The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedThe Complete Book of Project-Related T...
The Complete Book of Project-Related         Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained                                   ...
The Complete Book of Project-Related         Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedCAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL.............
The Complete Book of Project-Related         Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained  DISASTER RECOVERY (APPLICATIONS) ...
The Complete Book of Project-Related         Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained  INTERFACE TESTING ..................
The Complete Book of Project-Related       Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedPOINT OF NO RETURN .....................
The Complete Book of Project-Related         Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained  PROTOTYPING.........................
The Complete Book of Project-Related         Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained  SKILLS INVENTORY ...................
The Complete Book of Project-Related         Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedUNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE™ (UML)......
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedOverview of TenStep, Inc.We hope that ...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedOverview of this BookThe purpose of th...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedAcceptance Criteria(Product: TenStep P...
The Complete Book of Project-Related       Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explainedthat the solution meets his or her re...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explainedapproach, action items can be identifi...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedActivation(Product: PortfolioStep Port...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained"Active listening" is the term used to...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explainedeffort will track along the same lines...
The Complete Book of Project-Related       Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedAnalogy (Estimating Technique)(Produc...
The Complete Book of Project-Related       Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedApplication Business Owners have a nu...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedIn terms of guidance, you also need to...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained•   Platform/operating system.•   Soft...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained                    The Primary Suppor...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedIn addition, like the application inve...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained•   Systems software. This group inclu...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explainedmaking sure business users cannot dire...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedBeeper Pay(Product: SupportStep Applic...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecy...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedAnother aspect of black box testing is...
The Complete Book of Project-Related      Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedBusiness Requirements(Product: Lifecyc...
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
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Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
Project terms and definitionse book
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  1. 1. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedThe Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions:Mysteries ExplainedCopyright ©2005 by Tom Mochal, TenStep, Inc.Mochal, Tom, 1957–The complete book of project-related terms and definitions: mysteriesexplained / Tom Mochal.ISBN 0-9763147-5-4All rights reserved. This book is for your individual use only, and may not beshared with others. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted inany form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the priorwritten permission of the copyright owner and the publisher.Trademarked names may appear in this book. Rather than use a trademarksymbol with every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use the names onlyin an editorial fashion and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with nointention of infringement of the trademark.For additional information on requests for translations, please contactTenStep, Inc. directly 877-536-8434 or 770-591-9860, emailadmin@tenstep.com, or visit http://www.tenstep.com.The information in this book is distributed on an “as is” basis, withoutwarranty. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of thiswork, neither the author(s) nor TenStep, Inc. shall have any liability to anyperson or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to becaused directly or indirectly by the information contained in this work.
  2. 2. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained Table of Contents, by LetterOVERVIEW OF TENSTEP, INC. ..........................................................................................1OVERVIEW OF THIS BOOK .................................................................................................2ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA .....................................................................................................3 ACCEPTANCE TESTING ..................................................................................................................................3 ACTION ITEMS ................................................................................................................................................4 ACTIVE LISTENING ........................................................................................................................................6 ACTIVITY..........................................................................................................................................................7 ACTUAL COST (EARNED VALUE) .................................................................................................................7 ALIGNMENT ....................................................................................................................................................8 ANALYST ..........................................................................................................................................................9 APPLICATION (SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT)...............................................................................................9 APPLICATION BUSINESS OWNERS ................................................................................................................9 APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE ....................................................................................................................10 APPLICATION INVENTORY ..........................................................................................................................11 APPLICATION MAINTENANCE MANUAL ...................................................................................................12 APPLICATION PRIMARY AND BACKUP SUPPORT ......................................................................................12 APPLICATION SERVER INVENTORY ...........................................................................................................13 ASSET GROUPS (PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT)..........................................................................................14 ASSUMPTION .................................................................................................................................................15 AUDITING FOR SECURITY............................................................................................................................15 AUTHORIZATION ..........................................................................................................................................16BACKLOG ............................................................................................................................... 16 BENCHMARKING...........................................................................................................................................17 BEST PRACTICE .............................................................................................................................................17 BIG BANG TESTING .....................................................................................................................................17 BLACK BOX TESTING...................................................................................................................................18 BUDGET AT COMPLETION (EARNED VALUE) ..........................................................................................19 BUSINESS APPLICATIONS – SEE APPLICATIONS .......................................................................................19 BUSINESS CASE .............................................................................................................................................19 BUSINESS PLAN .............................................................................................................................................19 BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS ..........................................................................................................................20 BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS REPORT ...........................................................................................................20 iii Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedCAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL.....................................................................................20 CAPITAL ACCOUNTS AND EXPENSE ACCOUNTS ......................................................................................21 CHANGE CONTROL BOARD ........................................................................................................................22 CLIENTS .........................................................................................................................................................22 CLIENT PROJECT MANAGER .......................................................................................................................22 COACH ...........................................................................................................................................................23 COACHING SKILLS ........................................................................................................................................23 CODE REVIEWS .............................................................................................................................................24 COMMUNICATION SPECIALIST ....................................................................................................................24 CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS DESIGN ................................................................................................................24 CONSTRAINTS................................................................................................................................................25 CONSTRUCT PHASE ......................................................................................................................................25 COST ACCOUNT ............................................................................................................................................25 COST PERFORMANCE INDEX (CPI) (EARNED VALUE)...........................................................................27 COST VARIANCE (CV) (EARNED VALUE) .................................................................................................27 CRITICAL PATH .............................................................................................................................................27 CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS .......................................................................................................................28 CROSS TRAINING ..........................................................................................................................................28 CULTURE ........................................................................................................................................................28 CUSTOMER .....................................................................................................................................................29DASHBOARDS .......................................................................................................................29 DATA ANALYST/ARCHITECT......................................................................................................................30 DATA CONVERSION .....................................................................................................................................31 DATA DICTIONARY ......................................................................................................................................32 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM ................................................................................................................................32 DECISION TREE ............................................................................................................................................33 DEFINITION ..................................................................................................................................................34 DELIVERABLE ...............................................................................................................................................35 DELIVERABLE REVIEW ................................................................................................................................35 DESIGN ..........................................................................................................................................................36 DESIGNER......................................................................................................................................................36 DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................................................36 DISASTER RECOVERY (GENERAL) .............................................................................................................37 iv Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained DISASTER RECOVERY (APPLICATIONS) .....................................................................................................37 DISASTER RECOVERY TESTING (APPLICATIONS) ....................................................................................37 DISCOVERY PROJECT ...................................................................................................................................38 DISCRETIONARY WORK ..............................................................................................................................38 DOCUMENTATION TESTING .......................................................................................................................39 DOMAIN MODELING ...................................................................................................................................40 “DON’T SHOOT THE MESSENGER” ...........................................................................................................40 DRAFT COPIES ..............................................................................................................................................40EARNED VALUE (EV).......................................................................................................... 41 ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA)............................................................................................................42 ESTIMATING TECHNIQUES .........................................................................................................................43FACILITATED SESSION......................................................................................................46 FACILITIES DEPARTMENT ...........................................................................................................................46 FALSE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................47 FAST TRACK ..................................................................................................................................................48 FOLLOWING PEOPLE AROUND ..................................................................................................................49 FOUNDATION ................................................................................................................................................50 FUNCTION POINTS .......................................................................................................................................51 FUNCTIONAL MANAGER .............................................................................................................................52 FUNCTIONALLY-BASED PROJECT ORGANIZATION.................................................................................52 FUTURE STATE VISION ................................................................................................................................53GANTT CHART .....................................................................................................................53 GAP ANALYSIS ..............................................................................................................................................53 GOLDPLATING ..............................................................................................................................................54 GOVERNANCE ...............................................................................................................................................55 GROUP INTERVIEWING (REQUIREMENTS) ...............................................................................................55 "GROUPTHINK" ............................................................................................................................................56 GROW THE BUSINESS ...................................................................................................................................56 GUIDELINE ....................................................................................................................................................56IMPLEMENTATION PLAN ................................................................................................57 INCREMENTAL TESTING ..............................................................................................................................57 INFORMATIONAL COMMUNICATION .........................................................................................................58 INTANGIBLE BENEFITS ................................................................................................................................58 v Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained INTERFACE TESTING ...................................................................................................................................59 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) 10006...........................................59 ISSUE...............................................................................................................................................................60JOINT APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT (JAD) ...............................................................60KEY LEARNING.................................................................................................................... 61 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS .............................................................................................................61 LEAD THE BUSINESS ....................................................................................................................................61 LIFECYCLE .....................................................................................................................................................62MAIN USER CONTACTS .....................................................................................................62 MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP .............................................................................................................63 MANDATORY COMMUNICATION ................................................................................................................64 MARKETING COMMUNICATION .................................................................................................................64 MATRIX-BASED ORGANIZATION ...............................................................................................................64 MEETING FUNDAMENTALS.........................................................................................................................65 METHODOLOGIST ........................................................................................................................................66 MILESTONE ...................................................................................................................................................66 MISSION STATEMENT...................................................................................................................................67 MONEY AND ASSETS ....................................................................................................................................67 MONTE CARLO MODELING ........................................................................................................................68 MULTIPLE-SITE TESTING ............................................................................................................................69NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV)............................................................................................69 NETWORK ADMINISTRATION .....................................................................................................................70OBJECTIVES.......................................................................................................................... 71 ON-CALL PREMIUM......................................................................................................................................71 ONE-ON-ONE INTERVIEWING...................................................................................................................71 ONLINE SCREEN LAYOUTS .........................................................................................................................72 ORGANIZATIONS (STAFF-RELATED) VS. PORTFOLIOS (WORK-RELATED)..........................................73PARETO ANALYSIS ..............................................................................................................74 PERFORMANCE TESTING .............................................................................................................................75 PHYSICAL DATABASE VIEW ........................................................................................................................75 PLANNED VALUE (PV) (EARNED VALUE)................................................................................................76 PMO (PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE) .................................................................................................76 PMO MANAGER ...........................................................................................................................................77 vi Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedPOINT OF NO RETURN ................................................................................................................................77POLICY ...........................................................................................................................................................78PORTFOLIOS ..................................................................................................................................................78PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT SPONSOR.......................................................................................................78PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT TEAM.............................................................................................................78PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE METRICS .......................................................................................................79POSITIVE RISK...............................................................................................................................................80POWER USERS ...............................................................................................................................................80PRINCE2®...................................................................................................................................................81PRINCIPLES ....................................................................................................................................................81PRIORITIZATION ...........................................................................................................................................81PROBLEM PRIORITY / SEVERITY LEVELS..................................................................................................82PROCEDURE ..................................................................................................................................................83PROCESS MODELS ........................................................................................................................................83PROCESS REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................................................83PRODUCT MANAGEMENT ...........................................................................................................................84PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS ..........................................................................................................................84PROGRAM.......................................................................................................................................................84PROGRAM MANAGER ...................................................................................................................................85PROJECT .........................................................................................................................................................85PROJECT AUDITS ..........................................................................................................................................85PROJECT-BASED ORGANIZATIONS ............................................................................................................86PROJECT DIRECTOR .....................................................................................................................................87PROJECT INVENTORIES ...............................................................................................................................87PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK®) ...........................................................87PMO MODELS ..............................................................................................................................................88PROJECT MANAGEMENT PORTAL ..............................................................................................................90PROJECT MANAGEMENT VS. PRODUCT MANAGEMENT .........................................................................91PROJECT MANAGEMENT VS. PROJECT LIFECYCLE ..................................................................................92PROJECT MANAGER .....................................................................................................................................92PROJECT PHASE ............................................................................................................................................93PROJECT STATUS REPORTS..........................................................................................................................93PROJECT TEAM .............................................................................................................................................93 vii Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained PROTOTYPING...............................................................................................................................................94QUALITY ASSURANCE ........................................................................................................95 QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDIT .....................................................................................................................95 QUALITY ASSURANCE SPECIALIST .............................................................................................................95 QUALITY SPECIALIST....................................................................................................................................96 QUESTIONNAIRES.........................................................................................................................................96REGRESSION TESTING......................................................................................................98 REPOSITORY ..................................................................................................................................................99 REPOSITORY LIBRARIAN..............................................................................................................................99 REQUIREMENTS SOLICITATION MODEL ...................................................................................................99 REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT PLAN................................................................................................... 100 REQUIREMENTS TESTING ........................................................................................................................ 101 RESPONSIBILITIES ...................................................................................................................................... 101 RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI) ............................................................................................................ 101 REUSE ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................................................. 101 RISK ............................................................................................................................................................. 102 RISK MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................................................. 103 RISK RESPONSES ........................................................................................................................................ 103 ROLE-BASED REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................. 104 ROLES .......................................................................................................................................................... 105 ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................ 105 RUN THE BUSINESS ................................................................................................................................... 106SCHEDULE VARIANCE..................................................................................................... 107 SCHEDULE PERFORMANCE INDEX (EARNED VALUE)......................................................................... 107 SCOPE .......................................................................................................................................................... 107 SCOPE CHANGE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................. 107 SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................................... 108 SECURITY TESTING ................................................................................................................................... 109 SELECTION ................................................................................................................................................. 110 SERVICES ..................................................................................................................................................... 110 SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT .................................................................................................................. 110 SIX SIGMA ................................................................................................................................................... 112 SKILLS .......................................................................................................................................................... 113 viii Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained SKILLS INVENTORY ................................................................................................................................... 113 SMALL PROJECTS........................................................................................................................................ 113 SMART OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................ 114 SOFTWARE CHANGE MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................... 115 SOLUTIONS ................................................................................................................................................. 116 SPONSOR (EXECUTIVE SPONSOR AND PROJECT SPONSOR) ................................................................ 116 STAKEHOLDERS ......................................................................................................................................... 117 STANDARD .................................................................................................................................................. 117 STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC)................................................................................................. 117 STEERING COMMITTEE ............................................................................................................................ 118 STRATEGY ................................................................................................................................................... 118 STRESS TESTING ........................................................................................................................................ 119 SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT ....................................................................................................................... 119 SUPPLIERS / VENDORS ............................................................................................................................. 119 SUPPORT...................................................................................................................................................... 119 SUPPORT ANALYST (PRIMARY AND BACKUP)........................................................................................ 120 SUPPORT DISPATCHER .............................................................................................................................. 120TANGIBLE BENEFITS .......................................................................................................121 TECHNICAL SYSTEMS DESIGN ................................................................................................................. 121 TECHNIQUE ................................................................................................................................................ 121 TEMPLATE .................................................................................................................................................. 122 TESTING PLAN ........................................................................................................................................... 122 TESTING STRATEGY .................................................................................................................................. 122 TIERS ........................................................................................................................................................... 123 TIMEBOXING .............................................................................................................................................. 123 TOLERANCES .............................................................................................................................................. 124 TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO)...................................................................................................... 124 TRACEABILITY ............................................................................................................................................ 125 TRAINING ................................................................................................................................................... 125 TRAINING STRATEGY................................................................................................................................ 125 TRAINING TECHNIQUES ........................................................................................................................... 126 TRAINING TESTING .................................................................................................................................. 127 TRIPLE CONSTRAINT................................................................................................................................. 127 ix Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedUNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE™ (UML)................................................................ 128 USABILITY TESTING .................................................................................................................................. 129 USE CASES .................................................................................................................................................. 130 USER’S MANUAL ........................................................................................................................................ 131 USERS .......................................................................................................................................................... 131 VISION ......................................................................................................................................................... 133WHITE BOX TESTING ...................................................................................................... 133 WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (WBS)............................................................................................... 134 WORKLOAD FORECAST ............................................................................................................................ 134 x Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedOverview of TenStep, Inc.We hope that you enjoy this book from TenStep, Inc. We specialize in businessmethodology development, training and consulting. Our focus is to provide value to ourclients in the areas of project management, Project Management Office, portfoliomanagement, the development life-cycle and application support.Our products and services fill an important gap that exists in most organizations. Forinstance, let’s assume that your organization needs to become much better at managingprojects successfully. Once you decide you need to be better, you are probably not going torun out and buy software tools. The first thing you will probably do is realize that you needto have a good, common set of processes, best practices, templates and other components ofa common methodology.This is where our products and services come in. When you realize that you need a good setof common processes, you can either spend months and months creating them from scratch,or you can use our products as your base, and make the minor customizations that areneeded for your specific organization.Building a methodology from scratch could take months (or years) and require a largeexpenditure of money and time. Using our products and services allows you to have thebasic methodology in place immediately. We can train your people in using the methodologyand we can help you with training and implementation services, such as:• Basic and advanced project management and project lifecycle classes• Project Management Office and Portfolio Management workshops• Methodology deployment services• Methodology customization• Coaching and mentoring• Project assessments and quality assurance• Much, much moreOur products and services cover project management, Project Management Offices,portfolio management, the development life-cycle and application support.Our value proposition is simple - we take the time and effort to develop these importantbusiness processes so that you dont have to. We also update and enhance these importantbusiness processes so that you dont have to.How can we best help you meet your important business objectives? Contact us for moreinformation.TenStep, Inc.www.TenStep.com770.591.9860 / 877.536.8434info@tenstep.com 1 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedOverview of this BookThe purpose of this book is to provide easy to understand definitions and explanations formany of the terms commonly used in connection with projects. These terms are used in ourTenStep product line. The terms are arranged alphabetically and each term references theTenStep product where the term is generally used. There are five TenStep productsreferenced.• Project management, www.TenStep.com (The TenStep Project Management Process)• Project lifecycle, www.LifecycleStep.com (The LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)• Project Management Office, www.PMOStep.com (The PMOStep Project Management Office Framework)• Portfolio Management, www.PortfolioStep.com (The PortfolioStep Portfolio Management Framework)• Application Support, www.SupportStep.com (The SupportStep Application Support Framework)Rather than provide a quick definition like you might see in a dictionary, this book attemptsto define the terms in a way that is easy to understand and comprehend. In some cases, thisrequires the definition to be multiple paragraphs or even a page or more.We will be adding new terms and definitions to this book in future editions. If you haveterms that you think would be valuable, please email us at info@tenstep.com. 2 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedAcceptance Criteria(Product: TenStep Project Management Process)Acceptance Criteria is a quality assurance technique. The Acceptance Criteria should describethe processes and checkpoints that need to take place before the solution is consideredcomplete. Does the system have to be perfect? You better hope not. But the AcceptanceCriteria should define how the acceptance decision will be made. For instance, the sponsormay accept a system with certain minor types of errors remaining, but there may be otherlevels of errors that will render the system unacceptable. Part of the Acceptance Criteria mayspecify the types of testing that take place. For instance, the client may want to thoroughlytest security in a separate and focused test, something that may not have been in the originalplans of the project team. However, after defining the Acceptance Criteria, the projectmanager knows that this extra test should be planned and scheduled.Examples of the types of events or activities that would be in the Acceptance Criteria are:• Ensuring the requirements are formally approved• Proving (through traceability or Requirements Testing) that all requirements are accounted for in the final solution• Accounting of budget and expenses on the project• Specifying the testing criteria and/or specific types of testing to perform• Defining implementation options - for instance, first running a pilot test• Ensuring that the solution is stable• Validating that the training is completed• Specifying how long the project team must support the solution before turning it over to the support organization• Fixing all major bugs and errors, although minor bugs and nuisance errors could be unresolved• Collecting certain metrics and validating against predefined targetsThe Acceptance Criteria should be defined in writing and approved bythe sponsor. All things being equal, if the Acceptance Criteria are met,there should be no reason that the sponsor would not approve andaccept the final solution.Acceptance Testing(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)Your project is getting close to the end. The programmers have unit tested the code, and theentire team has participated in a series of interface and system tests. Now you only have onemajor test to go – user acceptance testing. Ultimately, the client owns and must live with thesolution being developed. The purpose of acceptance testing is to allow the client to validate 3 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explainedthat the solution meets his or her requirements. In fact, depending on how your others testswere performed, this final test may not be necessary. If the clients and users participated insystem tests such as requirements testing and usability testing, they may not see a need toperform a formal acceptance test. However, it is very likely this additional test is necessaryfor the client to give final approval for the system.This is the last opportunity the client has to make sure that the systemis what they expect. When this final test is complete, the team expectsthat the client will formally approve the system or point out anyproblems that still need to be resolved. Therefore, unlike all the othertests performed so far, acceptance testing is the responsibility of theclient. Of course, unless the clients are very savvy in testingtechniques, they will need the participation of the project team aswell.Action Items(Product: TenStep Project Management Process)An action item is work that requires follow-up execution. By their nature, action itemsnormally cannot be planned for in advance. They arise on an ad-hoc basis during meetingsor as a by-product of working on something else. An action item is assigned because there isnot enough knowledge, expertise or time to resolve the item at the time it originally surfaces.In many cases, action items are trivial in nature, but in other cases they can requiresubstantial work to complete. Action items need to be assigned, worked on later andcompleted. (If they are not going to be completed, they should not be called action items.Instead, simply note that the item will not be followed up on.) Examples of action itemsinclude forwarding specific information to someone, arranging a meeting and providing aquick estimate on a piece of work.Sometimes an action item is established to investigate an area where there may be a potentialproblem. Because of this, action items are sometimes wrongly mixed in with issues. Anaction item should not be confused with an issue. An issue is a problem that will have adetrimental impact on the project if left unresolved. An action item may lead to thediscovery of an issue or a risk (a potential issue in the future), but the action item itself is notan issue.There are two common approaches used to manage action items. The best approach is todocument the items as activities in the project workplan. A resource and end date is assignedas well, and the activity is then managed and tracked like any normal activity. In general, thisis the better approach to follow because it keeps the work items in one place, and it allowsthe project manager to enforce the discipline of knowing if its not on the workplan, it willnot be worked on.Another popular approach is to track and manage action items on a separate Action ItemLog. This can make sense to some project managers because typically action items are smallenough that you may not want to track them on your real workplan. If you use this 4 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  14. 14. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explainedapproach, action items can be identified, documented, assigned and resolved using thefollowing process:Action items may be identified by anyone on the project team. They often arise out ofinteractions between and among project team members, particularly at meetings.The project manager or a designated person enters the action item in the Action Item Log.This records its existence to ensure that it receives attention and is carried out.The project manager or designated person assigns the action item to a team member whoassumes responsibility for the action item and takes the necessary steps to complete it. Theproject manager may be assigned action items as well. A date for the completion of each action item should be entered into the log, along with an estimate of the amount of effort required. If completing an action item involves more work than anticipated, it should be brought to the attention of the project manager.The Action Item Log should be reviewed at regular intervals during project team meetings toensure that action items have been completed successfully.A separate Action Item Log only makes sense if the work activities are one or two hours ofeffort. If the effort is much more than that, you probably want to place the action item in theworkplan. It takes effort to work on and close an action item. If the work effort is anythingother than trivial (one or two hours), the project manager should track the activity on theworkplan, not on a separate Action Item Log. Remember that team members should all befully allocated. If team members are assigned action items that take more than a couplehours of effort, it can have a negative impact on their previously assigned work. If the actionitem is placed on the workplan, the project manager will be able to see the detrimentalimpact that may occur with the assignment of this extra work. Action items are normallytime sensitive. If an action item has not been completed in a reasonable timeframe, it shouldbe closed and eliminated.The project manager (or designated person) must follow up to ensure that action items areclosed. In general, if they are not assigned to a specific person, have no target date or are notfollowed-up, there is a good likelihood that the action item will not be completed. If it is notgoing to be completed, there is no use in documenting and tracking it at all. 5 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedActivation(Product: PortfolioStep Portfolio Management Framework)There are six steps in the portfolio management process (as defined inwww.PortfolioStep.com) – Foundation, Definition, Selection, Prioritization, Authorizationand Activation. Activation is the process of actually scheduling and executing workthroughout the year. In the Activation step, managers build schedules to start and completeas much of the approved work as possible. Operations and support staff are in place at thestart of the year and will be in place all year. Projects and leadership initiatives, however,need to be scheduled throughout the year based on business urgency and available staff. It isnot efficient to try to start all projects at the beginning of the year - if you schedule all ofyour projects at once, you will have to hire excess staff during the peak workload, and thenhave staff idle during the slower time.The Activation step contains a mini-Business Plan Process to account for new work thatsurfaces during the year. This work needs to be selected, prioritized and authorized. If newwork is authorized, it may mean that some work that was previously authorized will need tobe canceled or delayed.Activation also includes keeping track of old projects to track value metrics and lifecyclecosts, as well as keeping track of future work to ensure that all the authorized work isscheduled appropriately based on business priorities and available staff.Active Listening(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)It has been said that the best communicators are actually the best listeners, not the bestspeakers. Remember that communication is a two-way process of expressing and receivingmeaning between a speaker and a receiver. The speaking part is only half of thecommunication model.In a sense, speaking is the easier of the two sides of the conversation. When you talk, youknow what you are trying to say. However, when you listen, you must understand what theother person is saying. This requires you to use your understanding of the background,context and assumptions behind the communication. For many people, this is the harderpart of the communication model.When you are gathering requirements, active listening is the mostdominant skill. This is especially true when you are using interviewingand group interviewing techniques. Your role as a speaker is typicallyto set up the questions. The most important part is to listen to theresponses. The responses will contain requirements (or portions ofthem). The responses will also dictate the type of follow-up questionsyou will ask or where you take the discussion. 6 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained"Active listening" is the term used to describe this proactive listening process. You need toreally focus on what is being said to know how to respond and to make sure you areidentifying and capturing requirements accurately. There are a number of techniquesassociated with active listening.Look at the speaker. This is important to help make the speaker feel at ease. Make eyecontact when you talk, and let the interviewee make eye contact with you when he/she talks.Of course, there will be times when you will be taking notes, and, in fact, you will spend a lotof time writing during the discussion. However, it is important to make eye contact as oftenas possible during the discussion.Show an interest. One of the worst things that an interviewer can do is act like he/she reallywould rather be somewhere else. The interviewee can pick up the clues that say that theinterviewer is not really interested in the discussion. When that happens, the interviewee willtend to shut down and you will not end up with the requirements and insight you are lookingfor.Draw the information out. Remember that your active listening techniques have two majorpurposes. First, you want to make sure that you recognize any requirements that the speakeris providing. Second, you need to hear the responses to understand the direction that theconversation should go next. Your active listening and ability to ask good questions willallow you to draw the information out of the interviewee. In many cases, the interviewee hasa hard time expressing the requirements. This may be because he/she does not have goodcommunication skills, doesnt feel comfortable with the discussion, or perhaps does notreally want to be there. In any case, active listening and good follow-up questions can helpyou get the information that you need.Activity(Product: TenStep Project Management Process)Activities are typically the smallest unit of work identified on the project workplan. They aresmall enough that it is clear what is meant by the activity and it can be discreetly managed bythe project manager. More than one person can be assigned to an activity. (Activities can bebroken down further into “tasks” but that level of detail is generally too low for effectiveproject management.)Actual Cost (Earned Value)(Product: TenStep Project Management Process)Actual Cost (AC) is a part of “Earned Value” calculations. To calculate this number, add upthe actual cost for all the work that has been completed up to that point in the project. Thiscould include the internal and external labor costs, as well as invoices paid (or perhapspurchase orders approved). If you have an automated financial system that will crank thesenumbers out, it is not too hard of a task. If you cannot capture all of the costs automatically,it could be very time consuming. If your project only consists of labor, then the cost and the 7 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explainedeffort will track along the same lines. If you have a lot of non-labor costs in your budget,then the project costs don’t directly tie to the labor used.Alignment(Product: PortfolioStep Portfolio Management Framework)Alignment means that every organization and every person is trying to move the company inthe same direction and toward a common vision. Alignment is established through thecreation of consistent goals and objectives for every organization and every person in thecompany.A company’s mission statement provides a concise description of the purpose for thecompany being in business, and usually speaks of the value the company is trying to deliverto its customers. In other words, the mission statement describes the reason for theexistence of the company. The company mission is defined at a high level and typically doesnot change from year to year. It might get tweaked once in a while, but it is not substantiallychanged unless your company has a major change in business focus.Each year, companies also create goals. Yearly goals are outcomes the company wants toachieve to help it meet its mission. Goals are also written at a high-level and may take morethan one year to achieve. Company goals can change from year to year, although they arewritten at a high-enough level that many can be similar from one year to the next. Companygoals provide more detail and guidance to the organization on what is important to achievein the next one to three years. As an example, let’s say part of your company’s mission is to“… be the leading supplier of high-quality widgets to the aerospace industry…” One of yourcompany goals might be to increase your market share of widgets in the aerospace industry,while another might be to have the highest quality widgets in the industry.Alignment is created by first having the company create overall company goals, strategiesand objectives. Each high level organization then creates more specific goals, strategies andobjectives that make sense for their organization, while also allowing their organization tocontribute toward the company goals, strategies and objectives. Likewise, each lower levelorganization creates goals, strategies and objectives that are very specific and tactical, whilestill helping them contribute to the organization they are within. This process continuesdown to each individual person. Each person should receive specific objectives that will helptheir organization, which helps the organization above them, which ultimately helps thecompany.Alignment is all about having the resources in your company striving toward the samegeneral purpose. Alignment comes from making sure that people and organizations knowwhat is important to the company. It also means that people have incentives to move thecompany in that one direction and not in directions that are counter to the general strategy. 8 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedAnalogy (Estimating Technique)(Product: TenStep Project Management Process)Even though all projects are unique, some projects are very close to others. In this technique, youcompare your project to past projects with similar characteristics. This is a great way to estimatework since it allows you to reuse prior history. For example, let’s say you are upgrading to a newrelease of your accounting software. Is this the first time you have implemented a new release? Ifit is, then you have no prior history. However, if you have upgraded releases before, you shouldhave a pretty good idea of what it will take to upgrade this time. Even though the project isunique, it is very similar to work that was done previously. Analyst (Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)In general, the analyst is responsible for ensuring that the requirements set forth by thebusiness are captured and documented correctly before the solution is developed andimplemented. In some companies, this person might be called a Business Analyst, BusinessSystems Analyst, Systems Analyst or Requirements Analyst. While each of these titles has itsparticular nuances, the main responsibility of each is the same - to capture and document therequirements needed to implement a solution to meet the clients business needs. Ifrequirements are not captured and documented, the analyst is accountable. If the solutionmeets the documented requirements, but the solution still does not adequately represent therequirements of the client, the analyst is accountable.Application (Software Development)(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)The term "application" or "business application" refers to the software systems that are usedto automate otherwise manual business processes within your company. Examples ofapplications include payroll, accounts payable, Customer Relationship Management (CRM)software, time reporting, inventory management, etc. In some companies, these entitiesmight be referred to as "systems." Applications can be internally developed, or they can bepackages purchased from an outside vendor.Application Business Owners(Product: SupportStep Application Support Framework)Each application in your organization should have a primary application owner. In manyorganizations, it is obvious who this person is, since he or she is typically the primary contactfor the application. However, in other companies, this role is ambiguous, and there can besome uncertainty surrounding who is the primary client representative for the application.However, it is important to have one person designated as the primary business contact. 9 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedApplication Business Owners have a number of responsibilities:• They approve all requests for application changes and enhancements.• They are the first contact point for other stakeholders who have questions or problems with the application. The Business Owner may refer the stakeholder to the appropriate support staff member, but the call goes through the Business Owner first. The interested stakeholder should not contact the support contact directly.• They are the people on the business side with primary accountability and the responsibility of making sure that the application is accurate and stable. They fulfill this responsibility through a partnership with the application support team.Business Owners are typically some of the most knowledgeable people inhow the business and the business application work, but this is not arequirement. However, in many cases, a business contact has a goodunderstanding of the business, but does not have a strong understandingof the application. In that case, he or she will usually gain an expert levelof knowledge in the business application by being in the ApplicationBusiness Owner role.Application Architecture(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)There is a fair amount of the IT development process that requires the creativity and skills ofindividual analysts, designers and programmers. However, there are also many aspects of thelifecycle that can be standardized. For instance, there are many ways to collect businessrequirements. There are also many techniques available to gather requirements, frompersonal interviews to surveys to group meetings. Likewise, there are also certain proventechniques for testing. Your development architecture might provide an overall testingprocess that is applicable to general projects, but it could also allow some customization ofthe processes based on the specific solution being developed. There are also many ways thatapplications can be developed. You could use traditional waterfall methods (analyze, design,code, test, etc.), or you may use an iterative Rapid Application Development (RAD)approach of building the solution in successive smaller increments.These common application lifecycle standards and policies make up your applicationarchitecture. One of the strengths of architectures is that they provide a framework, orguidance, to assist with decision-making. The initial guidance would come in terms of thetype of development lifecycle you should choose. For example, there are some projectswhere it is better to use a waterfall approach than RAD. Before the project gets too faralong, the project manager should evaluate the business requirements against a predefinedset of criteria. These criteria lead to guidance on the type of lifecycle to utilize. For instance,if the solution is heavily on-line and the requirements are not well known, then it may be thata RAD lifecycle would be better. If the solution is heavily batch-oriented and requires a lotof integration into other current applications, a traditional waterfall approach might be abetter choice. If the solution is actually a major enhancement to an existing application, thenan enhancement lifecycle may be more appropriate. 10 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedIn terms of guidance, you also need to determine if there are portions of the lifecycle that aremandatory. If so, these are considered company standards that everyone must follow. Forinstance, you may have standard templates that must be used at certain points in the lifecycle.Your development architecture can also contain guidelines that are recommendations, butnot absolutely mandatory.Application Inventory(Product: PortfolioStep Portfolio Management Framework) One important area to inventory is your application system. There are two types of applications. First are your business applications, which are the software systems that you use to run your company and manage your business. Examples of business applications include financial systems such as General Ledger, Accounts Receivable, Payroll, Human Resources, Customer Relationship Management, etc. Make sure that you inventory the applications that your company developed, as well as all packages and outsourced solutions.The second type of is the software that runs your IT computer infrastructure. These aretypically not used by the client organizations, but are internal to IT only. This group ofapplications might include Help Desk software, IT Asset Management, Job Scheduling,Network Management, etc. These are all larger software systems that typically requireongoing support.Many organizations already have an up-to-date application inventory. If you do, then use it -dont recapture everything. However, if you dont think you have one, you may still be inluck. More than likely, your company completed an application inventory as a part of yourYR2K preparations. If you can find this inventory, you can use it as the starting point forthis portfolio management process. If your organization has not kept the inventory up-to-date, you will still need to validate the information. However, this will be easier than havingto start from scratch.An application inventory describes the specific applications in your organization (orcompany). This inventory becomes a communication vehicle to highlight the scope of yourapplication support organization’s responsibilities. Information on the inventory includes:• Application name.• Purpose. The business purpose of the application.• A designation of vendor/internal to signify whether this is a third-party package written by a vendor or developed in-house.• Releases or versions to identify the current release(s) that you are supporting. Third party packages always have versions or releases, as do many internally developed applications. You may be responsible for supporting more than one release. If so, include all of the applicable versions. 11 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained• Platform/operating system.• Software/hardware.• Frequency of run. Detail how often the application runs, and the timing.• Major interfaces. Describe other major applications that this one interfaces with.• Much more. There are many, many characteristics that can be captured if they will be a help to your organization.Application Maintenance Manual(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)The Application Maintenance Manual (AMM) is the primary deliverable that is created bythe development project team for turnover to the support team. The AMM containsinformation on the application that the support team will need to know to be able toeffectively support the application. In general, support teams rarely keep this manual up-to-date, so any rapidly changing information quickly becomes out-of-date. For instance, eventhough the development team may have had design specs on the program code, thisinformation gets quickly outdated for two reasons. First, when coding changes are made tothe production application, the design specs normally do not get updated. Second, when thesupport staff needs to investigate errors or answer questions, they typically go straight to thecode to understand the logic flow. In either case, the design specs get quickly out of date.When any piece of the AMM gets to the point where the material is no longer up-to-date, itwill quickly get ignored and bypassed by the support staff. That is why no matter how muchtime and effort the development team spends on the AMM, the manual is rarely utilized fiveyears later.Application Primary and Backup Support(Product: SupportStep Application Support Framework)If your team supports a number of applications and technologies, it makes sense to assign aprimary support person to each application. Each application should also have a designatedbackup. If the application is large enough, you may have others providing support as well.However, it should be clear who the primary support person is. You can have multiplebackups, but only one primary support person.The primary support person is sometimes called the Primary Support Analyst. The backup iscalled the Backup Support Analyst. This designation applies to a specific application or set ofapplications. Therefore, it is possible that a person could be a Primary Support Analyst onone application and the Backup Support Analyst for others. 12 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained The Primary Support Analyst takes the lead in resolving problems or answering questions. It is understood that he or she is the most knowledgeable in how the application works. He or she may not be the most knowledgeable on the first day as the Primary Support Analyst, but by having the support calls assigned to him or her first, he or she quickly becomes knowledgeable in how the application works.Typically each application has at least one designated backup as well. The backup helps outwhen the primary person is busy or out of the office. Backups are important, but they arealso an area many companies do not put enough emphasis on. When applications havesupport problems and the Primary Support Analyst is not available, the backup needs toknow enough to be able to resolve the problem. If you do not have good backup analysts,you will also have problems when the Primary Support Analyst leaves the group, since thereis a large knowledge gap when the backup is elevated to primary status.Over time, the people in your group will develop a level of competency in a number ofapplications. One reason for this is normal job rotation. After a person has mastered his orher knowledge of an application, many times he or she will want to learn something new. Heor she ends up taking primary support for another application and then becomes a backupfor the original application. Another reason is that there are times when an applicationrequires help from team members other than the primary and backup. Other team memberscan become involved and develop a level of competency as well.It is a good practice to understand and map the various applications in the group, and toknow which team members have some level of competency. You may find that your largerapplications have a number of people with some level of knowledge, while other applicationsmay be at risk because the knowledge level in the group is very low. Your support groupshould track each application, the Primary Support Analyst, backup analysts and any otherswith application knowledge. This tracking will allow the manager of the group to determineif your team has any applications with an unacceptable knowledge gap. If so, you have theinformation you need to strengthen the group’s knowledge in those applications.Application Server Inventory(Product: SupportStep Application Support Framework)Each IT applications support group should have an inventory that specifies the computerplatform that each application runs on. If all of the applications run on a mainframe, thisinformation has only a marginal value, if any. However, for client-server and webapplications, this inventory can be quite helpful. Because of the nature of the productionenvironment, there can be a decent amount of support that is required to maintain the serverenvironment. For instance, if you have a client-server application go down, you may not beable to fix the problem yourself. You will probably need to identify the proper server forothers to perform server support. Likewise, if you have a production server that is runningout of disk space, it may well be the application support staff that is responsible formonitoring the environment and requesting a disk upgrade. 13 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  23. 23. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedIn addition, like the application inventory, the server inventory will be a good vehicle forcommunication and cross training.As you complete the inventory, make sure that you only inventory theservers that house your production applications. There may be hundredsor thousands of servers in your entire company. For purposes of theinventory, you are only interested in those that hold your production andtest applications. The data to capture include:• Server name• Prod/test• Description of the application(s) residing on the server, or the generic name of the server itself• IP address• Server ID/password• Model/CPU/MHz/RAM/disk spaceAsset Groups (Portfolio Management)(Product: PortfolioStep Portfolio Management Framework)There are many different asset groups that can be inventoried as a part of understandingwhat makes up your portfolio of work. These areas need to be inventoried so that you canbetter manage your work and you can more clearly see how your decisions impact differentaspects of the portfolio. In the IT organization, for instance, the following areas should beconsidered:• Software applications. These include all internally developed applications, as well as package solutions and outsourced applications. You should definitely include all of your business applications, as well as internally focused applications like your helpdesk, time reporting and asset tracking software.• Development software and tools. This is the software that you use internally to work on other assets. For instance, the IT development group may have programming languages, databases, analysis tools, project management tools, testing tools, etc.• Desktop hardware and software. This includes a reference to every desktop and laptop machine in your organization, as well as the major software on each machine. You need this hardware inventory to make efficient use of your resources. The software inventory is used to ensure you are in compliance with user counts in your license agreements and to make sure that only standard, approved software is utilized. Tools exist that can automate the hardware and software inventory process, but you may also need to do a one-time physical inventory of hardware to make sure everything is caught. (Automated tools wont account for machines that are in closets, on floors, and otherwise disconnected from the network.) 14 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  24. 24. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained• Systems software. This group includes server operating systems, systems utilities, network management software, middleware, etc.• Network hardware. This group includes physical networks, routers, servers, mainframe computers, etc.• Telecommunications. This includes phone hardware, software, switches, lines, etc.• Major data stores. This includes your major databases, repositories, warehouses and other areas where substantial company data is stored. This group is application focused, not technology focused. You want to inventory the fact that you have a General Ledger database with all of your company financial accounts, transactions and balances. It does not matter what technology the information is stored in for the purposes of this inventory.Assumption(Product: TenStep Project Management Process)There may be external conditions or events that must occur for the project to be successful.If you believe such a condition or event is likely to happen, then it could be an assumption.The following items are not considered assumptions. If an event is within the control of the project team, such as having testing complete by a certain date, it is not an assumption. It is part of the approach. If an event has a 100% chance of occurring, it is not an assumption, since there is not likelihood or risk involved. It is just a fact. Likewise, if an event has a zero percent chance of occurring, it is not an assumption. It is a fiction.Examples of assumptions might be that budgets and resources will be available whenneeded ... or the new software release will be available for use by the time the ConstructPhase begins.Auditing for Security(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)Your internal and external auditors are typically interested in making sure that you havegood, sound security policies in place – and that you are following them. The best laid plansare meaningless if they are not executed, and auditing makes sure that security is in place andenforced appropriately. Auditing is also very interested in separation of duties. This meansthat different people or groups are involved in various parts of a process to ensure that oneor two people cannot collaborate for personal gain. This includes, for example, making surethat people cannot approve their own expense report. On the IT side, it means things like 15 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  25. 25. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explainedmaking sure business users cannot directly manipulate production data and that developersdo not approve their own source code changes to be moved to production. Depending onthe nature of your solution, the Auditing group may have requirements in terms of howpeople interact with processes, the functions certain people can perform, audit controls,approval requirements and the length of time that data should be retained.Authorization(Product: PortfolioStep Portfolio Management Framework)There are six steps in the portfolio management process (as defined inwww.PortfolioStep.com) – Foundation, Definition, Selection, Prioritization, Authorizationand Activation. After your work for the next year is prioritized, the most valuable andaligned work is authorized for the coming year. This authorization process includes actuallyallocating funding to the most important work. In many organizations, funding is allocatedat a certain level for each department. There is usually more work prioritized that theavailable budget. So, you start funding your highest priority work (1, 2, 3, 4 etc.) andcontinue until the money runs out. In other words, the projects that receive funding areconsidered “authorized” and those that are of lower priority will not be authorized for thecoming year. .Authorization does not guarantee that the work will be funded. Changes in businessconditions or newly surfaced work in the coming year could bump some authorized workoff the approved list. However, all things being equal, authorized work will be scheduled andexecuted in the coming year.Backlog(Product: SupportStep Application Support Framework)It is possible that the sponsor may not approve scope change requests during the project,but they may be viable requests that can be done at a later time. These types of changerequests should be captured on a backlog list. After the project is completed and the solutionis moved to production, there may be opportunities for enhancements or a Phase II project.However, even at a later date, these changes will be implemented only if they are approvedand if funding is available.A backlog of requested change can also be made for each application by the supportorganization. 16 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  26. 26. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedBeeper Pay(Product: SupportStep Application Support Framework)Your company may pay you a premium for carrying a beeper. Thispremium may take the form of an hourly bump in pay or a flat fee paidmonthly. Usually you get paid this premium for carrying a beeper –regardless of whether you actually get “beeped” or not. Manyorganizations have replaced beepers with cell phones, but the conceptis still similar. You would get extra pay in exchange for being on-callthrough your cell phone.Benchmarking(Product: PMOStep Project Management Office Framework)You dont really know how efficient and effective your processes are unless you can compareyourself against other companies. You may find, for instance, that after implementingproject management processes, and your average project budgets are reduced by 10%.However, this does not tell you that you are efficient. It only tells you that you are moreefficient than you were previously. If you compared yourself against outside companies, forinstance, you may find that it still takes you twice as long, and twice the cost, to deliverprojects of similar size and complexity than other companies. This would be very importantinformation to know.Benchmarking studies (one-time) and benchmarking programs (longer-term) are a way tocompare your organization against others. Benchmarking requires that you gather a set ofpredefined metrics that describe the result of very well-defined processes. This informationcan be used to create benchmarking statistics that allow you to compare your organizationagainst others. If you determine that others are doing significantly better than you, you canusually talk to the benchmarking company or to the actual companies with better results tosee what they are doing differently from you. This information can be evaluated todetermine if there are similar changes that can be applied to your organization to achievesimilar results.Best Practice(Product: TenStep Project Management Process) Best practices are the winning strategies, approaches, and processes that produce superior performance in an organization. A best practice is a by- product of a consistently successful end-result. In other words, best practices are the processes and techniques that help you to be successful on a continual basis – not just for one project.Big Bang Testing 17 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  27. 27. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries Explained(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)Big bang testing is a technique where you take all the unit-tested modules and tie them alltogether at once for a large integration test. This approach is great with smaller systems, butcan end up taking more time for larger, more complex systems. One of the advantages of bigbang is that you uncover more errors earlier in the testing process. In fact, you may uncoverinitial errors all over the place when the testing begins. If the modules have been well-testedin the unit test, this approach can also end up saving time. It can also be quicker because youdo not have to create as many stub and driver programs (stub and driver programs are shellsthat represent calling programs (drivers) and programs that are called from this program(stubs)).The biggest disadvantage is that it is harder to track down the causes for the errors since allthe complexity was added at once. For instance, if a transaction is not processing correctly,there may be ten modules to track back through to determine the cause. A seconddisadvantage is that you cannot start integration testing until all the modules have beensuccessfully unit tested. There may be modules that work together that are completed early,but they cannot be tested together until all the modules required in the integration test arecompleted.Black Box Testing(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)All programs work on some set of inputs and create some set ofoutputs. Black box testing looks at the programs inputs and outputsrather than the internal lines of code. Black box testing implies thatyour program is literally a black box. You are not concerned with itsinner workings. All you know is that when you give it a certain set ofinputs, it gives back a certain set of outputs. This is true whether theprogram is a report, a webpage, or an internal calculating procedure.Note that the unit testing is almost always done by the original programmer. So, althoughblack box testing implies that you do not know the interior workings of the program, theoriginal developer obviously will. This can make it more difficult to do black box testingsince the original programmer may have certain biases in his or her understanding of thecomponent that may influence how they conduct the testing. However, even given thepotential biases and assumptions, this type of testing is still fundamental to a good unit test.An example of black box testing is a webpage that takes a numeric employee ID and returnsyour name, address, and telephone number. You can generate three test cases to test thisrequirement. First, test with a valid numeric employee id. Second, test with an invalidnumeric id. Then enter an employee id with alphas. Theoretically, you could enter test casesfor all valid employee ids, and you could test with an infinite number of invalid ids.However, you do not need all of them. Three test cases for this particular example shouldresult in proper test coverage. 18 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  28. 28. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedAnother aspect of black box testing is to test at the boundaries to see if the requirementincludes a valid range of input. For instance, if a certain field can hold a number from one toa hundred, you want to test at the boundaries of the range. So, you could create five testcases of 1, 100 (the boundaries), 0, 101 (just out of bounds) and an alpha character. Again,although there are an infinite number of test cases possible, those five should suffice.Budget at Completion (Earned Value)(Product: TenStep Project Management Process)This calculation can be in terms of dollars or hours. It is the Actual Cost (AC) plus thebudgeted cost of the remaining work. However, if the Cost Performance Index (CPI) is not1.0, it means that you are spending at a different rate than your plan, and this needs to befactored in as well. So, the better formula for the Budget at Completion (BAC) is the AC +(Budgeted Cost of Work Remaining / CPI). In other words, if you are running 10%overbudget to get your work done so far, there is no reason to believe the remaining workwill not also take 10% more to complete, and your final budget at completion would be 10%over as well.Business Applications – see ApplicationsBusiness Case(Product: PortfolioStep Portfolio Management Framework)A Business Cases is used to determine whether or not it makes sense to perform a piece ofwork. The Business Case is written somewhat at a high-level, but also contains enough detailso that you can make a final determination whether you want to do the work and if you do,what the priority will be. A Business Case document contains information such as a nameand description of the work, assumptions and risks, estimated benefits and costs, the urgencyand the consequences of not performing the work. The Business Case should also tell youhow well the work aligns to your organizational goals, strategies and objectives. Business Plan (Product: PortfolioStep Portfolio Management Framework)In most companies, the result of the Business Planning Process is a Business Plan for thecoming year. The Business Plan recaps the current year and then identifies the goals,objectives, strategy, work requests, etc. for the coming year. If your company is small, youmay have one company Business Plan. If your company is larger, you may have a companyBusiness Plan supported by a Business Plan from each major organization. The BusinessPlan is the final planning deliverable that is used to guide the business execution for thecoming year. For instance, request for project funding should be validated against what wasin the Business Plan. Likewise, major decisions should be guided by the strategy anddirection that is set in the Business Plan. 19 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  29. 29. The Complete Book of Project-Related Terms and Definitions: Mysteries ExplainedBusiness Requirements(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)The term "business" requirement has two general meanings. First, the term is often usedgenerally to mean all of the requirements. Used in this sense, gathering businessrequirements is the process of gathering all of the requirements associated with the projectdeliverables. From a general sense, all requirements are driven by business need, andtherefore all of the requirements are business requirements.The second way that the term "business" requirements is used is to differentiaterequirements that are driven by business needs versus those requirements that are driven bytechnology considerations. For instance, if a business client says that a new computerapplication must be able to process 10,000 transactions per day, they are giving you abusiness requirement. On the other hand, your technical staff may tell you that you will needan Oracle database and a new server. These are not business requirements since the businessclient does not necessarily care about the technical implementation details.Business Requirements Report(Product: LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process)The Business Requirements Report is the final deliverable in the requirements developmentprocess. This deliverable consolidates and finalizes all of the requirements informationgathered up to this point, including any business models generated. If you are using asoftware tool to capture the requirements, the tool should provide some mechanism forprinting the requirements for the final report. This document provides the followingbenefits:• It consolidates the requirements information in one place to provide an overall big picture view.• Since the requirements will change over time, it is easier to make changes to one document rather than multiple documents.• The completed document provides a baseline of what is known and agreed to at this time, and can be used to validate scope change requests in the future.This single document can be shared with the rest of the project team to use as input into testplans, user documentation, training plans, etc.Capability Maturity Model(Product: TenStep Project Management Process)The Capability Maturity Model is a scale from 0ne through five that can be used to gaugehow well your company or organization follows common and repeatable processes to getyour work done. The low end of the scale (one) describes companies without repeatableprocesses, where much of the work is chaotic and ad-hoc. The highest end describes 20 Copyright© 2005 TenStep, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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