Dce Social Studies Vocabulary

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Vocabulary Instruction in the Social Studies Classroom

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  • Say somthing about how we all integrate the teaching of vobabulary in our instruction and so todays presentation will not necessary be new information, however, I hope you pick up one or two tips or ideas that would help you. Nancy helped put together information from various researchers on vocabulary for this presentation.
  • Briefly discuss the objectives
  • Kids who have acquired background knowledge ( e.g. family vacations, being read to as a child, reading extensively as a youth) its dramatically easier for them to learn new content because they can connect it to previously learned background knowledge.
    What students already know about the content is one of the strongest indicators of how well they will learn new information.
  • The important thing in teaching history is that vocabulary helps in terms of labeling and grouping things in ones memory
  • While discussing the need for direct inst. of vocabulary, Marshfield teacher, Jim Bokern stopped by with their plan to include the teaching of key vocabulary words and recently he called and said it helped improve their mc scores.
  • Several Ap courses have required summer reading - a good idea. Kids read non- fiction books and novels to supplement their courses in the AAP program at the Junior High.
  • Widespread reading is good, but not enough,The percentage chance of learning new words in context alone increases with ability level and with age. It increases with age due to more background knowledge. Teachers are encouraged to assign summer reading, in class text reading, etc. Doing outside reading has a bigger bang the older the student. As far as text density, students chances of learning new words are better if they are reading at their lexile. I think the bottom line is that learning new vocabulary words through context is limited.
  • There is also a middle category where there is general academic vocabulary instruction (high frequency words) and that raises the percentile rank on test to 62%. Direct instruction of discipline specific vocabulary has the greatest gain of 83% vs. 50%.
  • Mention McRel - Marzano & Pickering have promoted direct instruction of voc for several years.
  • most important for kids who are low SES, ELL, and LD - they benifit the most from direct inst. of voc.
  • Its not just that they havent read alot , they dont hear the voc at home.
  • This chart is based on free and reduced lunch data.
  • BAV refers to Marzano’s Building Academic Vocabulary program. There was a control group and a group that was directly taught vocabulary then tested on a standardized test. All kids in the BAV group did better than the control. Of particular interest is how well ELL students did.
  • Another study showing that direct instruction of vocabulary will help close the acheivement gap for LD students.
    Summary - Direct Inst. of Voc. is critical to building Background knowledge which consequently equals academic success. We saw that the greatest amt of importment comes with SES, LD, and esp. ELL students.
  • The tier two words we are focusing on are words used in academic directions as well as frequently used academic words. Tier 3 words are related to social studies content. Some words may fit in both Tier 2 and 3 categories. We are not going to argue over what tier they go into.
    Advanced kids ask about words like depict, quota or pragmatic. We should assume that they know academic words.
  • Beck is a reading teacher while Marzano is an educational researcher who studies multiple disciplines. Marzano has a list of discipline specific vocabulary terms taken from National Standards. Marzano does include people, places and events.
  • Is it critical for the Unit? Yes for both words. Will you come across the word again in social studies. Probably not for Mercantilism and yes for Balance of Trade. Do we use the word today? No for Mercantilism and Yes for balance of trade. So balance of trade meets the 3 criteria.
  • Often when a student learns words from context, they never use them in writing or in speaking.
  • 9th Grade always makes use of so many visuals. Gus to front with picket sign.
  • Vocabulary Building games – 12th grade antonuyms
    Super kids play hangman 10th grade
    Academic Vocabulary lots of stuff
    Teachnology – needs flash player
  • Dce Social Studies Vocabulary

    1. 1. Social Studies Vocabulary Instruction The Key to Academic Success D.C. Everest Social Studies Fall,2010
    2. 2. Focused on student learning Hands-on learning Preparing citizens for the 21st Century Rigor – high expectations Literacy teachers Innovative and willing to take risks Coaches/Advisors Authentic learning Leadership Content specialists Cutting edge of technology Teaching the research process Always checking for understanding
    3. 3. Learning Targets 1) Rationale for direct instruction of vocabulary 2) Developing vocabulary lists – Which words? 3) Acquiring new vocabulary 4) Methods for directly teaching vocabulary 5) Assessing vocabulary knowledge 6) Differentiating vocabulary instruction 7) Word Conscious Classroom
    4. 4. Rationale for Direct Vocabulary Instruction
    5. 5. Background knowledge increases academic achievement 90 80 70 60 Academic Background Knowledge Academic Achievement 50 40 30 20 10 0 Level I Level II Level III
    6. 6. Background knowledge increases life achievement Academic background knowledge affects not only “school learning,” but occupation and status in life. Success in school has a strong bearing on students’ earning potential. Marzano, 2009
    7. 7. Building Background Knowledge Through Vocabulary Vocabulary words are labels students store in their memory for groups or families of objects. elements4health.com
    8. 8. Building Background Knowledge Through Vocabulary Vocabulary words are like magnets that attract the background knowledge Vocabulary word Background knowledge Malcolm X movie on Martin Luther King Jr. Karen Silkwood Book I read about civil rights Cesar Chavez activist John Brown Union people protesting against Jimmy Johns Medgar Evers Daisy Bates Harvey Milk movie socialmediaclub.posterous.com activist Viola Liuzzo Field trip to Selma Montgomery
    9. 9. Vocabulary and Academic Success Research has shown a high correlation between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and high scores on the ACT Exam!
    10. 10. Vocabulary and Academic Success AP Exams
    11. 11. Binder Check The first part of the binder contains articles on teaching vocabulary.
    12. 12. Increasing Vocabulary 1.Life experiences & field trips help students develop a strong vocabulary Examples: going to the bank/credit union, visiting a battle field, canoeing on the Wisconsin River, visiting a museum, eating at a restaurant, helping at a charity event, going to Mount Rushmore, going fly fishing, visiting Disney Land
    13. 13. Increasing Vocabulary 2. Widespread reading Virtual experience Widespread reading increases vocabulary. The more you read, the more vocabulary you learn. (The rich get richer and the poor get poorer.) In fact, by the time they reach adulthood, people who make a habit of reading have a vocabulary that is about four times the size of those who rarely or never read.  This disparity starts early and grows throughout life.
    14. 14. Chances of Learning New Words in Context Moderator Level of Moderator Chances of Learning Word Ability Low 8%   Medium 12%   High 19% Grade Level Grade 4 8%   Grade 11 33% Text Density 1 new word for every 10 words 7%   1 new word for every 75 words 14%   1 new word for every 150 words 30%
    15. 15. Increasing Vocabulary 3. Directly teaching vocabulary It is estimated that children can be explicitly taught 400-500 words per year at a rate of 8-10 words per week. (Beck, McKeown, and Kucan, 2002)
    16. 16. Increasing Vocabulary Test refers to a test which tested information taught in class. Percentile rank on test 90 80 83 70 60 62 50 40 50 30 20 10 0 Source: Based on data in Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986
    17. 17. Turn and Talk How do you remember learning vocabulary in school? brainboxx.co.uk
    18. 18. “Given the importance of academic background knowledge, and the fact that vocabulary is such an essential aspect of it, one of the most crucial services that teachers can provide, particularly for students who do not come from academically advantaged backgrounds, is systematic instruction in important academic terms.” Marzano and Pickering 2005
    19. 19. Closing the Gap – Low SES Background knowledge is highly correlated with family income or socioeconomic status (SES) There is an estimated 4,700 word difference in vocabulary knowledge between high and low SES (Nagy and Herman, 1984)
    20. 20. Closing the Gap – Low SES
    21. 21. Closing the Gap – Low SES Hart and Risley (1995) long term study of vocabulary development in children… revealed significant differences based on parental income. Children in economically disadvantaged households were exposed to significantly fewer words. Clearly poverty is a factor in vocabulary development.
    22. 22. Closing the Gap – Low SES Low SES D.C. Everest Other Free/Reduced Lunch 29% D.C. Everest 2010
    23. 23. Closing the Gap – At-risk Vocabulary instruction is one of the essential elements of literacy development for students “at risk.” (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002)
    24. 24. Closing the Gap - ELL Direct vocabulary instruction helps close the achievement gap for ELL For English language learners, the “achievement gap” is primarily a vocabulary gap. (Carlo, 2004)
    25. 25. Closing the Gap – Low SES & ELL BAV = Building Academic Vocabulary
    26. 26. Closing the Gap – LD 1) Provide explicit vocabulary instruction
    27. 27. Turn and Talk Think of one student you’ve had who did not have a rich vocabulary background… brainboxx.co.uk
    28. 28. Developing Vocabulary Lists – Which Words?
    29. 29. Which Words? 1) Content specific/discipline based vocabulary Planned ahead of time/scope & sequence 2) Academic vocabulary Will depend on activity/readings
    30. 30. Which Words? Content words = war debt, protest, boycott, taxation, duties revolution, propaganda, monopoly, monarchy, tyrant, liberty, From Power sheet Vocabulary taught during unit on Events Leading to American Revolution ire md Fro Academic words =profound, alteration, cite, advocate, intervene, analyze, pragmatic. a s on tion c DBQ
    31. 31. Which Words? Beck’s Tier 1, 2, & 3 Words • Tier 1 words are the basic words that commonly appear in spoken language. • Tier 2 words represent the more sophisticated vocabulary of written texts. • Tier 3 words are limited to specific domains. -Isabel Beck The notion of tiers of words is not a precise one, and the lines between tiers are not clear-cut. -Beck
    32. 32. Which Words? Word Types: A Lens for Thinking About Vocabulary (Beck et al., 2002) Tier 1: Basic home dog happy see come again find go look boy & Choosing Important Words to Teach Tier 2: Frequent Academic analyze approach role consist major require significant vary interpret respond consequence contrast justify criteria illustrate correspond depict “Mortar” words Tier 3 Content Specific migration democracy trade balance monotheism monarchy peninsula irrigation republic immigration secularism anarchy guerilla warfare forensics desegregation manumission profiling psychotherapy “Brick” words
    33. 33. Which Words? Marzano says Beck says Tier 2 Tier 3
    34. 34. Which Words? D.C. Everest Tier 2 & 3 Tier 2 or 3 Content specific/discipline based vocabulary Academic direction vocabulary or frequently used academic vocabulary Tier 2
    35. 35. Content/Discipline based words -Words that are crucial for understanding the topic/unit -Words that will show up again and again in your class and future social studies classes -Words that matter today
    36. 36. Nationally known author and educator, Dr. Anita Archer, speaking on the topic of improving literacy at the secondary level, recommended selecting content words for vocabulary development that students do not know, but that are critical to the understanding of the content, and that will have on-going meaning beyond the immediate topic of Northwest Washington Education Service District [Feb. 2005] study.
    37. 37. Content/discipline based words Best if it fits all three criteria ___crucial for understanding? ___will show up again and again? ___matter today?
    38. 38. Which Words? Proper nouns saved in brain as single memory vs. common nouns saved in brain as group memory Textile Workers Strike Pullman Strike 1946 Bituminous Coal Strike STRIKE Steel Strike 1959 U.S. Postal Strike Pullman Strike
    39. 39. Content/Discipline based words Where do we get the words? -Standards and Benchmarks -Power sheets -Marzano’s list -Other lists in vocabulary binder- Michigan list, Marshfield list, etc.
    40. 40. Binder Check The middle part of the binder contains several word lists.
    41. 41. Frequent Academic Words -Academic “direction” words that we find on tests, project directions -Other words students might come across frequently (e.g., advocate, alleviate) -Difficult words in readings
    42. 42. Frequent Academic Words Where do we get the words? -Choose them from the “directions” for assignments/tests -Difficult readings -Coxhead Academic Word List (AWL) list What is the Academic Word List? The AWL is a list of words which appear with high frequency in English-language academic texts. The list was compiled by Averil Coxhead at the Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. The list contains 570 words and is divided into 10 sublists.
    43. 43. Frequent Academic Words The Academic Word List (AWL) is not restricted to a specific field of study. That means that the words are useful for learners studying in disciplines as varied as literature, science, social sciences, health, business, and law. Secondary students who are taught these high-utility academic words and routinely placed in contexts requiring their usage are likely to be able to master academic material with more confidence and efficiency.
    44. 44. Frequent Academic Words AWL Top 60 analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist constitute context contract create data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident export factor finance formula function identity income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method occur percent period policy principle proceed process require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary
    45. 45. Content/Discipline based words Frequent Academic Words Which words might you need to teach to help students understand this passage? The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marks the major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. Most notably, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth.
    46. 46. Acquiring New Vocabulary
    47. 47. Turn and Talk How have you typically provided vocabulary instruction in your classroom? brainboxx.co.uk
    48. 48. What Doesn’t Work Finding definitions and writing words in sentences have had little impact on word knowledge and language use. - Janet Allen, 1999 Perhaps the biggest misconception is that teaching vocabulary means teaching formal dictionary definitions.” - Marzano et al., 2002 Classroom Instruction That Works Studies have shown that more than 60% of the sentences created by students to use new words based on definitions did not work.
    49. 49. What Doesn’t Work • When vocabulary is discussed – “Does anyone know what ____ means? “Who can tell me…” This limits conversation to students who don’t need instruction •Too many students are passive bystanders • No requirements for using the vocabulary in writing or speaking Traditional Vocabulary Instruction Dubious instruction Doug Buehl
    50. 50. What Doesn’t Work Our brain does not store definitions in it. ‘fo-ren-sic the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system Manhead (c) BioRaven
    51. 51. Acquiring Vocabulary Word knowledge must be constructed as networks of persona connections and useful associations Manhead (c) BioRaven -Isabel Beck, Margaret McKeown, and Linda Kucan
    52. 52. Acquiring Vocabulary A schema for a word must be able to associate with something they already know Word Schema
    53. 53. Acquiring Vocabulary Students must have at least six encounters with a word to learn it. -McRel, 2008
    54. 54. Acquiring Vocabulary A child’s understanding of a word starts out simplistic but each time he comes across the word again the understanding of the word becomes a little more sophisticated.
    55. 55. Acquiring Vocabulary Acquisition of vocabulary is enhanced with the association of a visual image. Research shows that the brain processes visual information faster than auditory information. Visuals are also more memorable than simple auditory information (the brain remembers more from what it sees and hears than what it just hears). RexiMedia 2009
    56. 56. Acquiring Vocabulary FRONTLOADING Words Frontloading is a process of intentionally exposing learners to vocabulary, concepts and skills they will later learn, either during the school day or in future unit activities. FRONTLOAD… - Vocabulary from a reading prior to reading - Vocabulary from the unit to be studied next
    57. 57. Acquiring Vocabulary FRONTLOADING JB Words When you frontload, be sure to… Maintain a focus on the words throughout the chapter Point out the words in subsequent chapters as prior knowledge - Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2007
    58. 58. Acquiring Vocabulary Reading Vocabulary Receptive Listening Vocabulary Writing Vocabulary Productive Speaking Vocabulary Doug Buehl 2007
    59. 59. Turn and Talk How can you go about frontloading vocabulary? brainboxx.co.uk
    60. 60. Methods for Directly Teaching Vocabulary
    61. 61. Method for Teaching Vocabulary We are using a blend of Marzano’s steps and McRel’s steps.
    62. 62. Method for Teaching Vocabulary 6 STEPS 1. Teachers explains the word 2. Teacher provides a non-linguistic representation 3. Student writes an explanation in his/her own words 4. Student creates a visual representation 5. Students add to their understanding of the word and speak/write the words 6. Students “play” with the words
    63. 63. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 1 – Explain the word • Explain the word in everyday “kid” language (explain it like you are talking with a friend) • Explain the word using language such as “you” or “someone” (e.g., if you wanted to boycott homework..”)
    64. 64. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 1 – Explain the word •Provide examples of the word in multiple contexts •Make connections to familiar concepts and experiences •Personalize the word by grounding it with concrete classroom examples
    65. 65. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 2 –Non-linguistic representation •The teacher shows the students an image that helps to represent the vocabulary word or acts out the meaning of the word.
    66. 66. STEP 2 –Non-linguistic representation REVOLUTION When people in a country overthrow the government because they don’t like what is going on American Revolution French Revolution
    67. 67. STEP 2 –Non-linguistic representation REVOLUTION A sudden or complete change in things Black Power Revolution Cultural Revolution Industrial Revolution of China
    68. 68. STEP 2 –Non-linguistic representation You say you want a revolution Well you know We'd all want to change the world You tell me that it's evolution Well you know We'd all want to change the world But when you talk about destruction Don't you know that you can count me out Don't you know it's gonna be alright Songs can help students learn words.
    69. 69. STEP 2 –Non-linguistic representation Jazz Age - Flocabulary Twenties came in like a lion; By the end that lion was dying, Couldn’t even pounce Jazz Age, Dukes and Counts Flocabulary Big band swing time make you bounce You know what this is: Prohibition No liquor sipping, No-oh, we’re bootlegging. Like Al Capone, running Chicago, Organized crime, making the dough, moving more booze than Busch is, Ladies for the first time, shaking their tushes, Flapper happening
    70. 70. STEP 2 –Non-linguistic representation teacherspayteachers.com hannah-bravenewworld.blogspot.com Mind maps, diagrams and graphic organizers also help also. tickledbylife.com
    71. 71. STEP 2 –Non-linguistic representation Protest Teachers can act out the meaning of the word. If I was protesting something I might walk around in front of the place I didn’t like carrying a protest sign! Gus Use props to help kids understand vocabulary words.
    72. 72. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 3 Student writes explanation The student writes an explanation for the vocabulary word in his/her own words. (It won’t be a perfect definition.)
    73. 73. STEP 3 Student writes explanation Vocabulary Notebooks (Steps 3-6) Have students keep vocabulary words in a section of their notebooks. -It allows them to write explanations and make a visual symbol -They can add/modify the explanation and add examples -All words are in one place for easy review, games, etc.
    74. 74. STEP 3 Student writes explanation Vocabulary Notebooks (Steps 3-6) Explanation
    75. 75. Binder Check See vocabulary notebook examples in back of binder and actual student notes The last part of the binder contains different activities/strategies for teaching vocabulary.
    76. 76. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 4 Student creates visual representation The student draws a symbol, picture, cartoon to represent the word. The student could also add a copied or printed picture but it’s best if they do it themselves.
    77. 77. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 4 Student creates non-linguistic representation Draw a symbol Draw an example justice child labor
    78. 78. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 4 Student creates non-linguistic representation Draw a talk bubble, cartoon I like to study human beings. How do humans behave? Why are there differences between groups of people? I am an anthropologist,
    79. 79. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 4 Student creates non-linguistic representation
    80. 80. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 5 Student adds to understanding of word and uses the word in writing & speaking The student might… •add examples of the word, •make comparisons of the word, •classify the word
    81. 81. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 5 Student adds to understanding of word and uses the word in writing & speaking Reading Vocabulary The student might… Listening Vocabulary Writing Vocabulary Productive •Use the words in writing Receptive Speaking Vocabulary Doug Buehl 2007 •Have a conversation with a partner using vocabulary •Look at suffixes, prefixes, and Latin roots
    82. 82. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 5 Student adds to understanding of word and uses the word in writing & speaking Directly teaching word partsaffixes, base words, roots greatly enhance vocabulary because 60% of English words have Latin or Greek origins (Armbruster & Osborn, 2001). http://www.inrebus.com/latinwordoftheday.php Latin Word of the Day
    83. 83. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 5 Student adds to understanding of word and uses the word in writing & speaking unalienable: From the Latin adjective alienus, -a, -um, meaning belonging to another. Unalienable rights are those that cannot be taken away or transferred to another person. obligation: The same prefix ob- + the verb ligare, meaning to tie or bind. An obligation is that by which one is bound. legitimate: From the Latin noun lex, legis, meaing law. Legitimate means according to law. citizenship: From the Latin noun civis, civis, meaning citizen. revolt: From the Latin verb revolvere, to roll back or against. discipline: From the Latin verb disco, discere, meaning to teach. Or from the noun discipulus, meaning student or follower. militancy: From the Latin noun miles, militis, meaning soldier. destiny: From the Latin verb destinare, meaning to fasten down or to arrange or design.
    84. 84. Method for Teaching Vocabulary • • • Prefixes add meaning to thousands of words. Learn a few prefixes, and you open up the meaning of thousands of words. There are twenty common prefixes that account for 97% of the prefixed words in printed school English (White, Sowell & Yanagihara, 1989). • dis- re- un- (in, im, il, ir)-
    85. 85. Method for Teaching Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Anti = against : anti-war De = opposite : destroy Dis* = not, opposite of : disagree En(m) = cause to : encode, embrace Fore = before : forecast In(m) = in : intake, implant Inter = between : interact Mid = Middle : Midway Mis = Wrongly : Mistake Non = Not : Nonsense Over = Over : Overlook Pre = Before : Preview Re* = Again : Return Semi = Half : Semicircle Sub = Under : Submarine Super = Above: Superstar Trans = Across : Transport Un* = Not : Unfriendly Under = Under : Undersea In, Im, Il, Ir * = Not : Injustice, Impossible, Illiterate, Irreligious.
    86. 86. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 5 Student adds to understanding of word and uses the word in writing & speaking Teach dictionary/glossary use as a way to check/refine their explanations. (We eventually do want students to be able to independently figure out meanings for unknown words.)
    87. 87. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 6 – Student “plays” with the words. The student plays games, creates word art, creates vocabulary songs. Wall of Vocab Song
    88. 88. STEP 6 – Student “plays” with the words. WORD DEBATE Which word best describes the picture? police brutality civil disobedience
    89. 89. STEP 6 – Student “plays” with the words. WORD DEBATE Which word best describes the picture? escalation demilitarize
    90. 90. Method for Teaching Vocabulary STEP 6 – Student “plays” with the words. Write a Word Poem Benevolent  (adj)  kind The benevolent dictator Was good and kind His rule was fair His justice blind Debunk  (v) to discredit The scientist was wrong His hypothesis debunked His colleagues wondered If chemistry he flunked Deliberate   (v)  to consider carefully The jury deliberates They think things through They look over the evidence And piece together the clues
    91. 91. Resources for “Playing” with Words http://vocabulary.co.il/blog/learning_vocabulary/category/social-studies-vocabulary/ Vocabulary building games http://www.superkids.com/aweb/tools/words/ Show examples http://jc-schools.net/tutorials/vocab/ Contains word lists/games http://www.teach-nology.com/forum/showthread.php?t=3722 Vocabulary game ideas
    92. 92. Resources for “Playing” with Words http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/category/word-of-the-day/ Word of the Day http://www.imagechef.com Image Chef -like Wordle only you can make shapes http://picturevocabulary.com/satflashcards.html Visual learning (cards to purchase) Show examples
    93. 93. Resources for “Playing” with Words http://quizlet.com/ Online quiz program My daughter in college Uses Quizlet to study. She makes her own Flashcards and it’s FREE! “Tim Nyenhuis” http://www.syvum.com/cgi/online/serve.cgi/squizzes/history/hist1.tdf History vocabulary Show examples
    94. 94. Resources for “Playing” with Words http://www.vocabulary.com/ Show examples http://www.weboword.com/
    95. 95. Resources for “Playing” with Words http://www.freerice.com/
    96. 96. Resources for “Playing” with Words Students could categorize words and make a word cloud.
    97. 97. Resources for “Playing” with Words Wordle http://www.wordle.net/ Forty-seven ways to Use Wordle in the Classroom https://docs.google.com/present/view?pli=1&id=dhn2vcv5_157dpbsg9c5 Wordaizer http://www.mosaizer.com/Wordaizer/
    98. 98. Resources for “Playing” with Words www.wordsift.com Visual Thesaurus is free through Wordsift http://www.visualthesaurus.com/vocabgrabber/ Visual Thesaurus & Vocabulary Grabber Show examples
    99. 99. Assessing Vocabulary Knowledge
    100. 100. Vocabulary Assessment VOCABULARY war debt protest boycott revenue taxation duties tyrant monopoly monarchy propaganda revolution independence Show assessment example 4 = I know it well and can explain it and I use the word in writing and talking 3 = I know something about the word and can relate it to a situation 2 = I have seen the word or heard it before 1 = I don’t know the word at all
    101. 101. Vocabulary Assessment VOCABULARY imperialism 4 = I know it well and can explain it and I use the word in writing and talking 3 = I know something about the word and can relate it to a situation 2 = I have seen the word or heard it before 1 = I don’t know the word at all capitalist economy massive retaliation military industrial complex polytheistic reparations socialism heresiarch fiscal policy aggregate hegemony simony Teachers, how would you evaluate your knowledge of these words?
    102. 102. Vocabulary Assessment I know the word I sort of know the word I don’t know the word
    103. 103. Vocabulary Assessment CLOZE Passage Historians do not know exactly when people from Asia crossed this land bridge into North American because the travelers left no written records. Historians relay on _______ - the study of the unwritten past – for clues. Historians examine _________, or remains of objects made by humans to understand the past. Evidence indicates that the Paleo-Indians, or the first Americans, crossed Beringia into Alaska sometimes between 50,000 and 10,000 B.C. People who are native to an area or the original people of an area are known as _____________. Originally these people were hunters and gatherers but over time ____________ societies developed as people learned how to breed wild plants and animals for use by humans, also known as ______________.
    104. 104. Vocabulary Assessment Vocabulary Word doctrine Monroe Doctrine naturalization - Saba Jaipuri strait Examples Sometimes have students give examples instead of definitions - Hmong community members who weren’t born here Bering Strait Strait of Gibraltar
    105. 105. Vocabulary Assessment English/Language Arts Grade 6 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible). Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). 5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty ). 6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
    106. 106. Vocabulary Assessment English/Language Arts Grade 7 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel). Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). 5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending ). 6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression
    107. 107. Vocabulary Assessment English/Language Arts Grade 8 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede). Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). 5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context. Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute ). 6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
    108. 108. Vocabulary Assessment English/Language Arts Grades 9-10 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy ). Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). 5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. 6. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
    109. 109. Vocabulary Assessment English/Language Arts Grades 11-12 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable). Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). 5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. 6. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression
    110. 110. Differentiating Vocabulary Instruction
    111. 111. Differentiating Vocabulary Instruction Advanced Students Generate/examine examples across time (e.g., What were some revolutions that took place in history?) Differentiate between words with close meanings (e.g., Is a coup de ‘etat the same as a revolution?) SAT Vocabulary Super Kids http://www.superkids.com/aweb/tools/sat/ A dictionary definition will make more sense to them than to students who do not have as much background information
    112. 112. Differentiating Vocabulary Instruction Analyze political cartoons, which deal with the vocabulary word derapsclass.blogspot.com appeasement
    113. 113. Differentiating Vocabulary Instruction Not all Hmong students McRel 2006 speak Hmong Have ELL students physically act out the vocabulary word. Rick Wormeli 2009
    114. 114. Differentiating Vocabulary Instruction Consider students’ Multiple intelligences Music vocabulary Hip hop flocabulary http://www.flocabulary.com/wordup_blue_listen.htm Image Chef – create a slide show http://www.imagechef.com/
    115. 115. Differentiating Vocabulary Instruction Make sure you work with specialists to help students learn vocabulary. Get specialists the words ahead of time so that they can help frontload the vocabulary.
    116. 116. A Word Conscious Classroom
    117. 117. Word Consciousness ... - Awareness of words - Enjoyment of words - Playing with words - Interest in words - Appreciation of words - Satisfaction in using words well
    118. 118. Word Conscious Classroom There are specific academic discourse communities that use particular types of words to communicate. Doug Buehl explain that these communities read text in different ways. (TLH)
    119. 119. Word Conscious Classroom A person becomes a part of a discourse community by becoming an“apprentice” in the culture. Novice Apprentice Practitioner Expert This involves becoming an “insider”with others who will help the novice so that s/he learns the culture, including the type of language used.
    120. 120. Word Conscious Classroom Word consciousness becomes a way to address this issue by actively, explicitly and thoroughly immersing students in opportunities to see, hear and use academic discourse vocabulary.
    121. 121. Word Conscious Classroom Word Walls The power of an interactive word wall in the classroom is amazing. The key to a successful word wall is the word, "interactive." Students need to actively interact with the word wall on a daily basis.
    122. 122. Word Conscious Classroom Word Walls As students master a word, it should be retired to a shoe box and newer words added to the wall. The “shoe box” words can be reviewed before cumulative tests, or used to help students make connections between past learning and new topics. Word walls work best when they are interactive, with words that can be easily added, removed or rearranged. Pocket charts, or index cards with peeland-stick Velcro, or peel-and-stick magnetic strips work well. Read more at Word Walls in Middle School: How to Use a Word Wall Effectively with Older Students http://curriculalessons.suite101.com/article.cfm/use_word_walls_in_middle_school#ixzz0uSBNgaSO
    123. 123. Word Conscious Classroom
    124. 124. Word Conscious Classroom
    125. 125. Word Conscious Classroom Word Walls Wall of Vocab
    126. 126. Word Conscious Classroom Word Walls http://www.history.esc2.net/
    127. 127. Word Conscious Classroom Ms. Vinje’s
    128. 128. Word Conscious Classroom Mr. Peterson’s
    129. 129. Word Conscious Classroom Encourage students to be Social Studies Word Wizards and find the use of vocabulary words outside of class. Keep a chart.
    130. 130. Word Conscious Classroom Tell students that the Word Wizards are listening for them to use vocabulary words in class discussions.
    131. 131. Word Conscious Classroom A Word Wizard
    132. 132. Word Conscious Classroom Words = Power Intelligence Strength Knowledge Charisma Talking Success Achievement
    133. 133. Word Conscious Classroom The teacher who is alert to opportunities for using sophisticated, interesting, and precise language is probably the most important element in a word-rich environment. — B E C K E T A L . , 2 0 0 2
    134. 134. Resources Used Building Academic Vocabulary by Kelly Curtright Building Academic Vocabulary by Marzano and Pickering Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement by Marazano Tennessee Academic Vocabulary by Timothy K. Webb Strategies for Boosting Vocabulary Learning Across the Curriculum by Doug Buehl Grasping Tier 2 Words – Condensed from an article by Doug Buehl Teaching Reading in Social Studies by Carlos M. Gonzalez Developing Content Literacy: the “3 legged” Stool of Improving Secondary Achievement by Kevin Feldman AP Vocabulary Data Base by Marshfield High School Social Studies Academic Vocabulary by Jim Burke Enhancing Long Term Retention of New Vocabulary Using Visual Images A Focus on Vocabulary by Mike McMahon A High-Incidence Academic Vocabulary by Kinsella/San Francisco State University Vocabulary in Social Studies Classrooms by D. W. Moore Differentiating Instruction for Struggling Learners by East Palestine City Schools Vocabulary Instruction in the Inclusive Classroom by Janine Struyde Selecting Vocabulary: Academic Word List http://www.uefap.com/vocab/select/awl.htm Coxhead http://language.massey.ac.nz/staff/awl/awlinfo.shtml What is the GRE http://www.psychwww.com/careers/gre.htm Games and Activities that Build Academic Vocabulary McRel http://www.nea.org/tools/13739.htm Forty Most Frequent Prefixes and Suffixes http://picturevocabulary.com/fc2.html http://www.syvum.com/cgi/online/serve.cgi/squizzes/history/hist3.tdf?0 Word Consciousness Across the Curriculum Dr. Judith Scott Bonnie Skobel What? Word Consciousness CORE Thank You!!!!!!

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