Argumentative
Literacy
Reading, Writing &
Discussion in Social
Studies
Promoting Critical Thinking Skills
D.C. Everest Soc...
Definition
Argumentative literacy ability to persuade, to debate,
to clarify, explain why,
evaluate, make judgments
-Graff...
Authentic Literacy
Mike Schmoker states that
given a good text, an arresting
issue,students like to argue, in
small groups...
Reading
Writing
Discussion
Evidence suggests that a high quality,
common curriculum—including purposeful
reading, writing ...
Reading
Continue to use Thinking Like a Historian framework
to focus students when reading
Continue to use Doug Buehl’s re...
Writing
The evidence is clear that writing
improves all academic subject
areas.
No matter how the writing variable has bee...
Writing
Emphasis on non-fiction writing
Continue to have students write essays/DBQs
Have students revise writing (process ...
Discussion
Despite the importance of academic
dialog [discussion], most students
don’t engage in it until college or
later...
Discussion

Discussion – Reasons to Use
Can increase comprehension/learning
The teacher can use to check for understanding...
Discussion
The causative relationship that
exists between discussion and
tolerance has long been one of the
most powerful ...
Discussion
Only 23% of adult in the United States
engage in “cross-cutting” political talk
(talking with someone with a di...
Levels of Questioning
To assess students’ critical thinking - use higher level questioning in
discussions.
Revised Bloom’s...
Discussion
Formative assessment
Discussions provide opportunities for
teachers to be formatively assessing
student learnin...
Discussion Formats
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Turn and Talk
Think Pair Share
Retelling
3 x 3 Discussion
Four Plus One
2 x 2 Rota...
Turn and Talk
•Teacher poses question/idea
•Students talk for 20 seconds to a minute
or two depending on the question
•All...
Turn and Talk
Turn and talk to
your partner about
ideas/materials you
have used from our
DBQ Workshop.
Think - Pair - Share
1. Teacher poses a problem or asks an
open-ended question to which there may
be a variety of answers....
Think - Pair - Share
Assess yourself – on
a scale from one to
five – how have you
been doing at
formatively
assessing stud...
Retelling
• Students have an
opportunity to process
what they have read by
organizing and explaining it
to others.
• Resea...
Retelling Steps
1. Explain to students the
steps of how to retell and
why its important. Model it.
2. Use a graphic organi...
Retelling Steps
4. Then move from
Pair/Share format to
Large group and get
feedback from class.
5. Go to next worksheet
it...
Retelling
Person A reads “Misuses of Oral Language in the
Classroom – Poverty, Language, and perceived Skill”
pg. 21
Perso...
3 X 3 Discussion
This format works well when you
have three differing viewpoints such
as Patriot, Loyalist, and Moderate. ...
Four Plus One/College Study Group
1.Students sit in small groups of four
people plus one observer.
2.Students are told tha...
Four Plus One/College Study Group
4. When they are done talking about
the first agenda item, Speaker #2
begins to discuss ...
4 + 1 College Study Group
Discuss the issue of homework.
•Should homework be considered “practice?”
•What percent should h...
2 x 2 Rotating Discussion
1.Each pair gets 2 minutes to present its position. (Each
person in the pair should speak for a ...
2 x 2 Rotating Discussion

Rotating 2 X
2’s
Structured Academic
Controversy
• Debate current events, controversial issues or
historical problems.
• Set up a structure...
Structured Academic
Controversy
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

I.    3 points related to Gun Control
a.  Point 1 – 2nd Amendment
1.
...
Structured Academic
Controversy
• 1.   Class is divided into 6
groups.
•  2.   Each group is responsible
to master the mat...
Inquiry Circles
Julie Klinner will
share her
experience with
Inquiry Circles at
the Middle School.

http://www.youtube.com...
Socratic Dialog
• Effective seminars occur when
participants study the text closely in
advance, listen actively, share the...
Socratic Circles
• Divide your class into two circles, an
inner circle and an outer circle.
• The inner circle explores th...
Socratic Circles
Socratic Dialog
Preparing for the Discussion
Teach students a systematic
method for annotating the
text. Annotations (read...
Socratic Circles
• After 10 – 12 minutes, we have a
reversal of roles. The outer circle
spends 5-10 minutes providing
feed...
Socratic Circles
Consider having
the inner circle
sit on the floor
with the outer
circle students
hovering over
them in de...
Socratic Circles
How do we use discussions to help us evaluate student learning?
1. Should group discussions be given a su...
Final Thought
Given a good text, an arresting issue,
students like to argue, in small groups
or as a class. We’re daft if ...
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Dce argumentative literacy 2010

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Dce argumentative literacy 2010

  1. 1. Argumentative Literacy Reading, Writing & Discussion in Social Studies Promoting Critical Thinking Skills D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 http://www.dce.k12.wi.us/jrhigh/socialstudies/
  2. 2. Definition Argumentative literacy ability to persuade, to debate, to clarify, explain why, evaluate, make judgments -Graff, 2003
  3. 3. Authentic Literacy Mike Schmoker states that given a good text, an arresting issue,students like to argue, in small groups or as a class. Argument teaches them to think and is about the best inducement we have for getting them to read purposely and write with passion and energy. Results Now: How We Can Achieve Unprecedented Improvements in Teaching and Learning
  4. 4. Reading Writing Discussion Evidence suggests that a high quality, common curriculum—including purposeful reading, writing and discussion is the most powerful factor that affects learning. -Marzano, 2003
  5. 5. Reading Continue to use Thinking Like a Historian framework to focus students when reading Continue to use Doug Buehl’s reading strategies Remember that reading helps students increase their vocabulary In choosing texts, look for high quality fiction and non-fiction that are likely to produce strong opinions and varied interpretations such as two texts in which the authors present opposing views. - Schmoker
  6. 6. Writing The evidence is clear that writing improves all academic subject areas. No matter how the writing variable has been measured, the results are the same: as emphasis on classroom nonfiction writing grows, student achievement improves. We have evidence not only of reading and writing score improvement but of scores in math, science, and social studies improving as well. -Doug Reeves
  7. 7. Writing Emphasis on non-fiction writing Continue to have students write essays/DBQs Have students revise writing (process writing) Have students write short summaries Will look into the writing programs that evaluate writing online (e.g., My Access)
  8. 8. Discussion Despite the importance of academic dialog [discussion], most students don’t engage in it until college or later. Unfortunately, according to the Learning 24/7 study, they found evidence of “academic dialog and discussion” in only 0.5% of the 1,500 classes they observed. Schmoker, Results Now, p. 66.
  9. 9. Discussion Discussion – Reasons to Use Can increase comprehension/learning The teacher can use to check for understanding Can debate controversial issues Can discuss issues/topics and work toward better understanding/consensus/see different perspectives Students have opportunity to practice their oral proficiency skills Helps create a more democratic society
  10. 10. Discussion The causative relationship that exists between discussion and tolerance has long been one of the most powerful rationales used by those who advocate the need for discussion-rich environments in a democracy. Diana Hess, Author Controversy in the Classroom
  11. 11. Discussion Only 23% of adult in the United States engage in “cross-cutting” political talk (talking with someone with a different political perspective). People that engaged in “cross-cutting” political talk became more tolerant. Talking only with people who agree with you can cause your views to become even more extreme. Diana C. Mutz, 2003
  12. 12. Levels of Questioning To assess students’ critical thinking - use higher level questioning in discussions. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
  13. 13. Discussion Formative assessment Discussions provide opportunities for teachers to be formatively assessing student learning. As students have discussions with a partner or in a small group, teachers should be listening for evidence of understanding. Teachers should be “eavesdropping” on conversations.
  14. 14. Discussion Formats • • • • • • • • • • Turn and Talk Think Pair Share Retelling 3 x 3 Discussion Four Plus One 2 x 2 Rotating Debates Structured Academic Controversy Inquiry Circles Debates –Socratic Seminar Socratic Circles
  15. 15. Turn and Talk •Teacher poses question/idea •Students talk for 20 seconds to a minute or two depending on the question •Allows shy students, verbally challenged students to “try out/practice their responses.” •Teacher uses phrase “Pachia, what did you and your partner come up with?” (This takes some pressure off of the individual.) •Should be using this strategy a minimum of 2-3 times per typical class period
  16. 16. Turn and Talk Turn and talk to your partner about ideas/materials you have used from our DBQ Workshop.
  17. 17. Think - Pair - Share 1. Teacher poses a problem or asks an open-ended question to which there may be a variety of answers. 2. Teacher gives the students ‘think time’ and directs them to think about the question. 3. Following the ‘think time’ students turn to face their Learning Partner and work together, sharing ideas, discussing, clarifying and challenging. 4. The pair then share their ideas with another pair, or with the whole class. It is important that students need to be able to share their partner’s ideas as well as their own.
  18. 18. Think - Pair - Share Assess yourself – on a scale from one to five – how have you been doing at formatively assessing students? Do you use the results to alter instruction?
  19. 19. Retelling • Students have an opportunity to process what they have read by organizing and explaining it to others. • Research shows that retelling increases quality of comprehension. • It allows a teacher to assess a student’s understanding.
  20. 20. Retelling Steps 1. Explain to students the steps of how to retell and why its important. Model it. 2. Use a graphic organizer or an appropriate handout. 3. Have students work in pairs (Pair-Share). 4. Have students alternate retelling. Give person A 3-4 minutes to explain item #1 on worksheet, agenda, or organizer.
  21. 21. Retelling Steps 4. Then move from Pair/Share format to Large group and get feedback from class. 5. Go to next worksheet item. Have B explain to A. 6. Return to large group Discussion. 7. Repeat until completed. *Begin with shorter readings , move toward more complicated texts. cont.
  22. 22. Retelling Person A reads “Misuses of Oral Language in the Classroom – Poverty, Language, and perceived Skill” pg. 21 Person B reads “Gender Differences – The InitiateRespond-Evaluate Model” pg. 22 A tells B B tells A Whole group
  23. 23. 3 X 3 Discussion This format works well when you have three differing viewpoints such as Patriot, Loyalist, and Moderate. It can also be used to make the the Socratic Circle a little smaller. Students sit in rows arranged 3x3. The rest of the students sit in rows behind the center 3x3 rows. Students rotate forward every couple of minutes. The students who are in the discussion then rotate to the back row.
  24. 24. Four Plus One/College Study Group 1.Students sit in small groups of four people plus one observer. 2.Students are told that the purpose of the discussion is for everyone to come to a better understanding, not to “show off” their knowledge. They are encouraged to seek clarification on items they did not understand. 3. Speaker #1 starts with the first agenda item and then others chime in. Observer
  25. 25. Four Plus One/College Study Group 4. When they are done talking about the first agenda item, Speaker #2 begins to discuss the second agenda item. Others then add their own responses. 5. The observer can tally comments/give points. 6. After a short period of time the observer becomes one of the speakers and Speaker #4 becomes the observer. Observer
  26. 26. 4 + 1 College Study Group Discuss the issue of homework. •Should homework be considered “practice?” •What percent should homework count in the total grade? •Do we give homework that helps move the student toward the learning goals? What percent of a student’s grade should home
  27. 27. 2 x 2 Rotating Discussion 1.Each pair gets 2 minutes to present its position. (Each person in the pair should speak for a minute. 2.While one pair is presenting, the other pair should be listening/jotting down what they hear, coming up with questions based on what they hear. 3.After both pairs have had a chance to present their positions, there will be 2 minutes for questions/debate in which both sides can talk at the same time. 4.Each debate will take a total of 6 minutes and then the positive pairs will rotate to a new pair for the next debate. 5.Some pairs will be asked to share their key points with the entire group.
  28. 28. 2 x 2 Rotating Discussion Rotating 2 X 2’s
  29. 29. Structured Academic Controversy • Debate current events, controversial issues or historical problems. • Set up a structure whereby students work in pairs in groups of four. • Each pair is assigned a different position on the controversial issue (often “for” and “against”), and given a set of primary and secondary sources in order to study their position. • Pairs then reverse perspectives and explain opposing viewpoint. • Teacher debriefs with whole class.
  30. 30. Structured Academic Controversy • • • • • • • • • • I.    3 points related to Gun Control a.  Point 1 – 2nd Amendment 1.      i.      The Second Amendment Guarantees the Right to Bear Arms      ii.      Gun Activists Misconstrue the Second Amendment a. Point 2 – Gun Control Laws      i.      Gun Control Laws Reduce Violence      ii.      Gun Control Does Not Prevent Crime b.  Point 3 – Role of Gun Manufactures    i.      Gun Manufacturers Should be Held Financially Responsible for Gun Related Deaths   ii.      Gun Manufacturers are Not Responsible for Gun Related Deaths
  31. 31. Structured Academic Controversy • 1.   Class is divided into 6 groups. •  2.   Each group is responsible to master the material found in their article for a presentation to the class. 3. After both points are presented to the class, the floor is open to debate the material presented during the presentation
  32. 32. Inquiry Circles Julie Klinner will share her experience with Inquiry Circles at the Middle School. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=gEREnJEfI2w
  33. 33. Socratic Dialog • Effective seminars occur when participants study the text closely in advance, listen actively, share their ideas and questions in response to the ideas and questions of others, and search for evidence in the text to support their ideas. • An effective Socratic Seminar creates dialogue as opposed to debate. Dialogue creates "better conversation."
  34. 34. Socratic Circles • Divide your class into two circles, an inner circle and an outer circle. • The inner circle explores the meaning of the text while the outer circle observes the discussion. • The inner circle is given 10 – 12 minutes to examine and discuss the text • The outer circle cannot interact or speak during the discussion. They are like the detective behind the two-way mirror. But rather than focusing on the content of what is being said, they are interpreting, evaluating and assessing the discussion process. • Matt Copeland
  35. 35. Socratic Circles
  36. 36. Socratic Dialog Preparing for the Discussion Teach students a systematic method for annotating the text. Annotations (reading thoughts) can include predictions, opinions, reflections, visualizations, connections and most importantly questions. (Circle unfamiliar vocabulary words, underline key phrases, and write questions in the margins.)
  37. 37. Socratic Circles • After 10 – 12 minutes, we have a reversal of roles. The outer circle spends 5-10 minutes providing feedback on the discussion process while the inner circle listens attentively. • Then the two circles switch. The maintaining of the discussionfeedback-discussion-feedback pattern is essential.
  38. 38. Socratic Circles Consider having the inner circle sit on the floor with the outer circle students hovering over them in desks.
  39. 39. Socratic Circles How do we use discussions to help us evaluate student learning? 1. Should group discussions be given a summative evaluation grade of x amount of points or should it be considered a formative assignment and either not graded or given a check mark (minimal pt. value)? キ What type of rubric could be used to help the teacher evaluate and grade discussions? キ When grading how do you differentiate between quantity of participation and quality of participation? キ If you use a format like 1 x 1 or small groups of 4, how do you get around to really assessing whether they have learned the lesson objectives? キ Are you just grading participation or are you assessing discussion skills or are you assessing what the student knows about the subject matter? Does your scoring quide, observation guide or rubric reflect this? 2. How can you be fair with your grading assessment of a discussion when some students are naturally aggressive in discussion while others are shy and have trouble speaking up? キ How can you modify the discussion format so that students who have trouble speaking out will have a fair opportunity?
  40. 40. Final Thought Given a good text, an arresting issue, students like to argue, in small groups or as a class. We’re daft if we don’t see that argument teaches them to think and is about the best inducement we have for getting them to read purposefully and write with passion and energy” Mike Schmoker, Results Now.

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