Reed Elsevier reported profits over $800-million from its Elsevier publishing division in 2008
“ Serials crisis”
An Inventor & Truckers
The truckers would deliver her goods, but only subject to the most unbelievable conditions:
The inventor had to sign all the intellectual-property rights to her product over to the truckers.
The truckers would keep all the profits from sales of the inventor’s product.
The shipping deal had to be both exclusive and perpetual, never subject to review or cancellation. [from: David Wiley, C of Higher Ed. 06/2009]
“ free online access” (with or with- out licensing restrictions), usually directed at academic publications
10-15% of the 20–25,000 peer-reviewed journals are open access journals
2000 journals; 385,000 articles: doaj.org
Strong representation in new areas and specialized niches of research
Examples of Open Access Journals
Directory of Open Access Journals
OJS: Open Journal Systems
Developed via Dr. John Willinsky, at SFU, UBC and elsewhere
Part of the PKP (Public Knowledge Project)
Software package for a Web site/service that publishes and supports workflow for an OA journal
Also developed: Open Conference Systems (OCS), Open Archives Harvester (OAH), Open Monograph Press (OMP)
Growth of OJS
Is a way of licensing free use of materials appropriate to the Internet
All licenses stipulate that the use of the resource be attributed , that the author be given credit according to the manner requested.
One requirement specifies that only non-derivative or “verbatim copies” of the resource be used. In other words, the resource not be revised or combined with other resources in any way.
Some licenses stipulate that the resource be used only for non-commercial purposes, a condition that has been interpreted variously.
Other licenses require that the resource be used only under the condition that any copies or derivative versions be made available under the same terms as the original resource (i.e. as “share-alike” creative commons resources).
Licenses: 6 types
Attribution and use on a share-alike basis (“BY-SA”)
Attribution and use (or distribution) only in original form (“BY-ND”)
Attribution and non-commercial use only (“BY-NC”)
Attribution and non-commercial use only, with use only in original form (“BY-NC-ND)
Attribution, non-commercial use only, on a share-alike basis (“BY-NC-SA”)
Advantages of Open Access
Reputable journals have gone open access
More access to articles; more citations; greater research impact
Should relieve serials crisis
Meets the needs of research funders who want to maximize public research impact
What is funded by the public is able to directly benefit the public
Challenges: How to pay?
Even on the Internet, Journals still need:
Administration (meetings, emails, decisions)
Editing (make sure the articles read very well)
Formatting (make sure the articles appear consistently professional)
Advertising (e.g. at relevant conferences)
In some cases, can be done through volunteer work, but not adequately.
How to pay?
Advertising, Research funding, other options.
A model originating in Science Journals
$1000 - $3000: author fee for open access
Calgary, SFU and U of Ottawa have created author fee budgets/funds so that faculty at those institutions can “afford” to publish
issue about more disciplines/authors going for an author fee fund