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Litrature review

  1. 1. Review of literature1)Author(s): E. Soltani, (Strathclyde Business School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK), J. Gennard, (Strathclyde Business School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK), R.B. van der Meer, (Strathclyde Business School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK), T. Williams, (Strathclyde Business School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK)Abstract: While the concepts of performance evaluation and total quality management (TQM) have been explored in the management literature of the last decades, there has been relatively little work on the particular characteristics that an organisation with a TQM approach to human resource (HR) performance evaluation should adopt. To this end, this paper provides a review of the literature in the area of TQM and HR performance evaluation, in order to establish the context for future empirical research. This study provides a brief overview of the implications of a quality orientation for the evaluation of employee performance. It reveals the main difficulties with the concept of performance evaluation from a quality perspective; and it also examines particular characteristics of performance evaluation that could maximize the effectiveness of HR performance evaluation in organisational environments with a quality orientation. Both the assumptions of TQM and the requirements for HR evaluation are used as a foundation from which to examine the ways in which HR performance evaluation might have changed to integrate TQM requirements. By examining the relevant literature, the main criteria of a TQM-based HR performance evaluation system are refined and enhanced, thus moving towards a situation in which TQM can drive HR performance evaluation in practice. The results also serve as a guide for the evaluation of the effectiveness of such a system1.Comment: - I agree on applying the TQM in HR, the work of an employee has been reduced that too in effective form.2) LITERATURE REVIEWKey practices of TQMSeveral efforts have been done to prove the elements ofTQM in the past decade (Saraph et al., 1989; Flynn et al.,1994; Ahire et al., 1996). According to prior TQM research,the constructs of TQM has been categorized in a fewways, even though they complement each other (Prajogoand Sohal, 2003). There is no clear agreement of TQMresearch concerning its key elements that show the capabilitiesof what TQM portrays when referred (Shenawy etal., 2007; Escrig-Tena and Bou-Llusar, 2005). Hence,there arises a difficulty of reaching an agreement on theelements of TQM due to the inconsistency in the previousresearch (Hoang et al., 2006). A complete assessment of
  2. 2. TQM literature have shown that TQM practices could besecured in seven areas, being leadership, strategic planning,customer focus, information and analysis, humanresource management (HRM), process management andsupplier management (Sila, 2007). A huge amount ofprevious literatures that confirms the practices of TQMtheoretically and practically is mainly based on the criteriaof Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (Shenawy etal., 2007; Wilson and Collier, 2000). The constructsembedded in the TQM practices are leadership, strategyand planning, customer focus, information and analysis,people management and process management (Prajogoand Sohal, 2003). It was argued by Samson andTerziovski (1999) that their model includes the MalcolmBaldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) criteria thathave been acknowledged as representing TQM practicesby several scholars such as Ahire et al., (1995), Deanand Bowen (1994) and Juran (1995). These practices arealso consistent with the standard of the Malcolm BaldrigeNational Quality Award (MBNQA) as implied by Sila(2007) and Sila and Ebrahimpour (2003), who examinedthe TQM practices taken out by 76 empirical TQM analysisand categorized them under 2002 MBNQA model(Sila, 2007). Hendricks and Singhal (1997); Wrolstad andKrueger (2001) further mentioned that by putting intoeffective practice the MBNQA criteria, it will enhanceeconomic performance.Through the comprehensive examination of past research,which includes the criteria of the most esteemedquality award such as MBNQA (1999), six dimensions ofTQM practices were formed to signify the main TQMpractices in this research study as shown in Table 1, forthree most important reasons (Hoang et al., 2006): (a)integrate the most well-recognized quality award criteriaof leadership, customer and market focus, informationand analysis, strategic planning, human resource andpeople management – extensively acknowledged byTQM researchers and practitioners; (b) comprise theconstructs that signify the soft and hard facets of TQMconferred in the literature and (c) have been regarded askey practices of TQM implementation in bothmanufacturing and service industries by past researchersand scholars (Powell, 1995; Prajogo and Sohal, 2003;Samson and Terziovski, 1999; Hoang et al., 2006)2Comment:- The constrains implemented in the TQM based HR practices are leadership, strategy
  3. 3. and planning, customer focus, information and analysis, people management and processmanagement.3) REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE :Traditional HRM practices conflict with TQM and should be changed (Schonberger, 1994).Although organizations have initially focused on a production-oriented perspective of quality(Wilkinson et al., 1991), the recent literatures has underlined the importance of HRM for success(Vouzas, 2006). In fact, the ―soft dimensions‖ of TQM (customer orientation, leadership, cultureor HRM) as they have been described by many authors (Bou Llusar et al., 2009; Fotopoulos andPsomas, 2009). Therefore, the human resource function must take the lead in activities such asjob design and teams that promote cooperation, empower employees to provide information,participation and autonomy, select employees that can adapt to the organizational culture, fosterprogrammes of training and development with quality goals and define appraisal andcompensation policies which support quality targets. A fruitful cooperation between HRM andTQM can produce better organizational results. The alignment of HR and quality policies, suchas creating and communicating the TQM vision, preparing the organization and employees forTQM implementation and generating quality awareness among the employees across all levels,functions, and departments, should contribute to an increase company performance (Palo andPadhi, 2005).Management authors have tended to focus on the concepts associated with HRM and TQMrather than providing evidence of their close relationship. This relationship by stating:Quality management has high personnel content. It gives strategic importance to policies andprocesses that personnel managers have traditionally considered to be on their patch (Giles andWilliams, 1991).The role of the HRM department is therefore central to the success of total quality. TQM andHRM are in pursuit of the same goals – productivity, profitability, a customer-oriented companyand a motivated workforce (Herbig, 1994). Management style Impact on managementIdentification of management/ behavior, skills and employee styles and attitudes. attitudesModification of these where they inhibit the successful introduction of TQM Skills Analysis oftraining and Meeting demands development needs, skills requirements and gaps.Human resources appropriate recruitment, Effective policies and procedures career development,and remuneration policies Shared values Ability to identify attitudes, Shared values are pertinentin improve motivation, morale an TQM program.In the achievement of total quality in the organization the human resource dimension is veryimportant (Deming, 1982, 1986). Continuous quality improvement depends upon the best use ofthe talents and abilities of a companys workforce. To achieve world class quality, it isimperative that a company empowers its workers. Companies must develop and realize the fullpotential of their workforce and maintain an environment conducive to full participation,personal and organizational growth. This can be achieved through creating the appropriatehuman resource development through training, employee participation and involvement, buildingquality awareness among employees, and motivating employees. The main issues considered inhuman resource development are: human resource management, employee involvement, qualityeducation and training, employee recognition and performance, and employee well-being andmorale. The human resource development in an organization is an important contributor to
  4. 4. proper and meaningful quality management since the quality philosophy and practice have to bepart and parcel of the entire workforce and not the concern of only a few.EmpowermentThe link between HRM and TQM was identified as being in the area of development andempowerment of people and the shift from a control based style of management to anempowering management where attention is focused on coaching and leading.It is generally accepted that a TQM environment fosters employee empowerment. In fact, five ofDeming‟ s 14 points relate directly to the notion of involvement and empowerment (Rahman,2002). According to the literature, TQM should promote empowerment of front-line employees,giving them more responsibility and information (Schuler and Harris, 1992), and so underminingmiddle managers‟ traditional role in implementing and monitoring the instructions of topmanagement.TQM means taking on greater responsibility, often for the same pay (Snape et al., 1995). Thus,for quality initiatives to work, there must be sufficient participation (Ferna´ndez, 1996; Newalland Dale, 1991; Schuler and Jackson, 1987) and communication on the part of all employees inquality decisions, because they can improve the organizational processes (Mohanty and Sethi,1996; Schonberger, 1994; Wilkinson et al., 1994). Organizational job descriptions should reflectthese variables and be designed to promote quality. Moreover, jobs descriptions require acustomer and innovation orientation and continual improvement (Blackburn and Rosen, 1993;Schonberger, 1994), allowing employee autonomy, responsibility and flexibility (Simmons et al.,1995; Snape et al., 1995). However, although job descriptions should be explicit and formal(Schuler and Jackson, 1987), because of the importance of documentation to the system(Ferna´ndez, 1996), TQM may require a move away from detailed, fixed job descriptions inorder to foster flexibility and teamwork (Bowen and Lawler, 1992; Snape et al., 1995).Some empirical research has found support for these arguments. For example, Lam (1996)showed how TQM programs improve employee participation in decision making. Utley et al.(1997) argued that organizations that have motivators present are more likely to have successfulquality management implementation than those that are use hygiene factors to improveperformance. Wood and Peccei (1995) observed how communication fosters a consciousness ofquality. Finally, (Boon et al., 2006) found that organizational trust and empowerment have astrong relationship with the propensity of employees to remain within the organization3.Comment:-4) AbstractHRM issues in TQM implementation have been studied from several perspectives. The relatedareas include TQM pitfalls caused by people barriers, employee commitment, employeeinvolvement, and people management. Derived from the relevant literature, this research is todiscover a quality working climate that will explicate the conditions for an overall quality HR-TQM concept. This is the environment that this research assumes will enhance quality HRMactivities to ensure performance excellence, which is also called the mediating factor. The testingand evaluating of the research framework are supported by data collected from questionnairesurvey and case study interviews of Malaysian universities. Meanwhile, the self-assessmentperformance criteria from Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Awards were used to evaluateorganizational performance. Our results largely support that there is a significant relationshipbetween quality working climate and organisational performance4.
  5. 5. Comment:-The above abstract states the research discovers the quality working climate whichaffects the quality of HR-TQM as the data is based on survey and interviews.5) LITERATURE REVIEWThe whole essence of this research was to get anunderstanding of the impact of TQM on the performanceof SMEs. In order to get complete understanding of thetheory and practice, various studies were analyzed andreviewed.Anderson and Sohal [9] studied the impact of TQM andrelated improvement strategies on performance ofAustralian SMEs by using Australian Quality Awardsframework to determine the relationship between TQMpractices and business performance. They observed apositive correlation between TQM practices andorganizational performance of the SMEs, reiterating theneed for effective implementation of the TQM practicesalongwith strategic decision making which willultimately yield long-term fruitful results for SMEs.Vincent K. Chong., Michael J. Rundus [10] explored theimpact of TQM and market competition onorganizational performance by studying filled acceptablequestionnaires from 89 managers from manufacturingfirms. Results showed that there is a positive correlationbetween market competition and TQM practices of Most of the above-mentioned studies werecarried out indeveloped countries with few exceptions and in Pakistanthere is scarcity of research on TQM except fewexamples cited above. This research will therefore fill agap in the existing literature by investigating plausiblerelationship between TQM practices and non-financialperformance of an organization5.Comment:-6)Authors: Weng-Choong Cheah, Keng-Boon Ooi, Pei-Lee Teh, Alain Yee-Loong Chong andChen-Chen Yong, 2009. Total Quality Management and Knowledge Sharing: ComparingMalaysia’s Manufacturing and Service Organizations. Journal of Applied Sciences, 9: 1422-1431.ABSTRACT
  6. 6. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between Malaysian manufacturing andservice organizations with regard to the multidimensionality of TQM practices and therelationship of these practices to knowledge sharing behavior from middle managementemployees’ perspective. The empirical data for this study were collected from 208 middlemanagement employees from Malaysian manufacturing and service organizations with aresponse rate of 62.01% (129 respondents) from the manufacturing firms and 37.98% (79respondents) from the service firms. The finding indicated there was no significance differencebetween Malaysian manufacturing and service organizations in the level of TQM practices andknowledge sharing. The multiple regression analysis also indicated a stronger relationship formanufacturing firms than for service firms between TQM practices and knowledge sharing,particularly in relation to teamwork. Results should be an interest to the TQM managers andpractitioners in Malaysia. This finding increased our understanding on the applicability of TQMpractices and the association of these practices to knowledge sharing in both Malaysianmanufacturing and service organizations. This study has contributed towards advancing theTQM literature with a better understanding of the perception of middle management employeesof TQM practices and its association with knowledge sharing in both Malaysian manufacturingand service organizations6.Comment:-7) Authors:Dr Tripti Singhtripti Rameshwar Dubeyrameshwardubey@gmail.comSchool of Management Studies,Motilal Nehru National Institute of technologyAllahabad-211004, India Abstract— Total Quality Management (TQM) has evolved as awidely acceptable philosophy and practice for achievement oforganisational objectives.The principal contributions to the analysis of TQM and itsoperation have come from thinkers in the OperationsManagement area (Oakland[64],Dale & Plunkett[19], Dale,[18]). This has led to a preoccupation with the so-called ―hard‖production-orientated aspects of TQM. This has resulted inignoring ―soft‖ Human Resource Management (HRM)characteristics, which is an important dimension for successful
  7. 7. implementation of TQM. This paper attempts to propose aframework for emphasising the role of soft dimensions insuccessful implementation of TQM. An exhaustive LiteratureReview is carried to delineate the evolution of TQM, identifythe critical success factors for TQM implementation withspecial attention to soft dimensions, its constructs and items.Important constructs identified are viz: the role of leadership,HR philosophy and systems, role of HR functions andrelationship with partners. Definitions of these constructs arepresented and items developed to provide an importantconceptual background. Finally a theoretical background isproposed, to understand the relationship and role of softdimensions in effective implementation of TQM7.Comment:-8) Authors:Durgesh PattanayakNational Institute of Industrial EngineeringDr. K. MadduletyNational Institute of Industrial Engineering AbstractTotal Quality Management (TQM) has been practised in diverse industries from manufacturingto services. Butits important in banking sector has attracted only a few researchers. By providing the best servicequality inbanks higher organizational performance will be expected. There is intense competition betweenPublic sector,Private sector and foreign banks in India. So customer satisfaction plays a major role to survivein the intensecompetition. The present research attempts to close the research gap of relationship betweenTQM andCustomer satisfaction. So the objective is to find out the association between themultidimensionality of TQMand Customer satisfaction in the banking industry in the Indian context. This research willprovide constructiveinformation that helps the practitioners to precisely identify areas of concerns and take correctivemeasures toenhance their level of customer satisfaction. Knowledge in this area will allow managers of thebankingorganizations to direct their resources adequately in improving the more important contributorsof Customersatisfaction8.
  8. 8. Comment:-9) Authors:Faisal Talib- Mechanical EngineeringSection, University Polytechnic,Aligarh Muslim University,Aligarh, IndiaZillur Rahman- Department of ManagementStudies, Indian Institute ofTechnology Roorkee, Roorkee,IndiaM.N. Qureshi- Engineering Department,Faculty of Engineering andTechnology, M S University ofBaroda, Vadodara, India LITERATURE REVIEWEarlier empirical studies in TQM suggested that thesuccessful implementation of TQM will result inimproved employee involvement, improvedcommunication, increased productivity, improvedcustomer satisfaction, and improved competitiveadvantage (Prajogo and Sohal, 2003; Antony et al.,2002; Tsang and Antony, 2001). Also, a strongcompetitive pressure has forced service industries toadopt QM tools and techniques to offer higher qualityproducts and services as a way to delight and keep theircustomers intact. Many organizations have implementedTQM and identified CSFs for better businessperformance in order to improve their position in theglobal market which is now become an importantresearch area in TQM.What are critical success factors?A literature review of the previous empiricalstudies on TQM evolved that researchers andacademicians have defined TQM CSFs in differentways although they are complementary to each other(Prajogo and Sohal, 2003; Terziovski and Samson,1999). Generally speaking, the CSFs can be defined as―the critical areas which organization must accomplishto achieve its mission by examination andcategorization of their impacts‖ (Oakland, 1995). On the
  9. 9. other hand, according to Boynton and Zmud (1984),CSFs are those vital construct that must go well toensure success for a manager or an organization, andtherefore, they represent those managerial ororganizational areas that must be given special and continual attention to bring about increasedperformance. Brotherton and Shaw (1996) defined CSFsas ―the essential things that must be achieved by thecompany or which areas will produce the greatestcompetitive leverage‖. They emphasize that CSFs arenot objectives, but are the actions and processes that canbe controlled by management to achieve theorganizations goals. The definition given by Boyntonand Zmud is more universal which is equally applicableto all sectors. The importance of defining the CSFs ofTQM for implementation is to increase the success rate,reduce costs, and prevent disillusionment withcontinuous improvement programs (Fryer et al., 2007).Alternatively, it can be said that the CSFs are those vitalfew requirements that must be present in anorganization to be able to attain its vision, and to beguided towards its vision (Wali et al., 2003). Hence,better management of such CSFs will result in improvedquality and increased financial performance for theorganization.Critical success factors of TQM inservice industriesThe extent review of the literature suggested thatthere are numerous CSFs (also referred as constructs orTQM practices in the literature) that can be identified asbeing crucial to the successful implementation of TQM.Table 1 presents a list of CSFs of TQM asrecommended by various authors of the currentliterature review. CSFs as reported in the TQMliterature have been investigated extensively by Saraphet al., 1989; Brah et al., 2000; Agus, 2004; Behra andGundersen, 2001; Sila and Ebrahimpour, 2002; Samat etal., 2006; Antony et al., 2002; Sureshchandar et al.,2002; Talib and Rahman, 2010b; and others . All thesestudies have described similarities among practicesadopted by different service industries as well as bymanufacturing and service industries both, and theirimplementation framework.s One of the earlier empirical studies in the QM areaby Saraph et al. (1989) have used data obtained from162 managers of 20 manufacturing and serviceindustries collected in the region of USA to identify theCSFs of TQM. They identified eight factors: topmanagement
  10. 10. leadership, role of quality department,training, product design, supplier quality management,process management, quality data reposting, andemployee relations. Meanwhile, Black and Porter(1996) developed an empirical framework for TQMusing the criteria for the Malcolm Baldrige QualityAward (MBQA) as well as the perceptions andexperiences of a range of total quality practitioners asthe basis. Their study covered manufacturing andservice industries and presented ten CSFs: corporatequality culture; quality improvement measurementsystems; communication of improvement information;strategic quality management; teamwork; structure, human resource management, technicalsystem,information and analysis system, benchmarking,continuous improvement, customer focus, employeesatisfaction, union intervention, social responsibility,servicescapes, and service culture.Another study by Brah et al., (2000) on TQM andbusiness performance in Singapore service sectoridentified 11 constructs of TQM implementation, whichare: top management support, customer focus, employeeinvolvement, employee training, employeeempowerment, supplier quality management, processimprovement, service design, quality improvementrewards, benchmarking, and cleanliness andorganization.Beside this, Tari (2005) developed eight CSFsfrom his literature review of 106 ISO 9000 certifiedfirms in Spain. They are: customer focus; processmanagement; leadership; supplier management;learning; quality planning; continuous improvement;and employee management.Other similar studies on TQM CSFs are presentedin Table 1 and are considered in the present study forfurther review9.Comment:-10) AbstractThis paper attempted to explore the human related aspects of TQM practices in Serviceorganizations (commercial banks). Soft TQM signifies any forms of business efforts dedicated tohuman-related dimensions of TQM, namely, leadership and top management commitment,customer focus, training and education, empowerment, and reward & recognition. The samples
  11. 11. of the study were 250 employees of commercial banks located in Hyderabad Karnataka region.The tool of analysis used in this study was descriptive statistics. The finding of the study showedthat all Soft TQM dimensions were well implemented as part of commercial bank’s qualitymanagement practices with empowerment appears to be a dominant practice. The result of thestudy prescribed potential implications for the management of commercial banks in HyderabadKarnataka region to include human related aspect of TQM as an integral part of the company’sstrategic vision to obtain higher level of employees’ commitment10.Comment:-11) AbstractThe global focus on quality, combined with increasing costs of materials, equipment, labour andtraining, are driving the implementation of TQM as a competitive strategy in all types oforganizations. These forces for change also provide an opportunity for an expanded role ofhuman resource management in making TQM succeed. Quality can no longer be viewed as theresponsibility for one department. It is a company-wide activity that permeates all departments,at all levels. The key element of any quality and productivity improvement program is theemployee. Consequently, employee commitment to a TQM program is essential. Because of itsfundamental employee orientation, HRM should seek the responsibility for implementing TQMprograms rather than risk losing their influence over the key element of TQM -- the employee.This paper is a modest attempt to discuss the concept of TQM in HR practices in integrating thesame for the sighted benefits of the organizations11.Comment:-12)Abstract:-Total quality management (TQM) is a revolutionary approach to effective management.The research in TQM has emerged from practical needs of organizations embracing thisphilosophy, and the literature is mostly conceptual and practitioner-oriented. There is alack of sound theoretical framework classifying past efforts and guiding futureresearch. To fill the void, a study of the published TQM literature is undertaken. Areview, classification, and analysis of the research in TQM spanning the last twodecades is presented. A total of 226 TQM-related articles are identified from 44 refereedmanagement journals published from 1970 to 1993. These articles are then classified andanalyzed using the following two-dimensional scheme: (1) article orientation(conceptual, case study, empirical, analytical, simulation, and overview) and (2) articlefocus using the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria. The analysis of theliterature presents pertinent developments in each of the seven criteria. In addition, itprovides future research directions as well as a ready reference of the TQM literature.The suggestions for research should guide future developments in the TQM field andhelp transform it into a formal discipline12.
  12. 12. Comment:-13) S. Thamizhmanii, S. Hasan Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. * Corresponding author: E-mail address: thamizhmaniis@yahoo.comReceived 21.12.2009; published in revised form 01.04.2010 Abstract Purpose: This paper discusses the issues of employee’s empowerment, their training needs, suggestions and other issues related to it. Total quality management (TQM) is a management technique adopted by the most manufacturing organizations. TQM in general is viewed as organization set up which will help to manufacture products at lowest cost by the following various management techniques through continuous improvement. Employee empowerment is providing decision making powers to a team or an individual. Design/methodology/approach: Employee empowerment is providing decision making powers for a team or individual. Findings: Employee empowerment is good for an organization and employee is empowered to make specific decision for the interest of the organization. Empowerment helps to play a wider role in an organization as a process owner. Research limitations/implications: This is a conceptual study, and hence, there is no hypothesis tested as an empirical study. It does provide a good foundation for future research. Originality/value: The paper is a conceptual design and more elaborative requirements can be done. This is an input to create awareness among the organizations 13.Comment:-References:- 1) Source Code: 2) Source Code: 3) Source Code: 4) Source Code: 5) Source Code: 6) Source Code: 7) Source Code: 8) Source Code: 9) Source Code: 10) Source Code: ew&path[]=830 11) Source Code: &path[]=pp%2074-81 12) Source Code: 5956.1995.tb00057.x/abstract
  13. 13. 13) Source Code: