Authentic
Literacy
Reading, Writing & Discussion in
Social Studies
Promoting Critical Thinking Skills
D.C. Everest Social ...
Focused on student learning
Hands-on learning

Preparing citizens for the 21st
Century
Rigor – high expectations

Literacy...
Which is most effective?
(re: test scores; college/career success)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Laptops for all/Smartboards in eve...
Which is most effective?
(re: test scores; college/career success)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Laptops for all/Smartboards in eve...
Schmoker’s Books
Evidence suggests that a
high quality, common
curriculum—including
purposeful reading, writing
and discus...
Common Core & Social Studies

Common Core focuses
on reading, writing, discussion
Not adopted in Wisconsin but still has m...
Using History to Invigorate
Common-Core Lessons
“Common-core anxiety sweeps the
land, and professional developers
of curri...
Reading
Writing
Discussion
Literacy is the key word; the teaching of history should have
reading and writing at its core.
...
Reading

Use high quality fiction and non-fiction that are likely
to produce strong opinions and varied interpretations
su...
Non-Fiction Texts
We asked ourselves –
how do adults who
like history learn about
history?
Reading historical fiction
and ...
Historical Fiction Texts

We don’t do historical
fiction like a novel
unit in English class.
We emphasize the
history! Of ...
Invisible Heart – Economics book
This makes
economics seem so
very interesting!

A love story that embraces the business a...
Graphic Novels

http://www.docslide.com/learning-history-through-graphic-novels/#chitika_close_button
Graphic Novels Meet Historical
Fiction – Timeline Series

http://www.peterpappas.com/2007/01/graphic_novels_.html
D.C. Everest Oral History Project
History as stories;
history is about real
people

Read
Write
Discuss
D.C. Everest Oral History Project

http://www.dceoralhistoryproject.org/
Close
Reading

http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/top-teaching/2013/04/investigating-nonfiction-part-2-digging-deeper-clos...
CLOSE READING in SOCIAL STUDIES #1
1

Activate Prior Knowledge & Set Purpose for Reading

2

Frontload Key Text Vocabulary...
CLOSE READING in SOCIAL STUDIES #2
1

Activate Prior Knowledge & Set Purpose for Reading

2

Student Reads Text Independen...
Reading Thoughts
Classroom Strategies for
Interactive Learning
Integrating TLH with Reading
Strategies
Thinking Like a Historian
Current Events Reading
Teach Vocabulary

http://www.slideshare.net/ngajewski/dce-social-studies-vocabulary
Acquiring Vocabulary
FRONTLOADING
Words
Frontloading is a process of intentionally
exposing learners to vocabulary, concep...
Word Walls
Writing

The evidence is clear that writing
improves all academic subject
areas.
No matter how the writing variable has be...
Writing

Emphasize non-fiction writing
Continue to have students write essays/DBQs
Have students revise writing (process w...
Writing: Best Practices in the
Social Studies Classroom
• Journals and Reflections
• Essay Writing
• DBQ
The DBQ Project

http://www.dbqproject.com/dbq-project-library.php
Step by Step DBQ Process
RUBRIC
Frames are
provided to help
students write
their DBQs.
We’ve changed
things a little
from the DBQ
Project.
Teachers have
gone to
“checking off”
one or two
paragraphs
ahead of time so
that on the day
of the writing –
students don’...
We are able to hear
the voice
of Charles Upham by
reading his
response…
Students highlight
where they used
documents and
included outside
information to make
grading easier for
teachers
Simulations

Write/Discuss

Follow up simulations/skits with writing and/or discussion –
Don’t assume they learned it from...
Discussion

Despite the importance of academic
dialog [discussion], most students
don’t engage in it until college or
late...
Definition
Argumentative literacy ability to persuade, to debate,
to clarify, explain why,
evaluate, make judgments
-Graff...
Discussion

Discussion – Reasons to Use
Can increase comprehension/learning
The teacher can use to check for understanding...
Discussion

Only 23% of adult in the United States
engage in “cross-cutting” political talk
(talking with someone with a d...
Discussion

Formative assessment
Discussions provide opportunities for
teachers to be formatively assessing
student learni...
Levels of Questioning
To assess students’ critical thinking - use higher level questioning in
discussions.
Revised Bloom’s...
Depth of Knowledge (DOK)
Plan your
questions
out ahead
of time to
make sure
you have
higher level
questioning
Discussion/Talking Formats
•
•
•
•
•
•

Increased Questioning
Turn & Talk ( Pair/Share)
Retelling
Four Plus One
2 x 2 Rota...
Questions – No Opt Out
Turn and Talk
• Teacher poses question/idea
• Student talk for 30 seconds or so.

• Allows shy students, verbally challeng...
Turn and Talk
Here is an example of a TnT Slide

TNT
There are two sides drawn. It is Jefferson vs. Hamilton.
Which side w...
Retelling
• Students have an
opportunity to process
what they have read by
organizing and explaining it
to others.
• Resea...
Retelling Steps
1. Explain to students the
steps of how to retell and
why its important. Model it.
2. Use a graphic organi...
Retelling Steps
4. Then move from
Pair/Share format to
Large group and get
feedback from class.
5. Go to next worksheet
it...
Teach Discussion Skills
Four Plus One/College Study Group
1.Students sit in small groups of four
people plus one observer.
2.Students are told tha...
Four Plus One/College Study Group
4. When they are done talking about
the first agenda item, Speaker #2
begins to discuss ...
2 x 2 Rotating Discussion
1.Each pair gets 2 minutes to present its position. (Each
person in the pair should speak for a ...
2 x 2 Rotating Discussion

Rotating 2 X
2’s
Socratic Circles
• Divide your class into two circles, an
inner circle and an outer circle.
• The inner circle explores th...
Socratic Circles
Socratic Dialog
Preparing for the Discussion
Teach students a systematic
method for annotating the
text. Annotations (read...
Socratic Circles
• After 10 – 12 minutes, we have a
reversal of roles. The outer circle
spends 5-10 minutes providing
feed...
Socratic Circles
Consider having
the inner circle
sit on the floor
with the outer
circle students
hovering over
them in de...
Final Thought
Mike Schmoker states that
given a good text, an arresting
issue,students like to argue, in
small groups or a...
Authentic literacy   discussion 2014 final 2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Authentic literacy discussion 2014 final 2

226 views
162 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
226
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Authentic literacy discussion 2014 final 2

  1. 1. Authentic Literacy Reading, Writing & Discussion in Social Studies Promoting Critical Thinking Skills D.C. Everest Social Studies D.C. Everest Area Schools Weston, WI 54476 http://www.dcesocialstudies.org/instructional-power-points2.html
  2. 2. Focused on student learning Hands-on learning Preparing citizens for the 21st Century Rigor – high expectations Literacy teachers Innovative and willing to take risks Coaches/Advisors Authentic learning Leadership Content specialists Cutting edge of technology Teaching the research process Always checking for understanding
  3. 3. Which is most effective? (re: test scores; college/career success) • • • • • • • • • • Laptops for all/Smartboards in every classroom Common, content-rich curriculum ALL existing Math/literacy “programs” Differentiated instruction Smaller classes Cold calling (and other “checks for understanding”) Various small/school-within-a-school “Academies” 90-120 minutes of purposeful reading & writing per day “Turnaround” strategies (new faculty; school design etc.) Cognitive/concept mapping; graphic representations Taken from Mike Schmoker Presentation “American Reading Company Conference”
  4. 4. Which is most effective? (re: test scores; college/career success) • • • • • • • • • • Laptops for all/Smartboards in every classroom Common, content-rich curriculum ALL existing Math/literacy “programs” Differentiated instruction Smaller classes Cold calling (& other “checks for understanding”) Various small/school-within-a-school “Academies” 90-120 minutes--purposeful reading/writing a day “Turnaround” strategies (new faculty; school design etc.) Cognitive/concept mapping; graphic representations Taken from Mike Schmoker Presentation “American Reading Company Conference”
  5. 5. Schmoker’s Books Evidence suggests that a high quality, common curriculum—including purposeful reading, writing and discussion is the most powerful factor that affects learning. -Marzano, 2003
  6. 6. Common Core & Social Studies Common Core focuses on reading, writing, discussion Not adopted in Wisconsin but still has many helpful things http://www.socialstudies.org/system/files/c3/C3-Framework-for-Social-Studies.pdf
  7. 7. Using History to Invigorate Common-Core Lessons “Common-core anxiety sweeps the land, and professional developers of curriculum and assessment smell dollars. Flashy brochures promise that once that purchase order is signed, every child will pass the new tests. For a pittance more, they'll make the lion lie down with the lamb. District administrators would be wise to lay down their pens. There's a valuable resource right in front of their eyes. It requires no lengthening of the school day, no elimination of art and music, And no endorsement of checks to third-party developers. It's so familiar we no longer notice it. It's called the history/social studies curriculum.” -Sam Wineburg http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2013/12/11/14wineburg_ep.h33.html
  8. 8. Reading Writing Discussion Literacy is the key word; the teaching of history should have reading and writing at its core. Sam Wineburg, Stanford University
  9. 9. Reading Use high quality fiction and non-fiction that are likely to produce strong opinions and varied interpretations such as two texts in which the authors present opposing views. – Schmoker Use a combination of primary/secondary sources Utilize Interactive Reading Strategies (Buehl) Teach students to do “Close Reading” Integrate Thinking Like a Historian framework with Reading Thoughts using interactive reading strategies Teach vocabulary!
  10. 10. Non-Fiction Texts We asked ourselves – how do adults who like history learn about history? Reading historical fiction and non-fiction is a huge way they learn about history!
  11. 11. Historical Fiction Texts We don’t do historical fiction like a novel unit in English class. We emphasize the history! Of course the students remember the history better because of the story! http://www.musicthinktank.com/blog/whats-the-story-thevalue-of-storytelling-in-music-promotion.html
  12. 12. Invisible Heart – Economics book This makes economics seem so very interesting! A love story that embraces the business and economic issues of the day? The Invisible Heart takes a provocative look at business, economics, and regulation through the eyes of Sam Gordon and Laura Silver, teachers at the exclusive Edwards School in Washington, D.C. Sam lives and breathes capitalism. He thinks that most government regulation is unnecessary or even harmful. He believes that success in business is a virtue. He believes that our humanity flourishes under economic freedom. Laura prefers Wordsworth to the Wall Street Journal. Where Sam sees victors, she sees victims. She wants the government to protect consumers and workers from the excesses of Sam's beloved market place. While Sam and Laura argue about how to make the world a better place, a parallel story unfolds across town. Erica Baldwin, the crusading head of a government watchdog agency, tries to bring Charles Krauss, a ruthless CEO, to justice. How are these two dramas connected? Why is Sam under threat of dismissal? Will Erica Baldwin find the evidence she needs? Can Laura love a man with an Adam Smith poster on his wall? The answers in The Invisible Heart give the reader a richer appreciation for how business and the marketplace transform our lives. – Amazon Description
  13. 13. Graphic Novels http://www.docslide.com/learning-history-through-graphic-novels/#chitika_close_button
  14. 14. Graphic Novels Meet Historical Fiction – Timeline Series http://www.peterpappas.com/2007/01/graphic_novels_.html
  15. 15. D.C. Everest Oral History Project History as stories; history is about real people Read Write Discuss
  16. 16. D.C. Everest Oral History Project http://www.dceoralhistoryproject.org/
  17. 17. Close Reading http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/top-teaching/2013/04/investigating-nonfiction-part-2-digging-deeper-close-reading
  18. 18. CLOSE READING in SOCIAL STUDIES #1 1 Activate Prior Knowledge & Set Purpose for Reading 2 Frontload Key Text Vocabulary 3 Teacher Reads Text (part/all) Aloud 4 Teacher Re-reads Text Aloud Modeling Self-Talk/Annotating Make Predictions Make Connections Visualize Ask Questions Summarize Evaluate Cause/Effect Through Their Eyes Turning Points Change/Continuity Using the Past Differing Perspectives Author Place and Time Prior Knowledge Audience Reason Main Idea Significance Questions 5 Students Practice in Pairs/Check for Understanding 6 Student Reading Independently w/Self-Talk/Annotating 7 Students Write About Text & Discuss/Debate in Pairs/Groups
  19. 19. CLOSE READING in SOCIAL STUDIES #2 1 Activate Prior Knowledge & Set Purpose for Reading 2 Student Reads Text Independently/Records Questions 3 Students Discuss Text as Pairs/Share Questions w/Class 4 Teacher Reads Text Aloud Modeling Self-Talk/Annotating Make Predictions Make Connections Visualize Ask Questions Summarize Evaluate Cause/Effect Through Their Eyes Turning Points Change/Continuity Using the Past Differing Perspectives Author Place and Time Prior Knowledge Audience Reason Main Idea Significance Questions 5 Students Practice Rereading in Pairs w/Self-Talk/Annotating 6 Teacher Checks Pairs for Understanding 7 Discussion/Debate to Increase Understanding of Text 8 Students Write about Higher Level Ideas in Text
  20. 20. Reading Thoughts
  21. 21. Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning
  22. 22. Integrating TLH with Reading Strategies
  23. 23. Thinking Like a Historian
  24. 24. Current Events Reading
  25. 25. Teach Vocabulary http://www.slideshare.net/ngajewski/dce-social-studies-vocabulary
  26. 26. Acquiring Vocabulary FRONTLOADING Words Frontloading is a process of intentionally exposing learners to vocabulary, concepts and skills they will later learn, either during the school day or in future unit activities. FRONTLOAD… - Vocabulary from a reading prior to reading - Vocabulary from the unit to be studied next
  27. 27. Word Walls
  28. 28. Writing The evidence is clear that writing improves all academic subject areas. No matter how the writing variable has been measured, the results are the same: as emphasis on classroom nonfiction writing grows, student achievement improves. We have evidence not only of reading and writing score improvement but of scores in math, science, and social studies improving as well. -Doug Reeves
  29. 29. Writing Emphasize non-fiction writing Continue to have students write essays/DBQs Have students revise writing (process writing) Have students write short summaries Use short answer – constructed response items on summative unit exams in place of mc. Follow up discussions/dramatizations/simulations with reflective writing assignments
  30. 30. Writing: Best Practices in the Social Studies Classroom • Journals and Reflections • Essay Writing • DBQ
  31. 31. The DBQ Project http://www.dbqproject.com/dbq-project-library.php
  32. 32. Step by Step DBQ Process
  33. 33. RUBRIC
  34. 34. Frames are provided to help students write their DBQs. We’ve changed things a little from the DBQ Project.
  35. 35. Teachers have gone to “checking off” one or two paragraphs ahead of time so that on the day of the writing – students don’t have as much to write and it makes grading more efficient. The teacher checked this off ahead of time during class several days before actual assessment day
  36. 36. We are able to hear the voice of Charles Upham by reading his response…
  37. 37. Students highlight where they used documents and included outside information to make grading easier for teachers
  38. 38. Simulations Write/Discuss Follow up simulations/skits with writing and/or discussion – Don’t assume they learned it from doing the simulation
  39. 39. Discussion Despite the importance of academic dialog [discussion], most students don’t engage in it until college or later. Unfortunately, according to the Learning 24/7 study, they found evidence of “academic dialog and discussion” in only 0.5% of the 1,500 classes they observed. Schmoker, Results Now, p. 66.
  40. 40. Definition Argumentative literacy ability to persuade, to debate, to clarify, explain why, evaluate, make judgments -Graff, 2003
  41. 41. Discussion Discussion – Reasons to Use Can increase comprehension/learning The teacher can use to check for understanding Can debate controversial issues Can discuss issues/topics and work toward better understanding/consensus/see different perspectives Students have opportunity to practice their oral proficiency skills Helps create a more democratic society
  42. 42. Discussion Only 23% of adult in the United States engage in “cross-cutting” political talk (talking with someone with a different political perspective). People that engaged in “cross-cutting” political talk became more tolerant. Talking only with people who agree with you can cause your views to become even more extreme. Diana C. Mutz, 2003
  43. 43. Discussion Formative assessment Discussions provide opportunities for teachers to be formatively assessing student learning. As students have discussions with a partner or in a small group, teachers should be listening for evidence of understanding. Teachers should be “eavesdropping” on conversations.
  44. 44. Levels of Questioning To assess students’ critical thinking - use higher level questioning in discussions. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
  45. 45. Depth of Knowledge (DOK)
  46. 46. Plan your questions out ahead of time to make sure you have higher level questioning
  47. 47. Discussion/Talking Formats • • • • • • Increased Questioning Turn & Talk ( Pair/Share) Retelling Four Plus One 2 x 2 Rotating Debates Socratic Circles
  48. 48. Questions – No Opt Out
  49. 49. Turn and Talk • Teacher poses question/idea • Student talk for 30 seconds or so. • Allows shy students, verbally challenged students to “try out/practice their responses.” • Teacher uses phrase “Pachia, what did you and your partner come up with?” (This takes some pressure off of the individual.) • This strategy works well with a ppt. presentation.
  50. 50. Turn and Talk Here is an example of a TnT Slide TNT There are two sides drawn. It is Jefferson vs. Hamilton. Which side would you have picked and more importantly, why? TEAM HAMILTON TEAM JEFFERSO N
  51. 51. Retelling • Students have an opportunity to process what they have read by organizing and explaining it to others. • Research shows that retelling increases quality of comprehension. • It allows a teacher to assess a student’s understanding.
  52. 52. Retelling Steps 1. Explain to students the steps of how to retell and why its important. Model it. 2. Use a graphic organizer or an appropriate handout. 3. Have students work in pairs (Pair-Share). 4. Have students alternate retelling. Give person A 3-4 minutes to explain item #1 on worksheet, agenda, or organizer.
  53. 53. Retelling Steps 4. Then move from Pair/Share format to Large group and get feedback from class. 5. Go to next worksheet item. Have B explain to A. 6. Return to large group Discussion. 7. Repeat until completed. *Begin with shorter readings , move toward more complicated texts. cont.
  54. 54. Teach Discussion Skills
  55. 55. Four Plus One/College Study Group 1.Students sit in small groups of four people plus one observer. 2.Students are told that the purpose of the discussion is for everyone to come to a better understanding, not to “show off” their knowledge. They are encouraged to seek clarification on items they did not understand. 3. Speaker #1 starts with the first agenda item and then others chime in. Observer
  56. 56. Four Plus One/College Study Group 4. When they are done talking about the first agenda item, Speaker #2 begins to discuss the second agenda item. Others then add their own responses. 5. The observer can tally comments/give points. 6. After a short period of time the observer becomes one of the speakers and Speaker #4 becomes the observer. Observer
  57. 57. 2 x 2 Rotating Discussion 1.Each pair gets 2 minutes to present its position. (Each person in the pair should speak for a minute. 2.While one pair is presenting, the other pair should be listening/jotting down what they hear, coming up with questions based on what they hear. 3.After both pairs have had a chance to present their positions, there will be 2 minutes for questions/debate in which both sides can talk at the same time. 4.Each debate will take a total of 6 minutes and then the positive pairs will rotate to a new pair for the next debate. 5.Some pairs will be asked to share their key points with the entire group.
  58. 58. 2 x 2 Rotating Discussion Rotating 2 X 2’s
  59. 59. Socratic Circles • Divide your class into two circles, an inner circle and an outer circle. • The inner circle explores the meaning of the text while the outer circle observes the discussion. • The inner circle is given 10 – 12 minutes to examine and discuss the text • The outer circle cannot interact or speak during the discussion. They are like the detective behind the two-way mirror. But rather than focusing on the content of what is being said, they are interpreting, evaluating and assessing the discussion process.
  60. 60. Socratic Circles
  61. 61. Socratic Dialog Preparing for the Discussion Teach students a systematic method for annotating the text. Annotations (reading thoughts) can include predictions, opinions, reflections, visualizations, connections and most importantly questions. (Circle unfamiliar vocabulary words, underline key phrases, and write questions in the margins.)
  62. 62. Socratic Circles • After 10 – 12 minutes, we have a reversal of roles. The outer circle spends 5-10 minutes providing feedback on the discussion process while the inner circle listens attentively. • Then the two circles switch. The maintaining of the discussionfeedback-discussion-feedback pattern is essential.
  63. 63. Socratic Circles Consider having the inner circle sit on the floor with the outer circle students hovering over them in desks.
  64. 64. Final Thought Mike Schmoker states that given a good text, an arresting issue,students like to argue, in small groups or as a class. Argument teaches them to think and is about the best inducement we have for getting them to read purposely and write with passion and energy. Results Now: How We Can Achieve Unprecedented Improvements in Teaching and Learning

×