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On tap av ch_bk

  1. 1. I. TYPES OF ADVERBS (CAÙC LOAÏI ADVERBS): 1. Adverbs of manner carefully, honestly, slowly, rapidly, easily, difficultly, Adverbs chæ theå caùch (laøm nhö theá lovely, lively, naøo) hard, fast… 2. Adverbs of place • there, here, abroad, nearby, away, upstairs, Adverbs chæ nôi choán downstairs… • everywhere, somewhere, nowhere, anywhere 3. Adverbs of time first, then, before, after, later, when, while, until = till 4. Adverbs of frequency always, often, usually, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, Adverbs chæ söï naêng xaûy ra seldom, hardly, scarcely, never 5. Adverbs of degree • extremely, highly, very, really, Adverbs chæ möùc ñoä • nearly, almost, quite, fairly, rather (kha khaù), • a little bit, a bit (moät chuùt), slightly (hôi hôi)IV. USE and POSITION (Caùch söû duïng vaø vò trí cuûa ADVERBS) ADVERBS OF MANNER EXAMPLES1. Sau verb maø noù muoán • The children sat.  The children sat quietly.boå • He behaved.  He behaved badly. nghóa (khoâng coù object) • The prince and princess live.  The prince and princess live happily. • She danced at the party.  She danced beautifully at the party. • You know that I can’t drive.  You know that I can’t drive well. short obj2. Sau verb maø noù muoán • He speaks English.  He speaks English well.boå nghóa coù object ngaén • He played football.  He played football badly. (short object) • They decided to leave the town  They decided to leave the town secretly.3. Tröôùc verb maø noù • The man was arranging all the flowers he’d just cut the garden.muoán boå phrase nghóa coù object daøi hay The man was cheerfully arranging all the flowers he’d just cut the garden.laø • She picked up all the bits of broken glass. cuïm töø (long object/ phrase phrase) She carefully picked up all the bits of broken glass 1
  2. 2. 4. Tröôùc adjective maø noù adjboå • The price was cheap.  The price was reasonably cheap. nghóa. • The exam was easy.  The exam was extremely easy.5. Tröôùc adverb khaùc maø adv adv advnoù boå • They played well.  They played fairly well. nghóa • They worked hard.  They worked incredibly hard. ADVERBS OF PLACE EXAMPLES1. Sau verb • He lived abroad. • I don’t like sitting around. • The children walk to school. It is nearby. • The students were walking downstairs.2. Sau object • I looked for my keys everywhere. Put your legs across. obj obj • I’d like to visit the Paradiso Club. My husband sang old-time songs there. ADVERBS OF TIME EXAMPLESÑöùng cuoái caâu • We’ll see you later. See you soon. BUT: We’ll soon be there. • He arrived home and found noboddy. They’d left home 10 minutes before. • She left home with a broken heart. Her life was heartbreaking then. • He started his business and earned a fortune. He married her afterward. ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY EXAMPLESSau verb to be He’s always early. I am rarely ill. Children are usually playful.Sau modals He will never make such a mistake. I’ll always tell.Tröôùc ñoäng töø thöôøng He never comes late. Michael usually hurts anyone he is not fond of.Tröôùc used to vaø have to I never used to get up late. You always have to come early.Moät soá advers (often, • He often walked home. Often he walked home. He walked home often.usually, occasionally, once, • Usually people think of themselves before thinking of others.twice; sometimes) coù theâÛñaàu caâu hay cuoái caâu. • Once he disguised as a police officer. • I ate at the new Italian restaurant twice. 100% 0% always usually often sometimes occasionally seldom rarely never THÖÙ TÖÏ TRONG CUØNG MOÄT CAÂU CUÛA ADVERBS OF MANNER, PLACE, AND TIMEThöù töï thoâng thöôøng: • He lived happily in Paris for a year. manner place timeAdverb of manner + Adverb of place + Adverb of time • Every day he stood silently at the bus stop. time manner placeThôøi gian coù theå ñöùng ôû ñaàu caâu khi nhaánmaïnh 2
  3. 3. Sentence Adverbs (Adverbs boå nghóa cho caû caâu)Nhöõng Adverbs sau ñaây coù caùc vò trí khaùc nhau khi boå • He foolishly answered the questions.nghóa cho He answered the questions foolishly.caû caâu (a whole sentence) • He is obviously intelligent.• actually; really; in fact (thaät söï ra, thaät vaäy) Obviously he’s intelligent.• undoubtedly; definitely; certainly; surely (chaéc chaén) • He actually lives next door.• evidently; obviously; clearly; apparently (roõ raøng, hieån Actually, he lives next door. nhieân) He lives next door actually.• presumably; probably; perhaps; possibly (coù theå) • Surely you could pay £1?• (un)fortunately, (un)luckily (xui/ heân / may maén) You could pay £1, surely?• frankly, honestly (thaønh thaät/ thaúng thaéng…) • Surely you could pay £1?• generally, specifically.... (nhìn chung, moät caùch cuï You could pay £1, surely? theå…) a/ an goïi laø indefinite articles (maïo töø The goïi laø definite articles (maïo töø xaùc ñònh) ñi vôùi khoâng xaùc ñònh) ñi vôùi danh töø ñeám danh töø ñeám ñöôïc hoaëc khoâng ñeám ñöôïc, ôû soá ít hay ñöôïc, ôû soá ít. soá nhieàu. • uncountable noun • the book, the chair, the country, the umbrella a / an + • singular noun • the books, the chairs, the countries • countable • the bread, the news, the advice, the oil noun • a book, a chair, a man, a country • an ice-cream, an umbrella, an ostrich • When we were on holiday, we stayed at a hotel. In the evenings, sometimes we hada/ an ñöôïc söûduïng khi danh töø dinner at the hotel, sometimes in a restaurant.ñöôïc ñeà caäp laàn • I saw a film last night. The film was about a soldier and a beautiful girl. The soldierñaàu tieân, sau ñoù was in love with the girl but the girl loved a teacher. So the soldier shot the teacherthì söû duïng the. and went to prison. 3
  4. 4. a/ an ñöôïc söû • (There are two doors and both are open.)duïng khi danh töø “Close a door please.” “Close the doors please.” “Close the door next to youñöôïc ñeà caäp chöa please.”xaùc ñònh, duøng the • “Is there a post office near here?”neáu ñaõ xaùc ñònh • “Where is the post office near here?” • “I need to sign this and I have no pens. Can I borrow a pen please?” • (You see a nice pen on a desk. You want to see it) “May I see the pen please?” • (There is one blackboard in the classroom) “Now everybody! Look at the blackboard!”Sau ñaây laø moät soá quy luaät veà danh töø coù hay khoâng coù söû duïng articles Khoâng duøng article vôùi danh töø noùi Duøng the vôùi danh töø coù moät giôùi haïn naøo chung hay khoâng xaùc ñònh cuï theå ñoù hay xaùc ñònh roõ giöõa ngöôøi nghe vaø ngöôøi (general reference). noùi trong moät tình huoáng cuï theå (specific • Salt is necessary for life. reference) • I love music. • Can you pass the salt please? • Books are expensive. • Please turn down the music. • Rats can carry diseases. • Put the book on the desk. • Men are lazy at home. • The rats may carry diseases. Don’t keep them. • Roses are my favorite flowers. • The men you are talking about are lazy at home. • Giraffes are tall animals. • The roses in this vase are quite nice. ** Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc phaûi ôû soá nhieàu • The giraffes in this painting are lively.Khi ñeà caäp moät loaøi caây, ñoäng vaät, sinh vaät... noùi chung tuy khoâng xaùc ñònh, coù theå duøng the +danh töø soá ít • The rose is my favorite flowers. (Hoa hoàng laø loaøi hoa yeâu thích cuûa toâi) • The giraffe is tall animals. (Höôu laø loaøi ñoäng vaät cao) Trong moät soá caùch noùi (expressions), vieäc danh töø coù the hay khoâng coù the coù theå taïo söï khaùc bieät veà yù nghóa ngöôøi noùi dieãn ñaït. Sau ñaây laø moät soá ví duï: WITHOUT ARTICLE WITH ‘the’ 4
  5. 5.  watch television xem truyeàn hình  look at/ repair the television nhìn/ söûa caùi TV on television treân (chöông trình) truyeàn hình  (the cat is) on the television (con meøo) treân caùi TV go to school ñi hoïc; tôùi  go to the school ñi tôùi tröôøng tröôøng (ñeå hoïc)  go to the hospital ñi tôùi beänh go to hospital ñi (chöõa beänh ôû) beänh vieän vieän  go to the church ñi tôùi nhaø thôø go to church ñi leã nhaø thôø  go to the prison ñi tôùi nhaø tuø go to prison ñi tuø (vì coù  go to the seaside/ the beach ñi bieån chôi toäi) go to sea (thuyû thuû) ñi bieån  live by the sea soáng gaàn bieån go home veà nhaø  go to the countryside ñi veà mieàn queâ go on holiday ñi nghæ maùt  go to the doctor’s ñi baùc só khaùm beänh  go to the dentist’s ñi nha só chöõa raênggiôùi töø + danh töø chæ phöông tieän vaän the + danh töø chæ phöông tieän truyeàn thoâng, chuyeån: giaûi trí by air by plane  go to the cinema ñi xem phim by sea by ship, by boat  go to the theatre ñi xem haùt by railway by train  go to the concert ñi xem hoaø nhaïc by road by car  listen to the radio nghe phaùt thanh by land on foot / on horseback  look onto the Internet xem treân maïngat + danh töø haøm yù moät hoaït ñoäng (activity) at + the + danh töø chæ nôi choán at sea ñang ôû ngoaøi bieån  at the office ñang ôû vaên phoøng at school (hoïc) ôû tröôøng  at the cinema ñang ôû raïp chieáu phim at work ñang laøm vieäc  at the market ñang ôû chôï at home ñang ôû nhaøplay + danh töø chæ chôi caùc moân theå thao play + the + danh töø chæ moät nhaïc cuï play football, tennis, badminton, chess  play the piano / the drums / the violin etc. etc.Danh töø chæ ngoân ngöõ hay quoác gia / quoác the + teân quoác gia ôû soá nhieàu hoaëc laø Kingdomtòch speak English, Vietnamese, Spanish  the United States, the Philippines, the Netherlands, live in Vietnam, Singapore, China, Spain  the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Thailand They’re British. He’s French. I’m Vietnamese.giôùi töø at/ by + danh töø chæ caùc buoåài thôøi giôùi töø in + the + danh töø chæ caùc buoåi thôøigian gian at night, at midnight, at noon, at dawn  in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, 5
  6. 6.  by day, by night in the night CAÙC TRÖÔØNG HÔÏP KHAÙC  Articles khoâng söû duïng vôùi danh töø chæ teân moân hoïc  study mathematics, chemistry, physics etc. teân caùc böõa aên  have breakfast, have lunch, have dinner, have * nhöng duøng a khi coù tính töø ñöùng supper tröùôc: have a nice dinner, have an enormous breakfast teân hoà  Lake Superior, Lake Xuan Huong • teân thaønh phoá (city),  Hochiminh City, London, New York • ñöôøng phoá (street, road, avenue. . .),  Tran Hung Dao Street, Main Road • quaän (district),  Guangdong Province, Long An Province • tænh (province),  District 5, Binh Thanh District • tieåu bang (state), county  California, Texas, Cornwall teân ngoïn nuùi (mount)  Mount Everest, Mont Blanc, Mount Fuji teân hoøn ñaûo  Phu Quoc Island / Manhattan Island  Article the söû duïng vôùi danh töø chæ teân cuûa bieån, ñaïi döông  the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the North Sea teân sa maïc, soâng, keânh ñaøo  the Sahara, the Thames, the Nile River, the Panama Canal teân cuûa raëng nuùi  the Himalaya, the Alps, the Truong Son teân quaàn ñaûo (group of islands)  the Philippines, the West Indies teân . . . + of + teân . . .  the Gulf of Mexico, the Cape of Good Hope (Muõi Good Hope)  the Bay of Ha Long (Ha Long Bay),  the University of Oxford, the Isles of Wight teân söï vaät ñöôïc cho laø duy  the earth, the sun, the moon, the sky, the world, nhaát  the equator (xích ñaïo), the universe (vuõ truï), etc. teân baùo chí  the Times, the Washington Post naêm thaäp nieân, theá kyû  the 1970s, the 1990s, the 20th century danh töø chæ quoác tòch taän  the British = British people cuøng laø –sh, -ch, -ese ñeå chæ ngöôøi ôû soá nhieàu  the French = French people  the Vietnamese = Vietnamese people tính töø taïo danh töø soá nhieàu  the rich = rich people  the deaf = deaf people 6
  7. 7.  Treân ñaây laø caùch söû duïng cô baûn vaø thoâng thöôøng cuûa articles. Ngoaøi ra articles ñöôïcsöû duïng trong nhieàu tröôøng hôïp khaùc nöõa, maø khoâng theå lieät keâ heát ôû ñaây. Khi gaëp danhtöø vôùi article hay khoâng coù article, ta neân töï hoûi taïi sao, quy luaät naøo vaø ghi nhôù.I/. SHORT ADJECTIVES:Adjectives with one syllable or two syllables ending with –y(tính töø coù moät vaàn, hoaëc tính töø coù hai vaàn vôùi vaàn thöù hai taän cuøng laø ‘y’) Comparativ Examples e Adjective + -er cheap cheaper Country life is cheaper than city life. warm warmer Santiago is warmer than Chicago in February. Gaáp ñoâi phuï aâm hot hotter Saigon is hotter than Hanoi. neáu tröôùc noù laø big bigger Egypt is bigger than Kenya. nguyeân aâm Theâm r, neáu taän large larger Canada is larger than Vietnam. cuøng laø -e nicer nice Spring is nicer than summer. Ñoåi –y thaønh -i dirty dirtier His shoes are dirtier than mine. noisy noisier Big cities are noisier than small towns. good better Warm weather is better than cold weather. bad Irregular Adjective worse Cold weather is worse than warm weather. far Tính töø baát quy taéc farther Her house is farther/ further than mine. further I’d like to get further information. CHUÙ YÙ:  SAI: Michael is tall. Peter is taller than. (1) “than”  ÑUÙNG: Michael is tall. Peter is taller. OR Peter is taller than Michael.  objective pronoun: He is taller than me. (2) “than” coù theå ñi  clause: He is taller than I (am). vôùi She is uglier than she was two years ago.  word or phrase: Today is warmer than yesterday. My mind in the morning is sharper than in the evening.II/. LONG ADJECTIVES: Adjectives with more than one syllable (tính töø coù hôn moät vaàn) 7
  8. 8. more nhieàu hôn The city is more expensive than the less ít hôn country. The country is less expensive than the city. The city is more exciting than the country. The country is less exciting than the city. The country is more peaceful than the city. The city is less peaceful than the country. These two-syllable adjectives have two forms: -er / more (Nhöõng tính töø sau nay coù hai daïng –er hay more) angry, clever (thoâng minh), common (thoâng • This disease is more common in men than in women. This disease is commoner in men than in thöôøng), cruel (aùc), friendly, gentle (hieàn), women. • He was more clever than we thought. handsome, narrow (heïp), pleasant (deã chòu), He was cleverer than we thought. polite (lòch söï), quiet, simple, sour (chua). • I like Alex. He is more friendly than the others. He is friendlier than the othersI/. SHORT ADJECTIVES: Adjectives with one syllable or two syllables ending with –y Positiv Superlative Examples eAdd -est deep deepest The Pacific is the deepest ocean in the world. long longest Giraffes have the longest necks of all animals.Gaáp ñoâi phuï aâm wet wettest July is usually the wettest of all months.neáu tröôùc noù thin thinnest the thinnest of all of us.laø nguyeân aâm Amanda isTheâm r, neáu wise wisest My birthday party was one of the nicest times in my life.taän cuøng laø -e large largest The blue whale is the largest living animal in the world.Ñoåi –y thaønh -i easy easiest This was the easiest questions of the test I’ve taken. lazy laziest He is the laziest student in the class. good best My trip to Hawaii was one of the best experiences I’ve ever had.Irregular bad worst My score was one of the worst scores in the whole school.AdjectivesTính töø baát quy far farthest Pluto is the farthest planet from the sun in our solar system.taéc furthestII/. LONG ADJECTIVES: Adjectives with more than one syllable (tính töø coù hôn moät vaàn) 8
  9. 9. most (… nhaát) The Tal Mahal is one of the most beautiful buildings I’ve ever known least (ít… nhaát) Sometimes I feel like I am the least intelligent person in the class. These two-syllable adjectives have two forms: -est or mostangry, clever, common,  Fred is the most friendly guy of them.cruel, friendly, gentle, the friendliesthandsome, narrow,  I think Tom Cruise is one of the most handsome actors in Hollywood.pleasant, the handsomestpolite, quiet, simple, sour.Adverbs boå nghóa cho Verbs cuõng theo nguyeân taéc so saùnh gioáng vôùi Adjectives Positive Comparison ExamplesTheâm –er hard harder • Alex works hard. I work harder. Sin works the hardest ofhoaëc –est cho hardest us.adverbs coù fast faster • A dog runs fast.moät vaàn fastest A mouse runs faster than a dog. A cat runs the fastest of the three. well better • Siu sings well. Black sings better than Siu (does).Irregular best White sings the best of all.AdverbsBaát quy taéc badly worse • I play the guitar badly. He plays worse than I do. worst She plays the worst of all. far farther, • Theo lives far away from school. Deo lives farther than further Theo. farthest, Leo lives the farthest of all. furthestTheâm more • She speaks quietly. Her mother speaks more quietly than she does / she / her. the Her father speaks the most quietly of all.most& less • He has done the job more effectively than I have / I / me. the least • He has done the job the most effectively of all of us.cho adverbs • Kim sews beautifully. Chi sews less beautifully than Kim did / Kim / her.taän cuøngbaèng -ly Vai sews the least beautifully of all. 9
  10. 10. Adverbs chæ • She tried a lot. Tina, her friend tried more than she did. Luke tries the most of all.möùc ñoä • You spent much in Las Vegas. An spent more than you did. I spent the most of all.a lot / muchso saùnh: • I love my mother, you and myself. I love you less than (I love) my mother.more I love myself the least of the three.the most • At the party last night, I didn’t eat much. I ate less than I drank. I drank less than Ia litte talked.so saùnh: Of all the things I did, I ate the least.less/ the least • Xuan and Ha read books a little. Thu reads less than them. Dong reads the least of all. • Ted is as old as Sam is/ Sam. • He didn’t play as well as we expected. • Sam is not as young as Mark is/ Mark. • I ran as far as he did (he / him). • She wasn’t as rich as I am now. • She’s writing as carefully as I am ( I / me). • Francoise is as beautiful as a picture. • Try to study as much as you can. • Ngu is as stuppid as an ox. • Call me back as soon as possible. • I felt as high as a kite after the exam. Spend money as little as • I can. Repeating a ComparativeSo saùnh ‘ngaøy caøng…’• When I get nervous, my heart beats faster and faster. • He got more and more furious. (Khi toâi hoài hoäp, tim toâi ñaäp ngaøy caøng • You are growing more and more beautiful.nhanh) • They live more and more happily.• Buses leave and arrive later and later. • I earn less and less money.• When you blow up a balloon, it gets bigger and • I love you more and more . bigger.• My English is getting better and better. Double ComparativesSo saùnh ‘caøng… thì caøng…’short word + The fruit is fresh. It tastes good.short word The fresher the fruit is, the better it tastes. If the knife is sharp, it is easy to (Traùi caây caøng töôi, noù coù vò caøng ngon) cut things. The sharper the knife is, the easier it is to cut things. (Con dao caøng beùn, caét ñoà caøng deã)short word +long word Bill talked very fast. The faster Bill talked, the more confused I became. I became confused.long word +long word The country is affluent. The more affluent the country is, the more delighted people People are delighted. are. 10
  11. 11. Mixed • She grows up a lot. The more she grows up. The more beautiful she becomes. She becomes beautiful. • You shout loudly. The more loudly you shout, the more she hates you. She hates you a lot. • She loves him a little. He loves her a lot. The less she loves him, the more he loves her. • He has a few problems. He is happy. The fewer problems he has, the happier he is. • They have many children. They live miserably. • I study a lot. I find myself The more children they have, the more miserably they live. stupid a lot. The more I study, the more stupid I find myself.So saùnh ñaëc bieät • The bigger , the better. (Caøng böï caøng toát) • The more , the merrier. (Caøng ñoâng caøng vui) • The sooner , the better. (Caøng sôùm caøng toát) Gerunds can be used as subjects (Gerunds coù theå laøm chuû ngöõ) Spending time with friends is very important to me. Learning a new language takes time. S V S V Gerunds can be used as objects I like going to the cinema. She is considering buying a new house. V O V OVERBS THOÂNG THÖÔØNG THEO SAU LAØ GERUND avoid traùnh • She avoided answering my questions. admit thuù nhaän • He admitted stealing the money. allow = permit cho pheùp • She doesnt allow smoking in her house. consider = think about xem xeùt; caân • Im considering going to nhaéc Hawaii. delay = postpone trì hoaõn; hoaõn • Why have they delayed laïi opening the school ? discuss = talk about thaûo luaän; noùi veà • They discussed buying a new car. deny phuû nhaän, choái • He denied knowing anything about it. 11
  12. 12. detest / dislike khoâng thích; gheùt • I detested writing letters. • We dislike flying. enjoy thích thuù; höôûng • I enjoy working in my garden. finish xong; keát thuùc… • Bob finished studying at midnight. imagine töôûng töôïng; nghó • I can’t imagine doing anything else. involve ñoøi hoûi; caàn • The job involves traveling keep = go on tieáp tuïc • Keep working , dont stop. mind phieàn • Do you mind working long hours? miss boû lôõ • I missed meeting her yesterday. practise / practice thöïc taäp; thöïc • We practise speaking English. haønh quit = give up; stop • David quit smoking. recollect hoài töôûng • She can recollect meeting the King. risk ruûi ro; coù nguy cô • If you don’t study hard now, you risk failing your final exams. suggest / ñeà nghò • I suggest going there by car. recommend GERUNDS WITH SOME EXPRESSIONS (Gerund ñöôïc söû duïng trong moät soá thaønh ngöõ) • cant help khoâng theå khoâng/ • I cant help laughing. nhòn • cant stand • She cant stand doing chores. khoâng theå chòu ñöïng • get/ be used to • You get used to working with famous people. quen vôùi • get/ be accustomed to • I’m accustomed to wearing light clothes. • look forward to mong ñôïi • I look forward to seeing you next week. • It… no good chaúng coù ích gì • It was no good talking to him about it. • It… no use • It is no use learning what you don’t need. phí thôøi giôø • It… a waste of time • It’s a waste of time explaining it to him. ñaùng • (be) worth baän roän • That book is worth reading. • (be) busy • My father is busy doing a scientific researchGERUNDS OR INFINITIVES?• Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund with no real change in meaning: (Moät soá Verbs theo sau Infinitive hay Gerund khoâng thay ñoåi yù nghóa.) 12
  13. 13. begin • He began to shout / shouting at them. start • Suddenly the rain started to fall / falling. continue • We continued to rehearse / rehearsing the chorus after the break. prefer • I prefer to ride / riding. I prefer riding to walking. like • She likes to hike / hiking hate • The old man hated to use / using email.NOTES:* would like / would prefer theo sau bôûi infinitive: I’d like to visit Paris. I’d prefer to have beef.• Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund with a difference in meaning. (Moät soá Verbs theo sau Infinitive hay Gerund vôùi coù thay ñoåi yù nghóa.)STOP• stop + verb-ing = ngöøng moät haønh ñoäng ñang laøm stop + to-verb = ngöøng moät haønh ñoäng ñang laøm naøo ñoù ñeå laøm moät haønh ñoäng khaùc • He was driving. He stopped. He got some petrol. • He stopped driving. He stopped to get some petrol. • She was playing the guitar. She stopped. She changed a string. • She stopped playing the guitar. She stopped to change a string.TRY try + verb-ing  thöû laøm gì (xem coù ñöôïc khoâng) try + to-verb  coá gaéng laøm gì• When you have hiccups, try taking 7 sips of water.• I tried everything but the baby still wouldn’t stop crying. I tried holding him. I tried feeding him. I tried burping him. I tried changing his diapers. Nothing worked.• The window was jammed. He tried to open it.• We always try to study hard.REMEMBER remember + verb-ing = recall  hoài töôûng laïi haønh ñoäng trong quaù khöù remember + to-verb  nhôù laøm moät nhieäm vuï, moät boå phaän, moät ñieàu caàn thieát. 13
  14. 14. • I always remember meeting him for the first time. He was wearing shabby clothes and long hair down to the shoulders.• We remember living in the peaceful countryside long time ago. At that time we were really happy.• I remember putting enough salt into the soup but I don’t understand why it is tasteless.• When I leave my motorcycle on the street, I always remember to lock it.• I always remember to turn off the computer after using it.• Remember to put salt in the soup before you take it out of the cooker.FORGET• I never forget kissing my wife at church on my wedding day. (I kissed her)• He forgot having dates with me for a long time after he fell in love with a new girl.• My wife was upset because I forgot to kiss her before leaving for work this morning. (I didn’t kiss her)• He forgot to ask her telephone number so he couldn’t contact her.REGRET  regret + verb-ing  hoái haän veà vieäc ñaõ laøm hay khoâng laøm  regret + to-verb  laáy laøm tieác phaûi laøm gì• He didn’t go to school when he was younger. He regrets not going to school when he was younger.• She didn’t like school. Going to school was boring. She regrets going to school.• I regret to inform that you can’t take the job.• He doesn’t want to leave his home country. He regrets to leave.• The girl regretted to say goodbye to them.• Her mother regrets to sell their loving house.Go on  go on + verb-ing  tieáp tuïc (vieäc ñaõ laøm tröôùc ñoù)  go on + to-verb  tieáp theo (laøm vieäc gì khaùc)• I’m working too hard. I can’t go on working like this.• She’s studying in the library. She will go on studying until the library closes.• I’ve made two big cakes. I will go on to make ice-cream. (Toâi laøm 2 caùi baùnh roài. Tieáp theo toâi seõ laøm kem)• After introducing her proposal, she went on to explain the benefits for the company (Sau khi ñöa ra ñeà xuaát, tieáp theo coâ aáy giaûi thích lôïi ích maø cty coù ñöôïc töø ñeà xuaát ñoù)Mean 4. playing 5. doing 6. watching  1. to turn 2. being 3. to give mean + verb-ing  coù nghóa laø (giaûi thích ñieàu tröôùc ñoù) 20. to put 13. being told 14. calling/ 11. whistling 12. to bring 17. to count 18. to call  15. to pay 16. singing mean + to-verb  coù yù ñònh (laøm gì) 7. to do 8. to explain 9. openin 10. turning• We could take the ferry to France, but that will mean spending a night in writing / leaving ANSWER KEY 19. delivering 14
  15. 15. a hotel.• Money is important. It doesn’t mean trying to earn a lot of money by any means despite bad results.• I didn’t mean to hurt you.• Have you meant to let him stay here in our house?EXERCISE: Gerund or infinitive?1. I always remember (turn) ………………… off the lights before I leave my house.2. I can remember (be) ………………… very proud and happy when I graduated from university3. Please remember (give) ………… Jake my message. It is very important.4. I remember (play) ………… dolls when I was a child.5. What do you remember (do)….…. when you were a child?6. I can’t never forget (watch) ………………… our team score the winning goal in the last seconds of the game to capture the national championship.7. Don’t forget (do) ………… your homework tonight!8. When a student asks a question, the teacher always tries (explain) …… the problem as clearly as possible.9. The room was hot. I tried (open) …………………the window, but that didn’t help. So I tried (turn)………… on the fan, but I was still hot. Finally, I turned on the air conditioner.10. Sally reminded me to ask you to tell Bob to remember (bring) ………………… his soccer ball to the picnic.11. Could you please stop (whistle) …………………? I’m trying (concentrate) ………………… on my work.12. What am I going to do? I forgot (bring) ………………… my calculus text, and I need it for the review today.13.I don’t remember (tell) ………………… of the decision to change the company policy on vacations. When was it decided? (use passive voice)14. I haven’t been able to get in touch with Shannon. I tried (call) …………………. Then I tried (write) ………………… her a letter. I tried (leave) ………………… message with her brother when I talked to him. Nothing worked.15. I always try (pay) ………………… my bills on time, but I’m a little late.16. My roommate says I have a terrible voice, so I stopped (sing) ..………… in the shower.17. The cashier always remembers (count)………… the money in her cash register each day before she leaves work.18. Don’t forget (call) ………………home as soon as you arrive as your destination.19.I told the mail carrier that we would be away for two weeks on vacation. I asked her to stop (deliver) ……………… our mail until the 21st.20. Would you please remember (put) ………………… away all the tapes when you’re finished listening? Infinitives (Ñoäng töø nguyeân maãu coù to) ñöôïc söû duïng trong nhöõng caáu truùc caâu sau ñaây:1. Subject + Verb + (not) + to Infinitive Subjec Verb (not) + to Infinitive t 15
  16. 16. He promised to come. They I decided not to go. They refused to sell my shares. agreed to help me. VERBS FOLLOWED BY TO-INFINITIVE (Nhöõng ñoäng töø theo sau bôûi TO-INFINITIVE)afford coù ñuû (tieàn, khaû naêng) I can’t afford to take a taxi. They afforded to pay for the large bill.agree ñoàng yù The leaders have agreed to meet in London in July.aim plan – döï kieán They are aiming to reduce unemployment.appear coù veû nhö They appeared not to know what was happening.arrange plan - saép xeáp They have arranged to provide a new flat for you.bother maát coâng/ maát thôøi gian Don’t bother to meet me at the airport. I’ll take a taxi.claim tuyeân boá; khaúng ñònh I don’t claim to be an expert. She claimed to be related to the Queen.decide quyeát ñònh Tadworth Council have decided to build a new by-pass.demand yeâu caàu, ñoøi hoûi She demanded to go there on her own.determine decide – nhaát quyeát The young man determined to succeed in life.endeavor try – coá gaéng They endeavored to arrive on time.expect mong ñôïi Ben Doe expects to win the Olympic gold medal.fail khoâng …. ñöôïc She failed to keep her words. (Coâ ta khoâng giöõ lôøi höùa) I failed to see the signs. (Toâi khoâng thaáy baûng hieäu)guarantee baûo ñaûm; höùa chaéc The company guaranteed to pay its debt.happen tình côø You happened to know his name, didn’t you?hasten haáp taáp, voäi vaøng She saw his frown and hastened to explain.hesitate do döï; löôõng löï Don’t hesitate to ask us.hope hy voïng They were hoping to speak to Mrs Florence Hamilton.intend coù yù ñònh The Duke of Mercia has intended to marry Lady Diana.learn hoïc He is learning (how) to dance.long troâng; mong I’m longing to see you again.manage coù theå The pilot managed/ was able to escape in the fighter crash.mean coù yù I’m sorry. I didn’t mean to hurt him.need caàn I need to do my housework before my mother comes back. 16
  17. 17. offer ñeà nghò The salesman offered to wrap the gift for me. plan döï kieán The Council are planning to build four 20-storey blocks of flats. pretend giaû vôø She pretended not to listen to me when I spoke to her. proceed tieáp theo (laø) He took out some papers and then proceeded to read aloud. promise höùa Jack promised not to be late for the wedding. propose plan – ñeà xuaát What do you propose to do now? prove to hoùa ra; thaønh ra The promotion proved to be a turning point in his career. be (Vieäc thaêng chöùc hoùa ra laïi trôû thaønh böôùc ngoaët trong söï nghieäp cuûa anh ta) refuse töø choái The factory workers, who are sitting in, have refused to move. resolve determine He resolved not to tell the enemy the truth. seek, try – coá gaéng The host sought to make the guests comfortable. sought seem coù veû, döôøng nhö You seem to be in good mood today. strive, try - ra söùc; coá Newspaper editors strive to be first with a story. strove, Caùc toaø baùo ra söùc laø tôø baùo ñaàu tieân ñöa moät tin naøo striven ñoù) tend coù khuynh Women tend to live longer than men. höôùng threaten ñe doïa Miners’ leaders have threatened to strike on. trouble baän taâm; coá coâng He rushed into the room without troubling to knock (Noù chaïy aøo vaøo phoøng khoâng theøm goõ cöûa). He didn’t trouble to check the figures (Anh ta khoâng coá coâng kieåm tra laïi soá lieäu) undertake ñaûm nhaän He undertook to finish the job by Friday. would like muoán I’d like / want to visit the Great Wall in China. want2. Subject + Verb + Direct Object + (not) + to-Infinitive Subject Verb Direct Object (not) + to-Infinitive He wants me to come. I them asked not to do it. She the servant They told the children to open the window. warned not to make noise.Nhöõng ñoäng töø coù caáu truùc treân: advise khuyeân The doctor advised the patient to have a lot of exercise 17
  18. 18. allow = cho pheùp We don’t allow anyone to smoke in the office.permitask yeâu caàu Don’t ask children to cheat.cause sai; khieán The poor harvest caused prices to increase.challenge thaùch thöùc The boy challenged his brother to climb the tree.command ra leänh He commanded his men to retreat.drive khieán Poverty drove her to steal. (Caùi ngheøo khieán coâ ta sinh troäm caép.)enable laøm... coù theå The software enables you to access the Internet in seconds. (Phaàn meàm naøy khieán anh coù theå truy caäp Internet trong vaøi giaây)encourage khuyeán khích My parents encouraged my sister to study further.embarrass gaây ngöôïng nguøng It embarrassed him to take her hands.expect mong muoán Her husband expected her to serve him dinner.forbid; ban caám I forbid my children to ride motorcycle to school.force eùp buoäc My parents forced us to go to the college.get nhôø; khieán I got my brother to do chores.induce thuyeát phuïc Nothing induces him to take that job.inspire truyeàn caûm; gaây caûm xuùc (cho ai) The singer inspired the audience to clap their hands while he was singing.instruct chæ; daïy My father instructed me to drive.invite môøi He invited his friends to come around his house.lead; led; led khieán What led you to believe it true?order ra leänh The robber ordered everybody to lie on the floor.persuade thuyeát phuïc He didn’t like it, but we persuaded him to take it after all.prompt khieán; nhaéc nhôû The accident prompts her to renew her insurance.remind nhaéc nhôû Please remind me to post the letter this afternoon. stimulate kích thích; thuùc ñaåy Reading books stimulates children to imagine better. teach daïy Nobody teaches birds to fly. tell keå, baûo (ai) Please tell her not to use the office phone for personal call. tempt caùm doã; duï doã Nothing would tempt me to live there. warn caûnh baùo They warned drivers not to enter into that way. would like Would you like me to do it? want Do you want James to come with us? 18
  19. 19. would prefer thích. . . hôn I’d prefer you to go out. I’d prefer you not to tell the truth.3. Subject + Verb + Direct Object + (to be) + Complement * Thaønh phaàn “to be” coù theå boû ñi * Complement – danh töø hay tính tö,ø boå nghóa cho Direct Object (khoâng phaûi cho verb) * Nhöõng Verbs coù caáu truùc naøy: believe (tin raèng); consider (coi nhö/ xem nhö… laø…); prove(chöùng minh…) Subject Verb Direct Object (to be) Complement They believed him (to be) innocent I her (to be) the best student in the class. He consider it (to be) a shame. We considered them (to be) wrong proved4. NOUNS / PRONOUNS / ADVERBS + TO-INFINITIVE Noun to-infinitive  I’ve got three shirts to pack.  There’s another pair of shoes to get in.  Where’s the airline label to put on the suitcase? Pronoun/ adverb to-infinitive  There’s nothing to worry about.  Is there anywhere to put your toilet bag?  I don’t know where to put them.  He can’t decide what to buy. PRONOUNS: nothing, something, someone, somebody, what. . . ADVERB: where, anywhere, somewhere, when. . .5. Subject + Verb + Adjective + to-Infinitive Nhöõng tính töø chæ taâm traïng: glad (vui); happy; upset (buoàn); angry; delighted (vui); sad; sorry…thöôøng duøng caáu truùc naøy Subject Verb Adjective to-infinitive We are glad to see you again. They were upset to know about your accident. I felt angry to find out the truth.6. It + Verb + Adjective/ Noun + to-Infinitive It Verb Adjective/ Noun to-infinitive 19
  20. 20. It is dangerous to ride with a drunk driver. It isn’t easy to climb to the top of a mountain. It is fun to ride a horse. It was a shame to tease the disabled man. * Nhöõng caâu trong caáu truùc treân coù theå vieát laïi vôùi To-infinitive laøm Subject Subject Verb Adjective/ Noun To ride with a drunk driver is dangerous to the top of a mountain isn’t easy To climb a horse is fun To ride the disabled man was a shame To tease7. It + (take) + time + to-Infinitive It (take) (somebody time to-infinitive ) It takes us time to learn a new language. It took them 5 hours It has taken me 5 minutes to get there. It will take all of us 5 years to find out the answer for that question. to finish the project. • It takes us time to learn a new language ñöôïc dòch laø: Hoïc moät thöù tieáng môùi chuùng ta phaûi maát thôøi gian • Thaønh phaàn (somebody) coù theå khoâng ñöôïc ñeà caäp. •ENOUGH adjective + enough + to-infinitive  Jimmy isn’t old enough to go to school.  Are you rich enough to take a taxi?  Is he good enough to be a champion? enough + noun + to-infinitive  I don’t have enough money to buy that bike.  Did you have enough time to finish the test?  We didn’t have enough people to do that work. 20
  21. 21. (much) too + adjective + (for …) + to-infinitive  A piano is much too heavy to lift.  She is much too young to get married.  My grandfather’s much too old to work.  This hat is much too expensive to buy.  That ceiling is much too high for me to touch.  She is much too young for him to get married.  The coffee is much too hot for Kim to drink.  These shoes are much too big for Jim to put on.  These cakes are much too hard for them to chew.  ‘much’ duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh theâm cho Adjective.  YÙ nghóa cuûa nhöõng caâu treân laø phuû ñònh. A piano is much too heavy to lift (Moät caây ñaøn piano quaù naëng khoâng nhaác noåi.) That ceiling is much too high for me to touch (Traàn nhaø cao quaù toâi vôùi khoâng tôùi.)  thaønh phaàn ‘for…’ coù theå khoâng ñöôïc ñeà caäp1. Subject + Verb + Bare Infinitive * Bare Infinitive – ñoäng töø nguyeân maãu khoâng coù “to” * Thöôøng caùc modals ñöôïc theo sau bôûi Bare Infinitive tröø ra ought (neân) ñi vôùi to-infinitive (Heought to do it) Subject Verb Bare Infinitive I should do it. They She would go. rather do the work. will2. Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Bare Infinitive Subject Verb Direct Object Bare Infinitive I made him do it. They me She let someone go. We will have him do the work. I them saw come in. heard sing.Nhöõng Verb söû duïng caáu truùc treân: let ñeå; cho (ai laøm gì) hear * nghe make khieán; baét notice * ñeå yù thaáy have nhôø; khieán (ai laøm smell * ngöûi gì) listen to * laéng nghe see * thaáy feel * caûm thaáy 21
  22. 22. watch * quan saùt; xem Bare infinitives or present participle?Nhöõng verbs (coù daáu *) chæ veà giaùc quan hay coù lieân heä tôùi giaùc quan (verbs of perception) coù haicaáu truùc caâu tuøy theo ngöõ caûnh :• I saw a man cross the road. haønh ñoâng cuûa bare infinitive• She heard us sing beautiful songs in the theatre. laø troïn veïn (complete action)• I feel my heart beat fast whenever I see her.• When I looked up, I saw a man crossing the road. haønh ñoâng cuûa present participle laø ñang dieãn tieán• When she entered the room, she heard us singing cheerfully. (in progress)• Hearing her voice, he felt his heart beating fast.3. It + (be) + adjective + (that) + subject + bare infinitive • Moät soá Adjectives sau ñaây söû duïng trong caáu truùc naøy • that coù theå boû ñi It + (be) adjective (that) subject bare infinitive It is important that he be careful in his writing. It is that everyone It is necessary that pollution not arrive here late. It was essential that no one else be controlled. It is that she vital know about the secret. It is that the P.M. imperative return home immediately. critical address those sensitive issues.4. Subject + verb + (that) + subject + bare infinitive Subject Verb (that) subject bare infinitive I suggested that he see a doctor. Mr. Lee that she They insists that students lock the door. requested not wear jeans.Nhöõng Verb söû duïng caáu truùc treân: demand yeâu caàu; ñoøi hoûi suggest ñeà nghò advise recommend ñeà nghò khuyeân insist khaúng ñònh; khaêng khaêng propose ñeà xuaát ask yeâu caàu 22
  23. 23.  but vaø except (for) neáu laø töø noái (conjunctions) coù nghóa laø ‘ngoaïi tröø’, ‘tröø ra’, thöôøng ñi sau caùc baát ñònh töøall, none, every, everything, everybody, everyone, nothing, nobody, not… any, anything, anybody, anywhere • Nobody came but Mary. (Khoâng ai ñaõ ñeán tröø Mary) • She took all the money but a twenty-dollar bill. (Coâ ta laáy heát tieàn tröø tôø 20 ñoâ la)) • I couldn’t see anything except for trees. (Toâi khoâng thaáy gì heát ngoaøi nhöõng caùi caây ra) Hình thöùc ñoäng töø (Verb forms) theo sau but vaø except (for) seõ laáy daïng verb–ing hay to-infinitive hay bare infinitive tuøy theo caáu truùc caâu cuûa ñoäng töø trong meänh ñeà ñi tröôùc. • She isn’t interested in doing anything but skiing (She isn’t interested in doing anything but interested in skiing) • I look forward to doing nothing except going on holiday. I look forward to doing nothing except forward to going on holiday. • He could do nothing but stand and watch her leave. • The girls did nothing but talk during their spare time. • He did everything except work. • Yesterday we did everything but change the lamp in the bathroom. • She has no choice but to sign the contract (She has no choice to make but the choice to sign the contract) • He had no alternative but to go to see her. (He had no alternative to do but alternative to see her)Participle Adjectives laø Adjectives ñöôïc hình thaønh töø Verbs theâm –ing hoaëc –ed. Nhöõng Verbs loaïinaøy thöôøngdieãn taû xuùc caûm, traïng thaùi tinh thaàn (emotions, spirits) adjectives past participle adjectives present participle adjectives excite (gaây) phaán khích; phaán excited (about/ by) exciting khôûi; thích thuù amuse (laøm) vui, khuaây khoûa, amused amusing giaûi trí interest (gaây) thích thuù; hay; thuù interested (in) interesting vò fascinate thu huùt; haáp daãn fascinated fascinating bore (gaây) chaùn, buoàn bored (with) boring disappoint laøm thaát voïng; laøm naûn disappointed disappointing 23
  24. 24. loøng frustrate laøm böïc boäi; gaây böùc frustrated frustrating xuùc worry gaây lo laéng worried (about) worrying shock gaây choaùng shocked (at/ by) shocking frighten laøm ai sôï haõi frightened (of) frightening terrify gaây kinh haõi terrified (of) terrifying amaze gaây kinh ngaïc amazed (at/ by) amazing surprise laøm ngaïc nhieân surprised (at/ by) surprising encourage khuyeán khích; khích leä encouraged encouraging embarrass gaây xaáu hoå; ngöôïng embarrassed embarrassing nguøng • Past Participle Adjectives taän cuøng –ed mang nghóa bò ñoäng (passive) • Present Participle Adjectives taän cuøng –ing mang nghóa chuû ñoäng (active) VERBS Past Participle Adjectives Present Participle Adjectives • Ghost stories frighten her. She is frightened of ghost stories. Ghost stories are frightening. • Football interests most Most people are interested in Football is interesting people. football. • Non-fiction films bore them. They are bored with non-fiction films. Non-fiction films are boring. • The party surprised him. He was surprised by / at the party. It is a surprising party.Participle Adjectives cuõng coù theå moâ taû haønh ñoäng cho danh töø chöù khoâng dieãn taû veà xuùccaûm.• I saw a sleeping child (ñöùa treû ñang nguû) on the bench in the park.• The overloaded truck (xe taûi chôû haøng quaù möùc) was stopped down the halfway road.• The policeman chased the guys in the stolen car (chieác xe bò aên caép) across the bridge.•Modifying Phrases laø nhoùm töø baét ñaàu baèng present participle (verb-ing) boå nghóa cho töø hay chocaâu:1. Modifying Phrases boå nghóa (modify) cho moät danh töø ñöùng tröôùc• Simon is the boy sitting in the corner.  The girl wearing the black dress is Sarah.2. Modifying Phrases dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñang dieãn tieán ñoàng thôøi vôùi haønh ñoäng cuõng ñang dieãntieán khaùc. • She was carrying a heavy shopping bag walking along the road, • They were going down the hill talking and laughing cheerfully. • Ann was sleeping on the sofa snoring softly. 24
  25. 25. 3. Modifying Phrases dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñang dieãn tieán khi haønh ñoäng khaùc xaûy ra • Hiking through the woods yesterday, we saw a lot of animals. When we were hiking through the woods yesterday, we saw a lot of animals. • Driving along the road, he swerved his car to avoid a dog. When he was driving along the road, he swerved his car to avoid a dog. • Sitting in class, Ann fell asleep. While she was sitting in class, Ann fell asleep.4. Modifying Phrases dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñang dieãn tieán thì bò giaùn ñoaïn bôûi haønh ñoäng khaùc. • I had an accident driving to work. (Toâi bò tai naïn khi ñang laùi xe ñi laøm) I had an accident while I was driving to work. • He fell off his bike going round the corner, . (Anh ta teù xe khi ñang queïo goùc ñöôøng) • She cut herself peeling an orange with a sharp knife. (Coâ aáy bò ñöùt tay khi ñang goït cam vôùi con dao beùn)5. Modifying Phrases dieãn taû haønh ñoäng laø nguyeân nhaân gaây ra haønh ñoäng thöù hai. • Touching a bare electric wire, he was shocked. (Chaïm daây ñieän traàn, anh ta bò ñieän giöït) Because he touched a bare electric wire… • Kicking the ball too hard, Tom sprained his ankle. (Ñaù traùi banh quaù maïnh, Tom bò traëc chaân) Because he kicked the ball too hard…6. Modifying Phrases dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy vaø chaám döùt tröôùc khi moät haønh ñoäng khaùcxaûy ra. • Finishing his homework, he went to bed.  After he had finished his homework… • Completing her shopping, she took a taxi.  After she had completed her shopping,… • Picking up the apples in the garden, we had dinner.  After we had picked up the appales…. * Trong tröôøng hôïp naøy Modifying Phrases coù theå ôû hình thöùc perfect: having + past participle • Having finished his homework, he went to bed. • Having completed her shopping, she took a taxi. • Having picked up the apples in the garden, we had dinner.someone / anyone / anybody • Someone is standing at the door.somebody • duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh vaø caâu hoûi • I can’t see anyone. Does anyone see him?• duøng trong caâu khaúng ñònh 25
  26. 26. • duøng trong caâu khaúng • Anyone who wants to come is welcome. ñònh coù nghóa laø ‘baát kyø’ • Give it to anybody there.something anything • There’s something in my eye.• duøng trong caâu • duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh khaúng ñònh vaø • Would you like something to drink? (Caâu môøi)• duøng trong caâu caâu hoûi yeâu caàu hoaëc • May I ask you something? (Caâu yeâu caàu) caâu môøi • duøng trong caâu khaúng ñònh • He doesn’t have anything in his pocket. coù nghóa laø ‘baát kyø’ • Do you know anything about computers? • Use anything that can help.somewhere anywhere • He lives somewhere in London.• duøng trong caâu • duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh khaúng ñònh vaø caâu hoûi • I don’t want to go anywhere. • Is there anywhere to have lunch? • Everyone is here. Everything is OK.everyone / everybody / everything / everywhere • I’m looking for it everywhere.no one = nobody • No one wants to live in poverty.not ... anyone • He works for nobody .not ... anybody • He doesn’t work for anybody.nothing not ... anything • She liked to do nothing • She didn’t like to do anything.nowhere not ... anywhere • He had nowhere to go. • He didn’t have anywhere to go.none - khoâng coù ai, khoâng coù gì • Did anyone receive the bonus? None (Nobody)none of • What did you take? None (Nothing) • Verb ôû soá ít hay soá nhieàu, tuøy danh töø sau of • None of us received the bonus. laø soá ít hay soá nhieàu • None of the employees are sacked • None of the money is mine. • None of the chairs are theirs. 26
  27. 27. Reflexive pronouns • I myself–self chuû ngöõ soá ít • You yourself–selves chuû ngöõ soá nhieàu • It itself • He looked at himself in the mirror. • She herself • You yourselves • We ourselves • They themslevesReflexive pronouns (Ñaïi töø • I don’t love anyone else. I love myself.phaûn thaân) laø nhöõng ñaïitöø thay theá cho ngöôøi hay • Nobody taught the student. He taught himself.vaät nhaän söï taùc ñoäng cuûahaønh ñoäng do chính ngöôøi hay • You don’t need to turn on/ off the electric fan. It turns on/ off itself.vaät ñoù laøm. • Help yourself. • Juliet killed herself. Romeo killed himself. They killed themselves.by + reflexive pronouns • My mother can prepare a 30-person party by herself.coù nghóa laø alone (moät mình) • The evidence proved that the criminal couldn’t have done it by himself. • Maria and I travelled to Paris by ourselves. • Some students are living by themselves in this big city. • The actor made the stunts in the movie.Reflexive pronouns duøng ñeå • The actor himself made the stunts in the movie.nhaán maïnh, ñi ngay theo sau • The actor made the stunts in the movie himself.ngöôøi hay vaät maø noù nhaánmaïnh hoaëc ôû cuoái caâu neáu • His parents offered him a sport car on his birthday. He sold the car itself.khoâng gaây roái nghóa. (Anh ta ñem baùn chính chieác xe ñoù) • Sometimes the parents spoil their children. • Sometimes the parents themselves spoil their children.WRONG : Marry loves myself.  Marry loves me.WRONG : Because nobody could help herself, the girl cried.  Because nobody could help her, the girl cried. 27
  28. 28. Reciprocal pronouns • Juliet loved Romeo. Romeo loved Juliet. They loved each other.(Ñaïi töø töông taùc) laønhöõng ñaïi töø thay theá • I kissed my daughter. She kissed me. We kissed each other.cho ngöôøi hay vaätnhaän söï töông taùc • The man taught the woman. They woman taught the man. They taughtqua laïi/ laãn nhau • each other.each other • This is your opportunity of saving us. This is our opportunity of saving you.one another This is our opportunity of saving one another. (Ñaây laø cô hoäi ñeå chuùng ta cöùu laãn nhau)Possessive reciprocal • The fugitive (keû ñaøo taåu) put on the guard’s uniform (ñoàng phuïc cuûapronouns baûochæ söï trao ñoåi sôûhöõu veä) and then put the prisoner’s clothes on the guard.each other’s They wore each other’s clothes. (Hoï maëc quaàn aùo cuûa nhau)one another’s • 006 spy (ñieäp vieân) sold the secret documents he found to Z5 spy. So did Z5. They sold each other’s secret documents. (Hoï baùn taøi lieäu maät cuûa laãn nhau) • I spend my money but sometimes I spend theirs. So do they. We spend one another’s money. (Chuùng toâi xaøi tieàn cuûa laãn nhau) • I owe them my life. They owe me their lives. We owe one another’s lives. (Toâi mang ôn cöùu maïng cuûa hoï. Hoï mang ôn toâi. Chuùng toâi mang ôn laãn nhau)WRONG: They worked each other.  They worked for each other. We walked to school each other.  We walked to school together. Pit and Linda met together two years ago.  Pit and Linda met each other two years ago.Töø chæ soá löôïng (an expression of quantity / quantifier) ñöùng tröôùc noun. Moät soá quantifiers chæ ñi vôùicountable nouns, moät soá khaùc chæ ñi vôùi uncountable nouns, moät soá khaùc nöõa thì ñi ñöôïc vôùi caû hai. NHÖÕNG TÖØ CHÆ SOÁ ÑI VÔÙI COUNT NOUNS ÑI VÔÙI UNCOUNT NOUNS LÖÔÏNG one one apple each each apple every every apple 28
  29. 29. two two apples both both apples a couple of a couple of apples three three apples a few a few apples several several many apples number of many apples number of apples a little a little rice much much rice a great deal of a great deal of rice not any/ no not any/ no apples not any/ no rice some some apples some rice a lot of a lot of a lot of rice lots of apples lots of rice plenty of lots of apples plenty of rice most plenty of apples most rice all most apples all rice all apples Moät soá töø chæ soá löôïng bò giôùi haïn trong caùch söû duïng ôû caùc theå khaúng ñònh, phuû ñònh vaø nghi vaán • ‘many’ coù theå ñi vôùi taát caû caùc theå loaïi caâu, nhöng a lot of/ lots of khoâng duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh, ‘much’ chæ duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh vaø nghi vaán. • a little / a few coù theå ñi vôùi caâu khaúng ñònh, khoâng duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh, vaø nghi vaán. Affirmative Negative Question Count Nouns There are some apples. Ø Ø Ø There aren’t any apples. Are there any apples? There are many apples. There aren’t many apples. Are there many apples? There are a lot of apples. Ø Are there a lot of apples? There are a few apples. Ø Ø Uncount Ø There isn’t much rice. Is there much rice? Nouns There is a little rice. Ø Ø A few & few and a little & little Count Nouns Uncount Nouns students work• few a few • little a moät ít (ñuû ñeå laøm gì ñoù) little : moät ít (ñuû ñeå laøm gì ñoù)• few quaù ít (khoâng ñuû) • little : quaù ít (khoâng ñuû)- I have a few books at home.- He has few books to do his research. He has to - We have a little flour. That’s enough to make a cake. borrow more from the library. - We have little flour. We can’t make any cakes- A few graduate students find jobs easily. - A little rain made the garden fresh and cool. 29
  30. 30. - There were few students so the class was cancelled. - There was little rain. Most plants became dry. Using ‘of’ in expressions of quantityMoät soá töø chæ soá löôïng theo sau coù ‘of’: plenty of, a number of, a great deal of, a lot ofMoät soá töø khaùc coù hoaëc khoâng coù ‘of’, Tuy nhieân khi ñi vôùi pronouns (it, you, us…) thì taát caû phaûicoù ‘of’ Non-specific Nouns Specific Nouns (Danh töø khoâng xaùc ñònh trong caùch (Danh töø xaùc ñònh söû duïng trong tröôøng hôïp rieâng bieät noùi chung khoâng tröôøng hôïp rieâng naøo ñoù. Danh töø theo sau thöôøng ñi vôùi töø chæ ñònh the, bieät naøo) these, those, my..)  Most books are interesting. • Most of these books are mine.  Most women love having children. • Most of my books are in English.  Most men like drinking beer or wine. • Most of the book I’m reading is good.  Most food is nutritious. • Most of them are kind.  All children need education. • All the children in this poor family are illiterate.  All students must have identity cards. • All of the children in this poor family are illiterate.  He wants all money in the world. • All of us wish for happiness. • I need all your money. • I need all of your money. NHÖÕNG TRÖ‘ØNG H‘ÏP KHAÙC Both (Caû hai) khoâng duøng trong caâu phuû Either (moät trong hai) ñònh • Both boys needed punishment. • You can stay at either hotel. Both of them are good. • Both the boys needed punishment. (Baïn coù theå ôû moät trong hai khaùch saïn. Caû • Both of the boys needed punishment. hai ñeàu toát) • You can stay at either of the hotels. • Both of them needed punishment. • You can stay at either of them. Neither (Caû hai ñeàu khoâng) ≠ • I like neither player. I don’t like either player. Both (Toâi khoâng thích caû hai ngöôøi chôi) Neither = not . . . either • I like neither of the players. I don’t like either of the players. I don’t like either of them. • half a kilo (of apples) / half an hour/ half a dozen/ half a mile Half (moät nöûa) • Half my work is finished. • Half of my work is finished. • They spent half of the time looking for parking space. • They spent half the time looking for parking space. 30