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  • 1. LESSON 1 Leaps that could save your life. EMERGENCY JUMPS Emergency jumps are dangerous. JUMPING FROM A BRIDGE OR A CLIFF INTO A RIVER There’s only one good time to attempt What’s the most dangerous thing such a jump: when you’ll probably die if about this kind of jump? You don’t know you don’t. Who knows? Someday you how deep the water is. If you’re jumping might need to make a literal leap. So be into a river, try to jump as far away from prepared! Here’s some good advice for the riverbank as you can. Stay away from making two kinds of emergency jumps. bridge towers. Why? Debris collects there. You could be JUMPING FROM A BUILDING INTO A DUMPSTER injured if you land on it. Landing in a dumpster is usually a Jump feet first. Keep safer bet than landing on the sidewalk. your body completely Imagine jumping straight down. If you vertical. If your body isn’t leap too far away from the building, you straight, you could break could miss the dumpster. So be careful. your back. Squeeze your As you fall, pull your chin toward your feet together. Squeeze chest and bring your legs around. What your buttocks together, you’re trying to do is land on your back. too. If you don’t, the force This is the safest way to make contact. of the rushing water may When it hits, your body folds into a V cause severe damage. shape, so landing on your stomach could Hold your hands over break your back. your crotch. What if the dumpster is filled with The moment you hit bricks? In that case, falling into the the water, spread your dumpster would be as dangerous as arms and legs. Move jumping into the street. So look before you them back and forth. leap. If the dumpster is filled with clothes, This will slow down your cardboard boxes, or other such material, plunge toward the bottom. you’re in luck. It’s possible to survive a Jumping this way could jump into a dumpster from five stories. break your legs—but it All you need is the right kind of trash. could also keep you alive. Think about emergency situations.1. Describe a situation when jumping 2. Describe a situation when jumping from a building into a dumpster into a river from a bridge or cliff might save your life. might save your life. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________6 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • 2. LESSON 1: EMERGENCY JUMPS Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Recall details. (More than one answer Similarities and differences. (More than may be correct.) one answer may be correct.) 1. In a jump from a bridge, why 9. How might you be injured in should you spread your arms either jump described? and legs as you hit the water? a. landing on hard or sharp debris a. to slow your plunge through b. getting crushed by air the water pressure as you fall b. to keep from hitting the c. holding your body in the river bottom wrong position c. to avoid hitting debris on the bottom 10. What is a significant difference between the two jumps? 2. If you dive headfirst from a. In a cliff jump, you try to guess a bridge into the water, the length of your fall. you risk b. You position your body a. breaking your legs. differently in each jump. b. breaking your skull. c. In both jumps you try to avoid c. swallowing water. hitting obstacles. Identify antonyms. (Complete the 3. If you jump into a dumpster, words from the reading.) try to land ( feet / back ) first. 11. reckless / c__ __ __ __ __ __ 4. If you jump from a bridge, 12. die / s__ __ __ __ __ __ try to land in the water with 13. shallow / d__ __ __ your ( feet / back ) first. 14. safe / d__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __Match words and meanings. Look it up in a reference source. 5. ____ debris a. serious, dangerous 15. The building is filling with smoke! Drop to your hands and knees and 6. ____ vertical b. to dive or crawl to the nearest exit! fall suddenly Why should you crawl rather than walk or run? 7. ____ severe c. pieces of broken or destroyed things _________________________________ _________________________________ 8. ____ plunge d. straight up and down; upright _________________________________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 7
  • 3. LESSON 2 Can a common weed come to the rescue? PLANTS THAT DETECT LAND MINES Land mines are explosives buried just below the surface of the ground. They’re weapons of war. Some types are designed to blow up vehicles, such as tanks. Others are designed to blow up soldiers. Just a footstep on the ground can set them off. Land mines are easy to make and put in place. After wars, the land mines are left buried in the ground. Today, tens of millions of explosives still lie just underground—in 80 countries! In these places, land mines maim or kill more than 8,000 people every year. And land mines also make the soil around them unfit explosive material inside the land mines. for farming. Thale-cress grows a few weeks after its Recently a Danish company discovered seeds are scattered over a test area. If it a possible solution to the land-mine turns red, the ground is dangerous. So the problem. It’s a common weed called unexploded land mines are removed. If thale-cress. Scientists at the not, it’s safe to walk there—or company actually altered the grow crops or build houses. genes of the thale-cress. This The plant is still being caused the plant to develop a studied. After all, it must work new characteristic. When it’s consistently in all soil types. planted near land mines, it Someday, however, the lethal turns red. The color is the danger buried beneath the THE GREEN CRESS plant’s reaction to nitrogen- TURNS RED WHEN IT soil may be wiped out by a dioxide, a gas given off by the DETECTS EXPLOSIVES. common little weed. Think about weapons and safety.1. Name three weapons of war besides 2. Think of a life-saving invention you land mines and tanks. wish someone would create. • _________________________________ _________________________________ • _________________________________ _________________________________ • _________________________________ _________________________________8 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • 4. LESSON 2: PLANTS THAT DETECT LAND MINES Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Recall details. Build your vocabulary. 1. What two purposes do land characteristic altered lethal mines have? scattered defeat maim a. They lure people into certain areas. 6. Something that is __________________ b. They destroy vehicles such has been changed. as tanks. 7. To ___________________ something is c. They kill soldiers who step on them. to injure or cripple it. 2. What happens when thale-cress 8. ___________________ seeds are grows near a land mine? thrown about in various places. a. It dies. 9. A ___________________ is a feature b. It keeps the mine from blowing up. that helps identify a person or thing. c. It turns red. 10. If you ___________________ enemies, 3. What gas that affects thale-cress you win a victory over them. is given off by land mines? a. carbon dioxide 11. A ___________________ attack would b. nitrogen dioxide result in the victim’s death. c. oxygen Draw a conclusion. (More than one answer is correct.) 4. How did scientists enable 12. Why do land mines often do greater thale-cress to react to land mines? damage to children than adults? a. They altered its genes. a. Children’s bodies are smaller. b. They turned it red. b. Curious children pick up c. They planted it near mines. land mines. c. Children are less awareIdentify the main idea. of the dangers. 5. The reading is about Look it up in a reference source. a. a weed that could be used 13. In 1997, many countries signed to detect land mines. a treaty banning land mines. b. an old-fashioned method Many nations agreed to stop used to detect land mines. making and using them. In all, c. how land mines can be how many nations found all over the world. signed the treaty? _______________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 9
  • 5. LESSON 3 Meet an awful man with an awesome talent. TY COBB Ty Cobb, born in 1886, is famous for nastiness. He was famous for ramming his marvelous baseball records. His second basemen with his spikes. He even record of 2,245 runs scored stood until sharpened them to make the impact more 2001. His record of 892 stolen bases painful. Easily angered, he got into wasn’t broken until 1979. His lifetime fistfights with his teammates, umpires, batting average was a remarkable .366. and opposing players. Cobb, also known as the Georgia Off the field, Cobb beat his Peach, was one of the greatest wives and children. He was baseball players of all time. He was a violent racist. Once he also a cruel and violent man. beat an African-American No one knows when man—and his wife—for Cobb’s troubles started. merely touching him. But they got worse Talk about mean! He when he was 18. That even stomped and year, his father was shot kicked a paraplegic fan. to death by Cobb’s mother, Cobb could also be under suspicious circumstances. generous, however. He was The week of his father’s death, young Ty a smart businessman who made a fortune joined the major leagues, playing for the from baseball. He gave away millions to Detroit Tigers. charity. And he enjoyed teaching young It was common for baseball teams to players. haze rookies, but Cobb was hazed without But Cobb’s meanness finally drove mercy. His fellow players shoved him aside everyone away. He married several times, in the batting cage. If he tried to talk to but one after another his wives left him. them, they ignored him. They broke his Even his children kept their distance. bats and wound his clothes in knots. One Eventually, all of his friends walked away. player even broke Cobb’s nose. Tyrus Cobb died in 1961. Only three As Cobb got better and better at his people who knew him well took the time game, he also earned a reputation for to come to his funeral. Think about troubled people. 1. If you owned a baseball team, would you want someone like Ty Cobb to be on it? Why or why not? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________10 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • 6. LESSON 3: TY COBB 2. Suppose a man had a terrible time in his teen years. Should he be forgiven for being mean as an adult? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Build your vocabulary. 8. Why did so few people attend Cobb’s paraplegic suspicious hazing funeral? circumstances rookie impact _________________________________ _________________________________ 1. __________________ means giving a newcomer a rough time. Recall details. 2. An athlete who’s just begun to play a 9. Describe a low point in Cobb’s life. professional sport is a _________________________________ __________________. _________________________________ 3. The effect of one object striking 10. Describe a high point in Cobb’s life. another is called an _________________. _________________________________ 4. If your legs are paralyzed, you’re _________________________________ a __________________. 11. Name two good things Ty Cobb did. 5. __________________ are the conditions •________________________________ at a certain time or place. •________________________________ 6. To be __________________ is to think 12. Name two awful things Ty Cobb did. there is guilt but have no proof. •________________________________Draw conclusions. •________________________________ 7. If Ty Cobb were a baseball player today, he Look it up in a reference source. (More than one answer may be correct.) 13. Who broke Cobb’s record for a. probably wouldn’t be hazed stealing bases? so cruelly. _________________________________ b. would be likely to receive counseling. 14. Who broke Cobb’s record for runs scored? c. couldn’t get away with spiking players. _________________________________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 11
  • 7. LESSON 4 Bigger doesn’t always mean better. NANOTECHNOLOGY What is nanotechnology? The prefix “nano” COMPARISON CHART: METER TO NANOMETER comes from the Greek word nanos, meaning TIMES SMALLER THAN A METER “dwarf.” Technology is the use of science 1 meter — BASEBALL BAT for practical purposes. Nanotechnology is 100 millimeters 10 the science of developing extremely small HUMMINGBIRD devices and materials. 10 millimeters 100 HEAD OF A NAIL How small? In nanotechnology, things are 1 millimeter 1,000 measured in nanometers. A nanometer is one billionth of a meter. To give you a 100 micrometers 10,000 RED BLOOD CELLS better idea of just how tiny that is, a 10 micrometers 100,000 strand of hair is 80,000 nanometers thick. Why are people interested in working 1 micrometer 1 million with things this tiny? This field of study WAVELENGTH VISIBLE LIGHT 100 nanometers 10 million has great potential. When manipulated VIRUS atom by atom, materials change. Carbon, 10 nanometers 100 million DNA MOLECULE for example, becomes surprisingly strong. 1 nanometer 1 billion Experts believe that nanotechnology can make almost anything smaller, stronger, and more powerful. Today, those are only ideas. In the future Nano-materials are in use today. Nano- they could become reality. sized clay particles are already used to Meanwhile, nano-materials must be strengthen car bodies. Other nano-materials studied very carefully. There have been are used in tennis balls, wrinkle-resistant serious concerns about their safety. Some clothing, and sunscreen. nano-materials have a toxic effect on Possible applications of nanotechnology living things. Many people are concerned are endless. Here are just two ideas: nano- about the effect of these nano-materials robots might patrol your bloodstream and on the environment. attack viruses. And nano-robots could be Nanotechnology can make our future used to clean up oil slicks and toxic spills. world better—or worse. It’s up to us. Think about large and small objects.1. Think of an object that’s about 10 times as thick as a human hair. What is it? ___________________________________2. A nanometer is 80,000 times thinner than a strand of human hair. Can you name an object that’s about 80,000 times thicker than a strand of hair? Take a guess. ___________________________________12 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • 8. LESSON 5 She risked her life to help girls learn. SAKENA YACOOBI As a child in Afghanistan, Sakena discovered. After a British woman had Yacoobi dreamed of becoming a doctor. visited one of the schools, word leaked She wanted to help women in her country out. The Taliban authorities prepared to lead better lives. But she probably never raid the school. imagined she’d risk her own Luckily, someone told the life to help them learn to read. teachers that the Taliban were In the late 1990s, the coming. “They scattered the Taliban took over Afghanistan. children,” Yacoobi remembers. Their laws were harsh. They “They put away the books and outlawed music and television. covered up the blackboards. Men could be jailed for When the authorities arrived, shaving their beards. Women the teachers said, ‘What? We were not allowed to work, and have no school here.’ We came girls could not go to school. this close to being caught,” When the Taliban rose to Yacoobi says, bringing her power, Yacoobi was living in thumb and forefinger very the United States. She had close together. graduated from college and After September 11, 2001, was working here. Yacoobi could have the United States and its allies drove the remained in the United States and lived a Taliban from power. Now Afghanistan’s comfortable life. But instead, she returned new government is running schools to Afghanistan. There, along with two for all children. Yacoobi continues to other women, she set up and managed 80 help women and children in her country secret schools for girls. and in Pakistan. She is also one of the The schools were in basements or leaders of the Global Fund for Women rooms with blacked-out windows. Girls located in San Francisco, California. This were told not to come to school in groups, organization provides money for women but to arrive one by one. to set up businesses, health clinics, and Once, the secret schools were nearly schools. Think about education.1. Imagine that education for girls was suddenly forbidden in the United States. Write two sentences describing what you think would happen. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________14 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND
  • 9. LESSON 5: SAKENA YACOOBI 2. What do you think are the most important things that schools teach? ___________________________________________________________________________ Circle a letter or word, fill in the blanks, or write out the answer.Match synonyms. Draw conclusions. (More than one answer may be correct.) 1. ____ harsh a. forbid 9. Girls were told not to arrive at school 2. ____ allies b. operated at the same time. Why? 3. ____ managed c. partners ____________________________________ 4. ____ authorities d. strict ____________________________________ 5. ____ outlaw e. officials 10. The reading suggests that SakenaRecognize gestures. YacoobiYou make a gesture when you hold your a. knows the problems womenthumb and forefinger close together. face in many countries.A gesture is a meaningful body signal b. has traveled to many differentthat takes the place of speech. countries. 6. Which of the following are gestures? c. is an expert on sports around a. a circle with a line through it the world. b. holding your thumb up Put events in order. c. putting a finger to your lips 11. Number the events to show the order in which they happened.Interpret figurative language.Some expressions have different meanings ____ Yacoobi sets up secret schools.than the literal meaning of the words. ____ Yacoobi returns to Afghanistan.What do the following figurative ____ The Taliban is driven from power.phrase and sentence mean? ____ One of Yacoobi’s schools is 7. “Word leaked out” means nearly raided. a. the news spread. ____ Yacoobi is educated in the b. the words dripped out. United States. 8. “They scattered the children” Look it up in a reference source. means they 12. Why did the United States and its a. told them never to allies attack the Taliban? come back. ____________________________________ b. sent them off in different ____________________________________ directions. ____________________________________ READ•REFLECT•RESPOND 15
  • 10. LESSON 6 A look at daily life some 2,000 years ago. A DAY IN ANCIENT ROME Days began early in ancient Rome. Before dawn, the streets were busy as laborers and small shop owners hurried to work. Many of them carried oil lamps to light their way. In houses and apartments, slaves went around to bedrooms to wake up their masters. People got up and washed their long rolls of paper called scrolls. An faces and hands in bowls of water. Then abacus was used for teaching arithmetic. they dressed in tunics and leather sandals. Older boys studied public speaking, Latin Men wore togas over their tunics. grammar, math, and Greek. Before leaving home, Girls were taught reading, writing, and people prayed in front music at home. There they also learned of their family shrine. how to run a house. The shrine was a special In the afternoon, men and boys often place of honor for images went to the public baths. (Women went in of the gods who looked the morning.) Hardly anyone had a bath after the family. at home. Besides keeping clean, the If the family was ancient Romans enjoyed going to the wealthy enough, the baths to visit friends. Men could also boys went to school. exercise in the sports area. Their teachers were The evening meal was served about six paid by their parents. o’clock. Soon after dinner, it was bedtime. Students learned reading, Few Romans could afford to keep their oil writing, and arithmetic. lamps burning into the night. So, as soon Lessons were written on as darkness fell, the day was over. Think about ancient Rome.1. Circle the words or phrases 2. Would you have enjoyed living in associated with ancient Rome. ancient Rome? Why or why not? mud huts gladiators _________________________________ the Coliseum knights in armor _________________________________ _________________________________ chariots ice skating _________________________________16 READ•REFLECT•RESPOND