Nurul Fuadah bt Mohd HassanSakinah bt Mohamad @Md.Som Noraziah bt Razak Nur Hanisah bt Alimuddin
Language learning is about the acquisition of communicative competence, i.e. about learning how to use language appropriately in various communicative situations (Braun, 2006). The usefulness of CL in teaching and learning has received growing attention and recognition (Hunston 2002; Sinclair 2004; Conrad 2005; O’Keeffe, McCarthy, and Carter 2007; Bennett 2010; Reppen 2010).
According to Barlow (2002): Syllabus Design Materials Development Classroom Activities
Written Language: Language teachers are now using on-line corpora in the classroom to help learners distinguish central and typical uses of words from mannered, poetic, and erroneous uses. (Ejerhed & Church) Grammar: Written Language Corpora have been used to improve spelling correctors, hyphenation routines and grammar checkers, which are being integrated into commercial word-processing packages. (Ejerhed & Church) Corpus linguistics has provided a new weapon for translation studies, broadened the research scope and introduced a brand-new thought pattern for translation scholars. This paper introduces the design and application of Translational English Corpus (Shen Guo- rong, 2010). By applying the techniques used by corpus linguists in the study of natural language texts to a corpus of programming language texts (i.e., source code repositories), we can gain new insights into the communication medium that is programming language (Delorey, Knutson and Davies).
According to (Johns and King 1991: iii), DDL is ‘the use in the classroom of computer generated concordances to get students to explore the regularities of patterning in the target language, and the development of activities and exercises based on concordance output’. An opportunity for lifelong learning in the field of language education. Fits well with contemporary learning paradigms and with the so-called 21st C learning or lifelong learning. Emerged in the mid-1980s. Research on DDL: - Vocabulary Acquisition (Steven, 1991; Cobb, 1997) - Writing Instruction (Gaskell & Cobb, 2004; Ross &
The Longman Learners’ Corpus The International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) World English Corpus The British National Corpus (BNC)
ELISA (English Language Interview Corpus as a Second-language Application) (Braun, 2006). Contains a series of narrative interviews with native speakers of different varieties of English and from different walks of life. Covers a variety of communicatively relevant topics from the broad area of professional, social and cultural life. Spoken discourse is becoming increasingly important in international communication and hence in the learning and teaching context. Spontaneous conversation certainly has a role to play in language learning.
• Title of Article: A Corpus Based Study of Idioms in Academic Writing• Writers: Rita Simpson And Dushyanthi Mendis• Link: http://184.108.40.206/TESOL/TQD_2008/VOL• Purpose of study: addresses the advantages and limitations of a corpus-based approach to researching and teaching idioms in a specific genre by drawing on a specialized corpus of 1.7million words of academic discourse.
• a specialized corpus of contemporary speech recorded at the University of Michigan between 1997 and 2001.• It is freely available and searchable via the Web.• It contains 197 hours of recorded speech, totaling about 1.7 million words in 152 speech events.• These speech events range from large lectures, to dissertation defenses, to one-on-one office- hour interactions and small peer-led study group sessions, and each transcript is categorized along several dimensions, including primary discourse mode and academic division.
Definition of Idiom: a group of words that occur in a more or less fixed phrase and whose overall meaning cannot be predicted by analyzing the meanings of its constituent parts. Research questions: (a) How many idioms occur in the various sub registers within academic spoken language? (b) What functions do these idioms perform?
They found 238 idiom types, with 562 tokens in the corpus. Over half of these idiom types occur only once, and about10% occur more than four times in the corpus. They found that 11 transcripts of a variety of speech events contained 10 or more idioms. The speech events included in these transcripts are of an organic chemistry study group, a meeting between a graduate student and his adviser, a class on ethics issues in journalism, and a large public lecture by a recent Nobel laureate in physics.
• Evaluation: …you were just mean to me again. oh you’ve got this evil side that rears its ugly head…(math study group)• Description: if your thyroid is severely out of whack, it has all the exact same symptoms of depression. (Introduction to Psychopathology lecture)• Paraphrase: so women knew that uh if they were labeled noncompliant if they were you know put up a stink about where they delivered their children, this might have a negative impact on health care for their whole family…(Medical Anthropology lecture)• Emphasis: …and we’re not interested in explaining the total variance in our outcome by throwing everything in but the kitchen sink. (Statistics in Social Science lecture)• Collaboration: are they more likely to take steps if the press puts some heat on them? (Ethics Issues in Journalism discussion/ lecture)• Metalanguage: well on that note, have another cup of coffee on your way out and let’s thank John and Ivette for a really nice (xx) (Ecological Agriculture colloquium)
This research has shown that idioms do occur in academic speech and is not as rare phenomenon. The use of idioms is more of individual speakers’ idiolects than of any linguistic or content-related categories. In terms of a functional discourse grammar of academic speech, idioms clearly fulfill several important functions particularly relevant to the unique discourse features of this speech genre.
Braun, Sabine (2006): ELISA - a pedagogically enriched corpus for language learning purposes. In: Braun, Sabine; Kohn, Kurt & Joybrato Mukherjee (eds), forthcoming. Retrieved 21st April 2012 from http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/1292/1/fulltext.pdf Chambers, Angela (2005): Integrating corpus consultation in language studies. Language Learning & Technology 9, 111-125. Retrieved 21st April 2012 from http://llt.msu.edu/vol9num2/pdf/chambers.pdf Daniel P. Delorey, Charles D. Knutson, and Mark Davies : Mining programming language vocabularies from source code. Retrieved 25th April 2012 Ejerhed, E. & Church, K. Written Language Corpora, Retrieved 24th April 2012 from http://speech.bme.ogi.edu/HLTsurvey/ch12node4.html#SECTION122 Granger, Sylviane (2003): The international corpus of learner English: a new resource for foreign language learning and teaching and second language acquisition research. TESOL Quarterly 37:3, 538-545. Retrieved 21st April 2012 from http://nhlrc.ucla.edu/media/files/ KISSELEV--International-Corpus-of-Learner-Eng-2w-4xg.pdf Meunier, Fanny (2011): Corpus linguistics and second/foreign language learning: exploring multiple paths. RBLA, Belo Horizonte, 11, 459-477. Retrieved 21st April 2012 from http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbla/v11n2/a08v11n2.pdf Pascual Pérez-Paredes, María Sánchez-Tornel, José M. Alcaraz Calero (2011): The role of corpus linguistics in developing innovation in data-driven language learning. Congreso Internacional De Innovacion Docente Universidad Politecnica De Cartagena. Retrieved 21st April 2012 from http://repositorio.bib.upct.es/dspace/bitstream/10317/2209/1/c159.pdf SHEN Guo-rong (2010): Corpus-based approaches to translation studies. Cross-cultural th