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Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online
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Lesson planning and curriculum in canada online

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  • 1. Norm Friesen Leipzig, 21.03.2013Lesson Planning and Curriculum in Canada: A Case Study
  • 2. Instrumental RationalityZweckrational handelt, wer seinHandeln nach Zweck, Mitteln undNebenfolgen orientiert, und dabeisowohl die Mittel gegen dieZwecke, wie die Zwecke gegendie Nebenfolgen… ration-alabwägt. (Max Weber, Wirt-schaft und Gesellschaft,1922)
  • 3. Instrumental RationalityAction is instrumentally rational"when the end, the means, andthe secondary results arc allrationally taken into account andweighed. This involves rationalconsidera-tion of alternativemeans to an end, of the relationsof the end to the secondary con-sequences, and finally of therelative importance of differentpossible ends" (Weber, Economyand Society, p. 26)
  • 4. TactOft stellt sich der Erfolg desLehrens erst ein, wenn der Lehrerdie Gunst des Augen-blickswahrnimmt und von einemvorgegebenen Wege ab-weicht,wenn er den Mut zu pädagogischtaktvollem Handeln aufbringt.(Jakob Muth, Pädago-gischerTakt, 1982)
  • 5. TactOften success in teaching arisesonly when the teacher seizes thechance of the moment, anddeparts from a predeterminedpath, when the teacher finds thecourage for pedagogically tact-ful action.(Jakob Muth, PädagogischerTakt, 1982)
  • 6. Outline• Macro, Meso, Micro: Curriculum, lesson planning, instruction / Didaktik• Behaviorism, Cognitivism, instructional practice• Instrumental rationality and curriculum / instructional design• Need to consider other options
  • 7. Tyler’s Rationale1. objectives, purposes2. Selection of experiences3. Organization of experiences4. Assessment, evaluation
  • 8. Common Lesson PlanningElements• objectives,• materials (resources),• starter (preparation or anticipatory set),• activities (for pupil and or teacher), and• assessment
  • 9. Common Lesson PlanningElements• objectives,• materials (resources),• starter (preparation or anticipatory set),• activities (for pupil and or teacher), and• assessment
  • 10. Robert M. Gagnetheory of instruction should attempt to relatethe external events of instruction to theoutcomes of learning by showing how theseevents lead to appropriate support orenhancement of internal learning processes”(1985, p. 246)
  • 11. Gagne’s Events of InstructionInternal Process Instructional EventReception 1. Gaining attentionExpectancy 2. Informing learners of the objectiveRetrieval to Working Memory 3. Stimulating recall of prior learningSelective Perception 4. Presenting the stimulusSemantic Encoding 5. Providing "learning guidance"Responding 6. Eliciting performanceReinforcement 7. Providing feedbackRetrieval and Reinforcement 8. Assessing performanceRetrieval and Generalization 9. Enhancing retention and transfer
  • 12. • Contiguity Effects: Ideas that need to be associated should be presented contiguously in space and time.• Dual Code and Multimedia Effects: Materials presented in verbal, visual, and multimedia form richer representations than a single medium.• Exam Expectations: Students benefit more from repeated testing when they expect a final exam.• Coherence Effect: Materials and multimedia should explicitly link related ideas and minimize distracting irrelevant material.• Manageable Cognitive Load: The information presented to the learner should not overload working memory.
  • 13. … your own teachingdecisions [as a teacher] …have a powerful impact.Consequently, teaching is nowdefined as a constant streamof professional decisionsmade before, during and afterinteraction with the student:decisions which, whenimplemented, increase theprobability of learning. (Hunter1982, 3)(also: Hunter & Hunter 2004)

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