Unit 1 hiv and reproductive health

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Unit 1 hiv and reproductive health

  1. 1. HIV/AIDS and reproductive health
  2. 4. Session Objective and content <ul><li>Objective: At the end of the session the participant should be able to Outline the impact of HIV and AIDS on reproductive health </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal and child morbidity and mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrent pregnancy losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertility/fecundity and HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of pregnancy on HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio family issues </li></ul></ul>
  3. 5. Maternal morbidity and mortality
  4. 6. Child morbidity and mortality Western Europe < 500 North Africa & Middle East 13 000 sub-Saharan Africa 720 000 Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1 000 East Asia & Pacific 3 000 South & South-East Asia 60 000 Australia & New Zealand < 100 North America < 500 Caribbean 7 000 Latin America 10 000 Total: 800 000
  5. 7. HIV and Pregnancy <ul><li>HIV may adversely affect the course of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>More than 90% of paediatric AIDS cases due to MTCT </li></ul><ul><li>Many children born to HIV positive parents will be orphaned when 1 or both parents die </li></ul><ul><li>Women without HIV place themselves at risk of infection when trying to become pregnant </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of women with HIV are of child bearing age </li></ul>
  6. 8. HIV and Fertility <ul><li>Prior STI and or PID </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased fertility after adjustment for lactation, age, illness and STI </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility further reduced with symptomatic disease or syphilis co- infection </li></ul><ul><li>reduced sexual activity with advanced disease have </li></ul><ul><li>Increased pregnancy loss with HIV </li></ul>
  7. 9. Effect of pregnancy on HIV <ul><li>CD4 decline in pregnancy due to dilutional effect. CD4% remain stable </li></ul><ul><li>Viral load remains stable in pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>No significant difference in survival among HIV positive women who become pregnant and those that do not </li></ul>
  8. 10. Consequences of Stigma in PMTCT <ul><li>Discourages women from accessing ANC services </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents access to HIV CT and PMTCT services </li></ul><ul><li>Discourages disclosure of HIV test results </li></ul><ul><li>Discourages acceptance of PMTCT interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Discourages use of recommended PMTCT safer infant-feeding practices </li></ul>

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