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Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009
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Is There Space For Senior Civil Servants Hybrid Management Models Across Political Administrative Systems, David Ferraz, NISPA, Montenegro, 2009

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Paper presented on NISPACEE conference, Montenegro, 2009 …

Paper presented on NISPACEE conference, Montenegro, 2009

Bureaucracy is, nowadays, synonymous with inefficiency, ineffectiveness, impersonality, stiffness as well as uselessness, wastefulness or even corruption. Despite the negative connotation of the word bureaucracy is in fact an essential structure for the implementation of public policies. It is difficult to conceptualize a governmental model without the existence of such a structure. Therefore, the question that remains up to date since the end of the nineteenth century has to do with the balance and relationship of political and administrative powers.
Formally, there is a clear separation between the political and the administrative functions and roles. However, in practice, this crystal relationship gives place to a more complex reality according to the specificities of each country. Taking this into consideration, this paper analyzes the evolution of the senior civil servants selection processes according to the main models of State and Administration. Other aspects addressed include the political-administrative dichotomy and the relationships between administrative actors (traditionally selected for a long period) and political actors (elected for a short period by citizens). Although these relationships are, in a theoretical approach, quite clear and “crystal”, according to the formal tasks of each actor, in practice they are not clear and these two actors are mutually dependent: political actors rely on civil servants’ knowledge and civil servants are under the authority of elected politicians. This issue is relevant when analyzing both the legitimacy of the civil servants’ power and their independence and neutrality towards political bodies. Firstly, it poses the question of democratic legitimacy, considering that senior civil servants hold some informal power that can influence and determine the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, consequently, its original meaning. Secondly, it raises issues of administrative neutrality and independence because, in a limit situation, the proximity and inter-permeability relations between political and administrative actors enhance the discussion about the administration impartiality as well as the social representativeness of public policies.
Considering this context this paper identify the main models of interaction between political and administrative actors were identified, in a theoretical perspective. However, these are extremist and idealistic models that disregard the potential combinations of more than one model. For this reason and according to the identified political-administrative macro-configuration models, representative cases were selected in order to identify specificities of senior civil servants’ selection and the recruitment processes, as well as selection and public employment typologies.
This paper also points some proposals in order to get a more integrated strategic selection and management policy for the senior civil servants, aiming at the improvement of transparency, legitimacy and merit among the selection processes.

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    • 1. David Fe rraz National Institute of Public Administration, Ministry of Finances and Public Administration Portugal david.ferraz@ina.pt David Fe rra z , 2009 1
    • 2. What is an hybrid manag e me nt mo de l ? (senior civil servants) Is a political-administrative configuration that combines the follow selection ing criterion of top public managers: Independent from politicians Politicized neutrality ensure Public policies application David Fe rra z , 2009 2
    • 3. Is this a ne w is s ue ? XIX century XX century I &#xF097;What kind of political- Critical issue of contemporary administrative system? democracies &#x2022; A politicized system based on political , trust &#x2022; w kind of interaction betw hat een political actors &#x2022; A professional system based on , and administrative actors ? neutrality and independence of administration (Peters, 1987) David Fe rra z , 2009 3
    • 4. Theory There is a clear separation betw een political functions and administrative ones Pr&#xE1;tica Rela&#xE7;&#xF5;es de interdepend&#xEA;ncia e interpermeabilidade (Aberbach, Putm Rockm 1981 ;Diam an an, ant, 1989 apud Herzfeld, 1992; Wilson, 1887; Carm 1987; M o, ulgan 2007; Peters, 1996; Stillm 1997; Rosenbloom 1998; an, , M ozzicafreddo, 2001; Rocha, 2001; Chevallier, 2002 e 2005; Madureira e Rodrigues, 2006; Pitschas, 2006) David Fe rra z , 2009 4
    • 5. Practice Teoria Democratic legitimacy Interdependence and interpermeability relations Detentores de legitimidade t&#xE9;cnica Specific knowledge Technocracy Inform political adm al inistrative configurations Detentores de Trade-off conhecimentos 3. em D ocratic legitimacy issues especializados 5. eutrality and independence issues N David Fe rra z , 2009 5
    • 6. Politicization level on the top public managers selection Politicization level 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 1789-1829 1829-1860 patronage 1860-1980 nepotism 1980-(&#x2026;) Period Northcote trevelyan report Pendleton act Tatcher Reagan &#x2022; Cyclic evolution of the top public managers selection models &#x2022; The perturbations that cause the dysfunction of the existing model leads to a new model in which the affirmed values tend to minimize that perturbations David Fe rra z , 2009 6
    • 7. Ho w are to day 's &#x2019; po litic al adminis trative s ys te ms c o nfig ure d ? &#x2022; What kind o f po litic al adminis trative s ys te m s ho uld we ado pt? &#x2022; A m professionalized? ore &#x2022; A m politicized? ore &#x2022; What are the advantag e s o f e ac h s ys te m ? &#x2022; What kind o f s e le c tio n mo de ls s ho uld we ado pt in o rde r to e nhanc e : &#x2022; The trans pare nc y &#x2022; The de mo c ratic le g itimac y &#x2022; The public manag e me nt David Fe rra z , 2009 7
    • 8. The senior civil servants selection evolution in the context of the state and administrative models Inte rac tio n mo de ls be twe e n po litic al and adminis trative ac to rs Graphic Models Predominant values representation Peters Formal model; State administration model Neutrality/ 1 Aberbach, Putman e Rockman Independence Image 1, 2 Hybrid values of trust, Aberbach, Putman e Rockman neutrality and 2 Image 4 independence Peters Village life / functional village life Trust 3 Aberbach, Putman e Rockman Image 3 Adaptado de Peters, 1987 David Fe rra z , 2009 8
    • 9. The senior civil servants selection evolution in the context of the state and administrative models Trust 3 o iza n P litic tio A 2 B 1 Ne lity utra Ind p nd nc ee e e P fe s na tio ro s io liza n In practice: How senior civil servants are selected? More politicized or professionalized systems? David Fe rra z , 2009 9
    • 10. Political administrative macro-configuration Political administrative Macro-configurations Representative countries Traditional european model France, Spain, Portugal British model United Kingdom, New Zealand American Model USA categories of analysis: &#x2022;Re ruitm nt c e P litic l-a m tra o a d inis tivem c - a ro &#x2022;Se c n le tio c nfig tio c s s ie o ura n a e tud s &#x2022;Em lo e m d ls p ym nt o e Shepherd, 2007 David Fe rra z , 2009 10
    • 11. MACRO-MODEL CHARACTERISTICS European British American Typologies of traditional model model model Closed recruitment X Recruitment X X Open recruitment Political model X Selection Professional model / Meritocratic ----------------------------------- Hybrid model X X Public --------------------------------- employment Career system regime on Career system based on a post/position x X senior civil servant functions Post/position system (service commission) X some more details&#x2026; David Fe rra z , 2009 11
    • 12. Political-administrative systems French and Portuguese model &#x2022; Great power to select or dismiss appointed senior civil servants &#xF0E0;&#x201C;at the pleasure of government&#x201D; (Shepherd, 2007) &#x2022; Criterion: &#x2022; political or personnel confidence or trust (party allegiance) &#x2022; government program is implemented whatever its merit (Mulgan, 2007) &#x2022; 46% of the French senior civil servants had, within their nuclear family, someone who was also a Senior Civil Servant (Bellier, 2005) Very closed relations between politicians and the civil servants Favours a patronage/nepotism based system David Fe rra z , 2009 12
    • 13. Hybrid systems United Kingdom / United States of America &#x2022; Relative clear border between administration and politicians (Shepherd, 2007: 20-23) Se r nio Co p te e m e nc s Le d rs a e hip re re l fe ntia Co m e m itte o ra tic s Go dp c e &#x2022;JESPc ria rite C Se e ivil rvic (UK) Eva tio o the lua n f Cdoe c nd a s a id te p ip s rinc le (QRB) &#x2022;ECQ (USA) s rtlis ho ts TRAINING De is n c io no ina p lic o theinte t m l ub ity n rne (p litic l in s m o a o e (PLUMBOOK) css ae) &#x2022; USA: &#x2022; 66% of the posts are occupied by members of the SES &#x2022; 34% selected considering political factors &#x2022; from those 22% are already members of the SES David Fe rra z , 2009 13
    • 14. Is the re s pac e fo r hybrid manag e me nt mo de ls ? Co nc lus io n &#x2022; The senior civil servants are a fundamental elem on the form ent ulation and application of public policies &#x2022; +/- independence and neutrality &#xF0E0; -/+ political trust &#x2022; Politicization is a double side phenomenon &#x2022; Trust should not be considered only has a political m eaning &#xF0E0; It is also an obligation from senior civil servants to the State, m than to the ore political pow or party er The ins titutio nalizatio n o f S e nio r Civil s e rvants func tio ns c o uld inc re as e de mo c rac y le g itimac y and to p PA po s itio ns pro fe s s io nalizatio n David Fe rra z , 2009 14
    • 15. Co nc lus io n P litic tio o iza n C A +politicization; trust B P fe s na tio ro s io liza n Type of institution Government powers Selection of the President of the institution Ind c ire t Ag nc e y Sup rinte e e e nd nc Go rnm nt no ina d ve e m te Ad . m Dire tio p w r c n o e Ind p nd nt ee e Re ula ry o a tio / g to rg niza n P p rc na top rlia e ro o io l a m nt P rlia e no ina d a m nt m te Ad . m c m is io o ms n re re e tio p s nta n (career regulation) Auto m us no o P fis io l a s c tio ro s na s o ia n Only le a tute g g lity la e Ele te b o r s nio c d y the e r Ad . m Stra g o nta ns(no te ic rie tio t c s rva in thec re r ivil e nts a e vinc tive ula ) +Professionalization; independence; neutrality Thank You david.ferraz@ina.pt David Fe rra z , 2009 15

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