Renal  Failure <ul><li>Nico Caponi </li></ul>
Overview <ul><li>Why I chose it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Appro...
Why I chose this? <ul><li>9 year old cousin </li></ul><ul><li>Battling since he was born </li></ul><ul><li>Has CKD </li></...
What is it? <ul><li>Renal or Kidney Failure- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When kidneys fail to filter toxins/waste products from ...
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) (AKI) <ul><li>Rapid loss of kidney function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by numerous things </li...
Diagnosis of AKI <ul><li>Based on clinical history and laboratory data </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid reduction in kidney...
AKI  Treatment <ul><li>Specific Therapies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKI without fluid overload- Administer intravenous fluids ...
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) (CKD) <ul><li>Progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years </li></ul>...
Causes of CKD <ul><li>3 Most Common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis </li></u...
Diagnosis of CKD <ul><li>Many times previous renal disease or other disease are present </li></ul><ul><li>Glomerular filtr...
Stages of CKD <ul><li>Stage 1: Slightly diminished function, normal/high GFR </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Kidney Damage, mil...
Treatment <ul><li>Goal is to slow or halt CKD before Stage 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Control BP </li></ul><ul><li>Treat original...
Bibliography  <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renal_failure </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronic_ki...
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Renal failure

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Renal failure

  1. 1. Renal Failure <ul><li>Nico Caponi </li></ul>
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Why I chose it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why I chose this? <ul><li>9 year old cousin </li></ul><ul><li>Battling since he was born </li></ul><ul><li>Has CKD </li></ul><ul><li>Will need a transplant in 2-4 years </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to be more knowledgable </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is it? <ul><li>Renal or Kidney Failure- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When kidneys fail to filter toxins/waste products from blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute and Chronic </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) (AKI) <ul><li>Rapid loss of kidney function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by numerous things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prerenal - decrease blood flow to kidney </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic - damage to glomeruli, renal tubules, or interstitium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Postrenal - Urinary tract obstruction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Diagnosis of AKI <ul><li>Based on clinical history and laboratory data </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid reduction in kidney function - Serum creatinine levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid reduction in urine output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Further testing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urine sediment analysis, renal ultrasound, or kidney biopsy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. AKI Treatment <ul><li>Specific Therapies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKI without fluid overload- Administer intravenous fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AKI with low BP- Inotropes may be administered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e.- norepinephrine or dobutamine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic AKI- Each have specific therapies pending on what causes it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Wegener’s granulomatosis would require steroid medication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Renal replacement </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) (CKD) <ul><li>Progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years </li></ul><ul><li>Range of symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feeling generally unwell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may not be found until you have a disease related to it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Cardiovascular disease, anemia, or pericarditis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Causes of CKD <ul><li>3 Most Common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular: Large/small vessel diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerular: Primary/Secondary glomerular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubulointerstitial: Polycystic kidney disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obstructive: Kidney stones and diseases of the prostate </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Diagnosis of CKD <ul><li>Many times previous renal disease or other disease are present </li></ul><ul><li>Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60mL/min/1.73m 2 for 3 months </li></ul><ul><li>CKD and AKI contrasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CKD = smaller kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CKD serum creatinine levels increase over months and years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear medicine MAG3 scan, DMSA </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Stages of CKD <ul><li>Stage 1: Slightly diminished function, normal/high GFR </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Kidney Damage, mild reduction in GFR </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Moderate reduction in GFR </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4: Preparing for failure, severe reduction in GFR </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 5: Kidney failure </li></ul>
  12. 12. Treatment <ul><li>Goal is to slow or halt CKD before Stage 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Control BP </li></ul><ul><li>Treat original disease (when possible) </li></ul><ul><li>Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) or Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists (ARBs) </li></ul><ul><li>If Stage 5 is reached either dialysis or a transplant is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>The most common cause of death in people with CKD is NOT renal failure </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bibliography <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renal_failure </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronic_kidney_disease </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_kidney_injury </li></ul>

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