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  • READREFLECTRESPONDComprehensionSkill-BoostersAA by JOANNE SUTER
  • CONTENTSTo the Student . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 LESSON 1: Sharks Never Sleep and Other Shark Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 LESSON 2: Heroes From History: The Buffalo Soldiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 LESSON 3: Phew! What’s That Smell? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 LESSON 4: John Muir (1838–1914): Father of America’s National Parks .12 LESSON 5: Camels and their Humps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 LESSON 6: The Ends of the Earth: The North and South Poles . . . . . . . .16 LESSON 7: Meet Rosie the Riveter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 LESSON 8: Through Rain, Snow, Sleet, and Hail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 LESSON 9: Would you buy one of these? Some Very Peculiar Patents . . . .22 LESSON 10: How to Get a Passport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 LESSON 11: The Truth About Dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 LESSON 12: City Coyotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 LESSON 13: On the Bayou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 LESSON 14: Happy Birthday, Pac Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 LESSON 15: Rachael Scdoria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 LESSON 16: Pumpkin Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 LESSON 17: Cesar Chavez Fights for La Causa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 LESSON 18: Writing a Business Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 LESSON 19: Samurai Warriors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 LESSON 20: How Animals Breathe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 LESSON 21: Death Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 LESSON 22: How to Ride a Bus . . . and More! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 LESSON 23: The Trojan Horse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 LESSON 24: Chimp Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 LESSON 25: Angels on Earth: Clara Barton and Florence Nightingale . .54 LESSON 26: A Nutrition Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 LESSON 27: Words of Wisdom: Give Me Liberty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 SUPER LESSON : The Oregon Trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
  • LESSON 1 Do you know these interesting facts about sharks? SHARKS NEVER SLEEP AND OTHER SHARK FACTS • Sharks are ancient creatures. They shark’s brain is at work smelling things. were around some 400 million years It can smell one drop of blood in the sea. ago! Even before dinosaurs roamed the Humans use their noses for smelling earth, sharks hunted the seas. and breathing, but a shark’s nose is only for smell. Sharks see things in • Sharks are survival machines. They’re color. They can make out a light ten well designed to stay alive. They have times dimmer than any the strongest jaws on the light we can see. planet. Unlike other animals, And sharks have both their upper and lower jaws move. If a shark loses two bonus senses. a tooth, it’s no problem. A line of sensors from head Why? Another tooth spins to tail picks up vibrations. forward from a back-up They can sense an injured row. In its lifetime, one fish quivering in the distance. shark may grow and Another sense lets sharks “feel” electricity. use more than 20,000 A shark can sense electric pulses from a teeth! Sharks can feed on nearly any creature in the sea. The only animals beating heart. that see sharks as food are other • Where’s mama? Unlike most animals, sharks, whales, and human beings. sharks don’t take care of their babies. • No bones about it! Instead of bones, a Newborn pups fend for themselves. In shark’s body has cartilage—hard, some species, the strongest pup eats its bendable stuff like the material in brothers and sisters. This improves its human ears. This makes the shark own chances of survival. flexible. Tough shark “skin” has hard, • No need for a wake-up call! Some razor-sharp scales. types of sharks must swim constantly in • Seven super senses! Sharks have the order to breathe. Sharks go from same five senses humans do: sight, periods of strong activity to times of hearing, smell, taste, and touch. But calmer rest. But it is true that sharks are there are differences. Two-thirds of a ever-watchful. They never sleep. Think about sharks.1. Circle the four adjectives 2. Sometimes the word “shark” is used to describe that describe sharks a person. What traits might such a person have? flexible watchful motherly _____________________________________________ sleepy ancient vegetarian _____________________________________________ alert soft furry _____________________________________________6 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • LESSON 1: SHARKS NEVER SLEEP AND OTHER SHARK FACTS Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Identify a main idea. 7. Sharks never a. give birth. b. eat. c. sleep. 1. Which is a main idea of this reading? Match synonyms. a. Sharks are well equipped to survive. 8. ____ flexible a. stay alive b. Sharks have lots of teeth. 9. ____ vibrations b. alert c. Sharks pups can be mean. 10. ____ survive c. bendable 11. ____ watchful d. quiverings 2. Write one detail from the reading that supports the main idea you Make comparisons. selected. 12. List three ways a shark body is _________________________________ different from a human body. _________________________________ • _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________Recall details. • _________________________________ _________________________________ 3. Sharks have been around • _________________________________ a. since the early 1900s. _________________________________ b. longer than dinosaurs. c. less time than human beings. Look it up in a reference source. 13. Name three species of shark. 4. Besides the usual five senses, a • _________________________________ shark can also sense • _________________________________ a. weather and seasonal changes. • _________________________________ b. outcomes of future events. c. vibrations and electricity. 14. Are human swimmers usually in great danger from sharks? (Give details to 5. When it comes to caring for their explain and support your answer.) young, sharks __________________________________ a. are over-protective. __________________________________ b. ignore their offspring. __________________________________ __________________________________ c. teach their offspring hunting skills. __________________________________ __________________________________ 6. A baby shark is called a __________________________________ a. tadpole. b. cub. c. pup. __________________________________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 7
  • LESSON 13 Alligators, snakes, and nutria . . . Oh, my! ON THE BAYOU Would you some red-winged blackbirds singing in like to tour the trees. Perhaps you’ll see a nutria the Louisiana darting from the shore to water. This swamps? Use a hardy creature looks like a cross flat-bottomed boat between a beaver to travel the bayous. and a rat. You’ll These slow-moving waterways wind see reptiles, too. through the low-lying areas of the Turtles paddle Mississippi River delta. about. More than The word bayou (say BYE-oo) was 100 kinds of snakes live in the swamp. first used by the French in Louisiana. It Three types, including the cottonmouth, comes from the Choctaw word bayuk, are poisonous. But the king of the which means “small stream.” bayou is the alligator. This fellow might As you glide through the shady look like a floating log—until its eyes swampland, you’ll find a world of eerie and nose clear the surface. He splashes beauty. Spanish moss dangles like tinsel his scaly tail. The ’gator slides through from the branches of live oaks and the water and climbs onto the shore. He cypress trees. The dark, still surface stretches out there to soak up sun. mirrors the hanging wisps. According to It’s usually hot on the bayou. The air one old story, these strands are hairs is moist and heavy. If you’re lucky, a from the beard of a villain named Gorez breeze off the water will keep you cool Goz. The legend says that Goz tried to enough to enjoy your journey. At dusk, capture a lovely bayou maiden—but she the setting sun turns the dark waters a was able to escape. brilliant red-orange. When the moon The Louisiana bayou teams with life. rises, the Spanish moss takes on a As the boat intrudes, you might see a mysterious glow. As you leave the heron perched on a fallen cypress bayou, the slender strands of moss branch, bald eagles soaring above, and seem to wave a ghostly farewell. RRRdirections1. Write three words you 2. Would you enjoy taking a swamp tour? think of when you hear Explain why or why not. the word bayou. _______________________________________________ •____________________ _______________________________________________ •____________________ _______________________________________________ •____________________ _______________________________________________30 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • LESSON 13: ON THE BAYOU 3. Describe a waterway you have seen. Tell something about its location, wildlife, climate, and surroundings. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Recall details. Build your vocabulary. 1. What is the history of the delta legend reptile swamp word bayou? a. a Native American word 6. A _____________________ is a meaning “small stream” triangle-shaped piece of land. It’s b. a Native American word formed when sand and soil build meaning “alligator snout” up at the mouth of a large river. c. a Canadian word meaning 7. A _____________________ is a tale “travel south” that has been told for ages. 2. What wildlife could you expect to find on the bayou? 8. A _____________________, or a. trout, Canada geese, and foxes marsh, is a wet, boggy region. b. polar bears, penguins, and seals 9. The alligator, along with snakes, c. turtles, snakes, and birds lizards, and other scaly, crawling animals, is a ___________________. 3. What plants would you be likely to find on the bayou? Think about setting and mood. a. fir trees, pines, and tulips b. cypress trees, live oaks, 10. Which words identify the setting of and Spanish moss the reading? (Circle three.) the West the South Canada c. cacti, sagebrush, and junipers Louisiana the Mississippi delta 4. What is the usual climate on the bayou? 11. In the reading, how is the mood of a. hot and dry the bayou described? (Circle three.) hectic mysterious eerie b. hot and moist ugly beautiful boring c. cold and icy Look it up in a reference source.Make comparisons. 12. Write one fact about bayous that 5. The bayou is most like a: (Circle one.) isn’t mentioned in the reading. rapid river irrigation system ocean ________________________________ waterfall slow-moving stream pond ________________________________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 31
  • LESSON 14 Do you like to play video games? Have you ever played Pac Man? HAPPY BIRTHDAY, PAC MAN In May, 2005, the world’s most famous The game is simple to learn. It takes video game character turned 25. But only a four-position joystick to guide age isn’t stopping little, yellow Pac Man! Pac Man. He goes through a maze Copies of the original game and gobbling up dots and avoiding “ghosts.” updated versions are still These are colorful figures that look selling around the world. like upside down sacks with eyes. The year 1975 was early If a ghost touches Pac Man, he dies, in the history of video and the games is over. With each level, games. Game creator Toru the ghosts speed up, and play Iwatani was looking for a gets harder. fresh idea. He wanted Pac Man was the first video something that looked like a game to name its characters. cartoon. He hoped it would Besides the hero, appeal to adults as well as there are the ghosts: young people. As the story goes, Blinky, Pinky, Inky, a brainstorm struck Iwatani at dinner. and Clyde. With its After taking a first slice of pizza, he familiar characters and catchy music, studied the pie. It looked like a head Pac Man quickly became the hottest with a big, open mouth! Iwatani arcade game in history. The yellow pictured it racing through a maze, fellow soon showed up on T-shirts, eating things. Then, of course, video coffee mugs, cereals, and board games. technology wasn’t what it is today. In 1982, a Ms. Pac Man game came out. Iwatani couldn’t make a character as The lovely lady looks like Pac Man but detailed as a pizza. So Pac Man became she also sports lipstick, a red bow, and a yellow circle with a wedge of a mouth. a beauty mark. His name came from the Japanese word Recordkeepers believe that the Pac pakupaku. That mens “to flap one’s Man game was played more the 10 mouth open and closed.” billion times in the 20th Century. Think about video games.1. Do you play video games? If so, which one is your favorite? What do you like about it? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________32 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • LESSON 14: HAPPY BIRTHDAY, PAC MAN 2. Have you ever played Pac Man? Do you like the game? Tell why or why not. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Compare one of the new games with Pac Man. Think about subject matter, graphics, difficulty, and about the audiences they appeal to. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Recall details. 7. What can “kill” Pac Man? 1. In 2005, how many years old a. ghosts b. dots c. Ms. Pac Man was the Pac Man Game? a. 100 b. 5 c. 25 Build your vocabulary. 2. What sparked the idea for Pac Man? 8. Toru Iwatani had a brainstorm, or a ( a. a scary movie headache / sudden brilliant idea ). b. a partly-eaten pizza 9. Shaped like a wedge, Pac Man’s c. a fat, yellow cat mouth is ( triangular / square ). 3. The name Pac Man comes from what 10. Moving along a ( straight roadway / language? series of winding paths), Pac Man a. French b. Greek c. Japanese gobbles his way through a maze. 4. Who is Clyde? Draw conclusions. a. a ghost in the game 11. Give two reasons you think the game b. the inventor of Pac Man of Pac Man became so popular. •________________________________ c. a champion Pac Man player •________________________________ 5. How was Pac Man different from earlier games? Look it up in a reference source. a. It was harder. 12. Pong and Space Invaders were b. It was more violent. among the earliest video games. Describe one of these games. c. Its characters had names. _________________________________ 6. The Pac Man game was meant to _________________________________ appeal to whom? _________________________________ a. young men _________________________________ b. children _________________________________ c. all adults and young people _________________________________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 33
  • LESSON 17 How much change can one courageous man bring about? CESAR CHAVEZ FIGHTS FOR LA CAUSA “Viva la causa! Long live the cause!” workers had to help themselves. In 1962, That was the cry of Cesar Chavez and the he formed a union. In 1965, he convinced United Farm Workers. It was 1965, and workers to overcome their fears. They California’s Mexican- launched a strike American farm workers against grape growers. were calling for change. At first, La Causa, They wanted fair wages “The Cause,” seemed and decent working hopeless. But the farm conditions. If they had to, workers were fighting for they would strike. their children’s future. Cesar Chavez had begun People saw justice in their life 38 years earlier on his struggle. Many college family’s small farm in Arizona. When he students and community leaders was ten, the Great Depression struck and supported La Causa. By 1968, Chavez his family lost their farm. Along with was leading a national boycott of thousands of others, they headed for California table grapes. California. There they worked the fields. Chavez insisted that the strike be As migrant workers, they moved often, nonviolent. Even La Causa, he said, was following farming seasons. Sometimes not worth a single life. To show his the Chavez family lived in shacks. resolve, he fasted. For 25 days Chavez ate Sometimes they slept in their car. As they nothing and drank only water. His labored long, hot hours for little pay, determination encouraged others. In Cesar dreamed of a better life. 1970, both grape growers and union Cesar attended about 36 different workers signed a contract. grammar schools. He quit school after The famous labor leader died in 1993. grade eight, but he never quit learning. In 1994, President Clinton presented the Most importantly, he learned to make his U.S. Medal of Freedom in Chavez’s name. voice heard. He’d shown how to effectively fight Cesar Chavez decided that farm injustice—without violence. Think about Cesar Chavez and his fight for right.1. Circle one word in each pair that describes Cesar Chavez. violent / nonviolent determined / weak leader / follower selfish / unselfish38 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • LESSON 17: CESAR CHAVEZ FIGHTS FOR LA CAUSA 2. Circle two things that workers do when they go on strike. stay home from their job work harder at their job advertise for their employer carry signs to raise public awareness 3. What are some reasons that workers might strike? Why might a strike force an employer to make changes? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Imagine you could improve the lives of workers if you stopped buying your favorite food. Would you be willing to do it? Explain your answer. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Recall details. Build your vocabulary. 1. What was the United Farm 6. A group of people joined together for Workers? a purpose is a u __ __ __ n . a. a group of California grape growers 7. The G r __ __ __ D __ p r __ __ __ __ __ n b. a union created by Cesar was a period in American history. Chavez 8. A m __ __ __ __ ___ t worker is a farm 2. What is the meaning of La Causa? laborer who moves from place to place a. The Cause b. The Dream to pick seasonal crops. 9. To b __ __ __ __ __ __ something is to 3. Where was the struggle described in the reading? stop buying, selling, or using it. a. Mexico b. California 10. Chavez believed in n__ nv__ __ __ __ __ __ protest. He would not use physical force 4. What two things did the farm workers do to bring about change? to get what he wanted. a. burned fields and smashed 11. To give his followers courage, Chavez grapes f __ s __ __ __, or went without food. b. went on strike and started a boycott Look it up in a reference source. 12. When was Cesar Chavez born? 5. How did Chavez show his When did he die? Write the dedication and inspire his fellow month, day, and year. workers? BORN: ______________________________ a. He shaved his head. b. He went without food. DIED: ______________________________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 39
  • LESSON 19 Could you live the life of a samurai warrior? SAMURAI WARRIORS Stretch your imagination back some fear death. In fact, a samurai who 800 years to the island nation of Japan. dishonored himself was expected to end You’ve landed in a time when an his own life. Each samurai carried both emperor ruled from the imperial capital. a long sword and a short one. If Although he lived in splendor, the necessary, he would use the short emperor was only the formal ruler. sword to end his own life. The real power was held by a The samurai could also fight military leader, or shogun. without weapons. He was The shogun granted lands highly trained in martial arts. to local warlords. Each Japanese society greatly warlord protected his respected the samurai. This region with an army of was more than just a job. It highly trained warriors. These was a social class as well. The armies battled for power. warriors and their families The warriors were called lived in fine houses near the samurai (SAM oo rye). That warlord’s castle. word means “those who The position of samurai serve.” The samurai could be was often inherited. A boy compared to the knights of Europe. Like would be “born” a samurai because his knights, they had high social status. father had been one. Only samurai They were also heavily armed and well- could carry swords. If a boy played with trained for war. On the battlefield, they a wooden sword, everyone knew he was wore elaborate suits of armor. a samurai. A young samurai learned to The samurai lived by a code of honor do more than make war. He learned to known as bushido (BOO shee doh). read and write and he studied literature. Meaning “the way of the warrior,” To learn to tolerate pain, he walked bushido demanded fierce loyalty to the barefoot in snow. All day every day he warlord. It called for honor and bravery. followed strict rules. Living as a samurai Most importantly, a warrior must not was not easy! Think about samurai warriors and ancient Japan.1. Circle words that could describe a samurai. uneducated well-educated loyal fearful follower warrior admired looked down upon proud ashamed brave pacifist42 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • LESSON 19: SAMURAI WARRIORS 2. Name two things about being 3. Name two things about being a samurai that you think would a samurai that you think would be good. be bad. •_________________________________ •_________________________________ •_________________________________ •_________________________________ Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Match word and meaning. 9. What was the main job of the samurai? a. to guard the emperor 1. ____ emperor 3. ____ shogun b. to fight for their local warlord 2. ____ warlord 4. ____ samurai c. to become a scholar a. the powerful head of a region 10. Which would cause a samurai of ancient Japan to take his own life? b. person who rules an entire a. killing another human being group of countries b. displaying fear in battle c. member of the warrior class of ancient Japan c. reading a book d. local ruler who controls a 11. Where did the samurai families live? military force a. in tents on the battlefieldRecall details. b. in the village with the peasants 5. What is the meaning of the c. in homes near the castle word samurai? Make a comparison. ______________________________ 12. Explain two ways that Samurai 6. What is the meaning of the warriors were like European knights. word bushido? •__________________________________ ______________________________ __________________________________ 7. Circle three requirements of •__________________________________ bushido. __________________________________ honor wealth bravery Look it up in a reference source. beauty loyalty gentleness 13. Japanese karate is still a popular martial art. Learn something about 8. Who had the real power of karate. Write one or two facts below. government in ancient Japan? ____________________________________ a. the samurai ____________________________________ b. the emperor ____________________________________ c. the shogun ____________________________________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 43
  • LESSON 20 Take a deep breath and read on. HOW ANIMALS BREATHE MAMMALS What do all animals— tubes take oxygen from the including humans—have in air and carry it to the common? One trait we share bloodstream. is our need for oxygen. We Fish live underwater. They can’t live without it! All do not get oxygen through animals have body parts the air. In fact, if they are that do the job of bringing out of water for too long, MAMMALS BREATHE THROUGH THEIR NOSES. in oxygen. THE AIR GOES TO THEIR LUNGS. THE LUNGS they will die from a lack TAKE THE OXYGEN FROM THE AIR. Human beings belong to of oxygen. Gills are the the animal class called FISH breathing organs of fish and mammals. Mammals are many other water-dwelling warm-blooded and have a animals. As water flows into backbone. Female mammals a fish’s body, it passes have glands that produce through its gills. The gills milk for feeding their young. contain blood vessels that Mammals breathe air into carry oxygen from the water their bodies through their THE GILLS ARE A FISH’S BREATHING ORGAN. throughout the body. noses. Special organs, the What about whales? lungs, take in oxygen from INSECTS Because they’re fish-shaped that air. swimmers, people often Insects, who are members think they breathe through of another class of animal, gills. But whales, in fact, are have no lungs. They breathe not fish. Just like other through small holes called INSECTS BREATHE THROUGH HOLES mammals, a whale will IN THE SIDES OF THEIR BODIES. spiracles. These openings are drown if it’s underwater too in the sides of their bodies. Spiracles long. When a whale is underwater, it lead into branching air tubes. These closes its nostrils and holds its breath! Think about how animals breathe.1. Human beings take in air through their 3. Name another animal that breathes noses. What other job does a nose do? the way a grasshopper does. ___________________________________ __________________________________2. Name another animal that breathes 4. Circle four animals that are fish. the way human beings do. trout seal salmon ___________________________________ carp guppie sea otter44 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • LESSON 20: OXYGEN FOR EVERYONE: HOW ANIMALS BREATHE Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Recall details. 8. Three different classes of animals are a. human beings, cows, and whales. 1. All mammals are b. mammals, insects, and fish. _________________-blooded. c. lungs, gills, and spiracles. 2. In mammals, the Build your vocabulary. _________________ take oxygen from the air. 9. O__ __ __ __ __ is a colorless, odorless gas that animals need to stay alive. 3. Insects breathe through 10. A b__ __ __ __ v__ __ __ __ __ is one of small holes called the body’s many tubes through which ____________________. blood flows. 4. Fish have breathing organs 11. Like the heart, a part of the body that called _________________. has a special purpose is an o__ __ __ __ .Recognize a main idea. 12. To take air in and let it out is to 5. According to the reading, b__ __ __ __ __ __. all animals need 13. A puff of air taken in or let out is a a. love. b__ __ __ __ __. b. air. Look it up in a reference source. c. oxygen. 14. How does each of the followingUse the diagrams in the reading. animals get oxygen? 6. A human being takes air into An eel:___________________________ the body through its __________________________________ a. lungs. A dolphin:_________________________ b. nose. __________________________________ c. blood vessels. A bird:___________________________ 7. Gills help water animals __________________________________ a. protect their young. A bee:____________________________ b. get oxygen from air. __________________________________ c. get oxygen from water. A pig:____________________________ __________________________________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 45
  • LESSON 22 Don’t have your own wheels? Not a problem! HOW TO RIDE A BUS . . . AND MORE! How do you ride the bus? That’s access to a computer, a phone number easy! You get on, pay your fare, and sit is usually listed. A local phone book down. What’s the big deal? may also list some information. Most Actually, taking full advantage of a libraries, post offices, banks, and city bus system is a big deal! Lots of shopping centers provide free bus information is available to help you schedules and route maps. make the most of your public transit City transit is accessible to almost system. Where can you find it? everyone. Reduced fares are usually Most city bus systems have a web offered to seniors and riders with site. You can look online for bus routes disabilities. Ramps and lifts provide and schedules, as well as for fare access to wheelchair passengers and information. Automatic “trip planners” others who can’t climb steps. There’s allow users to type in their starting usually a special easy-seating area near point, destination, and preferred time the front of the bus. Service animals, schedule. Then the service helps them such as seeing-eye dogs, are usually plan their itineraries. It suggests the welcome. Bus schedules are also best bus line, bus stops, and departure available in large print or on audio and arrival times. If you don’t have cassette for riders who need them. ROUTE 63: WEEKDAY SCHEDULE TO GROVE CITY PARK GROVE CITY TOWN CENTER GROVE CITY RAPID TRANSIT SQUARE 3RD & FISHER 8TH & LAKE 15TH & CLARK PARK 14, 22, 32, 78, 80 16, 28, 37, 50 6:48 A.M. 6:53 A.M. 7:00 A.M. 7:12 A.M. 7:30 A.M. 7:30 A.M. 7:35 A.M. 7:42 A.M. 7:54 A.M. 8:12 A.M. 9:15 A.M. 9:20 A.M. 9:27 A.M. 9:39 A.M. 9:57 A.M. 10:25 A.M. 10:30 A.M. 10:37 A.M. 10:49 A.M. 11:01 A.M. HOW TO READ BUS SCHEDULE: •Reading from top to bottom tells you the departure time at each scheduled stop. •To figure out how long it takes to get from point to point along the route, read the times from left to right. •Numbers listed in italics under the stop points show transfer lines. Think about your local bus system.1. What’s the name of your local transit company? _______________________________2. Other than buses, are there more public transit options in your city or town? What are they? (Examples would be rail lines, subways, trams, or streetcars.) _____________________________________________________________________________48 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • LESSON 22: HOW TO RIDE A BUS . . . AND MORE! 3. What are some of the benefits and disadvantages of traveling by bus? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Think about your city or town. List three popular destination points that might appear on a bus route map. •_______________________ •_______________________ •_______________________ Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Identify main ideas. 6. What are two other ways a person might get a bus route schedule? 1. What’s the main idea of the reading? •_________________________________ a. Reading a bus schedule is easy. •_________________________________ b. City bus systems have a lot to offer everyone. Build your vocabulary. 2. What’s the main purpose of a bus 7. At a transfer point, a rider schedule? can ( buy a weekly pass / a. to trace the route of a certain change to a different bus route ). bus line 8. An itinerary is a ( large city bus / b. to tell what time a bus reaches trip plan ). each stop along the route 9. A destination is the ( place a personRecall details. is going / starting point of a trip ). 3. Circle three items of information 10. The departure is the time a bus you can find on a bus schedule. ( leaves / arrives ). when a bus arrives how long it take to get at certain stops from one stop to the next Use the schedule. which stops are if the bus is running 11. It takes bus #63 _____ minutes to transfer points on time that day travel from Town Center Square to 4. Describe two ways transit companies 3rd & Fisher. help riders with disabilities. 12. A rider who catches bus #63 at • _________________________________ 8th & Lake at 9:27 will get to _________________________________ Grove City Park at _________. • _________________________________ _________________________________ 13. A rider who misses the 7:30 A.M. bus at Town Center Square will have to 5. List three public places a bus rider might pick up a printed schedule. wait _______ minutes for the next one. • _________________________________ 14. A rider can transfer from line #63 to • _________________________________ line #19 at the ________________ stop. • _________________________________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 49
  • LESSON 24 Give a chimp a paintbrush, and who knows what might happen? CHIMP ART In the 1950s, animal expert Desmond including Pablo Picasso! The great artist Morris encouraged a chimpanzee is said to have framed and hung a named Congo to paint. Morris wanted “Congo original” in his own studio! to know if a chimp could “create order In 2005, three of Congo’s artworks through art.” By the time Congo was were offered for sale at a London art two, he’d stopped eating the brushes auction. Congo’s paintings appeared and actually begun to paint! alongside those of some famous human Congo’s works could be described as artists! The sale’s art director said he “modern” or “abstract” art. Some critics included the chimp’s paintings as a lark. say they’re nothing more than scribbles. He described Congo’s work as “brightly Others compliment his “bold strokes.” colored with bold brushstrokes.” Clearly, Congo has had admirers— Together the three paintings were expected to sell for around $1,500. Congo’s art was the hit of the auction! When the bidding closed, an American had purchased the chimp’s paintings for more than $25,000! Before he died at age 10, Congo had created about 400 artworks. Considering the recent sales price, art dealers are sure to be looking for more Congo originals! Think about “modern” art and this most unusual artist. 1. Some people think all abstract art looks like animal scratchings. What is your opinion of modern art? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why might someone want to own a chimp painting? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________52 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • LESSON 24: CHIMP ART 3. Do you think chimpanzees are intelligent animals? Give reasons and/or examples to support your answer. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Identify the main idea. 6. An auction is a 1. The reading is about a. group meeting where people give opinions about things. a. the surprising interest in Congo’s paintings. b. public sale where things are sold to the highest bidder. b. how to teach a chimpanzee to paint. 7. To bid on something is to c. how hard it is to understand a. offer a purchase price for it. abstract art. b. advertise it in the newspaper.Recall details. Draw a conclusion. 2. To become an artist, what did 8. The reading suggests that paintings gain Congo have to stop doing? value after the artist dies. Does Congo’s a. ignoring his trainer story support that idea? Why or why not? b. eating paint brushes ______________________________________ c. playing board games ______________________________________ 3. What type of art did Congo create? ______________________________________ a. landscapes 9. Why might a painting become more b. abstracts valuable after the artist’s death? c. photographs ______________________________________ 4. At the auction, Congo’s ______________________________________ paintings sold for ______________________________________ a. less than expected. b. a little more than expected. Look it up in a reference source. c. much more than expected. 10. Check out some paintings by Pablo Picasso. Give your opinion of his work.Build your vocabulary. ______________________________________ 5. Abstract art is ______________________________________ a. formed with designs, not actually like a real thing. ______________________________________ b. as clearly realistic as a ______________________________________ photograph. READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 53