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Determinants of Poverty, Food    Security & Nutrition
Outline• Contemporary problems and Policy Goals:  MDGs• Asian Enigma• Empirical profile• Explanations & Policy Solutions• ...
Asian Enigma• “In the public imagination, the home of the  malnourished child is sub-Saharan Africa. But the  league table...
Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: Determinants   4
Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: Determinants   5
League Table of Malnutrition: Notes• The figures for each country indicate the percentage  of     children      moderately...
Asian Enigma & Explanations• Poverty? No, levels of income are the same.• Agricultural performance? No, similar levels  of...
Asian Enigma & Explanations• Vegetarian Diet? No, Milk & milk products  are good sources of protein.• Policy indifference?...
Asian Enigma & Explanations• Evidence:  Incidence of low birth weight  Level of anemia• Myth:  Lack of food only reason...
Poverty & Agricultural Growth       Evidence from India
Headcount ratio (per cent)                                                                                     19         ...
Rural Poverty in IndiaState               1957-8   1959-60   1960-1   1961-2   1963-4   1964-5   1965-6      1966-7   1967...
Percentage of rural population in poverty by state (1957-1974)80.070.060.050.0                                            ...
Trends in Rural Poverty in India           Source: Ahluwalia (1978)          Poverty & Agricultural Growth   14
Trends in Agricultural Production in IndiaSource: Ahluwalia (1978)                           Poverty & Agricultural Growth...
Agricultural Growth & Rural PovertySource: Ahluwalia (1998)   Poverty & Agricultural Growth   16
Source: Ahluwalia (1998)   Poverty & Agricultural Growth   17
Poverty & Food Insecurity: Policy Options• Policy options to tackle food and nutrition deprivation differ  between rural a...
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Topic 2 determinants

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Transcript of "Topic 2 determinants"

  1. 1. Determinants of Poverty, Food Security & Nutrition
  2. 2. Outline• Contemporary problems and Policy Goals: MDGs• Asian Enigma• Empirical profile• Explanations & Policy Solutions• Inadequate Economic Access: Poverty• Empirical Evidence on Determinants• Policy Solutions Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: 2 Determinants
  3. 3. Asian Enigma• “In the public imagination, the home of the malnourished child is sub-Saharan Africa. But the league tables clearly show that the worst affected region is not Africa but South Asia. Just over 30% of Africas children are underweight, but the corresponding figure for South Asia is over 50%. And in Bangladesh and India, the proportion of children malnourished is very significantly higher than in even the poorest countries of the sub- Sahara.” (Ramalingaswamy et al., 2006) Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: Determinants 3
  4. 4. Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: Determinants 4
  5. 5. Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: Determinants 5
  6. 6. League Table of Malnutrition: Notes• The figures for each country indicate the percentage of children moderately or severely malnourished, defined as having a weight-for-age which is more than two standard deviations below the median weight-for- age (using the international standard recognized by WHO).• The data are drawn from nationally representative surveys conducted by developing countries between 1990 and 1995 (surveys included Demographic and Health Surveys, National Nutrition Surveys, and other national surveys in which the measurement of anthropometric data was included). Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: 6 Determinants
  7. 7. Asian Enigma & Explanations• Poverty? No, levels of income are the same.• Agricultural performance? No, similar levels of per capita food production.• Higher child mortality rate in Africa? No, the difference is marginal.• Higher inequality? No, Income share of the poorest quintile is much less in SSA than in SA. Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: 7 Determinants
  8. 8. Asian Enigma & Explanations• Vegetarian Diet? No, Milk & milk products are good sources of protein.• Policy indifference? No, ICDS in India.• Inappropriate Growth Standards? No, Growth curves of children are similar.• Possible explanation: Children in SA either not well-fed, or not well-cared-for, or both. Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: 8 Determinants
  9. 9. Asian Enigma & Explanations• Evidence: Incidence of low birth weight Level of anemia• Myth: Lack of food only reason for malnutrition• Solution: Good feeding practices Address poor sanitation due to high population density Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: 9 Determinants
  10. 10. Poverty & Agricultural Growth Evidence from India
  11. 11. Headcount ratio (per cent) 19 51 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 - 52 53 -5 4 55 -5 6 57 -5 8 59 -6 0 Source: World Bank (1997) 61 -6 2 63 -6 4 65 -6 6 67 -6 8 69 -7 0 71 -7 2 73 -7 4 Year 75 -7 Fig. 1: Rural Poverty 6 77 -7 8 79 -8 0 81Poverty, Inequality & Economic Growth: Relation -8 2 83 -8 4 85 -8 6 87 -8 8 89 -9 0 19 91 93 -9 411
  12. 12. Rural Poverty in IndiaState 1957-8 1959-60 1960-1 1961-2 1963-4 1964-5 1965-6 1966-7 1967-8 1968-9 1970- 71 1973-4Andhra Pradesh 53.5 48.8 50.1 47.2 45.6 41.5 45.4 47.9 46 47.3 41 39.8Assam 28 31.4 25.6 29.4 24.4 24.2 31.3 46 .8 38.4 47 .3 35.3 39.3Bihar 59.7 55.7 41.5 49.9 52 .3 54.3 59.4 74.4 7 0.9 59.4 59 58.4Gujarat * 41.5 31.6 39.7 45.7 49.8 50.7 54 .1 50.8 42.8 43.8 35.6Karnataka 41.3 48.9 39.1 35.4 50.5 55.1 63.9 59.5 56.9 58.8 47.2 46.9Kerala 59.6 62.3 57.8 50.3 52.8 60.7 70.7 67 .1 63.4 64.6 62 49.3Madhya Pradesh 57.7 46.4 43.8 40 43.6 42 .1 47.2 58.3 62.3 56 52.9 52.3Maharashtra * 54.5 48.4 43.6 48.2 59.1 57.8 63.2 57.2 54.8 46.6 49.8Orissa 66.6 63.4 62.4 49 .3 60 61.9 62 .1 64.2 64.7 71.2 65 58Punjab Haryana 28 24.2 18.8 22.3 29.4 26.5 26.5 29.5 33.9 24 23.6 23Tamil Nadu 67.8 64.4 53.9 51 52 57.4 59.5 62.7 58.1 60.6 57 .3 48.3Uttar Pradesh 52 .3 36.7 37.9 35.4 56.6 53.7 47 .1 55.2 60.2 46.4 40.6 47 .3West Bengal 62.3 61.4 40.4 58 .3 63.3 64 56.5 64 .3 80.3 74.9 70.1 66INDIA 53.4 48.7 42 42.3 49.1 50.4 51.1 57.4 57.9 53.5 49.1 47.6 Source: Ahluwalia (1978) Poverty & Agricultural Growth 12
  13. 13. Percentage of rural population in poverty by state (1957-1974)80.070.060.050.0 Bihar Kerala40.0 Maharashtra Punjab&Haryana30.0 Uttar Pradesh20.010.0 0.0 1957-8 1959-60 1960-1 1961-2 1963-4 1964-5 1965-6 1966-7 1967-8 1968-9 1970- 71 1973-4 Poverty & Agricultural Growth 13
  14. 14. Trends in Rural Poverty in India Source: Ahluwalia (1978) Poverty & Agricultural Growth 14
  15. 15. Trends in Agricultural Production in IndiaSource: Ahluwalia (1978) Poverty & Agricultural Growth 15
  16. 16. Agricultural Growth & Rural PovertySource: Ahluwalia (1998) Poverty & Agricultural Growth 16
  17. 17. Source: Ahluwalia (1998) Poverty & Agricultural Growth 17
  18. 18. Poverty & Food Insecurity: Policy Options• Policy options to tackle food and nutrition deprivation differ between rural and urban sectors.• Economic access as defined by income and prices largely matter in the urban sector while physical access as defined by production matter in the rural sector in general.• Rural sector: Seasonal Price shocks? Poverty, Food & Nutrition Security: 18 Determinants
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