QED528 PBL Presentation Scenario 2 Rebecca ∙ Namira ∙ Li Rong ∙ Kendrick ∙ Glenn
Outline Problem Statement Theories Specific Solutions Teacher’s Role Parent’s Role Conclusion
Problem Statement In a bid to provide a conducive learning environment, both Jeremy’s parents and teacher overlookedother aspects of his development such as his physiological, belongingnessandesteemneeds.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
Problem Jeremy’s teacher, Miss Low, Is unaware of his lack of belongingness Didn’t make an effort to understand him Make constant reprimands on him “You don’t even know your responsibilities...” “You are the only one…” “stand in front of the school assembly area as punishment…”
The Importance of Teacher’s Role According to Beck and Malley (1998), teachers often spend more face-to-face time the most significant person in students’ lives an important source of security and stability
Role of Miss Low as a Teacher Understand that his lack of belongingness has an impact on his learning attitude
Why is he being ostracized by his friends?
Why is he quiet in class?
Essentially, Ms Low has to increase Jeremy’s lack of belongingness to improve his learning
Solution Profile Video
Possible scenarios that fit Jeremy’s profile
Educate teachers on the importance of sense of belongingness in students
Many teachers aren’t aware of antisocial behaviors is due to lack of belongingness (Beck and Malley, 1998)
Solution Participate in class decision-making
Assign a role to Jeremy, e.g. class monitor
Opportunity to bond and communicate with his classmates as he discharges his duties
“bonding occurs when an individual makes meaningful contributions to a group” (Beck and Malley, 1998)
Maslow’s Hierarchy Jeremy’s lack of belongingness affects his motivation for esteem and self-actualization
Solution Cooperative Learning in Class Activities
Work on class assignments as a group
Emphasize on the importance of common goals to create a shared effort
Develops opportunities for Jeremy to interact and relate with his friends Promotes a sense of belonging as “all members work together to achieve a common purpose” (Beck and Malley, 1998) Cooperative Goal Structure(Johnson & Johnson, 1987)
Problem Parents responsibilities in taking care of Jeremy Pushing of blame and responsibilities between each other “can can you try to call Mr Chan?” “How can you put the blame on me?” Pushing the blame to teachers “Can I see the subject teachers?...”
Source: Ryan, D. P-J
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Microsystem layer closest to the child contains the structures with which the child has direct contact Bi-directional influence are strongest and greatest impact on child
Source: Ryan, D. P-J
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Mesosystem connection between the structures of the child’s microsystem (Berk, 2000). Examples: connection between the child’s teacher and his parents church and neighbourhood, etc
Mesosystem Attention at inappropriate places Jeremy
Role of Parents Provide Jeremy with the means to have a wholesome microsystem Solutions Get Jeremy to talk to parents Ensure frequent contact with parents Quarterly newsletter PTA
Problem Mrs Chan believes extra tuition classes is the way to help Jeremy’s slow learning abilities.
Maslow’s Hierarchy Jeremy’s lack of physiological needs affects his motivation for other needs like friendship and self-esteem
Jeremy is forced to catch up in paper chase: Neglected the basic necessity for life – rest Lost time socializing with his friends Ostracized Lack of self-esteem
Self Efficacy Theory A function that a person believes that he can achieve a goal.
Role of Parents Manage expectations for Jeremy so he does not overwork. Reduce Jeremy’s tuition so that he can catch up with his school work, rest and socializing. Set realistic goals for Jeremy such as from grades D to C so that he can motivate himself through achievements.
Problem Mrs. Chan does not recognize and acknowledge Jeremy’s non-academic interests and achievements “We will stop your swimming lessons… He enjoyed his swimming lessons a lot.” “He failed everything except for Art?”
Value- Expectancy Theory of Achievement Motivation Adapted from Wigfield& Eccles (2000: 69) Child’s Perception of… Cultural Milieu Socializer’s Beliefs and Behaviours Child’s Goals and General Self- Schemata Expectations of Success Achievement- Related Choices Differential Aptitudes of Child Child’s Affective Memories Child’s Interpretations of Experience Previous Achievement- Related Experiences Subjective Task Value
Individual’s choice, persistence, and perfection are explained by their beliefs about how well they will do on the activity and the extent to which they value the activity (2000: 69).
Structure of children’s ability-related beliefs and achievement values
Hartner (1983): children’s self-concept development
broad understandings sense of competence for specific activities
Eccles &Wigfield (1995): assessed children’s ability beliefs and expectancies for success
distinct factors characterized by beliefs and expectancies for success
Distinct beliefs about what they are good at and what they value in the achievement domain
Changes in environment
Ability-Related Beliefs and Subjective Task Values on Performance
Beliefs about one’s ability and expectancies for success
Subjective task values in relation to motivation
Solution Build on his interests and strengths Swimming: as a motivation to encourage Jeremy to improve in his studies Art: boost his confidence, which in turn can motivate him to also improve in his studies
Self-Determination Theory Investigation of people’s inherent growth tendencies and innate psychological needs that are the basis of their self- motivation and personality integration, as well as for the conditions that foster those positive processes (Deci et al.(1991); Ryan &Deci, 2000)
Role of Parents
To appreciate Jeremy’s strength and provide encouragement in his achievements
Provide means to build on his talents
Home context Solutions Competence needs Knowledge of how to achieve goals and the skills for doing so
Art courses and swimming lessons
Relationship needs Relationships for secure and satisfying connections with parents
Parental styles: supportive and involved
Autonomy needs Jeremy’s ability to initiate and regulate his own actions
Request for art/swimming lessons
Strike a balance
Learners will develop self-determination underlying such motivation only in a social milieu that supports competence and autonomy.
Conclusion Teacher and parents play an important role to improve Jeremy’s condition. Teacher can be more inclusive:
Assign classroom responsibilities
Setting common goals
Parents should be more engaging:
be more encouraging
References Beck, M and Malley, J. (1998). A pedagogy of belonging. Reclaiming Children and Youth, Vol.7 No.3, pp133-137. Covington, M. V. (2000). Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation in Schools: A Reconciliation. Current directions in psychological science, Vol 9, No 1, pp22-25. Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and Education: The Self- Determination Perspective. American Psychologist, 26, 3&4, 325- 346. Eccles, J. S., &Wigfield, A. (1995). In the mind of the achiever: The structure of adolescents’ academic achievement related beliefs and self- perceptions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 215- 225. Hartner, S. (1983). Developmental perspectives on the self- esteem. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 275- 385). New York: Wiley.
References Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (1987). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Ryan, D. P-J. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. Available [Online]: http://pt3.nl.edu/paquetteryanwebquest.pdf Ryan, R. M., &Deci, E. L. (2000). Self- Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well- Being. American Psychologist, 55, 1, 68- 78. Wigfield, A. (2000). Expectancy- Value Theory of Achievement Motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 68- 81. Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A practitioner-researcher approach. An Asian Edition (2nded). Singapore: Thomson.