3.1 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
33ChapterChapter
InformationInformation
Systems,Systems,
Organizations,Organizations,
and Stra...
3.2 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems
Chapter 3 Inf...
3.3 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Demonstrate how information systems help
businesses use synergies, core competencies,
and ne...
3.4 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
EBay Fine-Tunes Its Strategy
• Problem: Losing market share to other online retailers,
ultra-c...
3.5 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizations and Information Systems
• Information technology and organizations
influence one...
3.6 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
The Two-Way Relationship Between OrganizationsThe Two-Way Relationship Between Organizations
a...
3.7 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizations and Information Systems
• What is an organization?
• Technical definition:
• Sta...
3.8 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
The Technical MicroeconomicThe Technical Microeconomic
Definition of the OrganizationDefinitio...
3.9 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
The Behavioral View of OrganizationsThe Behavioral View of Organizations
Figure 3-3
The behavi...
3.10 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizations and Information Systems
• Features of organizations
• All modern organizations ...
3.11 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizations and Information Systems
• Routines and business processes
• Routines (standard ...
3.12 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Routines, Business Processes, and FirmsRoutines, Business Processes, and Firms
Figure 3-4
All...
3.13 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizations and Information Systems
• Organizational politics
• Divergent viewpoints lead t...
3.14 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizations and Information Systems
• Organizational culture:
• Encompasses set of assumpti...
3.15 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizations and Information Systems
• Organizational environments:
• Organizations and envi...
3.16 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Environments and OrganizationsEnvironments and Organizations
Have a Reciprocal RelationshipHa...
3.17 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizations and Information Systems
• Disruptive technologies
• Technology that brings abou...
3.18 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizations and Information Systems
• Organizational structure
• Five basic kinds of struct...
3.19 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizations and Information Systems
• Other Organizational Features
• Goals
• Constituencie...
3.20 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
Management Information System...
3.21 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
Management Information System...
3.22 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
The Transaction Cost Theory of the Impact ofThe Transaction Cost Theory of the Impact of
Info...
3.23 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
Management Information System...
3.24 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
The Agency Cost Theory of the Impact ofThe Agency Cost Theory of the Impact of
Information Te...
3.25 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
Management Information System...
3.26 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Flattening OrganizationsFlattening Organizations
Figure 3-8
Information systems
can reduce th...
3.27 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
Management Information System...
3.28 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Organizational Resistance and the Mutually AdjustingOrganizational Resistance and the Mutuall...
3.29 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
Management Information System...
3.30 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
Management Information System...
3.31 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Why do some firms become leaders within
their industry?
• Michael Porter’s competitive forc...
3.32 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Porter’s Competitive Forces ModelPorter’s Competitive Forces Model
Figure 3-10
In Porter’s co...
3.33 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage
Management Information SystemsMana...
3.34 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Traditional competitors
• All firms share market space with competitors who
are continuousl...
3.35 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Substitute products and services
• Substitutes customers might use if your prices
become to...
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• Four generic strategies for dealing with
competitive forces, enabled by using IT
• Low-cost...
3.37 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Low-cost leadership
• produce products and services at a lower price than
competitors while...
3.38 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Focus on market niche
• Use information systems to enable a focused
strategy on a single ma...
3.39 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage
Management Information SystemsMana...
3.40 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• The Internet’s impact on competitive
advantage
• Transformation, destruction, threat to som...
3.41 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Business value chain model
• Views firm as series of activities that add value to
products ...
3.42 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
The Value Chain ModelThe Value Chain Model
Figure 3-11
This figure provides
examples of
syste...
3.43 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Value web:
• Collection of independent firms using highly synchronized IT to
coordinate val...
3.44 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
The Value WebThe Value Web
Figure 3-12
The value web is a
networked system that can
synchroni...
3.45 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Information systems can improve overall
performance of business units by promoting
synergie...
3.46 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Core competencies
• Activity for which firm is world-class leader
• Relies on knowledge, ex...
3.47 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Network-based strategies
• Take advantage of firm’s abilities to network
with each other
• ...
3.48 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Network economics
• Traditional economics: Law of diminishing returns
• The more any given ...
3.49 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Virtual company strategy
• Virtual company uses networks to ally with other
companies to cr...
3.50 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Business ecosystems
• Industry sets of firms providing related services and products
• Micr...
3.51 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
An Ecosystem Strategic ModelAn Ecosystem Strategic Model
Figure 3-13
The digital firm era req...
3.52 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
• Sustaining competitive advantage
• Because competitors can retaliate and copy strategic sys...
3.53 © 2010 by Prentice Hall
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval sys...
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Mis11e ch03

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Information System Management chapt 3

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  • You could ask students to recall some concepts from the previous chapters that might help managers build and use information systems successfully. Answers could include what business processes the company performs, the size of the company, or the organization of the information systems function.
  • Recall the business objectives that allow firms to achieve competitive advantage, discussed in Chapter 1: operational excellence, new products, services and business models, customer and supplier intimacy, and improved decision making.
  • Emphasize the fact that eBay is trying to become more than just an auction site in order to stay one step ahead of its competition. Ask students how IT might have helped the company identify which companies were attractive targets for acquisition or deals. Additional companies that eBay has acquired or struck deals with include Craigslist, StubHub, and ProStores.
  • This concept was briefly discussed in Chapter 1. Figure 1-2 and 1-3 as well as the figure on the next slide, 3-1, display this interdependent relationship graphically.
  • Ask students to explain how each factor might affect the relationship between organizations and information technology. Emphasize to students that the relationship between these two and its effects on the future of a business are difficult to predict. For example, very few people could have predicted the prominence of e-mail and instant messaging in business communication 15 years ago.
  • Which of the two definitions do students find more appealing and why? It is important to consider both definitions rather than exclusively use one at the expense of the other. The two definitions are complementary.
  • Ask students what are the inputs from the environment? What do organizations output (goods and services). In this view, the organization or business firm is rather easily changed, and malleable. The organization is a collection of parts, like a machine, that can be re-arranged as needed. There are no humans in this model, or if there are, they are assumed to be relatively simple.
  • In this view, the business firm is a little more difficult to change rapidly or on command because it is a very complex machine populated with human beings. Firms operate with an existing hierarchy, job definitions, business rules, procedures and processes. Efficient organizations become very good at these elements of business. Changing these elements takes more time.
  • You could ask students to envision what would happen to an organization that did not use a hierarchical structure (would anything get done?), did not adhere to the principle of efficiency (would they provide any good or service worth using at an affordable price?), etc.
  • You could ask students to describe examples of situations where a business they have interacted with has had a well-understood set of routines. One such example is at the doctor’s office, where the receptionist, nurses, and doctors all have a defined set of routines. Ask students to think about and describe routines they performed on their jobs.
  • Explain to students that the blue spheres are individual routines, which together constitute a business process. A firm can be seen as a collection of these processes.
  • You could ask students to describe examples where organizational politics might hamper a firm’s ability to succeed, or examples where effectively managed organizational politics helps a company to undergo a smoother transition or make more intelligent decisions. Ask students to describe their personal experiences with “organizational politics.”
  • Culture may seem like a pretty abstract idea to many students. Ask students to describe organizational cultures they have experienced while on the job, or other areas of their lives. What kind of organizational culture do students prefer and why? Ask students to describe different kinds of cultures and what types of firms are more likely to have them.
  • Explain that environmental scanning involves searching for and determining external changes that may require an organizational response. The current economic climate represents an example of external change that require sweeping organizational responses to ensure survival.
  • This graphic further establishes information systems as the ‘lens’ of the firm, observing external factors and filtering information back in to the firm. To some extent, organizations only “see” what their systems will let them see. If systems are poorly built, they may blind managers to difficulties and problems.
  • Ensure that students understand that the PageRank algorithm is the underlying technology behind Google search. Ask students if they can give examples of any first movers that invented a disruptive technology, yet failed to last (examples might include the Altair personal computer, the Netscape Navigator Internet browser, etc.).
  • Do students agree with the classification of these types of organizational structure? Can they come up with examples for each type of organization?
  • Ask students to give some examples of each organizational feature listed above. For example, different organizations (prisons, businesses, colleges) have different types of goals (coercive, utilitarian, normative, respectively).
  • IT figures to replace the function of more middle managers as time passes, as well as reduce the need for other forms of capital (buildings, machinery). Ensure that students understand what is meant by ‘economics of information’ and why outsourcing is a possibility due to IT.
  • Explain that using the market can be expensive. If you depend on the market, rather than hiring employees, to will need to search for talent, vet the talent, write contracts for work to be performed, monitor the work, and so forth. When participation in markets is expensive, firms would rather hire employees to accomplish their work. But the Internet makes it less expensive to use the marketplace. With the Internet, firms mind it more cost effective to use the marketplace and contract for work in a market, rather than hire employees. Ask your students why the Internet can make participating in markets less expensive than before?
  • As the costs of participating in markets rises (transaction costs), firms hire more employees to do the work in-house. IT lowers transaction costs. This can result in firms shrinking in size (reduced employment) , but still maintaining or even increasing revenues.
  • By characterizing employees as independent agents requiring constant supervision, agency theory underscores a key reason that costs increase as firms grow in size and scope – the need to expend more effort managing their employees.
  • Agency costs rise as firms take on more employees. IT enables firms to economize on managers through better coordination and communication. This allows firms to grow revenues while maintaining the same size. Figures 3-6 and 3-7 are driving home the point that information technology has a direct effect on the underlying cost structure of the firm. IT enables small companies to act like big companies, and enables large companies to shrink in headcount while expanding revenues.
  • Ask students to explain what is meant by authority relying on knowledge and competence rather than formal positions. Why might this ‘flatten’ and organization? The idea here is that with sufficient IT, competent workers will be able to accomplish more on their own than they would under a more concrete hierarchy.
  • Ask students to explain some of the benefits of the flattened organization as opposed to the more complicated hierarchy. Information travels through fewer levels to its intended recipients, fewer managers so agency costs are smaller, and firms can act faster (less decision delay).
  • Explain what is meant by changes in culture and politics of the firm. For example, workers may resist changes that disrupt their routines. Also explain to students that as important as technical understanding of information systems may be for potential managers, it is equally important to understand the people and organizational structures and customs affected by information systems.
  • The diamond shape in the figure represents the mutual relationship between the concepts shown. You could emphasize that implementing a new system might be like changing the diamond into a square, thus requiring some degree of change on the part of all four participants in the relationship.
  • The Internet should also have a flattening effect on many organizations. Can students describe any businesses that have become more efficient and flat thanks to successful incorporation of the Internet in their operations? Some older students may remember the “bad old days” when seven or more levels of management needed to decide even simple issues in a typical firm.
  • Ask students to consider the results of an information system implemented without properly considering each of the above factors. For example, an information system designed without an understanding of the company’s culture and politics is likely to be unpopular, perhaps forcing employees to drastically deviate from their previous routines.
  • Porter’s competitive forces model is intended to explain why some firms “do better” than others. Do students believe that this model captures this idea effectively? Which factor is most important to a firm’s success? You can make a list of five well-known firms on the blackboard or screen and ask students for each firm which do they think are the most important competitive forces.
  • Notice that in the graphic, competitors are represented differently than the other four competitive forces influencing a firm. Why do students think this is the case? One answer might be that competitors are firms themselves and are under similar pressures to the firms they influence.
  • Emphasize that the original systems used by the forces on the ground in Iraq were unsuccessful because they were not made with a sufficient understanding of the day-to-day activities of the soldiers as well as the problems they faced.
  • Ask students to name different types of businesses and describe the benefits and drawbacks of being a new market entrant in each.
  • Ask students to name different businesses and describe whether or not customers have great control over the business or vice versa, or whether substitute products are a large or insignificant threat to the success of the business.
  • Here you can make a list of five well-known firms and then analyze with students the major thrust of their strategy. Wal-Mart is a good example to start with because of its emphasis on low-cost leadership.
  • Do students believe it is possible both to design information systems that focus both on low-cost leadership and product differentiation? Some may say it is with sufficient planning and innovation; perhaps a new product is even cheaper to produce than older ones. Some may say that the investment in innovation required for product differentiation precludes that firm from maintaining low-cost leadership.
  • You could ask students to provide other examples from their own experience of companies that exemplify strong focus on market niche as well as excellent customer and supplier intimacy.
  • Also ask students whether they believe that AutoNation’s solution will be effective. Also, how it can obtain the necessary data to determine what cars to stock in each of its dealerships?
  • Do students believe it is easier or harder to gain a competitive advantage via the Internet as opposed to more traditional means? Table 3-5 describes the impact of the Internet on various competitive forces.
  • How does the value chain model different from the Porter model? (It offers more specific detail about what exactly to do to achieve competitive advantages.) How do primary activities differ from support activities?
  • Emphasize the relationship between the primary and support activities of this firm and explain how information systems are critical to the success of each activity.
  • Explain that a value web extends beyond the boundaries of an individual firm and represents the coordination of value chains across multiple independent firms. A value web is flexible and adapts to changes in supply and demand and changing market conditions.
  • Ask students why a model like the one displayed in the figure might be more likely to adapt quickly to changes in supply and demand. Also emphasize the networking between the different segments of the value web.
  • Explain that information technology’s role in promoting synergy is often tying together operations of disparate business units so that they can act as a whole. Why might this lead to reduced costs and increased efficiency?
  • Can students name any other notable examples of core competencies among firms? (Google: search, Microsoft: office productivity software, etc.)
  • Examples of firms that use this type of strategy to achieve an advantage are eBay and iVillage. Many other companies are following suit in using a network-based strategy – can students name any?
  • Explain the difference between these two schools of economics. What aspect of network economics allows value to continue to increase with the size of the community?
  • Explain to students that companies like this are ‘virtual’ because they do not actually own any factories, machines, or other similar infrastructure. Instead, they offer a series of services, aided by information systems and uninhibited by geographical boundaries.
  • Can students see the similarities between business ecosystems and value webs? Can they appreciate the key difference (that business ecosystems extend across industries as opposed to just firms within the same industry)?
  • Emphasize how important IT is in bringing disparate industries together to deliver value to the customer. What are the challenges of coordinating the flow of information across, for example, four different industries, as shown in the figure?
  • Emphasize the importance and difficulty of aligning information technology with the business. What does this mean? Why do so many companies fail at this critical task? Can students think of any other important questions that management should ask about their company before designing their IT systems? What is a solution for the fact that many competitive advantages can be copied? This fact highlights the importance of continuous innovation in order to stay ahead.
  • Mis11e ch03

    1. 1. 3.1 © 2010 by Prentice Hall 33ChapterChapter InformationInformation Systems,Systems, Organizations,Organizations, and Strategyand Strategy
    2. 2. 3.2 © 2010 by Prentice Hall LEARNING OBJECTIVES Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy • Identify and describe important features of organizations that managers need to know about in order to build and use information systems successfully. • Demonstrate how Porter’s competitive forces model helps companies develop competitive strategies using information systems. • Explain how the value chain and value web models help businesses identify opportunities for strategic information system applications.
    3. 3. 3.3 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Demonstrate how information systems help businesses use synergies, core competencies, and network-based strategies to achieve competitive advantage. • Assess the challenges posed by strategic information systems and management solutions. LEARNING OBJECTIVES (Continued) Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    4. 4. 3.4 © 2010 by Prentice Hall EBay Fine-Tunes Its Strategy • Problem: Losing market share to other online retailers, ultra-competitive and constantly changing marketplace. • Solutions: Acquire other businesses and adjust its business model to maintain online dominance. • Purchase of PayPal, deal with Buy.com allowed eBay to grow and diversify its business. • Demonstrates IT’s role in the development of eBay’s organization as it expands and makes acquisitions. • Illustrates the challenges of maintaining a competitive advantage in a fast-moving, constantly-changing marketplace. Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    5. 5. 3.5 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizations and Information Systems • Information technology and organizations influence one another • Complex relationship influenced by organization’s structure, business processes, politics, culture, environment, and management decisions Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    6. 6. 3.6 © 2010 by Prentice Hall The Two-Way Relationship Between OrganizationsThe Two-Way Relationship Between Organizations and Information Technologyand Information Technology Figure 3-1 This complex two-way relationship is mediated by many factors, not the least of which are the decisions made—or not made—by managers. Other factors mediating the relationship include the organizational culture, structure, politics, business processes, and environment. Organizations and Information Systems Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    7. 7. 3.7 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizations and Information Systems • What is an organization? • Technical definition: • Stable, formal social structure that takes resources from environment and processes them to produce outputs • A formal legal entity with internal rules and procedures, as well as a social structure • Behavioral definition: • A collection of rights, privileges, obligations, and responsibilities that is delicately balanced over a period of time through conflict and conflict resolution Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    8. 8. 3.8 © 2010 by Prentice Hall The Technical MicroeconomicThe Technical Microeconomic Definition of the OrganizationDefinition of the Organization Figure 3-2 In the microeconomic definition of organizations, capital and labor (the primary production factors provided by the environment) are transformed by the firm through the production process into products and services (outputs to the environment). The products and services are consumed by the environment, which supplies additional capital and labor as inputs in the feedback loop. Organizations and Information Systems Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    9. 9. 3.9 © 2010 by Prentice Hall The Behavioral View of OrganizationsThe Behavioral View of Organizations Figure 3-3 The behavioral view of organizations emphasizes group relationships, values, and structures. Organizations and Information Systems Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    10. 10. 3.10 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizations and Information Systems • Features of organizations • All modern organizations share some characteristics, such as: • Use of hierarchical structure • Accountability, authority in system of impartial decision making • Adherence to principle of efficiency • Other features include: Routines and business processes and organizational politics, culture, environments and structures Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    11. 11. 3.11 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizations and Information Systems • Routines and business processes • Routines (standard operating procedures) • Precise rules, procedures, and practices developed to cope with virtually all expected situations • Business processes: Collections of routines • Business firm: Collection of business processes Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    12. 12. 3.12 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Routines, Business Processes, and FirmsRoutines, Business Processes, and Firms Figure 3-4 All organizations are composed of individual routines and behaviors, a collection of which make up a business process. A collection of business processes make up the business firm. New information system applications require that individual routines and business processes change to achieve high levels of organizational performance. Organizations and Information Systems Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    13. 13. 3.13 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizations and Information Systems • Organizational politics • Divergent viewpoints lead to political struggle, competition, and conflict • Political resistance greatly hampers organizational change Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    14. 14. 3.14 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizations and Information Systems • Organizational culture: • Encompasses set of assumptions that define goal and product • What products the organization should produce • How and where it should be produced • For whom the products should be produced • May be powerful unifying force as well as restraint on change Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    15. 15. 3.15 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizations and Information Systems • Organizational environments: • Organizations and environments have a reciprocal relationship • Organizations are open to, and dependent on, the social and physical environment • Organizations can influence their environments • Environments generally change faster than organizations • Information systems can be instrument of environmental scanning, act as a lens Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    16. 16. 3.16 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Environments and OrganizationsEnvironments and Organizations Have a Reciprocal RelationshipHave a Reciprocal Relationship Figure 3-5 Environments shape what organizations can do, but organizations can influence their environments and decide to change environments altogether. Information technology plays a critical role in helping organizations perceive environmental change and in helping organizations act on their environment. Organizations and Information Systems Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    17. 17. 3.17 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizations and Information Systems • Disruptive technologies • Technology that brings about sweeping change to businesses, industries, markets • Examples: personal computers, word processing software, the Internet, the PageRank algorithm • First movers and fast followers • First movers – inventors of disruptive technologies • Fast followers – firms with the size and resources to capitalize on that technology Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    18. 18. 3.18 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizations and Information Systems • Organizational structure • Five basic kinds of structure • Entrepreneurial: Small start-up business • Machine bureaucracy: Midsize manufacturing firm • Divisionalized bureaucracy: Fortune 500 firms • Professional bureaucracy: Law firms, school systems, hospitals • Adhocracy: Consulting firms Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    19. 19. 3.19 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizations and Information Systems • Other Organizational Features • Goals • Constituencies • Leadership styles • Tasks • Surrounding environments Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    20. 20. 3.20 © 2010 by Prentice Hall How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy • Economic impacts • IT changes relative costs of capital and the costs of information • Information systems technology is a factor of production, like capital and labor • IT affects the cost and quality of information and changes economics of information • Information technology helps firms contract in size because it can reduce transaction costs (the cost of participating in markets) • Outsourcing
    21. 21. 3.21 © 2010 by Prentice Hall How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy • Transaction cost theory • Firms seek to economize on cost of participating in market (transaction costs) • IT lowers market transaction costs for firm, making it worthwhile for firms to transact with other firms rather than grow the number of employees
    22. 22. 3.22 © 2010 by Prentice Hall The Transaction Cost Theory of the Impact ofThe Transaction Cost Theory of the Impact of Information Technology on the OrganizationInformation Technology on the Organization Figure 3-6 Firms traditionally grew in size to reduce transaction costs. IT potentially reduces transaction costs for a given size. Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
    23. 23. 3.23 © 2010 by Prentice Hall How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy • Agency theory: • Firm is nexus of contracts among self- interested parties requiring supervision • Firms experience agency costs (the cost of managing and supervising) which rise as firm grows • IT can reduce agency costs, making it possible for firms to grow without adding to the costs of supervising, and without adding employees
    24. 24. 3.24 © 2010 by Prentice Hall The Agency Cost Theory of the Impact ofThe Agency Cost Theory of the Impact of Information Technology on the OrganizationInformation Technology on the Organization Figure 3-7 As firms grow in size and complexity, traditionally they experience rising agency costs. Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
    25. 25. 3.25 © 2010 by Prentice Hall How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy • Organizational and behavioral impacts • IT flattens organizations • Decision making pushed to lower levels • Fewer managers needed (IT enables faster decision making and increases span of control) • Postindustrial organizations • Organizations flatten because in postindustrial societies, authority increasingly relies on knowledge and competence rather than formal positions
    26. 26. 3.26 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Flattening OrganizationsFlattening Organizations Figure 3-8 Information systems can reduce the number of levels in an organization by providing managers with information to supervise larger numbers of workers and by giving lower- level employees more decision- making authority. Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
    27. 27. 3.27 © 2010 by Prentice Hall How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy • Organizational resistance to change • Information systems become bound up in organizational politics because they influence access to a key resource – information • Information systems potentially change an organization’s structure, culture, politics, and work • Most common reason for failure of large projects is due to organizational and political resistance to change
    28. 28. 3.28 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Organizational Resistance and the Mutually AdjustingOrganizational Resistance and the Mutually Adjusting Relationship Between Technology and the OrganizationRelationship Between Technology and the Organization Figure 3-9 Implementing information systems has consequences for task arrangements, structures, and people. According to this model, to implement change, all four components must be changed simultaneously. Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms
    29. 29. 3.29 © 2010 by Prentice Hall How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy • The Internet and organizations • The Internet increases the accessibility, storage, and distribution of information and knowledge for organizations • The Internet can greatly lower transaction and agency costs • Example: Large firm delivers internal manuals to employees via corporate Web site, saving millions of dollars in distribution costs
    30. 30. 3.30 © 2010 by Prentice Hall How Information Systems Impact Organizations and Business Firms Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy • Central organizational factors to consider when planning a new system: • Environment • Structure • Hierarchy, specialization, routines, business processes • Culture and politics • Type of organization and style of leadership • Main interest groups affected by system; attitudes of end users • Tasks, decisions, and business processes the system will assist
    31. 31. 3.31 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Why do some firms become leaders within their industry? • Michael Porter’s competitive forces model • Provides general view of firm, its competitors, and environment • Five competitive forces shape fate of firm • Traditional competitors • New market entrants • Substitute products and services • Customers • Suppliers Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    32. 32. 3.32 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Porter’s Competitive Forces ModelPorter’s Competitive Forces Model Figure 3-10 In Porter’s competitive forces model, the strategic position of the firm and its strategies are determined not only by competition with its traditional direct competitors but also by four forces in the industry’s environment: new market entrants, substitute products, customers, and suppliers. Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    33. 33. 3.33 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy • Read the Interactive Session: Management, and then discuss the following questions: • What features of organizations are relevant for explaining the performance of information systems during the Iraq War? • What difficulties did U.S. military forces in Iraq encounter with information systems? What management, organization, and technology factors contributed to these difficulties? • Describe TIGR and explain why it has been so beneficial to U.S. patrol groups in Iraq. • Why is TIGR an example of a horizontal technology? • How helpful will TIGR be in future military campaigns? Explain your answer. Can Technology Save Soldiers’ Lives in Iraq?
    34. 34. 3.34 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Traditional competitors • All firms share market space with competitors who are continuously devising new products, services, efficiencies, switching costs • New market entrants • Some industries have high barriers to entry, e.g. computer chip business • New companies have new equipment, younger workers, but little brand recognition Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    35. 35. 3.35 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Substitute products and services • Substitutes customers might use if your prices become too high, e.g. iTunes substitutes for CDs • Customers • Can customers easily switch to competitor’s products? Can they force businesses to compete on price alone in transparent marketplace? • Suppliers • Market power of suppliers when firm cannot raise prices as fast as suppliers Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    36. 36. 3.36 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Four generic strategies for dealing with competitive forces, enabled by using IT • Low-cost leadership • Product differentiation • Focus on market niche • Strengthen customer and supplier intimacy Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    37. 37. 3.37 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Low-cost leadership • produce products and services at a lower price than competitors while enhancing quality and level of service • Examples: Wal-Mart, Dell • Product differentiation • Enable new products or services, greatly change customer convenience and experience • Examples: Google, Land’s End, Apple iPhone Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    38. 38. 3.38 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Focus on market niche • Use information systems to enable a focused strategy on a single market niche; specialize • Example: Hilton Hotels • Strengthen customer and supplier intimacy • Use information systems to develop strong ties and loyalty with customers and suppliers; increase switching costs • Example: Chrysler, Amazon Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    39. 39. 3.39 © 2010 by Prentice Hall Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy • Read the Interactive Session: Organizations, and then discuss the following questions: • Why is AutoNation having a problem with its inventory? Why is this also a problem for auto manufacturers such as GM, Ford, and Chrysler? How is this problem impacting the business performance of AutoNation and of the auto manufacturers? • What pieces of data does AutoNation need to determine what cars to stock in each of its dealerships? • What is AutoNation’s solution to its problem? Can Detroit Make the Cars Customers Want?
    40. 40. 3.40 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • The Internet’s impact on competitive advantage • Transformation, destruction, threat to some industries • E.g. travel agency, printed encyclopedia, newspaper • Competitive forces still at work, but rivalry more intense • Universal standards allow new rivals, entrants to market • New opportunities for building brands and loyal customer bases Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    41. 41. 3.41 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Business value chain model • Views firm as series of activities that add value to products or services • Highlights activities where competitive strategies can best be applied • Primary activities vs. support activities • At each stage, determine how information systems can improve operational efficiency and improve customer and supplier intimacy • Utilize benchmarking, industry best practices Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    42. 42. 3.42 © 2010 by Prentice Hall The Value Chain ModelThe Value Chain Model Figure 3-11 This figure provides examples of systems for both primary and support activities of a firm and of its value partners that can add a margin of value to a firm’s products or services. Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    43. 43. 3.43 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Value web: • Collection of independent firms using highly synchronized IT to coordinate value chains to produce product or service collectively • More customer driven, less linear operation than traditional value chain Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    44. 44. 3.44 © 2010 by Prentice Hall The Value WebThe Value Web Figure 3-12 The value web is a networked system that can synchronize the value chains of business partners within an industry to respond rapidly to changes in supply and demand. Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage
    45. 45. 3.45 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Information systems can improve overall performance of business units by promoting synergies and core competencies • Synergies • When output of some units used as inputs to others, or organizations pool markets and expertise • Example: merger of Bank of NY and JPMorgan Chase • Purchase of YouTube by Google Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    46. 46. 3.46 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Core competencies • Activity for which firm is world-class leader • Relies on knowledge, experience, and sharing this across business units • Example: Procter & Gamble’s intranet and directory of subject matter experts Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    47. 47. 3.47 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Network-based strategies • Take advantage of firm’s abilities to network with each other • Include use of: • Network economics • Virtual company model • Business ecosystems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    48. 48. 3.48 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Network economics • Traditional economics: Law of diminishing returns • The more any given resource is applied to production, the lower the marginal gain in output, until a point is reached where the additional inputs produce no additional outputs • Network economics: • Marginal cost of adding new participant almost zero, with much greater marginal gain • Value of community grows with size • Value of software grows as installed customer base grows Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    49. 49. 3.49 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Virtual company strategy • Virtual company uses networks to ally with other companies to create and distribute products without being limited by traditional organizational boundaries or physical locations • E.g. Li & Fung manages production, shipment of garments for major fashion companies, outsourcing all work to over 7,500 suppliers Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    50. 50. 3.50 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Business ecosystems • Industry sets of firms providing related services and products • Microsoft platform used by thousands of firms for their own products • Wal-Mart’s order entry and inventory management system • Keystone firms: Dominate ecosystem and create platform used by other firms • Niche firms: Rely on platform developed by keystone firm • Individual firms can consider how IT will enable them to become profitable niche players in larger ecosystems Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    51. 51. 3.51 © 2010 by Prentice Hall An Ecosystem Strategic ModelAn Ecosystem Strategic Model Figure 3-13 The digital firm era requires a more dynamic view of the boundaries among industries, firms, customers, and suppliers, with competition occurring among industry sets in a business ecosystem. In the ecosystem model, multiple industries work together to deliver value to the customer. IT plays an important role in enabling a dense network of interactions among the participating firms. Using Information Systems to Achieve Competitive Advantage Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy
    52. 52. 3.52 © 2010 by Prentice Hall • Sustaining competitive advantage • Because competitors can retaliate and copy strategic systems, competitive advantage is not always sustainable; systems may become tools for survival • Performing strategic systems analysis • What is structure of industry? • What are value chains for this firm? • Managing strategic transitions • Adopting strategic systems requires changes in business goals, relationships with customers and suppliers, and business processes Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems Chapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and StrategyChapter 3 Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy Using Systems for Competitive Advantage: Management Issues
    53. 53. 3.53 © 2010 by Prentice Hall All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.   Publishing as Prentice Hall

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