Ap World History Presentation Verson1 3


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Early Mesopotamia

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Ap World History Presentation Verson1 3

  1. 1. Mesopotamia “The Land Between the Rivers”
  2. 3. KEY TERMS <ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile Crescent - an area of land in south east Asia that experienced an agricultural revolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural Revolution - transition from a hunting and gathering society to settlements with farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sumer - one of the first cities in the fertile crescent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Society - a male dominated society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuneiform - an early system of writing developed in the fertile crescent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Epic of Gilgamesh - collection of stories about Gilgamesh, the legendary God-king of Uruk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hammurabi’s Code - first set of written laws </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. KEY TERMS (cont.…) <ul><li>Hammurabi - a Babylonian emperor that ruled from 1792-1750 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>City-States - independent cities with political and military control over large areas including nearby agricultural regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ziggurat - a Sumerian temple which double as a center of trade and commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>lex talionis - “law of retribution” , or an eye for an eye, the punishment is the same as the crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Sargon of Akkad - Ruler before Hammurabi, ruled from 2370-2315 BCE </li></ul>
  4. 5. What makes Mesopotamia Significant?
  5. 6. Fertile Crescent The “Origin” of Agriculture <ul><li>Agricultural region because of the water from the </li></ul><ul><li>Tigris and Euphrates rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest farming communities. </li></ul><ul><li>= faster development. </li></ul><ul><li>By 6000 BCE, small scale </li></ul><ul><li>irrigation had begun. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to surplus of food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming of cities. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Sumer (southern Mesopotamia) <ul><li>People were attracted to Sumer because of it agricultural potential and later attracted because of its wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>By 5000 BCE, Sumerians were constructing complex irrigation networks. </li></ul><ul><li>By 4000 BCE they had built the world’s first cities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Served as marketplaces and cultural centers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But due to internal and external pressures, they transformed into city-states. </li></ul><ul><li>By 3000 BCE, it had a population of 100,000 and kings who had absolute power. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Ziggurat
  8. 9. <ul><li>Developed around 2900 BCE by the Sumerians to record commercial and tax documents </li></ul><ul><li>Used graphic symbols to represent sounds, syllables, ideas, and objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced the earlier system of pictographs. </li></ul>Cuneiform <ul><li>Written with a reed stylus to impress symbols on wet clay. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for more than 3000 years. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Hammurabi (Babylonian Empire) <ul><li>Emperor of Babylonia, ruled from 1792-1750 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Improved on previous administrative techniques by relying on a centralized bureaucracy and regular taxations </li></ul><ul><li>Established Babylon as the capital and put deputies to manage different territories. </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced a system of more regular taxes instead of plundering conquered lands for wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed a code of laws to maintain order in his empire. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Hammurabi’s Code <ul><li>First set of documented laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on principal of lex talionis, the “law of retaliation”. </li></ul><ul><li>Included civil and criminal laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws were prejudiced; the upper class had different punishments compared to the lower class, and same is true for men and women, however laws still apply to the king. </li></ul><ul><li>The laws had a high standard of behavior with strict punishments to back it up. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though judges often relied on their own judgment when deciding on a case, these laws show an attempt to regulate punishments. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Political - divided into 3 social classes </li></ul><ul><li>(ruling class, priests, and commoners) </li></ul><ul><li>Economical - Sumerians = early example of established trade </li></ul><ul><li>Religious - polytheistic with a focus on nature gods </li></ul><ul><li>-built ziggurats as temples and centers of commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Social - patriarchal society, wealthy upper class </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual - developed system of writing (cuneiform) and begun studies such as mathematics and astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic - many statues of gods </li></ul><ul><li>Near - Part of the fertile crescent in the middle east (modern day Iraq) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Main Themes <ul><li>Theme 1. Humans v. Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population trends: population increased with settlements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration: many diverse peoples migrated to the area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theme 2. Cultural Interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religions: Polytheistic originally, but also monotheistic Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventions: small scale irrigations, bronze/iron metallurgy, ships, and made use of the wheel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed cuneiform, astronomy, and mathematics. (Education) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theme 3. Political Structures, Expansion and Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political structure: City-States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government: First elected kings with and assembly, but later hereditary succession. Kings = sons of the gods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empires: Sumer->Sargon->Babylon->Assyrian->New Babylon. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Theme 4. Economic Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture: developed effective irrigation and used commoners as laborers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traded sheep, oxen, wheat, barley, pots, and fish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxed the lower classes. Community projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theme 5. Social Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Roles: Patriarchal society, but women still had rights under Hammurabi’s code. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social classes: </li></ul></ul>Main Themes (continued)