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Quality and human_resources Quality and human_resources Presentation Transcript

  • Quality and HumanQuality and Human ResourcesResources J. MartinJ. Martin Open UniversityOpen University 20072007
  • ContentContent  IntroductionIntroduction  Chapter 1: strategy and HRChapter 1: strategy and HR  Chapter 2: selection and recruitmentChapter 2: selection and recruitment  Chapter 3: employee appraisalChapter 3: employee appraisal  Chapter 4: communicationChapter 4: communication  Chapter 5: empowerment andChapter 5: empowerment and involvementinvolvement  Chapter 6: training and developmentChapter 6: training and development  Chapter 7: teams and teamworkChapter 7: teams and teamwork  Chapter 8: HR Total Quality modelChapter 8: HR Total Quality model
  • IntroductionIntroduction  HR one of the keys to improvedHR one of the keys to improved organizational performanceorganizational performance  ““People are our most importantPeople are our most important asset”asset”  All quality models include humanAll quality models include human resourcesresources
  • IntroductionIntroduction  ISO: chapter 6.2.ISO: chapter 6.2.  M. Baldrige model: box ‘humanM. Baldrige model: box ‘human resource focus’resource focus’  EFQM: boxes ‘people’ and ‘peopleEFQM: boxes ‘people’ and ‘people results’results’  Investor In People: specific model forInvestor In People: specific model for human resourceshuman resources
  • IntroductionIntroduction Human resources in the history of quality:Human resources in the history of quality:  Beginning of XXth century: employeeBeginning of XXth century: employee achieves quality of product throughachieves quality of product through standardization based on post-tayloriststandardization based on post-taylorist procedures by developing control = basicprocedures by developing control = basic leverage (1920)leverage (1920)  Quality assurance teams achieve qualityQuality assurance teams achieve quality the on the basis of processes = mediumthe on the basis of processes = medium leverage (1950)leverage (1950)  The whole organization is involved in TotalThe whole organization is involved in Total Quality = global leverage (1990-2000)Quality = global leverage (1990-2000)
  • IntroductionIntroduction Human resources and total quality:Human resources and total quality:  The employee has now a practice of:The employee has now a practice of: • Control cards and basic probabilistic statisticsControl cards and basic probabilistic statistics • Graphic representations like histograms, …Graphic representations like histograms, … • Pareto analysis and Ishikawa diagramPareto analysis and Ishikawa diagram • Brainstorming and similar methodsBrainstorming and similar methods • Flow charts …Flow charts …  These skills require :These skills require : • Permanent trainingPermanent training • Real participation in the process of changeReal participation in the process of change
  • IntroductionIntroduction The role of human resources:The role of human resources: Traditional approach :Traditional approach : The employee is part of a hierarchical system,The employee is part of a hierarchical system, receiving orders and executingreceiving orders and executing The organization is correctly reflected in theThe organization is correctly reflected in the organization chartorganization chart This chart is normally stable and characterizesThis chart is normally stable and characterizes a mechanistic systema mechanistic system  Difficulty to change in a changing worldDifficulty to change in a changing world
  • IntroductionIntroduction The role of human resources:The role of human resources: New approach :New approach : The employee is a part of a lateralThe employee is a part of a lateral system based on teamssystem based on teams The employee has a real area ofThe employee has a real area of decision on the processdecision on the process The organization chart is only oneThe organization chart is only one aspect of the complex firmaspect of the complex firm  Organistic system able to face anOrganistic system able to face an unpredictable environmentunpredictable environment
  • IntroductionIntroduction  HR activities:HR activities: • Strategic alignment of HRM policiesStrategic alignment of HRM policies • Effective communicationEffective communication • Employee empowerment andEmployee empowerment and involvementinvolvement • Training and developmentTraining and development • Teams and teamworkTeams and teamwork • Review and continuous improvementReview and continuous improvement
  • Chapter 1Chapter 1 Strategy and Human ResourcesStrategy and Human Resources
  • Strategic alignment of HRMStrategic alignment of HRM Global strategy HR strategy & policies Skills Recruitment Appraisal Remuneration Employee benefits
  • Strategic alignment of HRMStrategic alignment of HRM  HR director identifies key elements ofHR director identifies key elements of HR strategy (skills, recruitment andHR strategy (skills, recruitment and selection, health and safety,selection, health and safety, appraisal, benefits, remuneration,appraisal, benefits, remuneration, training, etc.) in accordance withtraining, etc.) in accordance with strategic objectivesstrategic objectives  HR director reports to the BoardHR director reports to the Board  HR plan is preparedHR plan is prepared
  • Strategic alignment of HRMStrategic alignment of HRM PLAN HR director Prepares & aligns HR plan DO Implement HR plan -Selection & recruitment -Skills/competencies -Appraisal -Reward, recognition & benefits -Health & safety -Training CHECK -Quality committee/board -Company wide self-assessment -People surveys -Regular board reviews IMPROVE -Self-assessment -Best practice -Benchmarking -Quality committee recommendations
  • Chapter 2Chapter 2 Selection and recruitmentSelection and recruitment
  • Selection and recruitmentSelection and recruitment  Set standards for job descriptionsSet standards for job descriptions and job evaluationsand job evaluations  Provide information to new recruitsProvide information to new recruits on performance, appraisal, jobon performance, appraisal, job conditionsconditions  Focus job descriptions onFocus job descriptions on responsibilities rather than tasksresponsibilities rather than tasks  Train managers and supervisors inTrain managers and supervisors in selection techniquesselection techniques
  • Selection and recruitmentSelection and recruitment  Align job descriptions andAlign job descriptions and competencies for identification ofcompetencies for identification of people with appropriate skillspeople with appropriate skills  Ensure employment terms andEnsure employment terms and conditions meet legislative andconditions meet legislative and regulatory requirementsregulatory requirements  Review HR policies regularlyReview HR policies regularly
  • Skills / CompetenciesSkills / Competencies  Job descriptions should be based onJob descriptions should be based on skills and competenciesskills and competencies  Main skills/competencies include:Main skills/competencies include: • LeadershipLeadership • MotivationMotivation • People managementPeople management • Team workingTeam working • Customer focusCustomer focus • CommunicationCommunication
  • Skills / CompetenciesSkills / Competencies Skills/competencies requirements Standards For selection
  • Chapter 3Chapter 3 Employee appraisalEmployee appraisal
  • Appraisal processAppraisal process  Purpose of appraisal:Purpose of appraisal: • Alignment of personal, team and corporateAlignment of personal, team and corporate goalsgoals • Develop full potential of peopleDevelop full potential of people  Conduct of appraisal:Conduct of appraisal: • Once a yearOnce a year • Interview on performance against objectivesInterview on performance against objectives • New objectives with training and developmentNew objectives with training and development
  • Appraisal processAppraisal process Personal goals Business goals Policy and strategy Appraisal process Improve individual Improve business Performance Performance
  • Employee reward, recognition andEmployee reward, recognition and benefitsbenefits  Rewards based on consistent,Rewards based on consistent, quality-based performancequality-based performance  Awards given to employees but alsoAwards given to employees but also other stakeholdersother stakeholders  Financial incentives for companyFinancial incentives for company wide suggestions and new ideawide suggestions and new idea schemesschemes
  • Employee reward, recognition andEmployee reward, recognition and benefitsbenefits  Internal promotion to encourageInternal promotion to encourage motivation and enhance job securitymotivation and enhance job security  Recognition through performanceRecognition through performance feedback mechanisms, developmentfeedback mechanisms, development opportunities, pay progressions andopportunities, pay progressions and bonusesbonuses  Recognition systems operating at allRecognition systems operating at all levels of the organizationlevels of the organization
  • Chapter 4Chapter 4 CommunicationCommunication
  • Effective communicationEffective communication  Effective communication should focus on:Effective communication should focus on: • Regular meetings with peopleRegular meetings with people • Briefing of people on key issues in a clearBriefing of people on key issues in a clear mannermanner • Communicate honestly and fullyCommunicate honestly and fully • Encourage team members to discuss companyEncourage team members to discuss company issues with bottom-up feedbackissues with bottom-up feedback • Ensure communication is always two-wayEnsure communication is always two-way
  • Effective communicationEffective communication  Communication process:Communication process: PLAN Identify communications needs DO Videos E-mail Posters Conference Magazines Newsletters CHECK Q steering committees Appraisal People surveys Self-assessment IMPROVE Steering committees’ input benchmarking
  • Effective communicationEffective communication  PLAN: HR manager in connection withPLAN: HR manager in connection with departments, processes, teams, etc.departments, processes, teams, etc.  DO: Use a mix of media. Be careful aboutDO: Use a mix of media. Be careful about coherence. Ensure feedback.coherence. Ensure feedback.  CHECK: Review effectiveness ofCHECK: Review effectiveness of communication process with different toolscommunication process with different tools  IMPROVE: Reviews indicate areas forIMPROVE: Reviews indicate areas for improvement. Quality steering committeesimprovement. Quality steering committees make recommendations for improvement.make recommendations for improvement.
  • Effective communicationEffective communication Multi-directional Communication:Multi-directional Communication: Top management DivisionDivision DepartmentDepartment Team Team Individual Individual Individual
  • Chapter 5Chapter 5 Empowerment and involvementEmpowerment and involvement
  • Employee empowerment andEmployee empowerment and involvementinvolvement  Create a work environmentCreate a work environment encouraging people to takeencouraging people to take responsibilityresponsibility • Let people set their own goalsLet people set their own goals • Let them judge their own performanceLet them judge their own performance • Let them take ownership of their actionsLet them take ownership of their actions
  • Employee empowerment andEmployee empowerment and involvementinvolvement  Actions favoring involvement:Actions favoring involvement: • Corporate employee suggestionCorporate employee suggestion schemes: promotes participativeschemes: promotes participative managementmanagement • Company-wide culture changeCompany-wide culture change programs: workshops, events to raiseprograms: workshops, events to raise awareness of individuals and teamsawareness of individuals and teams • Measurement of key performanceMeasurement of key performance indicators (KPIs): labour turnover,indicators (KPIs): labour turnover, accident rate, absenteeism, lost time…accident rate, absenteeism, lost time…
  • Chapter 6Chapter 6 Training and developmentTraining and development
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Training is an investment, not a costTraining is an investment, not a cost  Training is an on-going processTraining is an on-going process  Training meets both corporate andTraining meets both corporate and individual needsindividual needs
  • Training and developmentTraining and development Training model:Training model: Identify training needs Plan/design training Deliver training Evaluate training
  • Training cycleTraining cycle Training Allocate responsibilities Define objectives Establish training organisation Specify needs Prepare programmes implement Assess results
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Assessment phase:Assessment phase: • organizational, group and individualorganizational, group and individual levelslevels • Knowledge, skills, attitudesKnowledge, skills, attitudes What is What should be Training gap
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Planning/design phase:Planning/design phase: • Who needs to be trained?Who needs to be trained? • What competencies are required?What competencies are required? • How long will training take?How long will training take? • Where will training take place?Where will training take place? • What resources are needed for training?What resources are needed for training? • What are the expected benefits ofWhat are the expected benefits of training?training?
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Implementation phase:Implementation phase: • Facilitators to deliver trainingFacilitators to deliver training • Training techniques:Training techniques:  SimulatorsSimulators  Business gamesBusiness games  Case studiesCase studies  CoachingCoaching  Planned experiencePlanned experience  DemonstrationDemonstration  Computer-assisted instructionComputer-assisted instruction
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Evaluation phase:Evaluation phase: • Use observation, questionnaires,Use observation, questionnaires, interviews, trialsinterviews, trials • Give feedback to people andGive feedback to people and managementmanagement
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Training should focus on four mainTraining should focus on four main areas:areas: • Error, defect, problem preventionError, defect, problem prevention • Error, defect, problem and reportingError, defect, problem and reporting • Error, defect, problem investigationError, defect, problem investigation • ReviewReview
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Prevention can be assured if:Prevention can be assured if: • Quality policy is stated and issuedQuality policy is stated and issued • QMS is written and explicitQMS is written and explicit • Jobs are specifiedJobs are specified • Steering committees are effectiveSteering committees are effective • Processes are charted and mappedProcesses are charted and mapped
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Reporting is assured if:Reporting is assured if: • All errors, rejects, problems, waste, etcAll errors, rejects, problems, waste, etc are recordedare recorded • All members of the organizationAll members of the organization concerned are informedconcerned are informed
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Investigation is assured if:Investigation is assured if: • Nature of problem identifiedNature of problem identified • Time, date and placeTime, date and place • Product/service with problemProduct/service with problem • Description of problemDescription of problem • Causes are identifiedCauses are identified • Action is advisedAction is advised • Action is takenAction is taken
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Review is assured if:Review is assured if: • Quality audits are carried out toQuality audits are carried out to compare employees’ behaviours withcompare employees’ behaviours with training objectivestraining objectives • Training records are keptTraining records are kept
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  KnowledgeKnowledge conversion:conversion: To tacitTo tacit knowledgeknowledge To explicitTo explicit knowledgeknowledge From tacitFrom tacit knowledgeknowledge Sociali-Sociali- zationzation ExternaExterna -lization-lization FromFrom explicitexplicit knowledgeknowledge Interna-Interna- lizationlization Combi-Combi- nationnation
  • Training and developmentTraining and development  Socialization: from one individual toSocialization: from one individual to other people through sharingother people through sharing experiencesexperiences  Externalization: communicateExternalization: communicate knowledge to othersknowledge to others  Internalization: explicit knowledge toInternalization: explicit knowledge to personal knowledge = learningpersonal knowledge = learning  Combination: creation of commonCombination: creation of common knowledge through frameworksknowledge through frameworks
  • Training and developmentTraining and development I K socialization externalization K externalization I internalization internalization
  • Chapter 7Chapter 7 Teams and teamworkTeams and teamwork
  • Teams and teamworkTeams and teamwork  Teamwork is fundamental to qualityTeamwork is fundamental to quality managementmanagement  Teams must be integrated into theTeams must be integrated into the organizational structureorganizational structure
  • The quality organizationThe quality organization suppliers customers Leadership Mission Objectives CSFs Critical Processes
  • Quality organization and HRQuality organization and HR CEO Q Council Process Q teams Site TQM steering committees QITs QCs Employee participation
  • Quality organization and HRQuality organization and HR CPs Sub-processes Activities Tasks QC PQT QITs Ind.
  • TeamworkTeamwork  Pooling of expertisePooling of expertise  more complexmore complex problems can be tackledproblems can be tackled  Diversity of knowledge, experience, skillDiversity of knowledge, experience, skill  solutions more efficientsolutions more efficient  Participation in managementParticipation in management  greatergreater motivationmotivation  Cross-functional approachCross-functional approach  problemsproblems easier to identifyeasier to identify  Collective recommendationsCollective recommendations  betterbetter chances of implementationchances of implementation
  • TeamworkTeamwork INDEPENDENCEINDEPENDENCE EXCHANGEEXCHANGE TRUSTTRUST FREE COMMUNICATIONFREE COMMUNICATION INTERDEPENDENCEINTERDEPENDENCE T E A M W O R K I N D I V I D U A L S
  • Individual needs TeamworkTeamwork  Adair’s modelAdair’s model Team needs Task needs
  • TeamworkTeamwork  Task needsTask needs • Common purposeCommon purpose • Common objective(s)Common objective(s) • Achievement of objectivesAchievement of objectives
  • TeamworkTeamwork  Team needsTeam needs • Co-ordinationCo-ordination • Working in the same directionWorking in the same direction • Positive sum gamePositive sum game
  • TeamworkTeamwork  Individual needsIndividual needs • Individual responsibilityIndividual responsibility • Individual performanceIndividual performance • RecognitionRecognition
  • TeamworkTeamwork  FunctionsFunctions • Task functions: define task, make plan,Task functions: define task, make plan, allocate work and resource, controlallocate work and resource, control quality, check performance, adjustquality, check performance, adjust • Team functions: set standards, buildTeam functions: set standards, build team spirit, motivate, communicateteam spirit, motivate, communicate • Individual functions: praise individuals,Individual functions: praise individuals, give status, recognize individual abilitiesgive status, recognize individual abilities
  • TeamworkTeamwork Authority of manager Freedom of subordinate Tells Sells Consults Shares Delegates
  • Team developmentTeam development Awareness Acceptance Adoption Adaptation Action
  • Team developmentTeam development  Forming – awarenessForming – awareness • People conform to established linesPeople conform to established lines • Little care for others’ values and viewsLittle care for others’ values and views • No shared understanding of what needsNo shared understanding of what needs to be doneto be done
  • Team developmentTeam development  Storming – conflictStorming – conflict • Personal issues are expressedPersonal issues are expressed • Team becomes inward-lookingTeam becomes inward-looking • Concern appears for values, problemsConcern appears for values, problems and views of othersand views of others
  • Team developmentTeam development  Norming – co-operationNorming – co-operation • Confidence and trust developConfidence and trust develop • Clarification of purpose andClarification of purpose and establishment of objectivesestablishment of objectives • All options are consideredAll options are considered • Detailed plans are preparedDetailed plans are prepared • Reviewing progressReviewing progress
  • Team developmentTeam development  Performing – productivityPerforming – productivity • FlexibilityFlexibility • All energies utilizedAll energies utilized • Each particular situation promptsEach particular situation prompts leadership (not pre-established rules)leadership (not pre-established rules) • Collective improvementsCollective improvements
  • Team developmentTeam development Low Directive Behaviour High SupportiveBehaviour High The 4 leadership styles Directing CoachingSupporting Delegating
  • Quality circles / Kaizen teamsQuality circles / Kaizen teams  Kaizen teian: Japanese system forKaizen teian: Japanese system for generating and implementinggenerating and implementing employee ideas.employee ideas.  To improve quality and productivityTo improve quality and productivity  Focus on participationFocus on participation  Small-scale improvements: cheapSmall-scale improvements: cheap and easyand easy  Accumulation of small improvementsAccumulation of small improvements  better global performancebetter global performance
  • QC characteristicsQC characteristics  Voluntary participationVoluntary participation  Regular participationRegular participation  In normal working timeIn normal working time  Under leadership of supervisorUnder leadership of supervisor  To identify, analyze and solve work-To identify, analyze and solve work- related problemsrelated problems  To recommend solutionsTo recommend solutions  To implement themselvesTo implement themselves
  • QC characteristicsQC characteristics  MembersMembers  LeadersLeaders  Facilitators or co-ordinatorsFacilitators or co-ordinators  ManagementManagement
  • QC characteristicsQC characteristics  Members:Members: • Train to problem-solving and processTrain to problem-solving and process control techniquescontrol techniques • Ability to identify and solve work-relatedAbility to identify and solve work-related problemsproblems
  • QC characteristicsQC characteristics  Leaders:Leaders: • Immediate supervisors of membersImmediate supervisors of members • Trained to lead a circle and beTrained to lead a circle and be responsible for its successresponsible for its success
  • QC characteristicsQC characteristics  Facilitators:Facilitators: • Managers of QC programsManagers of QC programs • Co-ordination of meetings, training ofCo-ordination of meetings, training of leaders and membersleaders and members • Link with the rest of the organizationLink with the rest of the organization
  • QC characteristicsQC characteristics  Management:Management: • Commitment and support to qualityCommitment and support to quality circlescircles • Consider all suggestionsConsider all suggestions • Acceptance or not of recommendationsAcceptance or not of recommendations
  • QC characteristicsQC characteristics  Training of QC:Training of QC: • Introduction to quality circlesIntroduction to quality circles • BrainstormingBrainstorming • Data gathering and histogramsData gathering and histograms • Cause and effect analysisCause and effect analysis • Pareto analysisPareto analysis • Sampling and stratificationSampling and stratification • Control chartsControl charts • Presentation techniquesPresentation techniques
  • QC characteristicsQC characteristics  Operation:Operation: • 3 to 15 people, average 7 or 83 to 15 people, average 7 or 8 • Meetings away from work areaMeetings away from work area • Room arrangement to favour discussionRoom arrangement to favour discussion without hierarchywithout hierarchy • Meetings usually for one hour once aMeetings usually for one hour once a weekweek
  • Process improvement teamsProcess improvement teams  Team with appropriate knowledge, skillsTeam with appropriate knowledge, skills and experience to improve processesand experience to improve processes  Cross-functional and multidisciplinaryCross-functional and multidisciplinary  Team disbanded when improvementTeam disbanded when improvement solutions are agreedsolutions are agreed
  • Process improvement teamsProcess improvement teams  Running of PITs:Running of PITs: • Selection and leadershipSelection and leadership • ObjectivesObjectives • MeetingsMeetings • AssignmentsAssignments • DynamicsDynamics • Results and reviewResults and review
  • Process improvement teamsProcess improvement teams  Team selection and leadershipTeam selection and leadership • 5 to 10 members5 to 10 members • Core = people directly working onCore = people directly working on processprocess • Other members linked to processOther members linked to process • Leadership by process ownerLeadership by process owner
  • Process improvement teamsProcess improvement teams  Objectives stated by the team leaderObjectives stated by the team leader • For the end result sought (improvementFor the end result sought (improvement of the process)of the process) • For each meeting of the processFor each meeting of the process improvement teamimprovement team
  • Process improvement teamsProcess improvement teams  MeetingsMeetings • Team secretary to take minutesTeam secretary to take minutes • Agenda withAgenda with  Meeting placeMeeting place  List of membersList of members  Assignments for individual members orAssignments for individual members or groupsgroups  Supporting materialSupporting material  Procedures and rules for using toolsProcedures and rules for using tools
  • Process improvement teamsProcess improvement teams  Assignments: work is carried outAssignments: work is carried out during meetings but also betweenduring meetings but also between meetingsmeetings • Action plans with specific tasks for teamAction plans with specific tasks for team membersmembers • Time scaleTime scale • No assignments decided outsideNo assignments decided outside meetingsmeetings
  • Process improvement teamsProcess improvement teams  Dynamics: for the leaderDynamics: for the leader • Create a climate for creativityCreate a climate for creativity • Encourage all team members toEncourage all team members to contributecontribute • Allow different points of view and ideasAllow different points of view and ideas to emergeto emerge • Remove barriers to idea generationRemove barriers to idea generation • Support team members’ suggestionsSupport team members’ suggestions
  • Process improvement teamsProcess improvement teams  Dynamics: for team membersDynamics: for team members • Prepare for meetingsPrepare for meetings • Share ideas and opinionsShare ideas and opinions • Listen openly to othersListen openly to others • Reserve judgement until all argumentsReserve judgement until all arguments have been presentedhave been presented • Accept responsibility for individualAccept responsibility for individual assignments and efforts of the teamassignments and efforts of the team
  • Process improvement teamsProcess improvement teams  Results and reviewsResults and reviews • Communicate resultsCommunicate results • Give feedback to the teamsGive feedback to the teams
  • A model of personalityA model of personality managementmanagement  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Identification of personal qualities forIdentification of personal qualities for team buildingteam building  Many qualities are mutually exclusiveMany qualities are mutually exclusive • Forceful and driving v. sensitiveForceful and driving v. sensitive • Dynamic v. patientDynamic v. patient • Communicator v. listenerCommunicator v. listener • Decisive v. reflectiveDecisive v. reflective
  • MBTI modelMBTI model  Model based on individual’sModel based on individual’s preferences on 4 scales:preferences on 4 scales: • Giving and receiving energyGiving and receiving energy • Gathering informationGathering information • Making decisionsMaking decisions • Handling the outer worldHandling the outer world
  • MBTI modelMBTI model  Preference scales based on two oppositePreference scales based on two opposite preferences:preferences: • Extroversion – Introversion: how we prefer toExtroversion – Introversion: how we prefer to give/receive energy or focus our attentiongive/receive energy or focus our attention • Sensing – iNtuition: how we prefer to gatherSensing – iNtuition: how we prefer to gather informationinformation • Thinking – Feeling: how we prefer to makeThinking – Feeling: how we prefer to make decisionsdecisions • Judgement – Perception: how we prefer toJudgement – Perception: how we prefer to handle the outer worldhandle the outer world
  • MBTI modelMBTI model  8 possible preferences:8 possible preferences: • E or IE or I • S or NS or N • T or FT or F • J or PJ or P
  • MBTI modelMBTI model  Individual type is the combination ofIndividual type is the combination of the four preferences:the four preferences: • Ex: ESTJ = Extrovert preferringEx: ESTJ = Extrovert preferring gathering information with sensing,gathering information with sensing, making decisions by thinking and as amaking decisions by thinking and as a judging attitude to the world (i.e. actingjudging attitude to the world (i.e. acting rather than gathering more information)rather than gathering more information)
  • MBTI modelMBTI model  16 combinations:16 combinations: ISTJISTJ ISFJISFJ INFJINFJ INTJINTJ ISTPISTP ISFPISFP INFPINFP INTPINTP ESTPESTP ESFPESFP ENFPENFP ENTPENTP ESTJESTJ ESFJESFJ ENFJENFJ ENTJENTJ
  • MBTI modelMBTI model  Combination of different types in aCombination of different types in a team can build the profile of theteam can build the profile of the teamteam
  • Interpersonal relationsInterpersonal relations  FIRO-B (fundamental interpersonalFIRO-B (fundamental interpersonal relations orientation-behaviour)relations orientation-behaviour) model gives awareness of howmodel gives awareness of how people relate to other peoplepeople relate to other people
  • Interpersonal relationsInterpersonal relations  Model based on 3 dimensions and 2Model based on 3 dimensions and 2 points of view:points of view: • Dimensions:Dimensions:  InclusionInclusion  ControlControl  OpennessOpenness • Points of view:Points of view:  Expressed behavioursExpressed behaviours  Wanted behavioursWanted behaviours
  • Interpersonal relationsInterpersonal relations  Expressed behaviours:Expressed behaviours: • Inclusion: make efforts to include otherInclusion: make efforts to include other peoplepeople • Control: try to exert control over peopleControl: try to exert control over people • Openness: make efforts to become closeOpenness: make efforts to become close to peopleto people
  • Interpersonal relationsInterpersonal relations  Wanted behaviours:Wanted behaviours: • Inclusion: want other people to includeInclusion: want other people to include youyou • Control: want other people to controlControl: want other people to control youyou • Openness: want other people to expressOpenness: want other people to express friendly, open feelingsfriendly, open feelings
  • Interpersonal relationsInterpersonal relations DimensionDimension If yesIf yes If noIf no InclusionInclusion Feeling of belongingFeeling of belonging Sense of recognitionSense of recognition Willingness to commitWillingness to commit Feeling of alienationFeeling of alienation Sense of insignificanceSense of insignificance No desire ofNo desire of commitmentcommitment ControlControl Confidence in self andConfidence in self and othersothers Comfort with level ofComfort with level of responsibilityresponsibility Lack of confidence inLack of confidence in leadershipleadership Discomfort with level ofDiscomfort with level of responsibilityresponsibility OpennessOpenness Lively, relaxedLively, relaxed atmosphereatmosphere Good interactionsGood interactions Trusting relationshipsTrusting relationships Tense atmosphereTense atmosphere Aggressive humourAggressive humour Individuals isolatedIndividuals isolated
  • Chapter 8Chapter 8 Human Resource Total Quality ModelHuman Resource Total Quality Model
  • A TQ model for HRA TQ model for HR  Investor In People Standard(IPP)Investor In People Standard(IPP) • Business improvement tool designed toBusiness improvement tool designed to advance an organisation's performanceadvance an organisation's performance through its people.through its people. • Developed in 1990 by a partnership ofDeveloped in 1990 by a partnership of leading businesses and nationalleading businesses and national organisations in the UKorganisations in the UK • Reviewed every three years (mostReviewed every three years (most recent review in November 2004).recent review in November 2004).
  • Goals of IIPGoals of IIP  Improved earnings, productivity andImproved earnings, productivity and profitabilityprofitability • Skilled and motivated people work harder and betterSkilled and motivated people work harder and better improving productivityimproving productivity  Customer SatisfactionCustomer Satisfaction • Investors in People help employees become customerInvestors in People help employees become customer focused enabling organisations to effectively meetfocused enabling organisations to effectively meet customer needscustomer needs  Improved motivationImproved motivation • Through employees greater involvement, personalThrough employees greater involvement, personal development and recognition of achievement,development and recognition of achievement, motivation is improved. This leads to higher morale,motivation is improved. This leads to higher morale, improved retention rates, reduced absenteeism, readierimproved retention rates, reduced absenteeism, readier acceptance of change and identification with theacceptance of change and identification with the organisations goals beyond the confines of the joborganisations goals beyond the confines of the job
  • Goals of IIPGoals of IIP  Reduced costs and wastageReduced costs and wastage • Skilled and motivated people constantly examine theirSkilled and motivated people constantly examine their work to contribute towards reducing costs and wastagework to contribute towards reducing costs and wastage  Enhanced qualityEnhanced quality • IIP significantly improves the results of qualityIIP significantly improves the results of quality programmes. Investors in People adds considerableprogrammes. Investors in People adds considerable value to The Excellence Model, ISO 9000, BS 5750 andvalue to The Excellence Model, ISO 9000, BS 5750 and other total quality initiativesother total quality initiatives  Competitive advantage through improvedCompetitive advantage through improved performanceperformance • IIP organisations develop a competitive edgeIIP organisations develop a competitive edge  Public recognitionPublic recognition • IIP status brings public recognition for realIIP status brings public recognition for real achievements measured against a rigorous Nationalachievements measured against a rigorous National Standard. Being an Investor in People helps to attractStandard. Being an Investor in People helps to attract the best quality job applicants. It may also provide athe best quality job applicants. It may also provide a reason for customers to choose specific goods andreason for customers to choose specific goods and services.services.
  • IIPIIP
  • IIPIIP Plan phasePlan phase:: developing strategies todeveloping strategies to improve the performance of theimprove the performance of the organisation.organisation. Four types of strategies are taken intoFour types of strategies are taken into account:account: 1.1. A strategy for improving the performanceA strategy for improving the performance of the organization is clearly defined andof the organization is clearly defined and understoodunderstood 2.2. Learning and development is planned toLearning and development is planned to achieve the organization’s objectivesachieve the organization’s objectives
  • IIPIIP 3.3. Strategies for managing people areStrategies for managing people are designed to promote quality ofdesigned to promote quality of opportunity in the development ofopportunity in the development of the organization’s peoplethe organization’s people 4.4. The capabilities that managers needThe capabilities that managers need to lead, manage and develop peopleto lead, manage and develop people effectively, are clearly defined andeffectively, are clearly defined and understoodunderstood
  • IIPIIP  Do phaseDo phase:: taking action to improvetaking action to improve the performance of the organisation.the performance of the organisation.  Four aspects are taken into account:Four aspects are taken into account: 1. Managers are affective in leading,1. Managers are affective in leading, managing and developing peoplemanaging and developing people 2. People’s contribution to the2. People’s contribution to the organization is recognized andorganization is recognized and valuedvalued
  • IIPIIP 3.3. People are encouraged to takePeople are encouraged to take ownership and responsibility byownership and responsibility by being involved in decision-makingbeing involved in decision-making 4.4. People learn and develop effectivelyPeople learn and develop effectively
  • IIPIIP  Review phaseReview phase:: evaluating the impactevaluating the impact on the performance of theon the performance of the organisation.organisation.  Two aspects are taken into account:Two aspects are taken into account: 1.1. Investment in people improves theInvestment in people improves the performance of the organizationperformance of the organization 2.2. Improvements are continually madeImprovements are continually made to the way people are managed andto the way people are managed and developeddeveloped
  • IIPIIP  MModel can also be used as a self-odel can also be used as a self- assessment tool and a benchmarkingassessment tool and a benchmarking tool for people management andtool for people management and development.development.  MMethod similar to the RADARethod similar to the RADAR approach of the EFQM model.approach of the EFQM model. BBasedased on the same 3 principles as theon the same 3 principles as the Standard, Plan, Do and Review.Standard, Plan, Do and Review.
  • IIPIIP
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Principle 1: developing strategies toPrinciple 1: developing strategies to improve the performance of theimprove the performance of the organizationorganization  Indicator 1:Indicator 1: • A strategy for improving theA strategy for improving the performance of the organization isperformance of the organization is clearly defined and understoodclearly defined and understood
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Evidence requirements:Evidence requirements: 1 Top managers make sure the organisation has a1 Top managers make sure the organisation has a clear purpose and vision supported by a strategyclear purpose and vision supported by a strategy for improving its performance.for improving its performance. 2 Top managers make sure the organisation has a2 Top managers make sure the organisation has a business plan with measurable performancebusiness plan with measurable performance objectives.objectives. 3 Top managers make sure there are constructive3 Top managers make sure there are constructive relationships with representative groups (whererelationships with representative groups (where they exist) and the groups are consulted whenthey exist) and the groups are consulted when developing the organisation's business plan.developing the organisation's business plan. 4 Managers can describe how they involve people4 Managers can describe how they involve people when developing the organisation's business planwhen developing the organisation's business plan and when agreeing team and individualand when agreeing team and individual objectives.objectives.
  • IIP standardIIP standard 5 People who are members of representative5 People who are members of representative groups can confirm that top managers make suregroups can confirm that top managers make sure there are constructive relationships with thethere are constructive relationships with the groups and they are consulted when developinggroups and they are consulted when developing the organisation's business plan.the organisation's business plan. 6 People can explain the objectives of their team6 People can explain the objectives of their team and the organisation at a level that is appropriateand the organisation at a level that is appropriate to their role, and can describe how they areto their role, and can describe how they are expected to contribute to developing andexpected to contribute to developing and achieving them.achieving them.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Indicator 2:Indicator 2: • Learning and development is planned toLearning and development is planned to achieve the organisation's objectives.achieve the organisation's objectives.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Evidence requirements:Evidence requirements: 1 Top managers can explain the organisation's learning and1 Top managers can explain the organisation's learning and development needs, the plans and resources in place todevelopment needs, the plans and resources in place to meet them, how these link to achieving specific objectivesmeet them, how these link to achieving specific objectives and how the impact will be evaluated.and how the impact will be evaluated. 2 Managers can explain team learning and development2 Managers can explain team learning and development needs, the activities planned to meet them, how these linkneeds, the activities planned to meet them, how these link to achieving specific team objectives and how the impactto achieving specific team objectives and how the impact will be evaluated.will be evaluated. 3 People can describe how they are involved in identifying3 People can describe how they are involved in identifying their learning and development needs and the activitiestheir learning and development needs and the activities planned to meet them.planned to meet them. 4 People can explain what their learning and development4 People can explain what their learning and development activities should achieve for them, their team and theactivities should achieve for them, their team and the organisation.organisation.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Indicator 3:Indicator 3: • Strategies for managing people areStrategies for managing people are designed to promote equality ofdesigned to promote equality of opportunity in the development of theopportunity in the development of the organisation's people.organisation's people.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Evidence requirements:Evidence requirements: 1 Top managers can describe strategies they have1 Top managers can describe strategies they have in place to create an environment wherein place to create an environment where everyone is encouraged to contribute ideas toeveryone is encouraged to contribute ideas to improve their own and other people'simprove their own and other people's performance.performance. 2 Top managers recognise the different needs of2 Top managers recognise the different needs of people and can describe strategies they have inpeople and can describe strategies they have in place to make sure everyone has appropriate andplace to make sure everyone has appropriate and fair access to the support they need and there isfair access to the support they need and there is equality of opportunity for people to learn andequality of opportunity for people to learn and develop which will improve their performance.develop which will improve their performance.
  • IIP standardIIP standard 3 Managers recognise the different needs of people3 Managers recognise the different needs of people and can describe how they make sure everyoneand can describe how they make sure everyone has appropriate and fair access to the supporthas appropriate and fair access to the support they need and there is equality of opportunity forthey need and there is equality of opportunity for people to learn and develop which will improvepeople to learn and develop which will improve their performance.their performance. 4 People believe managers are genuinely committed4 People believe managers are genuinely committed to making sure everyone has appropriate and fairto making sure everyone has appropriate and fair access to the support they need and there isaccess to the support they need and there is equality of opportunity for them to learn andequality of opportunity for them to learn and develop which will improve their performance.develop which will improve their performance. 5 People can give examples of how they have been5 People can give examples of how they have been encouraged to contribute ideas to improve theirencouraged to contribute ideas to improve their own and other people's performance.own and other people's performance.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Indicator 4:Indicator 4: • The capabilities managers need to lead,The capabilities managers need to lead, manage and develop people effectivelymanage and develop people effectively areare clearly defined andclearly defined and understood.understood.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Evidence requirements:Evidence requirements: 1 Top managers can describe the knowledge, skills1 Top managers can describe the knowledge, skills and behaviours managers need to lead, manageand behaviours managers need to lead, manage and develop people effectively, and the plansand develop people effectively, and the plans they have in place to make sure managers havethey have in place to make sure managers have thesethese capabilities.capabilities. 2 Managers can describe the knowledge, skills and2 Managers can describe the knowledge, skills and behaviours they need to lead, manage andbehaviours they need to lead, manage and develop people effectively.develop people effectively. 3 People can describe what their manager should be3 People can describe what their manager should be doing to lead, manage and develop themdoing to lead, manage and develop them effectively.effectively.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Principle 2: taking action to improvePrinciple 2: taking action to improve the performance of the organizationthe performance of the organization  Indicator 5:Indicator 5: • Managers are effective in leading,Managers are effective in leading, managing and developing people.managing and developing people.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Evidence requirements:Evidence requirements: 1 Managers can explain how they are effective in1 Managers can explain how they are effective in leading, managing and developing people.leading, managing and developing people. 2 Managers can give examples of how they give2 Managers can give examples of how they give people constructive feedback on theirpeople constructive feedback on their performance regularly and when appropriate.performance regularly and when appropriate. 3 People can explain how their managers are3 People can explain how their managers are effective in leading, managing and developingeffective in leading, managing and developing them.them. 4 People can give examples of how they receive4 People can give examples of how they receive constructive feedback on their performanceconstructive feedback on their performance regularlyregularly and when appropriate.and when appropriate.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Indicator 6:Indicator 6: • People's contribution to thePeople's contribution to the organisationorganisation is recognised and valued.is recognised and valued.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Evidence requirements:Evidence requirements: 1 Managers can give examples of how they1 Managers can give examples of how they recognise and value people's individualrecognise and value people's individual contribution to the organisation.contribution to the organisation. 2 People can describe how they contribute to the2 People can describe how they contribute to the organisation and believe they make a positiveorganisation and believe they make a positive difference to its performance.difference to its performance. 3 People can describe how their contribution to the3 People can describe how their contribution to the organisation is recognised and valued.organisation is recognised and valued.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Indicator 7:Indicator 7: • People are encouraged to takePeople are encouraged to take ownership and responsibility by beingownership and responsibility by being involved ininvolved in decisionmaking.decisionmaking.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Evidence requirements:Evidence requirements: 1 Managers can describe how they promote a sense of1 Managers can describe how they promote a sense of ownership and responsibility by encouraging people to beownership and responsibility by encouraging people to be involved in decision-making, both individually and throughinvolved in decision-making, both individually and through representative groups, where they exist.representative groups, where they exist. 2 People can describe how they are encouraged to be involved2 People can describe how they are encouraged to be involved in decision-making that affects the performance ofin decision-making that affects the performance of individuals, teams and the organisation, at a level that isindividuals, teams and the organisation, at a level that is appropriate to their role.appropriate to their role. 3 People can describe how they are encouraged to take3 People can describe how they are encouraged to take ownership and responsibility for decisions that affect theownership and responsibility for decisions that affect the performance of individuals, teams and the organisation, atperformance of individuals, teams and the organisation, at a level that is appropriate to theira level that is appropriate to their role.role.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Indicator 8:Indicator 8: • People learn and developPeople learn and develop effectively.effectively.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Evidence requirements:Evidence requirements: 1 Managers can describe how they make sure1 Managers can describe how they make sure people's learning and development needs arepeople's learning and development needs are met.met. 2 People can describe how their learning and2 People can describe how their learning and development needs have been met, what theydevelopment needs have been met, what they have learnt and how they have applied this inhave learnt and how they have applied this in their role.their role. 3 People who are new to the organisation, and3 People who are new to the organisation, and those new to a role, can describe how theirthose new to a role, can describe how their induction has helped them to perform effectively.induction has helped them to perform effectively.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Principle 3Principle 3 • Evaluating the impact on theEvaluating the impact on the performance of the organizationperformance of the organization
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Indicator 9:Indicator 9: • Investment in people improves theInvestment in people improves the Performance of the organisation.Performance of the organisation.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Evidence requirements:Evidence requirements: 1 Top managers can describe the organisation's1 Top managers can describe the organisation's overall investment of time, money and resourcesoverall investment of time, money and resources in learning and development.in learning and development. 2 Top managers can explain, and quantify where2 Top managers can explain, and quantify where appropriate, how learning and development hasappropriate, how learning and development has improved the performance of the organisation.improved the performance of the organisation. 3 Top managers can describe how the evaluation of3 Top managers can describe how the evaluation of their investment in people is used to developtheir investment in people is used to develop their strategy for improving the performance oftheir strategy for improving the performance of the organisation.the organisation.
  • IIP standardIIP standard 4 Managers can give examples of how learning and4 Managers can give examples of how learning and development has improved the performance ofdevelopment has improved the performance of their team and the organisation.their team and the organisation. 5 People can give examples of how learning and5 People can give examples of how learning and development has improved their performance,development has improved their performance, the performance of their team and that of thethe performance of their team and that of the organisation.organisation.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Indicator 10:Indicator 10: • Improvements are continually made toImprovements are continually made to the way people are managed andthe way people are managed and developed.developed.
  • IIP standardIIP standard  Evidence requirements:Evidence requirements: 1 Top managers can give examples of how the1 Top managers can give examples of how the evaluation of their investment in people hasevaluation of their investment in people has resulted in improvements in the organisation'sresulted in improvements in the organisation's strategy for managing and developing people.strategy for managing and developing people. 2 Managers can give examples of improvements2 Managers can give examples of improvements they have made to the way they manage andthey have made to the way they manage and develop people.develop people. 3 People can give examples of improvements that3 People can give examples of improvements that have been made to the way the organisationhave been made to the way the organisation manages and develops its people.manages and develops its people.
  • ConclusionConclusion  Role of HR has increased with theRole of HR has increased with the development of quality managementdevelopment of quality management • Shift from industry to serviceShift from industry to service • More complex tasks requiring higherMore complex tasks requiring higher skillsskills • Less hierarchical organizations givingLess hierarchical organizations giving more responsibilities to peoplemore responsibilities to people
  • ConclusionConclusion  HR certainly today a key driver ofHR certainly today a key driver of organizational performance, but stillorganizational performance, but still not understood by manynot understood by many organizationsorganizations The people are the mastersThe people are the masters Edmund BurkeEdmund Burke