu. Canda va Furman (1999) khi xemxet ve niem tin va gia tri cua mgt vai ten gido chinh, da xac dinh dupenhung soi day co ban cua long trde an. li do lam viee vi tong bang xa hoi, viding hien Cho tong tae tro gitip. Nhan vien CTXH can biet cren su that la khach hang c6 the c6 nhUngniem tin va gia tri ton gee) hay tam linh chinh yeu, va phai biec dtiocnhUng diem Chung phi hien gitia the gift° li ton gilo. it nhaa x ngutdi diet trican hOi khach hang ye Firth vac nay va Tang nghe can than khi khach hang)(he dinh ten giao vk nhilng niem tin khac cua ho de ley do lam ngu6n hatre That hai trong viec tham do linh vac nay se can tra nhan vien CTXHtrong vice hieu dude diem manh cua khach hang va diem tiem tang clei viinhung khach hang khan. Cac chitin luqc kithn scat cuOc song khac Them vao hang loat eac chitin hide he. tra da mieu ti, mgt s6 chitinluxe khan duce phut then de gitip khach hang c6 sq kiam sok t6t hon Neicues song cua ho. RAI nhigu, neu khong muen not la hau het the chitin hide 211
  • 210. nay co thg an dung trong CTXH va eel the sit dung a lam tang ki nang ungpho caa khach hang. Trong met stitruang hop, viec yeu can khach hang doenhfing quyen sach c6 mieu to nhang plumng phap tiep can nay c6 the lamet eau neri tdi lieu pilau k6 tiep hoe gitip cling cti nhiing thanh tuu di6utri. Giting nhu the ki nang >ing phi) khae, the chitin luxe nay ph6i hOp veinhieu nguyen the ed ban trong hoe thuyet phan xa, dad hit la niem tinrang con notii co the tiep thu dude hanh vi mdi. Chung ta hay xem quamot vai chitin line ring dung ens. Spencer Johnson (1998) trong cuen sachban shay nhat cua Ong "Ai da lay migng phomat cua toi?". 1. Hay lam thay dgi cac su kign - chUng khi6n migng phomat bi hong. 2. Hay du kitin eO thay dgi - churn hi to the san sang cho migng pho mat hOng di. 3. Hay theo den su thay dtii - hay nggi miting pho mat Uniting xuyen, nho d6 ban se Met khi nao no bitin chat va hang di. 4. Hay Udell nghi vdi su thay dgi met each nhanh thong - Ban cang sdm loai bo mieng pho mat bi6n chat. ban cling c6 cd hoi sdm thuang thtic migng pho mat mdi. 5. Hay thay dgi di - hay dich ehuygn ding mieng pho mat 6. Hay flatly thich thti vdi str thay dgi - thoOng Ureic htiOng vi ciia cueic phieu lUu va mui vi egm mi6ng phomat meli! 7. Hay san sang chuan bi cho nheing Ian thay dgi sau - chinh chting khien migng pho mat bi hong di. "Ai da lay di miting pho mat cim tOi" la met eau chuyen v6 et* stingvat lam sao ma cuec song co the cU thay dgi bat ngo the. Win ctg quan trongnhgt cua cau chuyen la cure sting van cif dgi thay cho du chting ta co mugnhay khOng. Btii cuge sting kliong ngting thay ehiing ta phai nhin nhansu dgi thay nay bang each nhin mUi. Anh mat nhin nhan nth me nay khOngphai la tia sang yeti dt hay mo mit ma chOi lea nhu tia nang mat trii vi sudOi thay dem lai cho ta cd het mdi va thach thtie mgi. Theo nhigueach, su thay dgi chinh la "hiking vi eila attic dtii" khi6n ehting La thich thdva tap trung vao ding vi"ge cluing ta dang lam. Khong c6 sti thay dgi, cueicsting se chang co bat ngd va se to nhat khUng khi6p. Ngn tang trigt li cUa Johnson that ddn gian ma cling that sau sac.Theo quan digm cua Ong, thay dgi la you to lien tut xiiy ra trong eueic song212
  • 211. cua moi ngudi va nen dude chgp then va chao don thay vi hi tranh xa va sOhai. Dian vinh hang trong cuet song chtnh la rang cuOc song phai tuba thay NhUng thay dth cho con ngligi la nhfing thhch thtac clang nh1i /lining cohae mOi. Trong cuefn each cua Ong. mieng pho mat la hinh Mug to to thehien nhfi ng gi nguei ta mong mubM c6 dude trong cthic cigi, Mut la cOng viec -lam an t6t deo, danh vong. hen tai hay mOt cu danh %mot trong mon danhgOn. Gieng nhfing thang trong nam, nhfing gi ngudi ta mong muon lien tucthay dai. "Me cung" to ra khi ngoei ta di tim fli311g gi ho muen c6 trong dgiho. Doi vdi Win het chting ta, me cung bao gam vd °hang, con tai, gia dinh,ban be va Iliac lam. Johnson mieu ta hai con chuOt Sniff ye Scurry chaytrong me cung di tim mieng pho met nlni the nao. Cau ehuyen giai tri nhenhang va la met vi du ve each aide met quyan such to gitip ban than c6 thedude HU dung trong thuc hanh CTXH nh3 the nao. Nherng vin de vg van hoa va su da dang van h6a Trong moi giai doan cua qua trinh tham van nhfin vien CTXH can ,phai nhay cam vdi van de van h6a va su da dung van h6a, ve viecanh thiOng nhu the nao tai sit phut trian the ki nang fing pho. Cac ki nangiing 016 dude th5o Juan trong chafing nay da dude Op dung thanh &Ong vdicat khach hang tilt nhfing nen tong khac nhau, bao gOm ea nhfing nhomnguoi thiau so. Tuy nhien, se c6 nIning chitin Wye Ting pho c6 the dude Opdung tet hdn Lay theo Lung do1 tucing nhem Cu the. Vi du, dan Ong thuang phgn tang tot hdn vdi viec luyen tap thu gian cobap so yea phu nu, trong khi phu nfi thfch nghi tot hdn vii ki thuat Wonghinh. Tinh hinh hieing to c6 the thay del yeti cat ki nang to duy. Van deday la bill ke dang ap dung ki nang nao, nhan vien CTXH van phai nhaycam vii the Ong cua cat van de van lacia va su da dang van hoa dal vdi thechitin hide dieu tri nay. 1. C6 gang nhan but nhang thanh keen van hoa cua rieng ban. 2. Neu co the, hay hoc ng6n ngv cua nhCmg ngufe ban dang h6 tro gi5i guyet khUng hoang. Hay tim met phien dleh vien co trinh dO neu can thia. 3. Hay yOu eau lam re van de neu ban Wong chat chUn nan nhan dang nai gi. 4. Deng co cho rang ban heeu bat cif thang dreg phi Idi nao trial phi ban era quen thuOc yea nen van h6a cua nan nhan. 5. Ditig co ap dat gia In ca nhan cua ban. 6. Neu thong deep giao gee phi Idi cua nan nhan co y xUc pham theo nen van hoa cua ban, hay &mg hieu no theo each ca nhan dm ban. 213
  • 212. 7. H5y phat trign nhan that ye bat cddieu gi trong giao Sep phi loi cua ban co the co y ;dm pham trong nhding nen van hoe nhat dinh.8. Hay c6 ging het mac lam tang nhan thdc cua ban vie cac dinh kien cua rieng ban va khuon hinh mau cua ban ddi vOi nhiing nen van h6a ma ban eita dien.9. Vdi nhan thdc &roc tang Wang, hay hien hanh vi cua nhiing ngddi SO nen van hoa khac theo chinh quan diem dm nen van hoe do. 10. Hay son sang test, thich nghi va they dai nhan thdc dm ban a khOp voi dieu ban trai nghiem. 11. Hay duy tri so khach quan. 12. Hay nhan thily rang ban khong the lam they d6i duqc quail di6m van hoa cue met ngOdi. 13. Eildng c6 xet down nhang ngddi to nen van h6a khac bang nhCMg gia tri van hoe dm rieng ban hid phi ban da Net ngiOi, biet gia tri van h6a cua ho. 14. Hay nhan ra rang vies ban khong quen vdi van hoa cue nan nhan co the lam tang so tang thong cua tong viec h6 tro. 15. Hay lam no vai tro, kien thdc va kinh nghiem cua ban vdi hoc ben, nhd do ban ca th6 duy tri &roc sunhat quail can thief cho vi tri cua ban - ngtaqi h6 tro.BANG 5.3. Cac chi din nhan bigt van de da van hog TOM TAT Chuang nay tap trung vao Ant trign the ki nang Ting pho cua khachhang su dung nhung plaidng phap tiep can khac nhau, bao g6m viec si).1dung lieu phap to duy, lieu phap huan luyen su kien dinh, lieu phap kiemsoot tic gien, lieu phap kiem soot sp ding thOng va lieu phap kiem sootkhUng hoang. Chuang nay tong neu hat ("Ong viec hó tro a nhang deCi tUctrig06 nguy ca dac biet nhu khach hang bi tram cam va khach hang mugn tp eiing nhU la nhCing khach hang co Binh den hanh vi toi pham. Cacchuong trinh di& tri chi ti6t da dupe gidi thieu. Chuang nay ding xem xetvai tro cua cac chitin loge tam linh, nhan van va the chitin loge hiem sootcivic song khac trong eu0e dth cua khach hang. Nhung gui the tongtrinh cua nhigu the gia khan nhau ding dude trinh bay.214
  • 213. Chuang 6 THVC HANH PHAT HUY NQI LUC VA THIMANH Co nhigu khach hang 15 nhfing ca nhan, gia Binh va tong &Mg khOngnhan thay chicle klui nang va thg manh elm minh trong vigc tao ra su thaydal trong cuec song cua chinh ban than ho. Thing thuang thi nhan vierCTXH gap khach hang khi moi ehuygn da tra nen rES rang rang khach hangaria ho clang can co sti tro gitip phat huy nei life. VIdi gia dinh mac du c(f)nhigu the" manh co thg aging khOng giai quygt dude van dg clang vdi mettrung tam y tg. Ho gap van dg kilo khan va rat man cif) nguoi trO Tro gni)) phat huy nei lue &Mg vai tro vita /Mut la met quy trinh vitala kgt qua trong tittle hanh gong tae xa hei nhan muc (Itch tro gitip khachhang nhan ra va phat huy dude thg manh. Tro gitin phat huy thg manh&Mg vai trO la met quy trinh khi nhan vign CTXH tro gitip khach hangtrong cat hoat dung phai dung den thg manh cua Ho nhtim tar) ra stt thaydal trong cuoc song. Vi du, nhan vien CTXH cO thg gdi y hoat Bong clgi theph() nham lam thay dgi su khee biet vg quygn han gala gia dinh va trungtam y tel VA kgt qua IA su tro giup phat huy the manh nay dupe coi nhtt lakgt qua cugi clang, nha do co the dat chicle raga bign phap quygn K. Sq trOgirip phat huy thg manh clang (Woe noi den nhu cat quy trinh va kgt qua,nhd do nhilng ca nhan va to chile cr, it quygn hie hdn tien t(31 giam bdt sueach bigt trong moi quan he quygn lilt. Vi du met ba me phai kigm dupe chi&de an cho con cam thay c6 du kha nang dung li tri cua minh de giai thfchhoan canh otia co to vdi ngan hang thtic pham. NM each khac, co et ea thedung the Id nang hien hg nhtim lam thay dgi cac quy dinh v6 phtle lOi. Nhan vign CTXH phai co kha nang phat huy sue manh cho chinhminh. Khach hang se hoc theo ho de co nhfing hanh vi ma nhan vign CTXHthuring (than manh 1a quan trong. Klaing cti kha Mang phat huy sue manhcho minh, nhAn vien CTXH khOng the bign he cho khach hang hoac dao taocho ho each dung kha nang cua minh. Tlittc Minh dim vao thg monk). dudeMei dgn a chUdng 2 co thg manh han kieu that hanh the() xu hudng thigu(deficit oriented practice model). Tr() gitip khach hang nhtin ra va sgi dung 215
  • 214. dycic the manh cua ho nghia la da gitip ho tien xa Han trong qua trinh giaiquygt van de va cling 1a gitip chinh ban than ho. Huang clan trg giOp Nhan vien CTXH thtidng phai gaip khach hang hieu each su dung cacki nang phat huy the manh. Simon (1994) got f met .56 each nhu sau: 1. Xay dung chtidng trinh dap ling d6Oc vdi sa thich, nhu eau cuakhach hang va cac thanh vien trong tong dang. Dya vao nhu cau va sothich cua khach hang clang nhu the thanh vien trong Ong Bong, nhan vien CTXH c6 the tao ra thiOc cac chUong trinh hula ich vdi khach hang hcin lathu nhan dupe 1pi ich tit chinh the diming trinh. Tap trung can thiep tiikhia canh cang thing c6 the phil hop vdi khach hang han la lam vide vditang khach hang mat. 2. Dam bao met (lieu rang khach hang va ceng dang cua ho they ratthuan Idi va tigp can duoc vdi the clutong trinh va dich vu h6 try. Vi ti cuatrung tam trd gitip va vie( khach hang c6 the ben can thicic bang cacphudng tien giao thOng ding thing la met each the hian stt ten trong vdikhach hang. 3. Din hai khach hang cling nhu chinh ban than minh phai c6 su nhiettinh va no h e trong vide giai guy& van de. You tali khach hang phai cOtrach nhiem vdi hohn canh cua ho qua vidc giai guy& van de se gulp ichnhieu hen la c6 giai quygt van de cho ho. 4. Dtta vat() the manh cua khach hang va Ong deng cua ho. The manhla thanh phan eat 16i trong vide tao kha nang. Chi khi can ba CTXH lamvide vdi the manh cua khach hang thi su thay dei mdi 66 the la lau del vaon dinh. 5. Tim va xac dinh dttoc nhung can thiep d6i vdi yeu eau, van de cuakhach hang. Tranh vies chi dung met phuong phap can thiep c6 dinh. Chithat hien met dang can thiep nhu thing lieu phap gia dinh se khong timdude cac phtiong phap khac nhau ma khach hang c6 the can. De c6 the trdgitip chicle khach hang, can be CTXH phai c6 nhung can thiep khac nhau. 6. Phat trien kha nang lanh dao la uu tien trong thtic tien va chinheach. Khi phat tridn kha nang lanh dao, elnIng to cO the dam bno rangkhach hang va Ong d6ng cua ho co the phat trien ki nang N/A pinking phapcua Hong ho nharn thay doi hoan canh mei trttang xung quanh.216
  • 215. 7. Hay kien nhan vi ski Lisp sac cif) thgt can thai gian va ski n6 lac lien tuck. Sii tiep stick la mot qua trinh can cal thin gian. Tuy nhien trong mot yintinh huting trong chd skt thay dgi IA khong the. Can phdi nhan thay rangngudi ta c6 the eó dude nhigu tan khi to tao ra ski thay clew. Can 1)0 CTXHbigt kien nhan trd gitip klnich hang se dude dgn dap khi khach hang dm holien tigp Lao ra ski thay dal nhd vac) khd nang eua chinh ho. 8. Lien tuck danh gia v6 khd nang eda can bo CTXH. CO met eau nOi trong nghg nay rang cluing ta khOng the mong chokluich hang lam dude nIning gi cluing ta chua lam dude. Dc higu mot eachrE) nhai ski n6 lye cud klnich hang trong qua trinh tigp sag nay la chinh canhi) CTXH phai nri lac va phai thanh gong. 9. Hay &mg nhfing hieu bigt vg did phudng de Lao ra then qua. Thong qua vigc sU dung kign thaw va higu bigt tinh hinh chinh tri 6dja phtiOng, can he? CTXH có thg de clang hdn trong vice tao ra ski thay d6icho khiich hang. Nhing gdi y then co the giiip oho can be) CTXH trong cat hoat thingiigp sac cho khach hang. Tuy nhien, trd gitlp khhch hang thge haen eac hoatdOng tigp sae dOi hdi can be? CTXH phai sn dung nhigu hdn nhfing gdi ytren. Can hi? CTXH thudng phai lam vies vii khach hang va ceing Eking chtiacó nhigu kinh nghigm trong vice sit dung ki nang va thg manh cUa mirth.Thong thudng, ho co met thai gian dal nghi rang luo thkie ski khong eki thgmanh hay kha nang. Cac ca nhan nay khi sang trong mot cdng dung se khong can thigtphai hieu each vudt qua kali cdnh vi tai thin diem do lao khong dung thgmanh va ki nang nhu la met nhom co t6 chat Vi vay ho thudng phai ehiudung ciinh dOi ngheo, bi lam dung hoar xam tai. fig giup elm khach hangbigt each dung they manh va kith nang cam minh, Salechey (1997) gdi y phaiti6n hanh nhung nhiem vu sau: Kh8ng "dan nhan" khach hang Khi "clan nhiin" khach hang, chting ta khong thuc sa xem h9 nhunhung ca the dde lap. Tii ngil Fa nhung ()hang died quan trong chimg La gi itoi khach hang va bang each dung nhfing to ngfi theo hiking tieu cue (dannhan tieu vi du nhu MAI than, chUng La se lam cho khach hang vanhiling nguoi khac kith ditty dude kha nang va thg manh cua ho. 217
  • 216. Giop khach hang ti6p can cac nguan trd ginp tit gia dinh, doan theva Ong dung Khi khong bigt clan chi" ngugn trd giiip co the den tit cac ngugnkhach hang thttring cho rang tinh hukng cua ho 1a khOng thg trd gitip dude.Co (Wye so trd gitip tit niking nguoi khac co thg tan cho khach hang sy hivong va cam gine dude trd ghat). Su hi vong nay se gnu) cho khach hang higurang ho khong don dOc giai quygt van de cilia mink. Ghip khach hang hi6u rang ho !loan toan c6 tlf6tao ra suthay cled Mac dinh elm khach hang 9 nghl ho khOng có kha nang thay chinhla cho ho 4 righi vg sy that bai. Khach hang can phai sling thing vdi banthan va nh8ng gi ngtini khac tin ho co thg lam dude. Tin vao khach hang, vao kha nang, the manh, tai xoay x6 va vacvong cua ho Tin vac) khach hang la ki nang quan trong ma nhan vien CTXH canhoc hei. Khach hang phai hoc each xem ho nhu nhung ngtigi khac moonthky ho. Kha nang cria nhan vien CTXH co thg nhin they dude nhiing themanh, tai xoay x6 dm khach hang se khign ho co thg try gill]) khach hangdat dude muc Lieu. Tranh quan dim "gia twang" Nhan vien CTXH hay gia dinh rang ho phai &Ong vai tro quan tamdoh khach hang bang each lam myi viac cho ho, va khOng de ho phat huykha nang cua manh. Nhung vien lam nay thuong khign cho khach hang camthey ho giong flint Inca dita tre va nlni Tay hp se khong thg dat (Wye muctieu. Rappaport (1990) cho rang nhan vien CTXH phai tim ra dude (khongchi cho hi), ma con cho nag nhung kha nang cua khhch hang ma cóthe ho khong nhan thay. Mac du co the khach hang da rang sit dung nhfingthe manh do, co the ho van khong nhan they thg manh do. Nhu vay nhiem vu cilia nhan vien CTXH la phai gitip cho khach hangnhan they kha nang cua ho. Trong nhfing trudng hop khach hang khong coki nang ik) dac bigt thi ho phai ren luyen de) cri the ea dude tang vUi sti trygiilp ciia nhan vien CTXH tim ra nhang ki nang can thigt do va dung chilngmot each liftu ich. Nhan vien CTXH nen khuygn khich khach hang bang218
  • 217. each not vg nhung (lieu ma ho da dint &toe va nhfing kha nang ho da dungda dot dude than do. Cac vi du trong truong hop bgng 6.1 gitip elm nhan vien CTXH hien,each tro giiip khach hang nhan ra khii Ming va the manh cua ho. Nhan vien CTXH: TOL biet rang con bi 6m la met tinh hu6ng rat kho khan. Khach hang: Chang tai kh6ng del lam gi. N6 rat 5m va chung tOi co it sdtrq glOp tit benh vien va cac bac Si, Ho diai xid vdi no nhdvay vi no khang co bao higm. Tuy nhien ho khong not cho chOng tai Net ho se lam 91 va ligu ho co lam het kha nang khang. Nhan vien CTXH: Toi danh gia cap nhang gi ban era lam trong thdi gian vita qua. Ban d5 c6 the dim Army tdi benh vien va tim dupe met bac si cho no. Ban d5 lam digu de ntur the nao? Khach hang: Chung tai da rat bye mink. ChUng tOi not se khong di dau chimg nao ho khOng tim duce mat bac di cho Army. ChUng toi c15 rat bdang binh va kh6ng chap nhan cau tra Idi khong. Nhan vien CTXH: Chi that manh me va kien quygt. Chi din co the lam &fele dieu nay nhd vao sue manh tinh yeu danh cho con. T6i nghitai sac chi lai khong the ding sUc manh nhUvey de biet due° ligu con gai chi din co dupe se dieu ta tat nhat chua. Chi se lam gi de dal dupe dieu nay? Khach hang: Thd nhat tai se khang sq phai ciai met vial cad bac si nay nif a. Ho co ye tat hdn toi. Nhan vien CTXH: CO thing nhd vey kh6ng? Chi da lam viec vat va ca deli, chi din co the nuOi day con chi tot nhat, va Neu ye no hurl bat ki bac si nao. Khach hang: T6i nghT la fel co the dal mat &JOG vdi van de nay va co the yOu cau ho not cho tai beet ho dang dieu tri cho no nhf the nao va xem lieu do co phai la dial, tot nhat toi c6 the lam cho no. Anh co san long di vdi Cal khang? Nhan vien CTXH: TOE rat san long. Tai sao kh8ng this xem &Ong to se nOi gi?BANG 6.1. Dam thoai Thyt hank dya vao th6 manh Saleebey (1996) cho rang thuc hanh dua vao the manh trong cOng tine/ca het bat (Mu bang each tigp can Ndi cac truang hop benh nhan mac benhtarn than. I<C1 to do co ran, nhiau nhan vien CTXH va the nha li thuyeb taptrung vac each tigp can nay. Cacti tittle hanh dqa vao the manh hien nayBong vai tee chinh trong dung tine xa Mae da cac nghien eau da cho thayhieu qua dm each thus hanh nay, met sd cac nha Ii thuyat ven tin rangphudng phap dung thu6c (biomedical) van to phudng phap ta /t nhgt. Ho tinrang phudng pithy dung thuec la digu nhan vien CTXH dung khi hanh nghg. 219
  • 218. Ho cling cho rang the bac si kfiling the chi chti y den the manh ma con phaiclad ST den at van de cna khach hang a 06 the giai guy& Laic no. Dieu naycho thgy su khac nhau giva phuong phap Mang thugc va phuong Lap thkichanh dua vao the manh. Trong met phuong phap thi traeh nhiem chink cimkhach hang la dua vao Lan vice CTXH. Vdi phuong phap khac thi traghnhiem cim khach hang lai dua nhieu hdn vao chink ban than. Thkic hanh La vao gemg the xd hei cd nghia la Theo met khia canhnao do thi moi that nhan vien CTXH lam se dkia tren su tro Lip khhchhang phat hien. Ming cho v3 kham phd kha ming cua ho, tro giup ho datLoc. mug Lieu, gitip ho nhan ra Log tide vong cua minh, giei toa su de theva lo au (Salecbey, 1997. T3). Trong tam cada eau Li nay clad trong vao vaitro cem nhan vien CTXH trong vice try gitip khach hang giAi guy& vein deILA dat Lye mug tieu. Cac van de se Laic Mai quyet qua vies sit dung themanh va ki ming La khach hang. Vai tro cua nhan vien CTXH la phai duara phuong phap phat trien va khai thee nhung the manh nay. Salethey(1997) cho rang nam guy tag sau la rign tang La phuong phap thug hanhdua vao the manh: 1. Moi GA nhan, nh6m, gia dinh va cong d6ng Tea c6 thA manh Khong phai tat ea moi ngtgai deu y thug dude rang ho e6 mot the manhnao do. Chung ta thudng co V nghi rang minh hoan town khang c6 kha nangnhan ra s 1e manh gem ban than hoac ciia nhung ngUbi khac. Doi khi canphhi bat clau lai va chi don gian la hay chil trong vao nhung dagi hieu chothay the manh va kha nang cim khach hang de c6 the HO gitip ho. Khi hieudude khhch hang, chting ta se co the dan dan Mint hien nhung the manhkhac cua ho. 2. Bi ton thudng, bi lam dung, banh tat va kh6 khan G6 the la nhEmg dieutai hal, nhung d6 cling có the nhCing thic thach va cd heia khi kh6 co the hieu rang mot tinh hugng kh6 khan lai gti the taora sue manh va co Ilea Nhung khi nhin lai, se la rat la net ehting ta khemgnhin thay nhfing gi ehting ta co dude tai nhung kh6 khan do. Nhung gi datduce e6 the la mot each suy nghi mdi ve moi thil, met su thau hieu banthan. hoac ding et, the la hoe dude meg ki nang mdi. Chting ta c6 Log suemanh nay IA do có su Laing dal" vdi nhung MI6 khan trong cues sting.220
  • 219. 3. Phai gig dinh rang ban kh6ng the biet het gigg han kha nang cOa khachhang va hay coi trong nhEing udc vong cria ca nhan khach hang, caa nhorn vacoa tong Tong Thang thi cluing ta luen loon nghi rang khach hang et") met kha nang dinh nap de. Va khi ho qua tham vong thi dOi khi cluing ta lai can trathanh ding cem ho. Moi khach hang can phai &mg xem nhu la nhung ngiioihoan Man c6 kha nang dat dupe nhung rtde vong. Nhigm vu ciaa chting ta lakhang dupe can tra ho ma OM) tim each khuyen khich hp. 4. ChOng ta phut vu khach hang tat nhat bang each Ong tag yeti ho Thgeng thi trong khi thtic hanh tong tac xa hei, cluing ta moan tongtac yin khach hang nhung Ihi khong thus hien dupe do quan tam den vin de. a lion hoac chung ta khong deng 9 yea nhung gi khach cuahtingLhang muen lam. Cong Oa la met hinh theta quan trong trong flute hanh.Khi cluing La killing (Xing tac nghia la chting ta khang khuyen khich klnichhang hoac trd critip ho. 5. Bat Ire van d6 nao deu co nhOng giai phap trem nano Mac WA Li khi co nhfing tinh hueng co ye Mat it them nang hdnnhung tinh hueng khac nhung attic ra khOng phai nhu vgy. Vi du nhutrong vgn de lien quan den thu nhap thrip, 6ra dau benh tat, con chi hithang thi deal luem co nhung the manh de. khai tithe. Vige eO the etng dung nhCing guy tac nay trong that hAnh la met kinang quan trong nhan vien CTXH phai co. PI -Mt hien ra they manh trongInca hohn crinh c6 nghia IA ban da co the trp gitip throe khach hang. Vicphat hien ra the numb trong tang tinh huoMg Can khach hang khong chidon gian la phat hien va ghi liti nhung the marsh do. ma no con doi hei phaitao ra met nen tang can ban trong pluidng phap cent nhan Men CTXH. Metphan trong xu huffing nay la nhan vien CTXH luen ton trong va clht minhvao tinh hu6ng egia khach hang de nhin nhan chinh ban than WI the githcua ho. ltheu then met each khac, khach hang phai dupe coi trong hdn citevin de tin* vg Ii thuyet trong qua trinh nit ginp (De Jong & Miller, T 729-730). Mac da chting ta hoar toan ring ho vice se dung It thuygt, nhung diguquan trong IA phai nhan ra rang chc quan diem vi the manh del hOi metmite de tin Wang van kha nang ciia khAch hang de bi6t dude dieu gi IA tatnhat cho ho va phudng phap nao la tat nhaIt de dat dude digu nay. 221
  • 220. Qua trinh phat huy thl manh Vice (Ring ngen riga va cac hanh vi phi Len ngil curl nhan vies CTXHkhi giao ti6p yeti khach hang phai dude ties hanh vdi trong tern la ngueng6e cua sv thay dM nam d kha nang va the manh tiem tang cern ho. Dieunay den khi lam cho khach hang ngac nhien khi ho tim kiem stftre gitip chomet van de cu the lean do va mong chic rang do la trach nhien chinh cuanhan vien DAIL Tuy nhien viec qua chid trong vao met yen L thi co theLao ra sv trong oho va kelt qua khong nhu y muen. Met khi dieu nay xay ra,ne so luen am dnh tam tri ctia khach hang va khien ho kh6 vuot qua. Vi vayphai chit trong vao con ngudi, khong qua tap trung vac) van de. Nhein vienCTXH cO the chit trong den van del nay qua thai do lam viec vdi khachhang. Manning (1998) gel y nhan vien CTXH nen có cac thai sau trongviec cham sec sec khoe tern Suy nghi va giao ti6p ydi chinh ban than khach hang, chit khongphai la yell nhung sy. clf6n doan, str guy WI Nganh &Ong tac xa hei da t8 lau xem xet Itri viec sU dung cac chlindoaln nhtf la mot each thfic digu tri cho khach hang. Mac dd co nh>ing li dode sti dung the each chin dohn nay trong viec digu tri elm khach hang, songtit quan diem v6 the manh thi digu nay se khong hdp H. Vielc chit trong denthe manh doi hifi phai hieu khhch hang tit quan diem giao tielp lien nhan.Bang each hieu khach hang nhe met eh the thi nhan vice CTXH da tao ramet mei tregng an tohn de phat huy the manh gem L. Hon nda, viec chittrong ten the manh tin gia dinh rang tieing qua viec hieu khdch hang thinhan vien CTXH se hieu hon ye nhung tra ngai can tra khach hang nhan rava phat huy the manh cua L. M6i quan he lien nhan co the tao ra nhiing&tong Inking ma Ere gidp ca nhan vice CTXH va khach hang. Ton trong quygn to guy6t dinh cua khach hang Prong qua trinh tim hieu, nhan vien CTXH phai ton trong kign vaguy& dinh cem khlich hang. Dung tren quan diem y6 phat huy the manh,kha nang tV guy& dinh ciia khach hang cho they ho deng vai trO chfnhtrong qua trinh dieu tri. T ri guy& dinh la hanh thing xay ra khi khach hangtin vac) chfnh ban than ho via eel the to due ra quyet dinh cua chfnh manh.222
  • 221. Phai c6 trach nhipm tgi khach hang mot cash tong the, chi. trongden chat lacing cuOc song va cac yeu t6 mei tragng Khi nhan vien CTXH lam viec vdi mot khach hang, ho phai xern xettoan bq hoan manh trong doi song caa khach hang. Viet danh gin khachhang chi bang nhung nguyen nhan nei tai (nhting nguyen nhan tit chinhban than khach hang) la phu nhan nhtiing gi xay ra xung quanh ho vanhung anh twang &u, mai truong lac dong den the manh cunt ho. Nguoi eOnhan Hide rift ra ve ban than thi ding co the xoay sa dude theo quan diemphat huy nqi luc, tuy nhien ho van can có them sa tn.; giiip tit mai truongthl mdi Oat huy dMic tat hon. Thong qua gia dinh hay ban be, sat thanhtong trong su nghiep, sa thich tai nang, moi ca nhan khach hang den cenhiing each khac nhau de ca dude sq trd gitip tit mei truong. Tap trung vac quan diem phat huy the manh hon la tap trung vaomg hinh danh gia va that hanh (deficit model) Mie hinh danh gia va thiic hanh chit trong vao viec Oat hien ra nhungvain de trong cuee sag cua khach hang. Va chinh slit tap trung tiou cue nayse khien cho khach hang khong de y vao viec plata huy sue manh va thanhtong Gus. ho. Bang chch chti trong vao viec plant huy the manh, nhan vienCTXH Bang trd giiip khach hang htiong vao rime tieu ena ho va phat triersmai quan he trd glut). Ton trong Mang kha nang va kien that phong phu cua khach hangtrong m6i quan he tri lieu. Tranh to ra minh la mot chuyen gia Bang each tranh td ra minh la mot chuyen gia, nhan vien CTXH seloai bd chide truong hop luan to cho minh la dung. De cho khach hang chitdeng tham gia vao qua trinh tri lieu. nhan vien CTXH da tra gitip khachhang trong viec suy nghi va Minh dong tich cue. Viet can thiep nay la metphan trong qua trinh tong tae gitta khach hang va nhan vien CTXH nhammang lai sp that, dia. Tin tuang vao nPi lac cua khach hang de hieu them va nang caocu§c song cua ho Nhan vien CTXH can phai tin rang khach hhng lanai có met mong ttectlf nhien la phai nang cao doi sang va tq mirth quyeit dinh Kern dieu gi la toitnhat cho Ito. 223
  • 222. T6n trong kha nang va guy6n cluvc c6ng hign cua h9 cho khachhang khac, cho ban than nhan vien CTXH, cho van phong to van va choca c6ng d6ng Thong thtiang than vien CTXH cho rang kited hang khong the dinghien cluoc gi cho nguai khac vi ho dang gap van de trong chinh linh vile cuaminh. Thtie ra chinh cat van de mai hi )(cm la lam giam kha nang gang hieneam ho trong cac linh vtic khhc. Phai nhan ra nhung dac diem khac brat cua m6i nguti, ton trongnhCmg pham chgt, gia tri va nhu cau riong biet cua timg nguti Thtating thi nhung nhan vien CTXH hiYu rat ro ve tinh khac biet cuatang kited]. hang. Tuy nhien ho lai co xu hiking danh dang moi ngudi vdinhau do có dinh kien voi khach hang. Viet danh deng nay lam giam tinh cabiet a moi ca nhan khach hang. , Manning (1998) clang ntan manh vao vai ire sau can nhan vienCTXH theo quan diem phat huy the manh: • Phat trien me hinh quan tam den khach hang, chi trong vao mile tieu via gin tri cam khach hang. • Nhina manh vao vice tao dyng moi quan he thong qua vai trb , sii tham gia via tong (hang dE thay the hieu trial thieu but vii van hoe, lich sat va dye diem rieng. • Tao co hei de phat trien nhung hoat deng Mau ich nham tro gidp thy dyng eae ki nang, kien thatc va kha nang phan Ping. • Nang cao kha nang lam thay d6i mei truing hdn la kha nang thich Ping voi mei truing cam ho. • Khuyen khich khach hang biet chap nhan rui ro. dua ra quyet dinh va hoc hoi tit nhiing diet! do. • Chu trong vao nguan thong tin, su giao due vz vice phat trien ki nang de co the lam tang tinh hieu qua. • Lam cho khach hang va cac thanh vien trong gia dinh ciaa ho ea) vai U.() trong vies dui ra guy& Binh v 6 mai quan . tri Danh gia Can phai thtie hien nhien quy tat va nhiem vu trong that hanh clUavao the manh. Mot trong nhung nhiem vu &du titan la (faith gia the manh224
  • 223. cling -nhu Id nang ma nhan vien CTXH giug khach hang nhan ra va phuthuy. De ben hanh qua trinh danh gill nay, cluing ta can phai bigt site manhla gi. Theo Saleeybe (1997), site manh ggm: 1. Nhung digu bigt dude vg ban than, vg nguai khac va vg the gidi cull ho. 2. Nhfing pham chat ca nhan, dad clue. 3. Nhung digu bigt dude ve the gidi xung quanh. 4. TM nang. 5. Nhung eau chuyen rieng to va vg van hoa. 6. Nigm kieu hanh. 7. Co, ng dgng xung quanh Nhan viers CTXH dat ra the eau hOi nham dua nhang sue manh nayYao trong nhan thite cUa khach hang. NM-Mg eau hOi nay c6 the tap trungvan each ma mot khach hang diking dau vdi met tinh hu6ng trudc do, loaitr.() gnip nao khach hang dung c6, va mue tieu khach hang de ra. Nhan viersCTXH dat ra nlating eau hOi nay khong theo kieu phOng van ma gi6ng nhula trong khi clang noi chuyen vdi nhan. Trong ma hinh dive hanh ghat huythe" manh, khach hang va nhan vien CTXH nen lam viec then each noichuyen thong thttang. Nhan viers CTXH clang nen tin rang ngudi ta c6 thetao ra sg thay trong (mix! sang (ea ve mat xa hea cling nhu ve mat chinhtri), nen xem khach hang nhu la ngttai duy What c6 the than hieu cups sangva hoan canh cita chinh ho, trd gitip ho tim ra the manh va phut huy Viec danh gia then phudng phap dkia vao the manh doi hOi nhan vienCTXH khong chi (Thrill gin kha nang hien tai ma con bao gem 6 viec danhgia thg manh trong Wong lai va vice ling dung chting nham dat dude muctieu. Nhan vien CTXH lam viec to quan diem loai trit nhin thay khang phaila van de hien tai ma Fa nhung gi da thanh ding trong qua khu va ski thauhigu nay c6 the gitip khach hang thay cla) tudng lai. Nhung loai eau hOidanh gia chive lief ke trong phan 9 dudi day: 1. Win de co the giai guy& dude bay gia la gi? 2. Lam the nao ban biet dude khi nap thi van de dude giAi quygt? 3. Ban cam thay nhu the nao khi van d6 dude giai quye -t? 4. Mue tieu sap tdi cua ban la gi ngoai viec giai guy& van a nay? 5. Hay cho tdi bigt v6 nhiing khoang thdi gian van de nay khong ton tat? 225
  • 224. Kieu cau hei nay se" keo khach hang ra khai yen dg cim ho de tinhnhiing khoang thai gian khi van de de khong ten tai tatac de hoac se killingten tai. Bang each dat cau hai nhu the", cluing to khong chi thu thap dudethong tin ma con biet dude khoang thdi gian ho da co hoac khong có yen de.Mac cho khach hang giai thich van dg la digu quan trong, danh giamp hinh due vao the manh chti trong den cau hOi vg nhting khoang thaigian khi yen dg khong ten tai. Cach thite dat eau hOi trong me hinh nay larat quan trong. Che hanh vi phi neu net cna ban se cho khach hang theysir tin Wang vao ho va vao nhiing gi ho dang nOi. Met to the thoai mai chothey su cdi and cua ban va sit sari lOng lang nghe nhiing dieu ho noi - digunay la rat quan trong. Turing tp nhU vay, nhung bieu hien cdi ma, the hiensu cham chn tren khuOn mat khuygn khich khach hang suy nen nhigu hdndgn the mankya kha nang cua ho de giai quygt tinh hugng. Khi ban dangtrd giup khach hang phat huy th6 manh, su chti y cim ban bao g6m ca hanhvi nem net va phi nen tit can phai hoan loan tap trung vao khach hangcling nhu phan fing cua ho dgi vdi can Hai. Dieu nay IA thigt ygu vi bandang noi lai cho ho they ho cd thg manh va kha nang de dat dude mac Lieu.Truang hop sau minh hoa re digu nay. Khan vien CTXH thong qua each giao tigp sii dung cac hanh vi ngonnet va phi nen net se. phai tim kigm each thitc danh gia de có dude nhangphan Ung tich (Arc trong qua trinh tro giap. Nhan vien CTXH cling se phaixem xot tinh rieng biet trong mOi con ngtial. Sri can thiep nen dui trong vaotUng ca nhan va nhiing gi nguoi do mang dgn trong qua trinh tri lieu. Nhan vien CTXH: (Ng& a khoang cach vita phai, nhin thang vao khach hang). Ban they nhu the nao khi ban data bi tram cam? Khach hang: (Deu CUE xuang ciao vao T6i khong the nhd dude vi lac nao toi cling cam thy nhu minh bi tram cam. Khan vien CTXH: (V5n a to the hop li va na nu cab). Se nhu the" nao lieu ngay mai ban thac day va ban thong con bi tram cam? Dieu gi se xay ra? Kith hang: (Ngeng dau va hal mim cLtdi) Toi nghTmoi thit se tat hdn Nhan vien CTXH: T6i co they &roc ben net mat cUa ban hoar canh co the lam cho mat ngay cUa ban tra nen vui ye. Hinh anh nao da xuat hien trong deu ban khi ban d5 nghT ye viac thac day ma khOng they bi tram cam. Khach hang: (KhOng con chi xuang, mat nhin nhan vien CTXH). T6i da nghT minh rat vui ye va mat trai dang chieu sang.BANG 6.2. Tro gitip khach hang Oat huy the manh226
  • 225. Trail hanh can thi4p Qua trinh can thiep trong thiic hanh phat huy the manh bat dautrudc khi nhan vien CTXH lan dau gap go khach hang. Hoac la c6 nhfingngudi khac da cung cap thong tin flan ve khach hang hoac la khach hang dagoi dign de" sap xep cuec hen, nhan viers CTXH can phai xem )(et thong tinma ho nhan duct tree quan diem dtla van the manh. Nhan vien CTXH nennhap cuec vdi khach hang nhu the nao la met phan trong qua trinh canthiep. Gan nhu khong the nhap cuec vdi khach hang nett khong hinh thanhtrong dau hinh anh cua khach hang tit nhiing thong tin c6 dptic. Nhung ginhan vien CTXH phai lam la nghi ye khach hang theo htiong phat huy themanh ena ho, chit Y den nhung gi c6 ye la the manh cua khach hang va hivong den ket qua thanh wing. Tien can can thiep theo each nhu va, y thongqua qua trinh nhap cuec va danh gia, nhan vien CTXH có the bat dau chinhthUc tien hanh can thiep. Ki nang can thiep Can thiep chinh thiic bat dau sau giai doan nhap cuec va dAnh gia.Trong giai doan nay, nhan viola CTXH chuyen dan nhfing cau hai clanh giasang kik cau hOi can thiep, nhan xet va cac quy trinh cu the va phit tun)vdi hoan canh cua khach hang. Giai doan nay gem the ki nang sau: KT !fang cluang dau During dau IA met to thuang mang nghia tieu cue. Khi chUng ta nghitOi ski dudng dau, ta thudng hay nghi tdi nhitng ngtidi hay tranh cai, hoackhong c6 kha nang tim ski hoa hop. Tuy nhien trong Ova hanh ding tac xahei, to nay c6 y nghia hoan toan trai ngtioc. Dtidng dau trong thvc hanhtong tac xa hei la lam cho nhan vier CTXH ya khach hang c6 the Tint quathe van dg ma khach hang dang bi be De" gifip khach hang hoc va dung thicic each dudng dau, dieu quantrong IA nhan vien CTXH phai c6 ki nang de va co the dung no ding vdikhach hang. Neu nhan vien CTXH ngai dtidng clan vdi tra ngai, ho se khonggitip ich dude cho khAch hang. During dau khong cb nghia la tranh cdi, nophai dan den sue manh hay met ski ket thtic ma ca hai ben cung than hieuvan da. During dau duoc dung trong nhieu tinh hueng khac nhau gifia nhanvien CTXH va khach hang. Cac tinh hueng nay bao gem tim ra ski khacbiet, chi cho khach hang cac I/ ill fig nguy hiem, phu nhan cac tinh hueng cu 227
  • 226. thd, phan Lich (rationalize) tinh }aging va khong nhan ra hau (ILIA ciia hAnhvi, khOng time hiOn cac gia tri va trash nhiem dao due da dg ra. Trong cac tinh hu6ng gifia khach hang va nhan vien CTXH, mot trongnhung van dd lon c6 thO xay ra, do la ski khac biOt gifia nhitng gi anh to Miva tin Wang vdi nhiing hanh vi ma anh to thkic hign. Khi nhfing hanh vi valoi noi xung do, t vdi nhau, ban than khach hang có thd kitting nhan ra digudo. Ho c6 thO hanh dOng ma cho rang hanh vi cua ho Man dinnhungdigit ho mu6n noi. Hay xem vi du dual day: Ong Parker tile giOn trong suoi khocing thdi gian cac bac si khcim frenhcho Amy. Cu the 1(1 Ong Parker rid phcit hien ra Ong bcic si den khcim benhcho Amy hai ngay mot lan lid ;thong he noi vdi gia dinh khi Ong to den. OngParker noi rang Mn sau khi Ong bcic si nay tai, Ong dy se cho ngitdi bcic sinay mot "bed hoc". The nhung khi Ong bac si nay tdi thi Ong Parker khOngnoi duos di& gi vdi Ong bac si lid vein gilt noi the gian trong long. Ngay khiHip xac vdi nhan Men CTXH o benh viOn, Ong cling khong b0c to nhieu vet sekhong noi chuyen udi vd ve nhfing gi sap xay ra. Trong trudng hop nay,ngudi cho dang co cam gicic tilegiOn ua khong b0c 10 chUng ra udi bcic sidie"u tri cho Amy. Nhung sot khcie biet nay la quan trong trong dOi dew vi notoo ra nhfing tinh huong khO khan cho khcich hang, kitten cho nhan MenCTXH kho có the trd gitip dude khach hang. Cbc loai tinh hang khac ma trong do during dau IA quan trong bao grim: khach hang khOng thkic hign nhung kg hoach der dg ra, kheng to trd glut) ban than minh va mong chic nhan Tien CTXH lam Oa ca moi vide, CU xi( theo each ma ho tao ra mot ski can tro cho ban than va ngttdi khac. Coi trong kign ciia ngUai khac hdn nhiing gi ho bi6t va coi do la nhung gi t6tnhdt cho ho. CO ye nhU 1a ki la khi chting to luOn muSn lam nhung gi t6tnhat cho ban than nhung van luon noi va lam cai gi dO khong dung nhUmu6n efts minh. Khi chting to dua ra nhfing quy6t dinh thi thOng thuong lavi nhung Ii do tinh cam. Thdong la khi chung to phan Ung vdi mOt nhu cauthugs vg tinh cant cluing to khong thhy 1.6 nhung gi dang xay ra bai vi tinhcam da anh huang den 11 tri/Frong tat ca tinh hugng during dau, nhungAttic cu th6 sau can phai dude duic hien.228
  • 227. Lu8n phai xem xet m6i quan he this ban vdi khach hang d5 du banchat a thgc hign ki nang "throng d5u" Neu mei quail he TM khach hang da dat den mile do tin cay tars nhauthi nhan vien CTXH nen ap dung ki nang (Wong dau theo each ma khachhang thay hau ich. Khi khong c6 su tin Wang Ian nhau, &Ring dau c6 thedon den su de phong. Hepworth, Rooney, va Larsen (2002) nhan manh tamquan trong cim viec khong sit dung ki nang diking dau qua sdm. Ho clingcho rang trong cac tinh huOng nguy hiem throng dau nen dUcic ap dungkhOng can xet den su phat triers trong rnal quan he gitla nhan vien CTXHvdi khach hang. Nhan vien CTXH cung nen xem xet tinh trang tinh th6n tut& khi apdung ki nang throng d5u Neu khach hang clang hue bdi, anh ta/cO to c6 the se khong hieu bandang ndi gi va tai sao lai rant vay. Vi du, ngu Ong Parker CO ra rat bac giankhi nOi chuyen vdi nhan vien CTXH thi by se khOng the glop Ong to hieudude each tiep can vdi bee si. Ong to c6 the tile gian vdi nhan vien CTXH viho khong hieu tinh hudng dm Ong ta. Sir dyng ki nang throng clgu chi khi th5y can thief Hay it si:t dung ki nang dlidng dau. Viec sii dung ki nang &icing dauqua nhigu c6 the khiern cho khach hang khong the phan ang vdi flitting giban noi hoac kitting /man quay lai chila tri. Viec sa dung qua nhieu c6 thedan den tinh trang tranh cal va c6 the day khach hang ra xa. Phil có su cam thong khi ap dyng ki nang duong d5u Su gut S7 nay c6 anh huong den Id nang dudng dau cua khach hang.Khi c6 su cam thOng thi khach hang se ap dung ki nang tithing cthu meteach hap li. Hay maw ho la "tor trong khi ap dyng ki Wang diking d5u Rung ho la toi se clan den nhung cuec nOi chuyen cdi ma hdn bai vi m6i nguai se phai chiu tranh nhiem ve nhung gi anh to lam. Dieu nay cho phep ban khOng d6 lei cho hoan canh. Vi du, khi nhan vien CTXH nOi chuyen vdi Ong Parker: thay vi not rang "Ong can noi nhieu hdn", thi nhan vien CTXH nen dien dat ttmo each nhtt sau: "Toi ngac nhien rang Ong lai 229
  • 228. dinh not them mac du t6i thgy Ong dang rat tut gian". Nhan vien CTXH se tao cd hei cho Ong Parker phan ung vdi nhung gi nhan vien CTXH dang cam day Mn la phan Ung vdi nhung lei binh Man. N6u sau khi ap dung cach xung 116 trail ma khach hang lai bit gian, frit nen to ye, but minh thi digu quan trong d6i vdi nhan vien CTXH la phil t6 ra thong cam Khi to ra thong cam, nghia la nhan vien CTXH ngay lap the da co phan ling lai vdi nhung cam giac caa khach hang. Chinh each cu nay ang thai dua ra mot thong diep rang nhung gi khach hang not la quan trong. Dung nhung th6ng diep phi ngon ngu nham cho khach hang they ring nhung gi anh ta/c6 ta clang trai qua la quan trong d6i vdi ban Vi da: Khi to the to ra thoai mai va than thien el& vdi khach hang, thela ban dang not vdi ngudi do la ban thue sti cai mu va khOng sd nghe nhunggi ma anh ta bee IQ. Chit trong cign dyng htc tea ski bao dam (stf cam 1(60: Khi cluing ta chti trong den Ong lye va sg cam ket thi c6 nghia la chi-mg ta dang thtic ddy ho tao ra ski thay dol. Johnson va Yanca (2001) tim ra ba ygu t6 quan trong trong viec tao ra Ong "Loai ba ski g6 bO, tao hi vong rang có th6lam dude dieu gi de" giai guy& van de hoac hoan thanh nhiem vu cuing vdicac ap hie ben trong va nhCing n6 he de co the dat dude mac tieu". Ding lacthudng dude mo ta nhu la met qua trinh khien cho ca nhan c6 th8 s tan sangthgc hien met k6 hoach nao do. Trong thgc hanh dkia vao the manh, thingluc caa khach hang co the dude auk day thong qua viec dung cac pluidngphap phi nen ngii hoac co ng6n ngu ea the nham tang Wong m6i giao ti6pgiiia khdch hang va nhan vien CTXH. Th6ng qua sit cam thong, y chi, thanthanh, n8ng hau, nhAn vien CTXH co the tao ra nhung thay dai tich cue. Vadiet nay Link day khach hang hoan thanh cOng viec va dat &Mc mac tieu.Chti trong vao the manh va ski thanh cong caa khach hang se tao ra thing va ski bao dam. Shebib (2003) de ra cac ki nang sau de tao ra ding lac va sp bao dam. 1. Thao luan die hanh ding da lam va cac thanh cOng da dat dude. 2. Lam viec vdi khach hang de loaf frit nhfing 5 nghi sai tech va nhung cuOc not chuyen co the lam ban than nan chi.230
  • 229. 3. Hay tan ra nhung Iniac en the de dat chick mac tieu va ghi nhan thanh tong. 4. Hay ce vu khach hang khi ho tao ra dude bat ki ski thay d6i nao. 5. To hi vong va niem tin cho khach hang. Duy tri trong tam. Duy tri trong tarn la met qua trinh lam chokhach hang chil trong vao van de va kat qua thanh ding. ThOng thitangtrong thkic hanh, khach hang se tim each tranh nhting tinh hueng khO maho tin rang khOng danh dude thanh ding. Bang each tro gitip khach hangduy tri trong tam vao k6 hoach ho da dat ra cho ban than, nhan vien CTXHkhuy6n khich khach hang Mai guygt van de, ehu trong vao nhimg ket quava thanh cong ma ho dat dude; digu nay se giilp ho tigp title dua ra nhdngquydt dinh có the can den su thay dth. Nhan wen CTXH duy tri trong tambang each dua ho tra Lai tinh hueng trong tam va dung co` cac quyet dinh vak6 hoach ma ho da thkic hien. Thtiang thi nhung dien nay thick Hine Men thong qua phOng van met each than thien va cai mo. NO the trO gitip khach hang loai 136 cac chi tit vun vat de tim ra Mide ke ti6p. Bang each kham pha van de met each chi bet, nhan vien CTXH va khach hang se tap trung vao cac nhiem vu quan trong. Kiam tra mac do bea phan khang. B6i rill la phan fing ma rat nhieu khlich hang trai qua trong giai doan nhap cuec va can thiep. Khach hang co the cam thay b6i roi vdi nhiing cong vice ma ho phai lam va them chi con phan khang 1M nhfing no lac tro ghip cua nhan vien CTXH. Thudng thi nhan vien CTXH se del pha vol nhiing truong hop nay Wang each khOng lhm gi ca. ChUng nao ma khach hang khong thkic su chia se, thi ngtiai ta de dang ba qua n6 hic tao ra su thay el& thay vi phai d61 clan voi cac tinh hitting kh6 khan. Tuy nhien dieu nay la khOng thich hop trong thkic hanh cOng the xa het Gang tae xa hei la mang den su thay d6i, va nhan vien CTXH phai kien tri lam cho khach hang &tang dau duos vdi cac tinh huting kho khan. Chiang ta giai guy& tinh hu6ng nay bang each nhan ra su bei rOi va nOi chuyen vol khach hang. Su b6i rel nay nen thicic xem nhv IA binh thuang va tat ca moi ngudi den phai trai qua cam giac bat rOi hone su phan khang de thay d6i. Preston (1998) khOng tin rang phan khang la ski can tra ma chinh ne la met lieu phap. Corey (2001) de nghi Hen hanh cac bade sau de Ung phO v6i ski phan khang cua khach hang. 231
  • 230. 1. Nen xem xet su phan khang a gee de tich ale. Phan khang chinh la su duong dau vdi nhang thay d6i trong cues song cua khach hang va day la met phan binh Hwang trong qua trinh tri lieu. 2. Khuygn khich khAch hang noi ye ski b6i va phan khAng cfm , he nham loai trii cam giac ye viec digu tri Ira thay dei se )(ay ra. 3. Lam cho khach hang nhan fink dude rang ski b6i va nghi net la binh thuong va ho khang nen nan chi bai chinh nhang phan cua ho. 4. Hay tao ra su thay de;i nhe de khach hang c6 the cam thay ho da thanh tong hon trong ding viec dang lam. Qua trinh tap duyet (Rehearsal). Tap duyet lai la met qua trinh thU (thong qua &Mg vai) cac bode se lien hanh trong tuong lai. Khach hang va nhan vien CTXH se ed the nhan ra va diking dau truck vdi bat ki tra ngai nao Arai su bol re, phan khang. Trong ki nang nay, nhan vien CTXH citing vai ngai ma khach hang se phai &icing dau va dua ra nhung phan hei sau khi thuc hien viec ding vai. Viec nay se try gitip khach hang thvc hien lee hoach hanh do, ng cua ho. ray dung c&t truyen la ki nang thitang lien quan nha:t den lieu phap ke chuyen. Tit quan diem thus hanh dua vao the manh, xay Ong cot truyen lam cho khach hang nhin nhan tinh hu6ng theo chign Iniong tichcue hon la nhin nhan van de khang the giai guy& chicle. Bang each nghe eauchuyen cua ho, khach hang et) the Wang Wong ra met can chuyen mdi cumet each nhin dude dan xep. Nhting khach hang van nhin cuee song theonghia Heil cue cO the có cai nhin khac thong qua viec xay dung eat truyen. Trong viec xay dung cot truyen, khach hang dude try ginp de phattriers met con chuyen mdi nhung cot lei oua ket qua ua chueng. Nhan vienCTXH se dat nhung eau hai nhu sau: —Nhung gi ban dang hinh dung bay gid ce khac biet gi so van nhcinggi ban da Bing hinh dung? — Ban se lam gi khdc trong cau chuyen mdi cua minh? — se vui cho ban vdi nhung lc& qua kha quan nay? Ai Nhung eau Lai nay khien khach hang nghi ve met can chuyen mdi maho vigt ve ban than qua su thay dei tich cue da dat dude. Khach hang tao ra232
  • 231. met eau chuyen mai bang each suy nghi ye nth:mg cau hOi cita nhan vienCTXH. NMing cau hOi nay khuygn khich khach hang noi ye nhiing thanhcong am ho khi giai quygt van dg trong qua khit va nhiing thanh cong ho cóchide hien tai. Qua viec xay thing cot truyen, khach hang dude tiep them suemanh vi ho biet den cuec sting mdi cUa minh va nhfing y nghi cua ski thay Cac cau chuyen thuang dude tang euang thong qua viec xac nhan cuangttai khae ye su thay d6i cua khach hang. Nhan vien CTXH c6 the gal Ykhach hang nen hai nguai khac da chiing kien su thay dei nay va danh giavg chting. Nhu va, y, eau chuyen da dude cling co. ray dung va ap dung mang IU6i tro gi6p to nhion :Thanh phan quan trong cua giai doan can thiep trong thtle hanh dhiavao the manh 1a xay dung va hp dung mang lath trd ginp tti nhien. Ban be,gia Binh cling vdi cac nhOm trd gitip dong vai tra quan trong trong viec Laociting sti,tu tin elm khach hang va tra gulp ha vai nthang thay d6i ma hothat hien. Mei quan he hen nhan nay cho khach hang e6 ST HIM vg ban thanIra Mho hp sa trd gitip. NhAn vien CTXH trd gitip khach hang xay dung va sudung mang lath trd gin) bang each khuyen khich khach hang nghi dennhung ngliai luon ling he, gan gni, va sail sang giem dd ho khuygn khich hotim den nhung ngttai nay khi can den su trd gidp. Co vu sat thanh tong. NhUng lai khen ena nhAn vien CTXH khongchi la nham mac dieh lam cho khach hang cam they vui hdn ma lei khenphai dva vao thtic t6. Ki nang nay trd gitip khach hang Net dude ye nhungthanh cong va tra nen to tin vg ban than. Lai khen khign cho nhan vienCTXH lay dUcte cac thong tin tit tinh hueng van de. NhUng phan ling cuakhach hang vai lei khen ea the la nhung du lieu mdi dan tai nhfing hieu bietsal., hdn vg tinhhuayng cua khach hang. De Jong va Berg (2002), tim ra cacloai lei khen khac nhau nhu sau: 1. Khen true tiep bao gam nhting phan ling cua nhan vien CTXH TM khach hang khi phan Ung true tiep vdi mOt cligu gi do ma khach hang da dat dude. 2. Khen gian tiep thuang a dang cau hoi va cO the the hien st1 nguang me, hoac ddn gian la dat ra nhiing cau hai ma nhan vien CTXH bigt cau tra lei se la tich cut. 233
  • 232. 3. Tu khen ngdi la tinh hueng ma khach hang to nOi ye nhUng thanh tong dat dude. Nhung phan Ung cua nhan vien CTXH thttang lam tang them su tki khen ngui d6 vdi met each khen glen tiep. KOt that Trong giai doan 1(61 thlic cua phttong phap dua vao the mash, nhanvien CTXH phai bier den cam giac cue khach hang ye viec ket thtic meiquan he ceng tae. Day c6 the la thdi diem khO khan cho ca khach hang vanhan vien CTXH, toy nhien, su chd trong vao the manh cua khach hang,kha nang, su thanh cOng va mang ludi trd ginp se giup ich trong viec lamgiant bat nhung kho khan a giai doan ket that, Trong plutong phap dua vaothe manh, dieu quan trong dei vdi khach hang la su can thiep. Dieu nay c6the xay ra vi met phan ton thdi gian da trei qua, hoac vi khach hang camthay ho dang d met diem ket thtic tel. Cho du nhu the nao thi khfich hangcling phai tham gia vao qua trinh quyei dinh. Thgc hanh dua vao the manhkitting Ong he ski phu thuec, khach hang thong qua qua trinh can thiep dadua ra guy& dinh va c6 cam gide tet vg su doe lap ctia manh. Poulin (2005) tim ra hai ki nang thkic hanh chinh cho qua trinh ketthilc. Ki nang thit nhat la khai quat, trong do khach hang dude trd gin) dechuyen nhiing gi ho hoc dude toi nhung tinh hueng khae. Ki nang thfi hai laxdo dinh cac bit& tier) theo, nghia la khach hang dat ke hoach cho nhung giBee xay ra tiep theo sau khi giai doan can thiep ket thtic. Trong giai doankhai quat, nhan vien CTXH se xet lai nhung Mt& lien trien vdi khach hangva ban vg nhung viec co the thay trong hoan canh khac. Trong viec xae dinhcac lutdc tiep theo, nhan vien CTXH co the yeu cau khach hang xem cac k6hoach sau giai doan ket thuc clang nhu trd gnip khach hang xac dinh xemnthing thay dei nao cO the chile duy tri. !That huy nOi Iuc cho phu nit De co the hieu dude vai trO cua viec phat huy nisi trong cuec sagcua phu nu, cluing to phai hieu dude van de khong dude nam quy6n ma phunit tintang phai throng dau. Trong nhieu xa hei tren the glen, vai trO cua phunu dude xem kern quan trong hdn nam gidi. Cong the Ica hei tit lau da coiphu nii la dei tudng bi ten anteing, Si tiep can cua ho vdi cac nguOn lyekhae bi han the do khong dude nam gift nMing vi tri quyen lkic quan trong.Rappaport (1985) dinh nghia phat huy nei hie nhu lh thitc kiem soat cuee234
  • 233. song vg nhan each, y thitc, deng lye. N6 the hien ban than a mite do camgiac, mite dg y tudng vg sit gia tri, mUc de c6 the tao ra sit kha.c biet trongthe gi6i xung quanh. Tat ca chilng ta dgu tigm tang sa hitu no. Dinh nghia nay clua trong den khai niem v6 cam giac ben trong cuavan de bi yea the do nhung yeti t6 ben trong va ben ngoai. Theo thuyetGlenma (1998), ba dieu kien anh huffing den van de phu nu bi yen the. Xa rei ban than Phu nit thuang the giau nhUng cam giac t6 ti, bell cue c6 the anhMiang den sit to trong %Ta gifi tri ciia ho. Dieu nay dart dgn vice ho tv techminh ra khai chinh ban than con ngudi thtic va thuong bi nhung stt ap bitenhgt dinh, vi du nhu bi rap khuen, bi kiem che vg van boa, bi lam dungtinh due che ngtt cuoc sling cita ho. Bi tr6i bugc ca hai ang Bi troi buec ca hai dang la vi tri nguai phu nit thuang hi mac ket Jaikhi ho buec phai guy& dinh gala nhu cau cua chinh by va dinh kien xa herye ho. Glenmaye (1998), dtta ra vi du v6 mot phi nit chon each a nha N:1i conma khOng di lam. Met vai ngitai se cho rang ce ta loot bieng hoc khong bieteach kiem sang, nhung n6u co ta chon each di lam, mOt se ngUoi se cho rangcO ta khang cham sec con tai. VA cho du c6 guy& dinh nhu the nao, nguaiphu nil Van cam they co 161, khOng chu dao va a mite dg sau Min la to coiminh 1a mot phu nit that bai. Day la tinh hue -11g bi tr6i bugs hai dang.Nhung dinh kien ciaa xa hei da dat phu nu vao tinh hu6ng bat kha khang. Sy phan biet gidi tinh trong cac th6 ch6 chinh sach Trong xa h6i My van con ton tai sv phan biet gidi tinh trong cac theehe chinh sack. Viec nam gidi chiem uu the trong cac he thong kinh te, xahei va cac he thong kher da ngan can phu MI gift cac vi tri quan trong.Glenmaye cho rang au phan cling quygn 1pc bgt binh ding cling th hien rotrong luat phap, trong linh aye kinh te, dia vi ca nhan va nhieu linh vackhac khien cho phu nit la nan nhan cua ban Itic do nam gidi. Nhung y6u t6 tren da day nguai phu nit ra xa khai nking vi tri quygnthe va tech ho ra khai con ngudi that. Va that va, y eau hai dat ra la nhan vien CTXH lam nhu the nao dephat huy nei hie cho phu nit. Mac du c6 nhigu bai bao, sach va da de cap 235
  • 234. dgn van de nay, có met s6 ygu to dude coi IA quan trong trong viec phat huynei hie eho phu MI a giai doan can thiep. Phuong phap phat huy nei hie chophu n>t da matt cua Gutierrez la quan trong trong chign ludo nay. Phuongphap cua ba eho rang nhom Ong tee nen dupe tiu Hen. BA nhan thdy cacnh6m nhO la mOi Huang hoan hao trong phat trim nhan thfic, trp gitip fannhau, phat trim ki nang va giai quygt yen a va met each li Luang chokhach hang thq hien kha Ming anh huang den ngoai khac cua minh. BA connhan manh ve tam quan Hong cua mgi quan he trci giup ceng tar. Thongqua m6i quan hg nay, ski Wong tee nen dim Hen sii trung thkic, ton trongIn nhau, ski giao tiep e6i ma va than tinh. Ban than khach hang cling cóthe ttfi phat huy nOi Ipc cho minh thong qua mei quan he vdi viec nhan viersCTXH da trd gitip khach hang cilia nhfing thenh cOng cua ho ra ben ngoai. Nhfing ki nang trong phuong phap dm Gutierrez nhu sau: Ch6p nhan each dinh nghia ye van a dm khach hang Khi ban chSp nhan each dinh nghia vd van de cua khach hang nghialA ban dang chSp nhan ski kigm soat tinh hu6ng cua ho. Nhu vey khachhang dupe tre gidp tki ghat huy nei hie va to can thiep. Chfnh digu do datao cho khach hang co cd hei lam chn cues seng cua ho trong tinh huengkhO khan hay cang thang. Tim ki6m va phat huy the manh sSn c6 Khi tim ra va phat huy the manh san có cua khach hang, nhan vienCTXH da lam tang kha nang va thg manh san ea cua ho. DSi vOi phu nu,nhan thSy kha nang va thanh Gong cua ho trong xa hei se HO gitip ho nhiguhdn khi ra ngoai. Tham gia phan tich ve quyen ban trong tinh Wing cua khach hang Su phan tich nay bao g6m viec doe ki tinh huSng cua khach hang. NObat dau bang each phan tich viec bi yeu the se anh hang nhu the nag dentinh hugng cua khach hang. Vige phan tich nay kheng chi xem xet ene dieukien, tinh hugng cA nhan ma con ea cac dieu kien khac ben ngoai xa hei datune 1)6 quygn We a phu nu. Bugg tigp theo la tim ra nhilng the manh tigmtang trong tinh huCing cua khach hang. Nhang thg manh tim tang nay c6thq tim thay t8 chinh trong tinh hugng cua khach hang va ben ngoai xa hei.Ski an bue va quydn lue IA nhcing ygu t6 quan trong xoay quanh cuec sang236
  • 235. cua phu nu, b6 qua nhung digu nay la khong trd ginp ho trong qua trinhphat huy nqi hie, Dao tao ki Wang co bin Khi nhan vien CTXH dao tao cho khach hang cac kl nang co ban,nghia la ho da trang bi cho khach hang nhfing phitong phap t6t nho dokhach hang c6 the Wet qua van de ygu thg cua ho va c6 the kiem soat dudetinh huoing hien tat Phu n3 Co the on dung cac ki nang nhu giai quygt vandg, lam cha me, ki nang to chile nham phat huy nei lift cho chfnh mink. Huy dgng cac ngu6n lift va Ong vien khach hang Khi chfing to huy dOng the ngu6n lkic va deing vien khach hang, nghiafa chung to dang dao tao cho ho c6 kf Mang do neu cluing to thkic hien trentinh than tre gitip ho phai huy nqi lac. Phat huy ngi Igc cho khach hang la nguen cao tued Can thiep cho khach hang la ngq6i cao tu&i trong xa hei t3 Ian chixoay quanh the vain dg vg y te. Khoang giiia nhiing nam 80, nhOm nwitoi c6tuee to 65 tra len la 12%. Den nam 2030, con so" nay se tang len la 22%.Nhu cau cem nhOm ngudi nay la m6i quan tam lem nhat vi ho song lau hqnva yen can co ski cham sec hang ngay ding cac dich vu y tg. Smith vaEggleston cho rang nhung ngudi gia van mu6n la nguai c6 ich va dude thinghien cho xa hqi, khong bi co lap va mugn co el.* song binh thuang. N6uxem xet cac vain do va nhu cau cem khfich hang cao tu6i thi khong e6 gi ngacnhien khi thAy rang ho Juan cam thaly khOng co quygn lac gi. Nhung khachhang cao tuSi thuaing c6 xu huung bi ha gia tri trong xa hqi, phAn IOn la doho khOng c6 viec lam a mot xa hei coi trong ding viec. Mac du co the canhung thai d6 khac nhau tuY theo tang lien van hoe, nh3ng khach hangcao tu6i trong xa hei cim chting to thtiong khong dude kinh trong. Ho c6 khieOn bi xem la nhfing ngdai bi "be di". Chfnh xa hei da tao ft c0 hei cho ho c6the t3 phat huy nei Can thiep trong viec phat huy nea lye cho khach hang cao tugi canphai clt3t sv tv guy& la trung tam. Su to quygt lam cho khach hang cao tugic6 the to kiem scat lai emic song ciita ho. Mac del c6 nhung tinh hugng ski diquygt khong mang lai kit qua, digu quan trong la nhan vien CTXH phaibigt dude nhung tinh hugng ma ngitai gia cO the thia ra nhfing quy& dinh vi 237
  • 236. c6 nhung quyet dinh thuOc vg chuyen gia y tg. Tuy nhien theo quan diem vgphat huy not luc, viec dua ra guy& dinh nen cO su cOng tac ena ea hai benbgt ki khi nao c6 the. Nhan vien CTXH ding can phai nhan ra nth- g tinh mhu6ng ma khAch hang cao wen c6 the dua ra dude guy& dinh hoot tao ranhUng tinh huOng ma khach hang cao tu6i c6 the tham gia trong viec guy&dinh. Fast va Chaplin gdi y cat phlidng phap sau có the ap dung: Ca nhan hoa viec danh gia va len k6hoach Trong ca nhan hod viec danh gia va len kg hoach, khach hang cao tuotduct xem nhtt met ca nhan rieng biet vdi nhung pligm chgt va the manhrieng. Mai quan he gitia khach hang cao tuen va nhan vien CTXH nen duatren ski tin along Ian nhau. Khi nhan vien CTXH danh gia va len kg hoachvdi met ca nhan, nghia Ia ho dang tim kigm va thila nhan nthling phAm chgtca nhan do, tim each tao cho khach hang c6 su dude su Mem soot del vatet* song cua no. Tim d6n ngu6n try gitip khac trong Ong long Tim kiem ngu6n trd giup khac la mei quan tam dei vdi khach hangcao tuei. Nhan vien CTXH can phai lam viec vii khach hang de tim ranhUng nguen 14c nay va gitip ho thy thoai mai vdi viec dung nhung nguentry gitip tren. Hdn nita, su tr0 gilip ca nhan cua nhan vien CTXH trong viec timkigm nhUng nguan try gitip khhe se tau ra met su thay d6i ion cho khachhang cao Wei. Mac du khach hang la nguai quygt dinh c6 tip nhan su trogiiip cua ban hay khong, ban cling luon phai de nghi gitip do. Dat kl hoach cho khUng hoing cap Khi lam viec vii khach hang, didn quan trong la phai trci gitip ho lenkg hoach cho nhung khUng hoang cap. Dieu nay cho phep khach hang c6the quygt dinh trudc khi tinh hugng khAn cap xay ra. Cyng tac lien tyc va digu chinh su quan tam Nhan vien CTXH lam viec vdi khach hang cao tuei can phai cO kghoach lien tut de lien lac va tong tac vdi ho. nit nay khong deng nghia vdiviec that 66 m6i quan he vdi khach hang ma la gitip khach hang tim kigm sutrd giup khde la khong dU. Dieu quan trong la phai phat huy dole themanh cua khach hang thOng qua viec tip rac tinting xuyen.238
  • 237. Phat huy th6 manh cho khach hang la nguti clang tinh Trong nhigu xa hei, nhilng ngttai d6ng tinh rei rang la khong co quygnhan. Delois (1997) lieu goi moi nguei ehu Y rang nhung nguei dgng tinh darat tich cute tham gia trong viec dai quygn binh ding. Be goi y rang khi metnguei tong khai vg tinh trang gioi tinh cua minh thi re rang nguei nay datham gia vao qua trinh dOi quygn binh ding. Tuy nhien khong phai ai clingding khai flint vay vi ho lo so bi mat gia dinh, mat (tong vies, mat quyencham soc con cai, sa vao tinh trang trim cam va nghien ruqu, bi si nhuc. Chinh nhilng van dg nhu the da day nhilng ngubi &kg tinh vao tinhtrang bi de nen va khang có quyen binh ding. Khi tre glop khach hang la nhiing nguM dCing tinh, nhan vien CTXHcan phai gifip da ho chap nhan Dive te ho la ai, deing thUi xec dinh nhilnghoan canh, tinh hugng ma khach hang cam thy bi yen the nhgt va tim eachMtip ho y tithe vg ban than va to ten trong nhu met con nguot. Barret vaLogan (2002) goi nhan vien CTXH can phai tht.tc hien nhiing viec nhu sau: 1. Kham phi va thu thach voi nhting dinh kik vg clOng 2. Tao cho khach hang la d6ng tinh nu c6 co hei tik xuc vdi cac tong deng nu gi6i. 3. Hik va dinh gia cao sti Mao khan cila viec chap nhan xu htteng tinh (Inc d6ng gidi. Delois (1997) dua ra nhilng goi sau khi tro giap khach hang deng tinh: Tao ra mat lien minh tin cay Ian nhau trong mat moi tracing an toangiCra nhan vien CTXH yea khach hang d6ng tinh Mot quan he gia nhan vien CTXH vdi khach hang phai dua tren ngntang cim stt tin cay va try gidp. Nhan vien CTXH can tao cho khach hang comet mei trueng khang chi chap nhan ho ma con ling he tinh trang gioi tinhcUa ho, phai can thief) dung phticing phap phat huy thg manh cfmg nhu lacac platOng phap khac de có th6 dung tree lap truang dei quy6n loi chokhach hang vg luat phap va chinh tri. Trd ghip khach hang nhan that dirdc cac yeu t6 xa hiii trong cu*csang va giap ha throng dau vdi chong Khach hang del khi kheng nhan thfic duct cac yeu t6 xa hei có anhhttong nhu the" ilk den cues song ben trong cua ho. Tro giup khach hang 239
  • 238. tim ra nhiing anh huang nay va dtking dau vdi chting la mot qua trinh quantrong trong thuc hanhphat huy the manh. Lam vi9c vdi khach hang dd tr9 gitip h9 c6 daqc ski Ung h6 va c6 kinang huy d6ng de dhu tranh doi guy6n hqp phap ve chinh tri Nhan vien CTXH phai lam viec trong cac he thgng phap luat va chinhtri nham keu goi s i d6i xi cling bang cho ngUdt &Mg tinh. Ho cling can trygitip khach hang hidu dttOc vai tro cim luat phap trong cu 6c sang va giup .khach hang huy citing cac nguOn va tham gia tich eye trong vie, c tao rasp thay d6i a )(A hOi. Dam bac) rang ban than nhan vien CTXH phai hi6u dodo qua trinh bide nen cga nhting ngudi d6ng tinh Nhan vien CTXH co trach nhiem quan trong trong vieh thu that) hidu bigt xung quanh vain khach hang clang tinh. NhAn vienCTXH tang their hi eu &toe vain de ho tang co cd hqt tro gitlp khach hang .dude cot hon. Tim kiim six thay d‘i trong cac to chat nhhm tra gin) khach hangIra c6 th6 cung cap cac dich vu tro giup Cac trung tam cung cap dich vu xa h6i clang phai tao ra met m6itrUang thuan Iqi khong chi cho khach hanrg ma cho ca nhan vien CTXH.Ho có troth nhikm ung 110 quyen cho khach hang va nhan vien CTXHtrong va ngoai to chit°. TOM di Chuang nay tim ra dinh nghia ve Oat huy nei lue Hale hanh dua vain ,thg manh va tam quan trong dm no dgi viii thuc hanh cong Lac xa hqi. Conhieu quan didm khi ban d6n phat huy not lye trong thpc hanh cong tac xa Tuy nhien mot s6 diem chung duct nhan they ntni sau: 1. Tam quan trong cua the trung tam hoac cac chming trinh duy triquan didm thuc hanh phat huy n6i lye trong khi lam vieh vdi khach hang. 2. Duy tri sy tham gia cua khach hang trong n6 Ong tac. 3. Xay Ong the manh.240
  • 239. 4. Chu trong van dac diem rieng biet caa khach hang. 5. Dua vao the manh cua khach hang va cong dang cim hp. 6. Hieu biet cua nhan vien CTXH ve cac van de SA nhan lien quan denvin yen the va phut huy not Mae du thtth hanh cong tac xa hei dii0c Lien hanh bang nhieu mo hinhkhac nhau, cac quy tac chinh sau can phai dU0c duy tri: 1. Mai met ca nhan, nhom, cong clang va gia dinh deu có the manh. 2. Mai ngUdi deu c6 kha nang phAt trien the manh. 3. M6i quan he cong viec va sty cong tac cua nhan vien CTXH vdikhach hang la yeti to quan trong trong s>t thanh cong. 4. NhAn vien CTXH can phai biet den nhung the manh to nguan lyekhac cua khach hang. TWic hanh cong tac xa hei hao gam can Mt& nhap cuec, danh gia, canthiep va ket thuc. Trong giai doan can thiep, cac Id nang cu the có the ghipban tao dung the manh va kha nang cho khach hang. Nhung Id nang naygam: ki nang &Sing dau, thdc diy, earn ket, dna trong vao trong tam, xemxet ssi mau thuan trong td tUong, then tap Lai, thy dung cat truyen, taodung va Ming cac nguan tro gitip khac, khen ngoi sit thanh ding. Khi lam viee Nth khach hang bi ap Mk, nhan vien CTXH can hien tamquan trong dm can yeu t6 khac nhd tao dung mei quan he tin cay viingchat, chap nhan hien thtfc Ye ban than khach hang, chit trong vao the manh cua khach hang va cong clang cna ho, lam viec hOp tac, danh gia khach hang va van de cua ho tren quan diem tang the gam ban than khach hang, gia dinh, ceng clang va xa hei, duo tao cho khach hang the ki nang co ban de lam viec trong mOi trdang cua ho, tre giup khach hang huy Ong cac nguan We trci gisip ho. 241
  • 240. Ch wing 7 TANG CONG VIEC THIIC HIEN CHOC NANG CUA GIA DiNH Steven, 13 tudi, dztac me duo den trung tam to vein gia dinh. Trude dayla mat sink vien gidi , gi t day Steven dang bi didm tritat vet tit chat di hoc. Mecga Steven, chi Levett, da li than vdi cha em sau thcing, dang ve cling tuyetvong. Nhitng Me khan cua Steven bat dein each day khoeing mat newt. Theolai me em me td thi do la mat "viec bat nget", khi Steven mang ve nha todndidm kern vet bi duel hoc vi ddnh nhau. Mety thcing sau do moi th0 con to hemvat Steven bi duai hoc them hai lan niia. Chi Levett nal rang hanh vi cuaSteven mat phdn nguyen nhan dein den su li than gilla chi vet thong chi. Thue hanh trong gia dinh luon la met phgn cua CTXH. Bat datt vdi cac Co chic cung cap nha a tinh thttong vat to chdc tit thien, cac nhan vien CTXH a My trong ea hai linh vkic nay da lam vice vdi co. nhan thong qua gia - dinh cua ho. Cite nha tinh attiring bat &au lap ra t8 nit a cal nhiing narn 1800 vat ket hop gia dinh thanh mOt nen tang a tao ra the thay trong cling d8ng vat xa hei. Nha a tinh thttong gitip cac gia dinh (tIntang la the gia dinh clan nhap cu) xich lai gAn nhau trong met khu vue de enng dau tranhcho nhung thay dpi trong dieu khen xa hOih. Ngoai ra day con la cac trung tam ndi the ea nhan vat gia dinh cal the chia se nen tang van hoa vdi nhauvat hoc nhling ki nang men de cung hoa nhap vat xa hOi my. Cac nhan vienCTXH a cac nha a tinh finking giAi guy& nhung kho khan do cac dieu kienxa hei tao ra trong quy me gia dinh ma mot ea nhan khong the kiem soat&loc. Mat khae, cac t6 chic xa hOi do nhung ngubi lam vice thien thanh lapde cung cSp tai trd vat dich vu cho nhang gia dinh con gap nhigu kh6 khan.Reverend Gurteen, mat Etna Wang cua Episcopaly da thanh lap hiep hei titthien dau tier nam 1877 a Mg. Tien quyen &toe tit the ea nhan vat t6 chitctit thien dude trao cho the gia dinh ding vdi su to van a the ea nhan Nt giadinh to lo lay cuOc song cua minh. Viet to van nay dtla tren nigm tin rangcac ca nhan can phai e6 tranh nhiem vg hoen cant cua chinh minh, Popple. P., & Leighninge L. (2002). Social work, social welfare, and Americansociety. Boston: Ally and Bacon.242
  • 241. Cong tat vdi cac gia dinh la float dog cua Hiep hot Dich vu Gia dinh(Family Service Association — FSA). Hiep hei nay hat dau hoat dang nath 1911 va tap trung vao viec giai guy& cac truth-1g hap vg gia dinh va tre em.Mary Richmond, met nguoi tien phong vg xu li trtiong hdp va la thAnh vienmaa phong trao to chite to thien, da dau tranh da mang lai sg can thiepCTXH cho cac gia dinh trong thai ki khdi dau. Khi xa hoi bat dau httOngdgn cuec song tot dep hdn cho cac ca nhan, nhung to chic phtic ldi do chinhphu ling ho bat dau no re khap nude My. Chc nhan vien CTXH la nhungnguai có chuyen man chinh lien quan den phtic ldi danh cho tre em, va tangviec cua ho lien quan true tip tdi pink ldi cua tre em va gia dinh. Cacchuung trinh dau lien nay trong &Ong tat xa hei gia dinh da trai ra nhigulinh vuc khac, du do la cong tat vdi cac tre em dang digu tri nam vien, vdicac cu gia trong trai &tang Tao, hay vat cac cd quan bao ye tre em. Nhanvien CTXH phai danh nhigu thei gian de tap trung Arno van de gia dinh. Muc dich c6a chudng nay la cung cap met cal nhin t6ng quan vg thgchanh CTXH trong gia dinh va nhung khai niem tat Ong den pinicing phapthge hien tang tac gia dinh. Tri lieu gia dinh Trong nhung thap nien 1940 va 1950, tri lieu gia dinh tra thanh metloci can thiep tri lion chinh. Nhung nha 11 thuygt hoc not danh tren khapnude My (tit cac linh vuc khac nhau bao g6m tam than hoc, tam li hoc vanhan vien CTXH) bat dau lei den gia dinh nhu mot phttOng tien giai quygtcac van dg tam li cho cd nhan. Khi Bowen va Minuchin, d be bin Bang,dang phat trien phudng phap tigp can rieng cua ho de tri lieu cho gia dinh,thi met s6ngtini khac (Bateson, Haley, Satir) ding dang lam ding ding viecdo a ha bien Tay. Trong lieu phap gia dinh, li thuyet gia dinh chigm met vaiIre quan trong. Li thuygt nay cho rang vi ca nhan hoat ding truck hgt trongmet he thgng gia dinh, ban than mgi gia dinh co the la met khach hang choqua trinh can thiep CTXH. Li thuygt nay mac nhien chkp nhan cite van eigea nhan khong hinh thanh ti than khong ma midt phat tit mei quan ho vatcac van de khac vein la met phen dm met he thgng Ion hal (gia dinh) vachRc nang cua no. Cac khai niem khai guat ve can he thdng Tu viec xem gia dinh la met phan cua he thgng len, met so khai niemkhac bat dau xuat hien trong tri lieu gia dinh dga trail li thuygt khai quat 243
  • 242. ye cac he tilting. Met s6 khai them khai quat ye cac he thiing thUang thayxuat hien trong nhieu mo hinh khac nhau ve tri lieu gia dinh bao gem todieu chinh (Homeostasis), chum phan EMI L the ranh gidi, thehe thgng donghoar ma, the he tilting nhO, cac vai trO ya cac guy tac (cling khai va&Ong khai). Its di6u chinh (Homeostasis) La "xu huang caa the he thong e6 gang duy tri trong met trang thaiquail binh va can bang". Trong met he thong gia dinh et) su can bang giClacd cau NIA cac chile nang. Chang han, met mO hinh gia dinh co the lam nguaichOng say rtiOu, ngUai vo can nhan va d3a tre ham hkic v6 su mau thuAnnay. Viet xao tren me hinh nay se lam mat can bang he thting gia dinh vakhien gia dinh tim kigm cac each mai a duy tri mei quart he va hanh vi canbang. Chang han met ngttai elating hay nguoi cha ngiing say rUou nhungngttai ve van mugn duy tri met each vo thilc ed eau quygn It.ic trong giadinh. De dam bao, chi tim nhang HUI khae a can nhan thong va dGa tretip tue ham htle d@ phan itng lai su mau thuan van tiep dien gitla cha me.Ski can bang trong hanh vi va cac me hinh gia dinh ce the IA lanh manhhoac thieu lanh manh nhu da neu trong vi du tren la dien hinh. Chu& phin h6i Chu& phan 116i la nhcing the dog qua lai gala cac thanh vien tronggia dinh. Chang han, moi gia dinh có met me hinh giao tiep nhat dinh khikhiing hoang then ra. Vi du, ba me khai dau met chuai cac thong diep earthbao thanh vien trong gia dinh rang con trai va con dau dang cO van de taichinh 16n. Nguai me co the bat dau bang each len tieng v6i con gai minh.Ngudi con gai den luot co, tra nen that vong (chu6i phan hoi) va dgn gap b6de" giAi toA (chuOi phan hoi). Ngtibi cha sau de c6 the goi cho nguai me Ong(tue la ha nei cim eau con trai), sau do ngUdi ba lai goi cho va cua chau neiva mang mO (chuei phan 11.6i) chi to ve vise lam gia dinh lo Fang. Loai mOhinh nay có the xAy ra moi khi eó khiing hoang. Chu& phan hoi la nhangchuei giao tigp vdi moi mat xich not vao. Nhang nha tri lieu gia dinh thushanh phai danh moi no lttc d6 hieu the me hinh ye. phan Ung giao tie"p cuthe eith met gia dinh. Hull, G.. & Nather, J. (2005). Understanding generalist practice with families. PacificGrove. CA: Brooks/Cole.244
  • 243. Cac ranh gidi Cac ranh gioi la nhung &tang Chia cat vO hinh ma cac ca nhan va giadinh sit dung cho ho trong giao tien va khoang each ca nhAn. Met so giadinh co nhiing ranh gidi dinh hinh rd rang va khong de cho bat ki ai khanbode vao gia dinh. Cac hoat deng dude chin ra trong gia dinh va có it thongtin dude nhan hay gdi di vdi he thgng ben ngoai gia dinh. Trong met giadinh hay vdi the ca nhan co flitting ranh gi6i long leo, flitting nguai khac cothd biel nhiing chi tigt rieng to hay dude phep bode vao khong each giadinh hay ed nhan ma kh8ng co gi6i han nao ca. Nhung ranh gidi v8 hinhnay dticic coi nhu ngoai gat tong cho nhfing thong tin di vao hay ra khOihe thong. Cac ho: th6ng dong hoac m6 Cac he th6ng gia dinh c6 the thing hoac in6. Khi met he clang gia dinhdung, nhung ngttai ngoai khOng dude phep boot vao va nth -Mg nguai bentrong khong tham gia vao the hoat (king ben ngoai. Chang han, met giadinh khOng cho phep tre em tham gia vao the hoat do, ng ngoai khoa hay chophep nhung tre khac ghe vao chili nha. Khi he thgng ma thi ngtidc laise co stt trao d6i haat doi ng. Tre em va nguaii 16n co nhiing ea hei thamgia giao tip vdi nhting nguoi khac. Moi ngoai se di va vg nha thuangxuyen. Wit he thOng co the Fa qua ma hoAc qua (long, vi du nhu khi met n tre khong bao gia a nhg hoac khong bao gia dude phep di ra khOi nha ddlam vies gi doe lap. Cac gia dinh lanh manh thuang ap dung met he thgngcan bang gitia thing va ma. He th6ng nh6 He thong nha trong met gia dinh then ra khi met s6 thanh vien trongnh6m dOi khi phan del hoac tranh dua vdi the thanh vien khac. Met heth6ng nh6 c6 the bao g6m mot ngttai trong gia dinh boat dung met minh.Nhting he th6ng nha thudng hinh thanh theo the he, gi6i, va c6 clang sathich. B6 me trong met gia dinh thuong hinh thAnh nhfing hee, thOng nhO makhong bao g6m nhting nguoi khac tham gia vao the thong tin hay hoat deng e,nhat dinh. Turing tu, tre em trong me, t gia dinh có thd hinh thanh nhilng he va lien kgt nha giatu 66 me m6t s6 thong tin nhat dinh. Cac thanh Becvar, D.. & Becvar, R. (2003). Family therapy (5th edi). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 245
  • 244. vien ca nhAn trong gia dinh co the la met phan dm met vai he thong nh6nha dinh. He thgng nhO la met phan thong thuang cua dai song gia dinh, vachi khi cac lien minh hi pha thi mai can phai suy nghi lai ye thong. Changhan, met he thgng nh6 khong lAnh manh nay sinh khi met nal/6i cha hoacme va met dita con vao phe vai nhau khong cho ngtiai cha/me kia vao. Nguaicha/me do da hinh thAnh met he tligng nha (long vai ngttai cha/me kia. Cac vai tro Cac vai tre la nhung me hinh hanh vi dude thktc hien bai met thanhvien gia dinh theo met nh6m cac mong main da duck dinh san. Met thanhvien gia dinh co the clang nhieu vai tre (nhung khOng giai han), vi ducha/me, con, ngtiai kigm sang cho gia dinh, ngttai lai xe. Nhung vai trO mamet thAnh vien co dude co the ngan can hoac tre glut) cho ca nhan do tronggia dinh theo mite do, vai Era hanh vi. Chang han, vai tre nguai cha (Woegan cho la nguai kigm song, tuy nhien, neu nguai cha ma vies va tra nenphu thuec vao vi, anh co the cam thay minh ye gia tri vi anh da khong thkichien dude vai tro nhtt duct mong Cac quy tic Cac quy tat hoat dung cUa he thgng duct lam nen tit cac me hinh tinheach trong he thOng l . Cac quy tAc phan anh gia tri ena he thgng cling nIntgiai thich cho nhung hanh vi dude mong ddi a mai ngitai trong gia dinh.Trong met he gia dinh, c6 ea nhiing quy tAc cong khai vA quy tat khOngacing khai. Quy tat ding khai la nhung quy tdc rd rang, dude ding nhan vathao luan tong khai. Chang han, met gia dinh co nhung quy tat cong khaivg gia gidi nghiem, yeu eau xin phep neal can ra ngoai, phai thao Wan khimua bat ki man d6 nao tren 3.000.000 clang, thai gian c6 dinh cho cac bUaan. Cac nguyen tat khong cong khai khong duct not ra nhung mei thanhvien gia dinh deu bigt. Chang han, khi ngitai Ian hi vong met dita tre dudetat ca cac diem 8 tra len hay phai dgn an t6i tai nha Ong ba mei Chia nhat,nhung khong not true tigp ra thi do la cac quy tat khong cong khai. Cac quytat gia dinh khOng cong khai co the kho nhan ra ngu nmiai a ngoai nhin vaogia dinh. Becver va Becvar, 2003. trg. 69246
  • 245. Cac mii hinh doe nhet Cac mo hinh doe nhat bat dau phat trien trong tri lieu gia dinh khicac nha If thuyet hat dau kiem tra nhung y Wang rieng cna ho va thuchanh hieu biet ve inning khai niem khai (mat ve he thong. Met s6 nhiingmo hinh thtiOng thay hdn bao gem tri lieu gia dinh theo cd eau, tri lieu theokinh nghiem, tri lieu theo chitin hipc, tri lieu theo nhan thiic-hanh vi, trilieu theo gia dinh theo phan tam hoc va cac tri lieu hau hien dai. Phan tieptheo dem lai met tong quan vg cac mo hinh khac nhau va phiaing pita() cacmo hinh nay tee &Ong den thkic hanh tri lieu gia dinh. Tri lieu gia dinh Bowenia Tri lieu gia dinh Bowenia do Murray Bowen phat trien trong thapnien 1950. La met nha tam than hoc a Vien Nghien eau Sac khoe tam thanQueic gia My, Bowen da clan dau met du an danh gia tri lieu gia dinh datmet benh vien vOi cac thanh vien gia dinh bi tam than phan each. V6iBowen, tam quan trong cua gia dinh khong diem chit khi met ngitai ]on Ionva roi gia dinh; cac mei quan he gia dinh tier) tuc c6 y nghia Mating ke hoancanh gia dinh nhti the nao. Ve If thuyet, Bowen tin rang "gia dinh la metmang hJdi cac m6i quan he da the he, hinh thanh ski anh htieing fan nhau vgca nhan va cling su dung eau khai niem long vao nhau (Bowen, 1966): skikhac biet hoa vg ban than, tam gia.c, qua trinh tinh cam gia dinh hat nhan,qua trinh phemg chieu gia dinh, qua trinh truygn da the he, va vi trf anhchi em flier (Nichols va Schwartz, 2004, trg. 121). Diem meu eh& cua if thuyet caa. Bowen la ski khac biet hoa ban than.Khai niem nay not den kha nang cfla ca nhan giai thoht khOi nhang van decei nguem gia dinh, cO the tti guy& va thkic hien chic tot nang trong cac meiquan he gia dinh hien tai. Thong qua cac mgi quan he via su thkic hien chicnang ca nhan hien tai, gia dinh c6 the vudt qua cac van de ve the N• vading phan dAu vi quygn to quygt cila m6i ca nhan. 50 d6 the he (the Mentrong phan eau caa chtidng) la mot ding cu thitang dude sit dung trong vicetim hieu lien quan den li thuyet nay va nhang If thuyet khac. Tri lieu gia dinh theo cgu true Thong tri lieu gia dinh, Lieu diem la he thong gia dinh (he theng nhO,cac ranh gi6i, cac tang lop va cac vai tro) va pinicing phap ceu true tae dengteti d6ng lift gia dinh. Salvador Minuchin thtiong lien he tai ii thuyet nay. 247
  • 246. Ben canh viec sita dgi cac khai niem, Minuchin cling kgt hop nhung khiacanh tit if thuygt he thOng sinh thai, tri lieu mang ludi va met vai phudngphap khde (Franklin va Jordan, 1999). Minuchin (1974) tin rang ea eau giadinh IA "mot nhom vo hinh cac nhu thu chile nang to chic each tac dengqua lai cua cac thanh vien gia dinh" (trg. 51). Theo Minuchin, met thu true gia dinh e6 the dude dinh nghia bang cache thgng nhO, each the lap cac ranh gidi hay cac vai tr.& Bang each the clangvao nhung eau true nay trong the bugi hop tri lieu gia dinh do kheng chophep nhilng me hinh giao tigp lap lai throe day then ra nua, Minuchin tinrang su thay dgi e6 the (lien ra trong met gia dinh cling vdi so Midng dgnnhUng giao ti6p lanh manh. Chang han, ngu trong met gia dinh ngudicha/me va dila eon vac phe vdi nhau khong cho ngudi cha/me kia tham gia,chuyen gia tri lieu se tao ra sy thay doi the ng6i trong phong. Dieu nay c6the del hOi ngudi can be thoc hanh ehuyen dita tre to vi tri canh ngudicha/m9 cling phe d6n ng6i canh ngudi eha/me bi ra ria. Thong qua nhunghoat deng nhu vay, Minuchin tim each chi ra cd thu suy y6u chic nAng vakhuy6n khfch thay dgi bang each ehuyen dgi loai hinh giao tigp. Tri lieu theo kinh nghiem Tri lieu gia dinh theo kinh nghiem dua tren the khia canh eiia tam lihoc nhan van, nhan manh vao ski dien to cam the va tam quan trong cuagiao tigp lien nhan. Phan Ion tri lieu di kern vdi me hinh nay la cimVirginia Satir va Carl Whitaker. Whitaker tin Wang manh me rang s‘t phattrien cua ea nhan la met phan ldn cua tri lieu gia dinh gigng nhu hoa hopgia dinh (Nichols va Schwartz, 2001). Veli phudng phap nay, cac thAnh viergia dinh ditOc khich le sang tao vA san sang thay dgi thong qua the kinhnghiem chung vdi nhau. Vi vay, tieu dMm cua thus hanh la chi hien huu vaco ft thai gian danh cho qua khd. Muc tieu eim thOe hanh tra thanh phattrien ch. nhan Intang toi so tithe day ban than. Nhung thay d6i c6 tinh sangtao trong the eh nhan va gia dinh chtOc coi la met phan cfm so phat trignnay. Trong ban than s>t can thiep, cac nha tri lieu me hinh hoa va sa (long dimg dgn ban than" de gthp gia dinh tim dude cac phudng phap songkhae. Cach thue hien phudng pha "so dung d6n ban than" la nhan vienCTXH su dung ban than minh vA sO tac clang cua hoan canh de dap laikhach hang met each thong cam. Thong qua the ki thuat sang tao, nhung248
  • 247. nha tri lieu c6 the three xem la e6 kha nang tao ra su thay dOi thong qua skithong minh va sang Lao cua minh. TO lieu gia dinh theo chi6n Itigc MO hinh tri lieu gia dinh nay thtffing duce coi la tic pham ciaa JayHaley, Ong tin rang cac 4 kien eim khaeh hang tau ra va duy tri the van degia dinh. Trong tri lieu gia dinh theo co eau, trong tam cim vice can thiep laski hieu bigt v@ the then chiing da dude xac dinh cila benh nhan va gin chochting S nghia. Nhung trieu chiing nay dude coi la Ica qua dm cac kh6 khanve phan cap trong gia dinh. Trong trtffing hop c6 met lien minh gifia met cha/me va chia con, Haley cho rang trieu chiing hay rat rgi trong metgia dinh xuat Men de duy tri met cAu true Cu the (Hull va Mather, 2005).Trieu chiing sau do tra thanh trong tam cim tri lieu, gia dinh tim each dethay clef trieu chung va to do thay d6i tinh hinh gia dinh. Gia dinh cling dudexem la del titIng c6 kha nang tea nhgt hieu throe tinh hinh ena chfnh ho. Cac nha tri lieu gia dinh theo chien lutic thtffing lam vies dfia tren thitto Minh vi va the me hinh giao tip do thay d6i trieu chung. Thong thtiang,the chi clan (Woe dui ra cho cac khach hang thay d6i hanh vi va tao racac lift can khac trong gia dinh. NMing chi clan nay thtffing a clang cac baitap va nha hay the Mai tap lam ngoai gitl len lb. Met chign hick dude sitdung bai cac nha tri lieu chign huge de tau ra thay d6i la "chi clan nghich li"(Nichols va Schwartz, 2001). CM dan nghieh It dieu tri trieu chting nhieuhOn. Chang han, da gia dinh tao ra met thay dgi, nha tri lieu c6 the ra bai tap cho cha me cil a met dila tre bi chii dAm lam van de tang len bAng each i cho dua tre ugng nhigu nude Win. Haley dua ra If thuygt rang neu ke dan nhigu nuOe han lam tang trieu chling (dai dam) se lam cho cha me em tki tign Minh cac Mt& de2 giam thigu rac rat Tri lieu nhan thac - hanh vi Tri lieu gia dinh nhan thile - hanh vi bao gam vies sith d&i cac suy nghi va hanh dung bang each tic dung vao me hinh suy nghi (Meichebaum, 1977). M6 hinh nay chit yeti dkia tren tri lieu hanh vi, sau da lien he vOi vai fro eila nhan thile - hanh vi. Thong qua cac kl thuat (Moe sii dung nhu vies ding ca Lich cue va tieu cue, viec trong phat va huY bo, cling nhtt the khai niem tri lieu nhan thitc, va su moo m6 trong nhan thiie, viec dung suy nghi va lode do (schemas), "tri lieu hanh vi nham thay d6i nhfing van de cu the 249
  • 248. thong qua vial, xac dinh ale tieu hanh vi, the ki thuat li thuyet hoc ca heide dat dune muc tieu va su dung nhung clang co xa hei de Ea° digu kien choqua trinh nay. Thong qua so sank, tri lieu nhan thilc - hanh vi tap trungvao nheing awe tieu sau: (1) xac dinh cac van de gia dinh trong cac hanh vi,(2) gido due thanh vien gia dinh ye vai trO cua nhung nguai di trudc, thiahau qud va su nhan thUe anh Intang den hanh vi, (3) viec day cac phudngphap tiep can (4) vies the hien thai do va danh gia the thay dgi nhan tildeva hanh vi (Franklin va Jordan, 1999, trg. 82). Tri lieu gia dinh theo phan tam "Mix tieu cua tri lieu gia dinh theo phan tarn la giai phong cac thanhvien gia dinh khdi cac han the vo tilde a ho co the trao vdi nhau nhunhung nguoi horn chinh, khoe manh" 2 . Tri lieu gia dinh theo phan tam duatren nen tang la the mei quan he thai tho au tac deng den tinh each va eachthile der x& vdi ngtiai khac ciaa chUng ta. Tam diem cila phudng phap nay isvie° thong qua cac mau thuan da trai nghiem trong thai thO a de co ditechieu bigt anh huang caa cac m6i quan he qua khii den cac mei quan he hientai. Nth:Mg nha tri lieu gia dinh theo phan tam khOng be) Y Wag lamtong tac vdi ca than ma su dung no nhu nen tang aa mei quan he hien taitrong gia dinh. Tri lieu nam nu binh quygn Tri lieu nam n3 binh quyen la met phudng phap dieu tri. Trong cacphudng phap hau hien dai, khOng co met "su thuc" co that, chi co "su antetheo Chu quan", trong do the ca nhAn giai nghia cues sag cua ho theonhung y nghia chuyen dal ho mang vao cuec sag tha ho. Trong thUe hanhhau hien dai, phan nay thtiong "co dac firth la lien ket, khong biet, to ma,phan anh" (Franklin va Jordan, 1999, trg. 149). N6 dila tren niem tin rang nghia ma met ngttai hudng vg nguai khac hay nhung trai nghiem thay c164trong cuee sag khi con ngubi phan ling lai vdi nhang gi dude nOi ra. Trilieu gia dinh nam nu binh quyen cho th0 sp gAn 1(64 cac van de vg gidicling nhu mei quan he quyenlUe deu egn thief cho viec dia tri co hieu qua. Nichols, M. S. & Schwartz. R. (2001). Family therapy: Concepts and methods (5 11] ed.).Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 2 Nichols. M. S. & Schwartz. R. (2001). Family therapy: Concepts and methods (5 th ed.).Boston: Allyn and Bacon.250
  • 249. Chdng nao nha tri lieu gia dinh cligp nhgn nhiing chuan Inge truyen thong vegidi, chatng ay can kilo co the lam dupe gi de digu tri sat khac biet quygn hegifia the thanh viola trong gia dinh. Franklin va Jordan (1999) xac dinh namygu tete() thg ddoc xem xet de time hanh tri lieu gia dinh nam nu binh quygn: 1. Trong xa hot nay, su bat binh Bang gidi dii dude neu rd, va nhigu khi phu nu bi plain dna do ban chgt gia trdang oda xa 2. Nhung trai nghiam cua nam gaol va nii gidi dupe coi la nhang diem mAu chgt tha tat ea the higu biat khoa hoc xa hei thong qua nghien elm; a day, viec sd dung cac bai phOng van va nghien eau dan tee hoc de danh gia dupe da cao. 3. Plutong phap nay co met yea t6 hanh &Mg xA het Nan nhgn manh chinh vao vice tang thang the digit kien ma phu nil trAi nghigm. 4. Vith binh clang nam n dat eau hOi ve ggc re ciaa nghien eitu truygn th6ng va each thdc ton tai cua thien vi nhom trong nghien eau nay, Idu ST rang nhiing nghien eau nay la san phgm caa xa hoi, cac nha nghien eau ga the se khong c6 With sg quan sat khaeh quan. 5 Cate nha eigu tranh binh quygn cam thay the nha nghien eau va cac chU the khong the chia tach dduc, thong thdong ho thich the mo hinh tudng the dg thigt lap thong tin hdn (Cox-Irian, 1991. trg. 329-330). Tri 110 tieu cut Tri lieu tieu cue da dude nhin nhgn trong cong the gia dinh nhangnam gan day. Tri lieu lieu cue thing dupe thiet lap trong ehii nghia xaydgng.Nhfing nha tri lieu gia dinh lieu cue tin rang "su trai nghiem tao nensq mong dpi va su mong doi sau ctO tai tao lai su trai nghiern thong qua viestao ra cac eau chuyen" (Nichols va Shwartz, 2001, trg. 387). Thong qua theeau chuyen ke lai, ngudi ta gan cho chting y nghia ciaa cuee sing va cac meiquan he Ada ho. Khi the eau chuyen kite)) lai, cluing ta giai ma nhung thongdigp ma cac ca nhan gen cho su trai nghiam ena ho, va nhang thong diepnay thudng the hian quan diem rim ban than ho. Chang han, hay xem phanUng elm hai ngddi kink nhau khi dude thong bao rang ho da de mai cd heithang ben trong cong sage. Mat ngtibi dupe nugi lgn trong mat mai truringyeu thudng va h6 tro. Ngtioi kia dude nuei duting trong met mai truing bilang quen va thin dich. Ngdai dau Lien co the cho rang vi the If do khong lienquan gi dgn ngdgi do, thing han do nhu can cult gang ti. Ngtthi thrt hai có 251
  • 250. the xem xet tinh hueng va nghi: "Minh that khong hieu, minh da lam saicai gi co chd?". Cach giai thfeh khac nhau ye met tinh hueng cua hai ngutliphan nhigu la do qua khd. La nhung nhan vien CTXH chuyen men, dieuquan trong la phai nhan thiic dime nhung trai nghiem qua khit da tee &Mgdgn khach hang the nao. Neu met ngitai thay cued s6ng tha anh to la metthat bai, se rat kho de tien len bang each tao ra nhang giai nghia va giaithich tich cue ye cued s6ng. MOt nha tri lieu gia dinh tieu cue tim each Opca hai gia dinh lam met va cac thanh vien trong hai gia dinh dila ra cacnghia mdi vg nhang trai nghiem cua ho. Bang each ke nhang cau chuyen yegia dinh, gia dinh e6 the loai b6 nhang ST nghi da dinh hinh t3 trude ye banthan va co nhiing giai nghia tich cite va hieu qua hen. Thud hanh vdi gia dinh Khi bat data vdi gia dinh, ban se co kha nang phai ket h9p cac khainiem va k5 nang to met s6 the ma hinh khac nhau da m6 to tell& day. Lamviec ding gia dinh rat khde khi lam viec vdi met ca nhan. Khi ban lam viecraj met ca nhan, ban chi del mat vdi met ngttai, met tim hieu, met nh6mcac mud lieu va met kg hoach tri lieu. Khi ban d61 mat vdi met gia dinh,ban dang del mat vdi the ca nhan ding su nhan thile khhe nhau ye van deva cO nhiing mix lieu rieng cua ho. C6 met s6 digu sau ban phai ghi nhotrong cling tac vdi gia dinh. 1. &Mg tac vdi gia dinh dOi hai nhan vien CTXH hinh thanh m6i quanhe yen met sengudi tai met thei diem. Ban can hinh thanh mei quan he vdim6i thanh vien gia dinh trong met hai buSi dau. Quy trinh Kay &Mg quanhe nay mat nhigu thai gian va dot h6i tap trung cac n6 luc. Mang trongrang ban a trong met phOng vdi nam ngdai khac nhau, c6 nhang quan diemkhac nhau va c6 hinh thanh cac moi quan he vdi tat ca trong met luc. Khafling lien ket vdi ea gia dinh la metkilnang rat kh6 hoc. Tuy nhien, ban canxem trong mei sit nhan Haw eim moi ngitdi, ban co the dat dime dieu naybang each dam bao rang ban nghe va hieu moi thanh vien. Viec xay dkingm6i quan he vdi met gia dinh can lc& hop cac Id /tang thong cam vdi tat cacac thanh vien trong gia dinh cling nhtt hieu dude tinh cam va suy nghi cuaho. Hay dam bao rang ban dAnh thai gian de n6i chuyen vdi tat ea moingutli va de lai not ena ho gop vao qua trinh giai guy& cong viec. 2. Cac nhan vien CTXH can e6 nhang ki Ming tot tim hieu van dgtap hop nhiing du lieu ma ho can tit phia gia dinh. Viec tim hieu la met252
  • 251. phan lan cua moi tong tae that hAnh. No cho phep chung to theo du6i de c6gang hieu ye met ca nhan tit each nhin tam sinh Ii xa hei. Trong thue hanhgia dinh, ban khang phai tim hieu met ca nhan trong met gia dinh ma phaitim hieu ea gia dinh ye nhung dac tinh. Gia dinh co met vOng ddi va phaideng y vdi cac van de khac nhau tai the thai diem khac nhau cua vOng doiay. Them MM., viec tim hien gia dinh can phai xem xet ca cac he thong nha,cac trao d6i, giao tiep va cac vai trO. Cac gia dinh mang theo ho nhung dactinh rieng. Chang hart, the thanh vien gia dinh ca the cai nhau throngxuyen va ngat lai nhau lien tut. Day có the la each trao ddi caa ho, va hienduo° van de nay la rat quan trong cho qua trinh tim hieu. Cac he thong conCac deng nha the nao den nhau cang tra nen quan trong de hien chide sugiao tiep gala cac thanh vien gia dinh. Co phai la b6 me thing vao phe vdinhau hay met nguat vao phe vdi dim con, quan trong la can biet nhung hethong con nay hoat deng ra sao ming nha chUng Lao ra nhung thay dei gi. 3. Nhan vier, CTXH lam viec vdi gia dinh phai giai guy& nhung vande giao tiep giaa cac thanh vien gia dinh. Cac thanh vien gia dinh can phai kha Ming giao tiep chive vdi nhau de cO the giai quy-et van de khi chUngRua hien trong hien tai va Wong lai. Nhan vien CTXH khong the that hientat ca cite giao tiep trong mot cuOc gap. Tuy nhien, ho can tim hiJu loai giaotiep oda gia dinh vi kien thlic nay quan trong khi gia dinh bat tay vao giaiguy& cac van de IA nhau. Nhan vien CTXH eang can có ki nang day eachgiao tiep hieu qua. Ho se gidp the ca nhan cua gia dinh not chuyen dude vdinhau va ban bac nhang van de eating qua ki nang lang nghe va truyen dat.Viet giap cac thanh vien gia dinh tao ra su trao del lanh manh dOi hOi nhanvien CTXH dang ra ngoai nhung trao d6i de va chi htiong. Chang hart, neumet ngutai me va met nguoi cha inert danh nhau, nhan vien CTXH can c6kha nang lam clam cac phan ling, gitip hai ben lang nghe mot each khOngcan phOng ve. Day la nhung ki nang nhan vien CTXH can co trong cac tinhhueng thkie hanh vdi gia dinh khi lam viec vdi met vai ca nhan. 4. COng tac vdi gia dinh dOi hOi kha nang nhap cube vdi cac thanh vienkhac nhau quanh met muc tieu chung. Thong thuang, khi met gia dinhtham gia dieu tri a ch6 ban, c6 rat nhigu muc lieu xuat hien. Ging viec cuaban la giup ho mang nhung muc tieu do lai vdi nhau trong met muc tieu Ionhon. Chung han, vi du met gia dinh truygn th6ng ggm mot nguai me dilam, met nguati cha di lam, met co con gai 22 tu6i to kiem song, met ea con 253
  • 252. gal 14 tuai va mat cau con trai 17 twat Ngtiai cha la gido vien the duc 6truang trung hoc va cau con trai o vi tri hau ye trong ddi bong dm Inking.NO:a mc va co con gai Ian rat thu dOng, du co gai lit rat nang ldi dtil6i chocha vg nhung van de gia dinh. Ho tim den giai phap gia dinh bai vi c8 gai titda to thai do burin chan a trUang, ha hoc, uang ruou, va bi canh sat hat.Nguoi cha muan quat cho ca gai tit nay mat tran con ngUai mc thi ngan can.Cau con trai thi muen em tit buang minh ra con co chi ea chang not nang gi,co gai tit thi luein mieng keu cha qua ha kheic va chi muen kiem soat moi Hu& dau Lien IA tim mat muc tieu chung cho ca gia dinh de cho phepmoi thAnh vien len tieng vg muc dich ma minh muen tro giup. Budc this haila httang gia dinh theo mat muc tieu chung Ian lain gan kat mai ngtroi yeanhau. Hay hOi nhfing eau nhu: "LA mat gia dinh, digit tot nhat xay ra saukhi tim try gnip la gi?". Cac no lac ma rang suy nghi bang each xem giadinh la mat tong th6 v&i muc tieu rd rang: "mang moi nguai trong gia dinhlai vdi nhau ma khOng danh nhau /rata. 5. Cac nhAn vien CTXH can duy tri stt trung lap. Khi cluing ta hinhthanh cac moi quan he vdi khach hang, chting ta biett den ho nhu mat canhAn rieng Met vdi nhiing suy nghi vA tinh cam ma ta can cam thong. Khi enmot s6 no6i trong phong, ta phai danh thai gian thy dUng mm quan he vditat ea moi nguai. Chung ta phai can than khOng la bat gap dang hieu re) cauchuyen theo hUdng cua mat nguai nay lion ngdoi khac. Neu co nhu vay, moiquan ha ciia chung ta se tra nen khOng can bang. Phan ang kern lanh manhnay cc") the dem lai mat buea lam vies ma ban ha tro mat nguai Mn mat ngn6ikhac. Mac clan doi khi nen iingT ha nguai nay Mn nguai khac, sV ang ha cuaban khong nen chi Limo mat chieu. Dieu quan trong la ban phai gam ket vditit ea cac thanh vien gia dinh. VA c6 the h6 try cho mai nag binh dAng taicac thai diem khac nhau. Viec nhan thitc theo mat chign cua ban hoac cua giadinh se lam cho cac thanh vien trong gia dinh cam thay bi hieu nham trongqua trinh lam viee. H9 co the tro nen to ye va khemg hOp tac trong cac buailam viec tiep theo, lam cho ban rat kilo tien den muc tieu chung. Lien he au tien Lien he dau tien ciia ban vdi mat gia dinh lap nen nhung moi quan hequan trong co the try gitip hoac ngan can qua trinh thuc hanh. DU do IA stigidi thieu den yea dich vu, mat yeu cau hay mat Penh cua toil an, ban cling254
  • 253. ean phai tip xuc lan (tau vdi gia dinh mat each nemg hau va earn thong.Dieu nay khong cO nghia la moi khach hang (va gia dinh) deu xiing (lingduce ton trong. Neu cuac gap dude sap xep tren dien thoai. hay n6i chuyendien thoai theo phong each chuyen nghiep nhu ban thltang lam vdi cackhach hang ca nhan. Ngay ea trong nOi chuyen dien thoai, nhan vien CTXHding phai the hien minh la nguai nhiet thank va quan tam. Thong quagiong n6i vA cac eau hai, ngttai can he có the thg hien dude sy quan tam dencac thanh vien vi idi ich cud gia dinh. Ngay da khi cac thanh vien gia dinhdang titc gian, to van can t6 thai de earn thong. Vi du trong trttang hdp 7.1,ngual nhan vien CTXH khong dude tp ve trong nhung cue nal chuyen nhuvay. Day la met ki nang do hoc la ban hi6u dude can gian cud khach hangkhong phai lien quan true tip den ban, du chinh ban hi trilt gian. Neu bancam thong vdi tat ca cac thAnh vien gia dinh, ban se cai ma hdn , nghe dudemoi cam nic thg hien va khong phai to ve trong qua trinh can thiep. Digunay se cho phep khach hang the hien minh. Khi chuan bi cho civic den tharn lan dau, hay xem lai the thong tin maban da có ve gia dinh. Mac clan thong tin se khong duce Chia se ngu khOngc6 sp cho phep cai gia dinh, cac tap tai lieu hay bao cdo ma gia dinh uyquygn dgu duos xem lai. Nhung thong tin nay c6 the cho ban higu each tin:fttrao d6i vdi gia dinh. Ditng t>i tao thien kik to nhung thong tin ma banxem. Khi tik xuc vdi gia dinh, co the ban se nghi khac nhung dieu ban dadoe ve ho. Cuiic phong van din Can vdi gia dinh Trong Ian lien he dau tien, c6 hai thu se xay ra, da Fa qua trinh nhapcuec va qua trinh Lim higu. Cuee. phOng van (Tau tien them vao qua trinhnhap euee va tim higu nay. Phan nay bat dau vdi met thao luan da quat rinh nhap cuac va tam quan trong coa no vdi qua trinh (lieu tri tigp dien. Inking hop 7.1. Cul& not chuyen dien thoai dau lien veil khach hang khong to nguyen Nhan vien CTXH: A la, t6i la Mai 6 Trung tam tv van gia dinh. Ong Diking: Tai la Diking, va tOi goi den Trung tam vi con tali c6 van da. Toa an bao tdi phai lam viPc vdi trung tam tv van gia dinh. Nhan vien CTXH. Cam an bac da goi, hac Diking, toe an da gui cho chUng chat. taking hdp Gila bac raj a. Chau co the gap bac dvoc thong a? Ong cho chi brat la tell khong thich tob hay ai do bao tai cach day con dau. 255
  • 254. Va toi cung khong thich Oar di den dau not chuygn cua gia dinh tai. Nhan vien CTXH: Co v g la bac kh6ng May thoai mai lam a. Bac muen lV giai quyet viec gia dinh a. Ong During: Day thong phai la viec cua ai khac ca. Nhan vien CTXH: Chau hi& vi sao bac bdc minh trong chuygn nay a. Chau rat mu6n bac chau ta not chuygn xem ta c6 thg ding than gd &roc phan nao khong. Ngu gap nhau biet dau chat co the gibp bac dude gi day. Ong During. Chi co the gitip not tot cho trt(Ong hdp cua toi vot toa dude chic Nhan vien CTXH: yang chau sari sang lam vay. The ta se gap nhau de bat dau qua trinh duct chd a? C6 the ket qua quan trong nhat cua qua trinh nhap cube la "ski hoptee dieu tri", tilting qua do, met mei quan he cong viec dude xac lap". MOiquan he cong viec tra thanh nen tang, nlid de gia dinh va can bo CTXH batdau giai quyet cac Nan d6 va tim ra can tinh huOng xay dung tren diemmanh tim thay trong gia dinh. "Diem mail clot cua xay dung su hOp the laclap nhan mai ngUdi, long nghe met each ten trong cac quan diem cua hava danh gia cao cac thai do dm ho" 2 . ThOng qua viec )(ay diing su hop tacnay, qua trinh dieu tri co the tiep tut. . Trong buei clan tien, ban mu6n &lac dau dat dude rat nhieu muc tieu.Met so cac muc tieu do la: 1. Thiei kip chi an cho can bunt Trong buei clan Lien, dieu quantrong la dVa ra the chi &An cong viec ma ban sap lam. Met se; chi clan la cacthoa thuan thin gian ve khi nao se gap nhau, ai se tham cht, giai quy6t canthay nhu the nao. Ban cling can than luan the bu6i to Nan se dien ra rasao, vai trO cua moi nguai, muc tieu cuec gap, tam quan trong cua viec moingdai neu len y kien rieng, va nhan manh vao van de dang gay rat rSi chogia dinh chu khong phai Ian de cua met nguai. SU tap trung vao gia dinh laa dam bao rang cac thanh vien gia dinh bat dau xem xet no he thOng honchfl khong chd trong den van de ca nhan. De gidp mai nguai di theo &LinghuOng nay. ban c6 the n6i: "Co ye nhu la town be gia dinh minh dang dau tovao van de nay vi no anh hitang den m6i ngudi. Hay not ve viec nb có lienquan the nao den gia dinh". Cae chi din quan trong khac bao g6m nhUng chi dan ton trong nhautrong can buOi hop vi du nhu khOng chin bdi nhau, cho m6i nguai thai gian Wolpe. J. (1973). The pracitce of behavior therapy. New York: Pergamon Press. 2 Nichols sh Schwartz. 2001. trg. 87256
  • 255. trinh bay va chap nhan quan diem caa nhau du co deng hay khong. Sitdung nhung lai nth sau day cna khach hang, hay thgc hanh each nhac nhamoi thanh vien gia dinh ye cac chi dan ma khOng ha thgp ngudi do: • "TM nghi /a co la dd ngu. Toan /d co gay ra moi chuyen". • "Tao they let may khong duck noi nhu vay" (ngicit lei khi dela con clang nal vdi can bO). • "Tai sao may khong co met có diem tot. May khong hoc anh may ey". 2. Xely Ong ste hdp tae diet tri vdi moi thanh Men gia dinh. Ngtidi canbe can xay dgng sg hop tac dieu tri vdi moi thanh vien gia dinh. Du ban batdau bang each tim hieu met ngudi hay bang each dila ngudi dd nhap cuec nOichuyen, hay lath co gang xay dung mei quan he nay. Trong ding tac vdi giadinh, mot s6 thanh vien co the nghi la ban khOng tang nghe ho rigu ban dangdua ngudi khac tham gia. Dieu nay antang xay ra trong nhung gia dinh conhieu van de rieng biet. Hay dam boo la gia dinh hieu tam quan trong cuavie( moi ngudi deo tham gia bang each don gian nhtt noi: "Toi muon biet moingudi vet moi ngiteli nhan xet the new vd tinh hudng nay cita gia dinh. Delamdityc nhtt v(ty, tot se not chuyen vdi tieng ngudi trong suoi buei horn nay".Worden (2003) goi nhung chi dan sau cho nha tri lieu gia dinh: • Nha tri lieu c6 trash nhiem thilc day met Ulu khOng khi dan dgn thay • De lam thg, nha tri lieu can tich cue hinh thanh cac kgt hap trong hop the vdi gia dinh. Tri lieu la met no lye Chung gi3a nha tri lieu va gia, dinh trong do nha tri lieu la ngudi tham gia, ngudi quan sat va ngudi tan digu kien. • Nha tri lieu co the clan &tang hoar chi ra phtking hUdng thay d6i thong qua viac ho tro, dat eau h6i, dga ra van de hoar thtic day gia dinh, nhung nha tri lieu phai la ngudi ton trong nhal kha nang va mong mugn thay gia dinh (trg. 55) Vai trO nay mang lai cho ngudi can be kha nfing hinh thanh nhung haptac tri lieu va tign thine trong qua trinh thay dal ma gia dinh da quygt dinhtign berth. Vai tre ngudi tan digu kien cho nha tri lieu c6 (Igoe nhung thongtin va cling hie dua gia dinh vao thao luau ve. the van de va cac rave tieu. 3. Thu thap cac thong tin tit the thanh vien ve van de vd cac ?nue tieucua ho. Trong buSi dau tien, ngudi can be can xay dung met quan he voi 257
  • 256. moi thanh vien gia dinh NIA tim kiem thong tin tii ho. Khi ban c6 thik lapmet mai quan he vdi tat ca cac thanh vien gia dinh, tgt nhgt la phai kim sitdoi dau qua mac. Tuy nhien, trong met so trttOng hap, can thigt phi dambao rang gia dinh nhan thite duct elm chi clan. CO th co hie met thanh viengia dinh c6 gang chigm uu thg trong cunt n6i chuyen. NMI da thao luan tittrade, met digu hau ich la lap ra guy tae moi nguai din có co hOi dude nei.Vi vay ngtiai nhan vien CTXH cO the den hic can nhac nha moi ngtthi vgnguyen tac la Ida noel can clad. doh Mat minh. Phan Ung khi met nguai c6chigm uu the la giai thich: "Toi nghi rang nhung dieu anh chia se la ratquan trong, nhung quan diem cita nhitng nguai khac ding quan trong. Vivay tOi de nghi lust caa ngttai khac". Neu eau noi nay khOng ngan can ducesu chigm uu the trong noi ehuyen, ban có the this sit dung phuong pilau phinen tit. Met ki thuat phi nen to la hdi quay ghg di de cat httang true tieptam nhin ngudi nal. Mal each khac IA chia tay ye nguai dang nbi de nguairid bigt ban dang nOi vai ngttai khac. Nhang Sr kit ban (tau cua cac thanh vien gia dinh rat quan trongtrong bugi Tau tien. Viec thu litom the thong tin khac nhau cho phep banlap ghop chile met bite tranh Ion hdn ve nhilng digu dang xay ra trong giadinh. Tit mot quan diim hAu hian dai cua nhing nha xay dung, moi sit thucdill chit quan, va co met sit thuc trong dieu ma moi ngitai dgu tin bai vi d6la sit tht.tc oila ea nhan do. Duck chi clan nha vay, ban có thg chip nhAn sittrai nghilim chit quan ding vdi au hieu biet nay vi n6 thief yeti trong thuthap tin tae. Bang each eai ma vdi moi digu the thanh vien noi, ban dangchgp nhan ho va tin Wang vao nhung nigm tin dm hp. 4. Dcinh gici ccic and hinh attic hien chile ruing gia dinh thong qua icingnghe vii quan sat. Viec danh gia thuc hian elide tang gia dinh la ink phAnquan trong cua buoi dAu lien. Cac yeeu to quan trong can dude xem xet baogam ai not vdi ai, the thanh vien gia dinh quan he vdi nhau the nao, cacnguyen tac cling khai va kheng tong khai, cac vai fro trong gia dinh, giadinh dang d giai doan nao caa vOng ddi gia dinh va giai doan nao la thichhdp vdi ho. Cac loai thong tin va cac van dg nay mang lai met tai nhin rangrai Min trong cac ni6 hinh gia dinh. Khi moi nguai tra nen thoai mai hdn,cac thanh vien gia dinh se bat diu thao luan dung co eim the mgi quan hegiaa ho va ban c6 the do Wang cac van dg trong giao tiep. Viec hien nkrilngclang eci nay gitip nhan vien CTXH quygt dinh the eau hOi e6 ich cho gia258
  • 257. dinh. Viet ghi chu cac he thong con sung cap met hitting nhin vao cuee sangca nhan cua nhang thanh vien gia dinh va diem manh cUa ho cling nhunhling m6i quan tam. Cac nguyen Lae va vai trd cho biet nhieu ye gia dinhva cac thanh vien phi hdp hay khOng phi hop vdi tinh hinh gia dinh. 5. Xiy dgng the diem manh caa gia dinh vet cac them* uien caa giadinh. Nhti da net d chudng truck, nmidi can be va gia dinh can phai xay dung diem manh tha cac thanh vien va diem manh cUa gia dinh. Nhung diem manh nay c6 the dude sit dung khong chi de trd gitip the ca nhan ma )can de g-itip ca gia dinh hieu diet c6 the ding (tat dude vdi nhau. Cac diem manh co the dude tim thay trong nhieu khia canh khac nhau cUa cud c song ,gia dinh, bao gem nhiing diem manh cua ca nhan, mei trudng, he thong trdgirm va gia dinh. Cac diem manh ca nhan bao gam kha nang Fang nghe,truyk dat, to lrap, giai guy& van de, c6 thai de tich cue va hoa hdp vdinguai khac. De kiern tra cac diem manh cua mei truong, thong to can phaiflea gia dinh trao dei vdi ben ngoai, vai the nhan to tO chile va mei trUdngthe Mo. Chung to clang tki hai ban than cac loai cau hal sau: Gia dinh cocan trd gitip Linking luring vg cac rao can mei trtiong khong? Ho e6 the lamcho cac he thong ben ngoai hoat dung hieu qua khong? Cac he thong trdgitip thm ho la gi va chting duck, sit dung the nao? Nhiing hg thong nay c6the dude sU dung de gitip gia dinh dat dude cac muc lieu khong? Cac thanhvien gia dinh e6 the lam gi cho ho va gia dinh da lam gi de giai guy& van de trude? 6. Tgp trung bud to can lido gia dinh 2a mClt he thong, khong d6 leicho cac thanh vier cu the. Trong bu6i tiep xtic (tau tien, nhan vien CTXHnen htiOng cac thanh vien gia dinh tranh viec de 16i oho nhau. Thongthuang, met nguai se bi d6 lei cho cac van de cua gia dinh. Chung to hi&dirge thong qua cac nghien chu va kinh nghiem la vice c16 lei nay rat vO ichtrong tri lieu gia dinh (Nichols va Schwartz, 2001; Green, 2003). Mac dauchat than la met thanh vier gia dinh doi khi dude xac dinh la nguei eó vande chinh, no khong c6 nghia la roc reri bat nguem to ngudi do. Tii vice thushinh vai gia dinh, cac kho khan nay sinh khi mot gia dinh khong con duytri dude tinh trang "homeostasis". Vi met thay dei tinh hueng hay met quatrinh trong yang ddi gia dinh, doi khi gia dinh c6 gang duy tri su can bangthong qua cac phudng phap mang tinh phi chile nang. Vi vay, met thanhvien (bloc xac dinh c6 the nei len nhu met trung tam gay rat e reci va thu hilt 259
  • 258. su tap trung khOi the van de gia dinh quan trong khac. Trong bugi tu vandau tien, hay chi ra rang khi moi viec xay ra trong gia dinh, moi ngugi dgubi anh huang. Cuec not chuyen nen tranh tap trung vao met thanh vien do.Chang han, khi Mai guy& trUdng hop thicic giOi thieu d dau chtRing nay,ngttai nhan vien CTXH co the mu6n gap ca Viva my (dii la ho da li than) ve.hOi v@ nInIing phaong phap khac giai quygt cac tinh hugng gia dinh. eachtigp can nay keo su tap trung ra khai Steven va cho phap ea bg va mySteven not chuyen ve nhang cai khac anh Imang den hanh vi cua Steven.Nguai cha Ira nguai me co the Ian Melt ke vg moi quan tam dm ho khgng chidgi vdi Steven ma con dei vdi cac van clg gala ho. Sp tap trung nay nhanmanh rang co ea nhang digu khac dang Hen ra trong gia dinh va rang cacvan dg co ye nha tach biet co the co lien quan ran nhau. 7. Khuyeit klach sit duy tri cdc bud ttl vein gia dinh. Nhan vien CTXHcan phai lam re khi ket thlic bugi digu tri thit nhal ve tam quan trong cimviec tip tut Mau tri va ca gia dinh lam viec cling nhau de giai quyet van deda chlOc nhan thitc de dat dude roue tieu. Khong phai hic nao cling dgthuyet phut gia dinh quay lat. Thai gian ban da sit dung vdi gia dinh canphai truyen tai dude tam quan trong cua tong viec nay voi gia dinh vathong qua thai gian lam viec vdi nhau, ho có the dat dude cac Inge tieu nhuthg nao. Mgi quan he ma ban da thigt lap vdi mai thanh vien se quygt dinh su sin lOng quay lai hon bat cii yeti t6 nao khfic. Pinking phap ma ban chao hal gia dinh trong tuck phOng van dau tienco the rat quan trong. Hay tu gidi thieu minh va xem ai la nggoi dan chuyen trong gidi thieu. Th6ng nuking la met nguoi cha hoar me, nhting hay quan sat xem ai co ye co trach nhiem trong tinh hugng. Ngu la ngdoi me nhan trach nhiem, chi to giai thieu minh ra sao rOi lUU y ai la ngubi tigp theo. Thong tu nhu vay, hay de y each trao del gi> a cac thanh vien gia dinh trong cuec gioi thieu nay. Sau khi chao hoi, gia dinh nen dude chon ch6 ngoi thoai mai, du la trong van phOng cua ngudi tri lieu hay d nha. SV Iva chon ch6 ngai se cho ban mg hinh giao tip trong gia dinh. Ai ngoi canh ai? Cac thAnh vien gia dinh có thay dgi chi) ngti khi ho ngoi khgng? Ho giao tiep vdi nhau thg nen khi chon chi)? CO nguai nao chi cho nguoi khac cha ngai khong? Sau qua trinh chon cho neg., ban oó the mugn bat dau vdi met can chuyen nhy nhang, nhan xet cal gi la su quan tam cim it nhat met thanh vien trong gia260
  • 259. dinh. Co the la ve met tran cid bong neu ai do trong gia dinh thich, hay co the la nhan xet vu vo ve thai bet. Mac clan kieu thao luan nay khong keo dai, ne khong phai la vo b6. Viec tarn ditng nay trUde khi cac van de dude thao luan cho phep gia dinh cam thay thoai mai va bat dau thu gian. Tai met s6 thiai diem, ban se mu6n dua ra the chi dan cho buei gap mat, nett ban lam viec do ngay tit sdm trong buoi dau tien nay thi se dang hdn ben vi the chi dap mang lai met ed the an than cho gia dinh va cho moi ngudi hieu ye each Hide dien ra ciia cac bu6i to van. Thong thuang, day se la Me ban thu Mum thOng tin to the thanh vien gia dinh v6 van de. Hay dua eau hai cho mm riven va de ngudi clan dau phat bieu. Hay bat dau cues thao Man bang each hei "Ai dua gia dinh minh tai day hem nay?" hay "Anh/c14 nghi vi sao gia dinh minh lai 6 day horn nay?" la mat each thich hap de bat dau. Ban cc) the dam bao la hOi moi thanh vien trong gia dinh eau hoi do. Viee nay dua ra met thong diep la 9 kin ciia moi ngudi &au quan trong va moi ngudi deu tham gia, No ding cho phep moi thanh vien gia dinh có then gian diet chinh yen nhung then xay ra va bat dau hinh thanh the quan diem ve nha tri lieu. Lam viec vdi moi ngudi cling gop phan Lao dung skt cam thong va tin Wang. Neu ban:chi tap trung vao met thanh vien gia dinh, nhung ngudi khac se cam thay bi loai tit va ea the mien cueing trong viec xay dung quan he. vdi ban. KM qua trinh nay tiep dien, hay tranh viec d6 cho met ea nhan, neu viec nay et tiep toe. Bang each hea moi ngudi eau Ilea do, ban se get ha dude su tap trung cua gia dinh vao thanh vien gia dinh dude the dinh la ea van de. Tiep theo qua trinh Mei nay, hay bat dau the dinh tinh hinh cua giadinh. Ban ce the lam viec nay bang nhieu each khac nhau. Mat phudngphap la giai thich eho gia dinh hieu van de khong phai la chi do met ngudiva rang moi ngudi trong gia dinh ca lien quan den nhung gi xay ra. Cachthit hai la ice° au chti y ra khOi ithanh vien dude xac dinh bang each taptrung vao the ea nhan khac trong gia dinh va su the dog eda tinh hinh giadinh len ho. Mat each thit ba la hudng ski chti j1tai mot min quan he tronggia dinh va tap trung moi ngudi vao do. Truang Imp 7.2 eho ban met viNhan vien CTXH da chuyen su tap trung to Steven la ngudi co van de sangChao Man ye each ngudi cha hoac ngudi me dei phO vdi the tinh hueng kitekhan. Dieu nay cho phep hudng sti tap trung vao van de va tao met cd halcho nhan vien CTXH xem ngudi cha va ngudi me giao tiep vdi nhau the nao. 261
  • 260. Sau khi da xfic dinh tinh hueng gay ra van de gia dinh, co the bat dauchi ra melt seek quan sat caa minh, bao gem cac the manh ciaa gia dinh. Meteach de chi ra diet do la bat dau cac nhan xet dm ban ye mat the manh. • "Toi co the thdy ridge Steven quan trong the new &di udi ed hai anh chi va anh chi muart giap no ten mile neto." • "TOi thfey hinh nhu anh chi co theta ban bac viec nay vdi nhau • "Mac dit anh biio chang bao gia anh tit chuyen gi cd, anh Levett a, Led rat en lacing vdi nhitng no hic anh da thuc hien day." Cac gia dinh va ca nhan cd the manh trong nhieu linh vac, nhu cac klMang dac biet, ca tinh ca nhan, cac me hinh Wang tae, cac the manh tinhcam, cac no h e dang co caa gia dinh. Trong suet buei tham van dau tien nay, ban can cho gia dinh thay hivong ye kat cuc :Lek dep ova moi viec. Nhac nha rang ho dang di nhUng badedau tien trong viec tim kiem nguan ha trd tang clidng sue manh gia dinh vaduy tri hi vong han gam Ban c6 the sung cap cho ho nhUng by vong bangeach nhan xet ye nhung the manh va chi ra nhung Ian gia dinh da to giaiguy& van de nhu the nao trong qua Cac vi du sau minh hem cho kithuat nay: • "TOi thdy la &dn d6z day vi nhieu vein de khae nhau, nhung tai cho rang each ban gidi quyei vein OF trong xung dal kin trade it hieu quit, va nhieng ki neing tubing to nhu vgy c6 thehO trd ban veto hic nay." • "Cdch anh vet eon trai dia anh trao del uoi nhau qua van de do thong minh rang anh cd du. khii hang de giai quyei xung dOt." Vao cu & buai tham van, hay c6 Wang thilet lap muc tieu tong (mat ma .ca gia dinh co the thong nhat vdi nhau. Nhu eta ban a phan tren, viec codtioc each nhin nhan fang rai lion se gitip gia dinh xac dinh chive mud tit. Cac eau hai sau day di the dude ep dung a t4 116-i ban than khi ban rang nghe xem gia dinh do main dat dude muc tieu gi. Cac thanh vien muen gi cho gia dinh minh? Gia dinh muen dat duct gi qua buta tham van va ho c6 the dat ducic dieu nay nhu the new? Cac kat luau chung ova gia dinh la gi sau dot tham van dau tien? NhUng eau hal nay doan ket gia dinh lai khong chi trong viec tim kiem met muc Lieu chung ma con de xae:dinh cam ket cua ho trong dien Ben dm qua trinh tham van. 262
  • 261. Viec danh gia cac tinh hudng gia dinh Trong cugn sach nay chimg ta nal nhieu ve viec danh gia. Collins,Jordan, va Coleman (1999) neu rang "muc tieu da viec danh gia va xacdinh van de la tham do, xac dinh va dinh nghia dude cac deng llic trong neibe gia dinh va ngoai gia dinh khign van de neg len va phat tries" (trg. 22).each danh gia nay cao hdn rime dish bleu deng Me trong gia dinh, no con cif)nghia la nhin nhan cac tae deng mei trang vao gia dinh sung nhu IA cacygu t6 khac gay anh Mtang den cues song cua gia dinh do. Gigng flint thekhia canh thlie hanh CTXH khac, viec danh gia se khong the hoan thiendude neu khong xem xet Lung thanh viers trong gia dinh. Cach tign hanhdanh gia nay rat can thigt neu ban mugn hien dude chuyen gi dang xay rakhong nhung trong gia dinh ma con giita the thAnh viers. Che plutong phapthu thap daub gia ca nhan di; dude thao luan trong among 2. Trong viecdanh gia gia dinh, met vai pham vi can dat dude tog bao gem viec xac dinhdude van de, giai doan trong yang dai cua gia dinh, viec thlic hien chicnang cua gia dinh va the ygu t6 mei truang khac. Xac dinh yin d6 Mac du chting ta da xem xet vai fro cua viec xac dinh van de trongbuth tham van dau den r6i chUng ta van can xem xet lai thinh tudng thichena no trong viec danh gia gia dinh. Gia dinh can the dinh dude van detruck khi dgn lam vies vai nhan vien CTXH; tuy nhien, m8i thanh vien giadinh lai co each mieu ta van d6. Hi6u dude cac thanh vien trong gia dinhnhin nhan van de nhu thg nao la met phan rat quan trong cua viec danhgig "Viec tham de the trinh bay vcin de bat dein bang each chi oars gidn kingnghe ho lei lai urin da can gia dinh ho bang ngon ngfe cica rieng ho" (Nichols& Schwartz, 2001). De cac thanh vien gia dinh co co hei the hien ban thanho cling Cho phop ban thu thap dude nhieu thong tin hdn. Ai the hien camgide cna minh manh nhat? Phan ging cua gia dinh nhu the nao ve vice ai langUdi mac 16i neh co? Cac thanh vien trong gia dinh trao dal vOi nhau nhu ,the nao qua viec thao luau ve van de dm ho? LAng nghe moi thanh vien trong gia dinh thao hien ye van de cila hgrho ban cai nhin khai quat ve van de, nhung cling can this tim them thongtin vg vice gia dinh da cg giai quygt van de nhu the nao. Ho da lam gi chiclerei? Ai phol hap vai ai de giai quygt van de do? Kgt qua am nhung co gangay IA gi? Mac du &tang nhu co cam gine rang ban se qua nhan manh den cau 263
  • 262. Mil nay, nlning qua that day 1a caeh ban di theo each dale cua chfnh gia dinhdo. KM ban thu thap thong tin of cac thanh vien gia dinh, ban co the ye lenmet bite tranh ]on hen 4 viec gi xay ra v6i gia dinh xung quanh vdn de do. Giai doan trong vong del cua gia dinh Co le met trong nhfing viec dau Lien dd danh gia tinh hueng gia dinhla xem xet yang dai cua gia dinh. MOE yang dai cua gia dinh di song song v6iyang phat triers cua cuQc dai mil ca. nhan, va nhan vien CTXH danh giavOng dai cua gia dinh thong qua viec xem xet dien lien cua ski phat trigncua gia dinh qua thai gian va so sanh no vdi guy tide 4 ski Oat tridn truygn heing. Tong dai gia dinh, that m1;4 se hoc gia da Oat triers, phai duac xemxet trong su linh heat. Bang 7.1 minh hoa each an dung yang doi gia dinhtheo truyen theng. 1. H6n nhan • Cam Wet gia quan he • Hinh thanh vai tr6 va luat le • Tach thanh cap rieng re khOi gia dinh xuat than • Tien hanh thoa hill) va dam phan quanh nhCMg nhu cau ca nhan Cu the" 2. Gia dinh co con cai • Tai 6n dinh don vi h6n nhan vtli hinh tam giac • Chap nhan daa tre va hoa nhap daa tre do vac gia dinh • Xem xet quan he vOi nguai khan va vesi tong viec 3. Gia dinh c6 tre el do tu6i • Cho phep tinh ddc lap cao km di hoc Me ranh gitli gia dinh a phO hop vdi the ch6 xa hdi mai • Hieu va chap nhan sit thay dei trong cac vai 4. Gia dinh co thieu nien • kir li tinh ddc lap cua tucli thieu nien th6ng qua viec dieu chinh ranh giOi • Dieu chinh de co syxac dinh mei ye tinh ttrtri cua ca nhan • KhOng chg suthay d6i, giOi hen bei canh, dam phan va cac vai 5. Gia dinh ce con a xa nha • Chile!, bi cho tre song dOc lap trong troang nOi trO va hoc ngh6 • Chap nhan tinh ddc lap dm thanh nien 6. Cha me trung nien • Dieu chinh trong "t6 am gang yang" 7. Cac thanh vien gia dinh Bao g6m cac chau va ban dei dm con cai d5 có tudi • Xit Ii van de lao hoaBANG 7.1. V6ng ddi gia dinh264
  • 263. Re rang la yang dai ca lne nao do dude xac dinh theo me hinh gia dinhMg trung btu truygn th6ng. Ngay nay, cac m6i quan ha khong nhat thigtphai theo quy uric nay. Vai hau hgt la met nita the vu hen nhan kgt thtichang bi hen, nhigu ca nhan hoac la se duy tri tinh trang doe than, hoac setrai qua mot boat cac m6i quail he khac nhau khi phat trien gia dinh caaNhigu ngudi deng tinh kheng di theo vong dal nhu vay. Turing tki nhu vay,nhung ngudi den tit nhung nen van boa khhe co the trai qua nhung bucknay theo met each thitc khac. Kgt qua la khi ban danh gia vg gia dinh duaianh sang cim vong dai gia dinh, digit quail trong la ban bit den nhunghinh thile phai sink khac. Nhieu hinh finite trong se - do co vong dai ena riengnO, nhu la vong dai dan dgn li di. minh hoa trong bang 7.2. Cat giai doan Get van de trong quo trinh ph& Win trong qua trinh li h6n 1. Quyet dinh li h6n • Chap nhan vai tro ca nhan trong that bai cue cuac hon nhan. 2. Lap ke /leach xoa ba • Hop tae lam viec ye cac van de tai chinh, cham sac. tham he thong hOn nhan con cai. • X& li vdi gia dinh cha me minh ye van de ly hon nay. 3. Li than • Buan till vi kh6ng can gia dinh than thuric. • Tai co eau quan he hon nhan va quan he gina cha me va dga con cung nhgvan de tai chinh gide ho; str thich nghi yeti viac song tact xa nhau. • Dieu chinh lai mai quan he vOi gia dinh cha me cUa minh, van lien lac vdi gia dinh °Da vd hoac thong. 4. Li h6n • Buan tui vi khong con gia dinh than thuac: tif la6 ao vong tai hop. • KhOi phut lai hi yang, and trOc va mong doi to hOn nhan. • Gid lien lac veil gia dinh cha me minh.BANG 7.2. Cac giai doan cua qua trinh li han Bdi vi met vu li bon din ra that-1h cac giai doan, nhu trong yang dalcua gia dinh, nen met gia dinh trai qua viee li hOn se dgi mat vdi hai be giaidoan phat trign ming met hie. Qua trinh song hanh nay eb the xuat hienvao bat cif th6i digm nao trong vong cthi cua gia dinh. Cac chuyen gia canbigt dude rit ca the giai doan nay va cac van dg ma gia dinh dang phai traiqua de higu dude re Ilk ho dang trai qua eel gi va so sanh giai doan do vdi 265
  • 264. Oat doan thuang thAy caa qua trinh phat tridn. Viec hieu duos cac giaidoan nay ding dem lai cho nhan vien CTXH co hei de xu if cac van de theoquan diem tam If hoc phat tridn. Viec thvc hiOn chat nang xa Min cua gia dinh Danh gia viec thuc hien chitc nang cua gia dinh la met Wan quantrong trong qua trinh danh gia. Viec thkic hien cac chic nang cua gia dinhkeo theo nhik yeti t6 khac nhau, bao g6m "giao tiep v6i nhau, giai guy&van de, niem tin, ski deng minh, va ski h6 tre." 1 . Chung ta nhAn manh dentam quan trong cua viec danh gia giao tik a phgn khac cna quyk sachnay. Tuy nhien trong Wan nay, cluing ta se tham do nhung thOng tin thuhick duoc qua buei tham van dgu tion. Giao tigp can clitue danh Oh Ca trenphilcing dien lai not va phi lai. Nguai tham yin can hieu ca khia canh "giaotik ngoai nen" a tit ca cac cuoc giao tik trong not be gia dinh. Giao tikngoai nem (Metacommunication) la met thuat ngii co nghia la "met thongdiep ve met thong diep, dien hinh bang cac hinh fink phi lai (met nu ctiOtmet cai nlatin vai, mot cai gat dau, met cat nhay mat), dude duo ra dong thairaj thong diep bang lai, co call, danh gifi, them nghia cho thong diepDay la mot phtiong phap danh giA de xdc dinh lieu cac thanh vien gia dinhcó Lang nghe nhung gi dang dude truygn dat hay dinh cua lei not do la gikhong. Giao tigp tat dOi hoi phai th6ng nhat giva thong diep bang nen tova phi nein tit Cac thanh vien co not ve met dieu gi do khi thing lai nhu khiho dung cu chi thai de khOng? Cac t8 vking va each thd hien cim ho c6 dallap nhau hay khong? Co Ian lOn v6i cac thanh vien khac Gee yeu t6d6 quan sat vg giao tigp trong gia dinh bao g6m: 1. Ai dang not chuyen v6i ai? 2. Nhiiing thong diep phi lot nao dang dtiec duo ra ye cac thanh viengia dinh? 3. CO ski ngat tai trong giao ti6p hay khong? Ai ngat lai va tai sao? 4. Cai gi kh6ng &Mc ban bac trong cuec giao tik? 5. Cac thanh vien trong gia dinh giao tik nhu the nao vOi nhan vienCTXH? Thomlison,B. (2002). Family assessment handbook. Practice Grove. CA: Brooks/Cole. Goldenberg. 1., & Goldberg, H. (1991). Family therapy (3 11 .). Pacific Grove, CA:brooks/Cole.266
  • 265. Trong qua trinh danh gia c6 the la hitu ich khi thu Itidm the thong tin ,ye ki nang giai guy& yin de ena gia dinh. Khong chi ban muen Met dudeeach gia dinh da n(5 lye giai quygt van de hien tai ma ban con co the thuthap dude thOng tin ye each ho da giai quygt cac van de khac. 1. Ho co t6 ra la bleu dude qua trinh giai quyet von de khong? 2. Cach giai quy& van de da co tae dung the nao tnide day trong gia dinh? 3. (lac yeti t6 c6 khEi nang ngan can giai quyet van de vao thin diemnay la gi? 4. Ho da nb ltic giai guy& van de the nao? Viec hieu dude mti hinh niem tin ena mot gia dinh la rat quan trongvdi tong vice cua ngudi can be. Me birth niem tin phat triers met "me hinhlam vies ben trong" chi dan cho ca gia dinh va m8i ca nhan trong gia dinh.N6 lap ra khuon kh6 trong d6 gia dinh co the thus hien ehtie nang. Changban, met gia dinh NS the hoat deng tren niem tin rang tre em nen de nhinngam chit khong dude n6i. Vi vay, trong ode Mt& to van, the dim con sekhong ndi gi, hoac nett chting co cat tieng, chting se nhan met tai chau may.Trong met gia dinh khac, boat deng cita cac thanh vien nen tap trung vac)gia dinh chit khong dude tap trung vao the gidi ben ngthi. Dieu nay co thechi ra rang gia dinh da Wide bao hoc va khong the chi} phep sit can thiep tdben ngoai, va no gay Idle khan cho the deng dau lien oua nhan vien CTXHNhfing niem tin nay dude gan chat vdi nhang nguyen tae va nMing le nghicho the thanh vien gia dinh. Chang han, m6i chit nhat ca gia dinh se den Antrua a nha ba, toan be gia dinh se hieu dude tam quan trong cUa gia dinhlOn va khong dude chgp nhan nett khong tham gia. Rat nhigu m(5 hinh ben trong la nhiing Ica qua true tiep tha cac mohinh gia dinh g6c. Nhfing ngudi thong va vd mang mo hinh ben trong vaohen nhan, me hinh nay se dude chgp nhan va hod nha, p vao he thong niemtin Men tai cfm ngudi ban ddi hoac se bi dei Igy cac he thong niem tin maima cap vd eh6ng to phat trien. Kheng có met he thgng niem tin ben trongnao la thing, duy nhAt (Vosler, 1996). Vi vay, cac mo hinh dude mang vaocac bu6i to van cua gia dinh can phai dude hi6u trong bei eanh va nen tangvan hod cua gia dinh. Vosler. N. (1996) New approaches to family practice. Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage. 267
  • 266. ChUng to da thao luan met phan stf ket hop va lien ket thong quathan luan ye cac he thong con trong met gia dinh. Cac kgt hOp cho nguOican be biet nhung ai co lien quan vdi nhau trong van de nao. Ski lien ket cOthe la theo eh& nang hoac phi chfic nang. Trong met gia dinh ngttei me Irangvai cha hinh thanh ski lien kgt quygt dinh cac nguyen tac va thuc hiencac trach nhiem lam cha me wing nhau, nhang di.ta con ea hieu biet re rangye viec ngttei cha, me lam va khong the digu khien nguali cha, me thong quanoei kia. Trong met gia dinh ma met ngvai cha/me lien ket vdi &fa con,ngudi cha/my khong dude lien kgt kia se cam thay bi be ra ngoai va doi khikhOng dude tham gia vdi gia dinh. Cac lien ICA va ket help lanh manh thongfinking xay ra khi met during ranh dude thigt lap giila nhung ngdai thuecthe he khac nhau, tre con trong met nhom va cha me trong met nhom khac. Met dieu ciing quan trong IA phai nhan thilc dude cac he thgng troginp ma gia dinh có the vien den. Gia dinh len, nth lam viec, nha the, banbe hoac nhang he thgng try gitip khac có the tra nen hilu ich tai the thaidiem nhat dinh trong can thiep. Mac dau ban thUang khong lien he vdinhang he th6ng tre ginp nay ma khong co st/ cho phop, the thanh vien giadinh cO the goi ho vao nhUng hic can gitip do. Chang han, met nguai se goicho cha hoac me minh de tre gitip trong viec dgi phd vdi tinh hinh. Nai lamviec ciing co the tro giup n6u gia dinh Can thei gian cho cac buei tri lieu, vaban be throng &Ong vai tro quan trong trong h6 4.0 qua trinh can thiep. Cact6 chile tro gitip nha nhA truong, nha the có the lam giam rip hie ma giadinh cO. Cac h6 tro than tinh va chinh guy co the rat quan trong trongthanh cling cUa tong tat gia dinh. Viec too Ong nhung tre gnip nay co thela met trong nhung nhiem vu gia dinh Can lam a dat chicle cac aux Lieu. Cac y6t, t6 m6i twang Nhieu y6u t6 mei trUdng can phai &tee xem xet trong qua trinh timhieu, met trong s6 clO la cac tang nhu cau cim Maslow. matt chgtnhat trong cac tang nay la nhung nhu cau thiett yeu nhtttluic pham, quan not trU than va chain sac y t6 ciing nhu nhang 116 tro ye tinh cam(Holman, 1983). Sp tap trung chuyen sang nhung danh gia vg cac nhu cauben ngoai, vi du mang kith xa hei nhu nhan vien CTXH; cac t6 chile quanhe xd hei nhu ndi lam viec, nha the, gia dinh, ban be. Cho ygu t6 mei trueng Maslow, A. (1967). Toward a psychology of being. New York: Van Nstrand Reinhold.268
  • 267. khac &Ong met vai trO quan trong la tinh hinh kinh t6 cua gia dinh. Cac giadinh phai tap trung vao kiem song co it theli gian giai quyelnhung van detinh cam. MOt gia dinh Elm kiern su trO gitip vi cac khO khan tai chinhtintang khong co nhieu cac nguen Rio, Vi vay, tinh hinh viec lam cUa giadinh va thu nhap (KW tao ra co the la vAn de trong tarn cila cac n6 Rio ban&au. Cac cau hOi co ban dudi day se (my& dinh mac can thiep can de trdgitip gia dinh. 1. Ho co dang song trong met mei trudng an toan khong? 2. Ho có flu ludng that va quAn ao 3. Tinh hinh vies lam cua gia dinh the nap? 4. CO phuong phap nao ma qua do nhan vien CTXH se giilp dupe phan nao trong dam bao thu nhap cua gia dinh khong? 5. Cac phuong phap trao din vdi mei trttang ben ngoai cua gia dinh la gi? 6. Gia dinh co phu thuec vao cac ngu6n Rio ben ngoai khong? M6t y6u to mei truang quan trong can xem xet a van hoa, nen tang va thanh phan dan toe cim gia dinh va no anh htiang den quan diem cna ho ye mei tratang ra sao. Cac van de dan toe va sti da dang van hoa khac nhau gia clink viec nhan ra tee &Ong cUa chUng la rAt quan trong trong Wan be qua trinh can thiep. Nhan vien CTXH phai hieu re y nghia cUa cac khai niem van hod va dan toe truck khi lam vies vdi gia dinh. "Van hoa la sti phut trien cua cac gia tri, cac niem tin, cac phong tut va cbudn flax ma moi ngudi hoc, thueng trong boi cAnh gia dinh va ceng deng dm. ho. Dan tee có nghia la ban sac ciia met ca nhan, su cam ket va trung thanh vdi met nhem dan tee. Trong khi xem xet lam vice the nao vdi nhiing gia dinh co van hod va thanh phan dan tee khac nhau, nhan vien CTXH can nhdn ra van de co ban thuong tao deng den nhung gia dinh nay. Chang ban, vi met s6 nhOm dan toe thieu s6 nhal dinh co mite song ngheo va bi phan biet d6i nhien hdn, ho tt co kha nang sit dung chain sac y t6 tam than va cac dish vu ding Ong khac (Ho, 1987, trg. 14-18). Mac dau cac gia dinh kh6ng nen dude lap thanh nguyen matt, mot s6 511 that cd ban killing nen 66 qua. MOt trong nhung sy time cd ban nay la met s6 gia dinh nh6t dinh co the co cac nhu cau song co ban hdn nhu cau giai quy6t nhung giao tik phi chitc nang. I Jordan. C.. & Franklin. C. (1995). Clinical assessment for social workersL Quantitative and qualitative methods. Chicago: Lyceum. 269
  • 268. Nang hie van hoa, theo Lum (1999) la "mot boat the kign thfic va kinang ma nhan vien CTXH phai phat then de dat dude hieu qua khi lamvies vdi cac khach hang (trg. 3). Lum (1999) va Fong va Furuco (2001, trg.6) da the dinh ben thanh phan cua tkie hanh nang ]pc van hoa, bao gemnhan biet van hoa, tiep thu kien thite, phat tries ki nang va hoc tap quynap. Nhan biet van hoe doi hbi cac nhan vier CTXH hieu va xac dinh dudethe gia tri van hoa coy nghia caa khach hang. Thu nhan kign thlte la viesnguai can be nhan ra gia tri van Ma tha khach hang la the manh dude bietden trong qua trinh gitip da. Phat trien ki nang la kha nang thich nghi vdithe gia tri doe dao tha khach hang. CIA ding vies hoc tap quy nap IA stycan thigt cua ngUai nhan vien CTXH tiep tuc tim cac nguen lue, can thiepva dich vu thich hdp vai cac gia tri tha khach hang. Dillard da de xuaTt fang the nhan vien CTXH phai hien cac diem eauday ye to vein giao tier) van hoa: 1. Giao tiep phi nem t8 chiem met ti le Ian trong giao tiep vdi cac khach hang, no da clang ve nghia van Ma hdn la giao tiep bang lai. 2. Tiep xae bAng anh mat la tet trong hau het cac nen van hoa nhung khong phai tat ca. 3. Cac eau hOi ma va thing den et; the sU dung dude a hau het cac nen van hoa. 4. Viec phan anh cam xile la ea hieu qua, nhung a met s6 nen van hoa ee cam thy khong thoai mai vdi nhung ki thuat nay. 5. Phan Ion the nen van hoe khong en van de gi vdi viee thuat lai lai 6. Viec to the hien ban than phai dude sii dung vdi nhung ngtiai a cac nen van hoa khac nhau. 7. Cae khach hang tit the nen van hoa nghi mot nhan vien CTXH thang than se la ngtiai giup do, dua ra lai giai nghia va lai khuyen. 8. Su tOm tat throng xuyen la pha hdp vdi hau het, neu khong phai la ta:t ca the nen van hoa. 9. Su dei &au co the la met cong cu phi). hdp trong nhieu tinh hugng, nhung met so nhom clan toe se hieu nham ki thuat nay la met bAng ehling cua dinh kien. Dillard. J. (1983). Multicultural counseing. Chicago: Nelson/Hall.270
  • 269. 10. Moi nen van hon deu coi trong tinh than thue va cdi ma. Mac dau mai diem tren la quan trong, dieu quan trong nhat la khanang cua ban trong "thcic hash nang la van hoa." Gia dinh coa nhdng ngudi tinh dyc d6ng gidi Mae dau nhigu nha tri lieu gia dinh (la to van cho nhung gia dinh cuangudi ddng gidi nam va nu gi6ng nhu each ho digu tri cho the gia dinh bietgidi, song eó met se sit khac Met can phi chicle xem xet. TIM nhat, tinh dueBong gidi la met 161 song khac biet. Vi bi coi thiiang trong xa hei nhungngudi biet gidi, nhigu gia dinh tinh due dOng gidi thay ho khOng c6 cacngan hie ma nhCing ngudi biet gidi c6 dude. Cho tdi nay, hau het moi chinhphu van cha cho phep nhitng cap ding gidi nam va a cai nhau, trii metvai truang help ngoai le. Vi vay nhfing cap &Mg gidi thang trai qua met st.imat dac quy-gn so vdi nhUng ngudi biet gidi do sit khac biet cua ho. Demo va deng nghiep 2 tom tat nghien eau gan day cho thy kat quaso sanh gitita cac cap clang gidi nam va nu voi nhung ngudi tinh dye bietgidi. Ho ket luan cac cap tinh due dong gidi c6: • Cung mong mu6n cd moi quan he dei lua dad Lau, Chung thug. • Cung cac mite do cam xue bi thu but bai ban tinh, sit thoa man voi moi quan he va it gay dei va hdn khi the van de nghiem trong Oat sinh. • Cimg mite danh gia vg quan he quan Binh, mac dau nhung quan he nay nee nhau d m6i nghien citu va kang ap dung phan cong lao dog yuchOng, truygn thdng de danh chg cho su sap xep linh hoat va Chia se viec nha, chi phi trong gia dinh, va vai fro dm moi ngudi trong gia dinh. Cac cap ding gidi nu chic se binh Bang hdn the cap thing gidi nam ve lao &Ong trong gia dinh. • Chc mite dO va the loai ttifing to trong mau thuAn (VD: vg tai chinh, tinh cam va tinh due...) nhung vdi nhitng kigu dac trung lien quan den gidi tinh (sat nha, p vdi deng gidi nu, tranh cal vdi ding gidi am), cac khuynh hang tinh due (the hien vdi the thanh vien gia dinh) va dan toe (mau than nghiem trong khi cog moi quan he vdi gia dinh ion la chat the). Barret. B.. & Logan. C. (2002). Counseling gay men and lesbians. Pacific Grove. CA:Brooks/Cole 2 Demo. D. H. Allen. K. R.. & Fine. M. A. (2000). Handbook of family diversity. NewYork: Oxford. 271
  • 270. • Nhung mite d6 thoa man va 6n dinh ttiOng tp, nhu ski phu thuee Ian nhau Nth kha nang giai guy& van dg. Hau het cac nghien cuu chi ra nhang mac de hal lOng tag dgi cao trong nhang eau tra lbi ena ho. Cac chi dan khi lam vies vdi cac cap tinh due deng gi6i la nhu eau: 1. Hay nhay cam vdi the yeti t6 ben ngoai gay ap hic len gia dinh va rieng hai ngudi. 2. Hay nhan ra nhang diem tudng ang v6i the gia dinh biet gidi ma can gia dinh dung gidi 3. Hay nhan thlic cam xac eiia ban vg gia dinh va tong vies vesi bat cu ski dinh kign ma ban co. 4. Hay dam bao rang gia dinh e6 the he theng h6 trd thing Iuc, va co the bi suy ygu vdi cac gia dinh Ion do mei quan he. 5. Hay nhan ra su mat mat dac quygn cua ho. Cac tong cy danh gia tinh hinh gia dinh C6 rat nhigu cling cu co the sit dung dude de danh gia tinh hinh gia dinh. Trong s6 cac tong cu nay:la cac mAu din thong tin co ban chide sitdung trong giai doan clau tien ma cO the tao cd sa chat chAn cho Wee khdidau cim qua trinh danh gia. Nei Chung m6i chfic sit dung cac mAu naytheo each khac nhau. Hinh 7.3 la met vi du. Sd del b62 canh Sd do bei canh ma to gia dinh trong mei trtiong song cUa ho. Sd d6 b & .canh con xhe dinh va neu 1.6 dac diem not bat cua tinh hinh Ong dgng nthgia dinh dang sinh sag. Sd de nay the hien the ygu t6 xa hei anh htiangden gia dinh va phan hei cua gia dinh del veil mei trtieng ben ngoai. Sd d6bei canh gin) nhan vien CTXH thu Wide thong tin vg cac mei quan he giadinh ea a ben trong not bo va ca ben ngoai gia dinh. Sd de nay dUdc siidung trong qua trinh danh gia tinh hinh nham gitip nhan vien CTXH hieudude r5 rang he th6ng gia dinh tudng Lac nhu the nao clea vdi the gidi benngoai. Sd de nay cang e6 the sit dung vdi tang gia dinh, gidp ho hieu re hdn vg gia dinh minh. De s& dung dude so de b6i canh, di6n quan trong la phai gidi thieu setde vdi gia dinh mot each can ke chi tigt de ho c6 the nAm ducic tee dung citano trong qua trinh danh gia.272
  • 271. Vi du nhan vien CTXH co the bat dau giai thich flint eau: "Tei mueMye met bite tranh de mo to dude nhign digu vg gia dinh Ong/ba va moi quanhe gala gia dinh ong/bA va nhung nhom ngudi hoac to chile ben ngoai giadinh". Cling can phai nhan manh rang met bile tranh dea khi ce the mieu tomoi thU met each re rang hom bai vi tren Hug to do la su minh hoa banghinh anh ve gia dinh. Mau din danh gia gia dinh Ten 56 then thoai: Cac thanh vien gia dinh va Wei Die chi: 1. ThOng tin xac dinh: 2. Van de va mei quan tam dtigc xac dinh: 3. Cac da lieu mo to nhutu6i, h6n nhan, viec lam, giao due: 4. Van hoa, ton giao: 5. Can chat nang gia dinh: Can vai tro: Giao tiep Giai quyet van de: Cac niem tin: Cac li8n ketiKel hop: Cac h6 trd: 6. Cac the manh va van de caa gia dinh: 7. Cac the manh va van de ca nhan: 8. Tam tat/ Gia dinh: 9. Cac muc Teti: 273
  • 272. 10. Kg hoach can thiep: 11. Naas/ danh gia va kg hoach cap nhat va xem lai: Nguitn Chinh suet tit Thomlison (2002, trg. 85)BANG 7.3. Nhg Nam J Nu Co li8n h8 = Quan 114" xung do, t Lien h8 tich cite Quan he xa HINH 7.4. So de; b& canh MQt ban c16 ben canh bao ggm mot yang trOn to, cac thanh vion tronggia dinh se dude ye trong do. Hinh vuOng la biaiu ttalng cna nom gioi, TongtrOn nh6 la bi6u Wong cUa phu nit Ben ngoai yang trail to c6 mot so vOngtron nh6 khac. Nhang yang tron nay m6 to cac ygu t6 ben ngoai c6 Wangtac vdi gia dinh. Hinh 7.4 minh hoa mot gia dinh vdi hai b6 me va hai dita274
  • 273. tre, met trai, met gai. Cac throng thing chi ra mei quan he ben trong giadinh va gia dinh voi cac he theng been ngoai. Ban có thd thay to cac&tong thing va he thong been ngoai, gia dinh c6 lien quan true tiep ho4cgian tiep voi met s6 he thong khac. Ta c6 the xac dinh nhung lien ketthuang thAy giaa Mai va ce con gai Dung trong hai phu nu va giCia Sdn vaKi trong the thao. Huang chi xung oral giva b6 va me chi ra hai ngoai thieusu cung tham gia, cho thAy be me can giAi guy& met se van de What dinh. So d6 th6 he Sd d6 the he la so d6 khai quit the mei quan he trong gia dinh &feethe hien dtidi dang cay the he, thnang bao g6m it nhal ba the he. Sd a thehe ddOc Bowen va deng nghiep sit dung de do theo cac and hinh hinh vi laplai trong gia dinh. So de dang nay ket hop cac bieu Wang pho Bien nhamcung cap cho nhan vien CTXH met cai nhin khai quit ye cac mei quan hetrong gia dinh va the me hinh c6 the anh twang den gia dinh trong thaidiem de. Sd d6 nay cling c6 the giap ho kiem tra "mach cam mac cua giadinh trong bei canh lien the he" 2 . Sd de the he con chuyen tai duac cac