MARA University of Technology
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
EDU 702: RESEARCH METHODS IN EDUCATION
Lecturer: Dr. Johan @ Eddy Luaran
The Effectiveness of Using Multimedia on Teaching and
Learning Visual Arts among Secondary School
Name: Mohammad Shanizam bin Jasmani
ID no: 2013475344
Date of Submission: 20.12.2013
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER 1 (INTRODUCTION)………………………………………………………. 1
Background of study……………………………………………………….. 3
Problem statements……………………………………………………….... 5
Research objectives……………………………………………………….... 8
Research questions…………………………………………………………. 8
Traditional and multimedia classroom…………………………….. 10
Multimedia and education…………………………………………. 11
Limitation of the study……………………………………………………... 12
Significance of the study………………………………………………….... 12
CHAPTER 2 (LITERATURE REVIEW)………………………………………………. 13
The advantages of multimedia……………………………………………... 17
The limitations of multimedia……………………………………………… 18
Conceptual framework……………………………………………………... 19
CHAPTER 3 (RESEARCH METHODOLOGY)………………………………………. 21
Research design……………………………………………………………. 21
Population and sample……………………………………………………... 22
Data collections…………………………………………………………….. 23
Data analysis procedure……………………………………………………. 23
As technology advances and hardware and software improve, it becomes much more feasible
to integrate multimedia directly into the teaching and learning system. By incorporating
multimedia into the teaching, teachers can capture students’ attention, engage learners, inspire
creativity, explain the difficult concepts and theory and have fun with the students
According to (Mabalot-Bomogao, 2012) for the students, they can be involved in the use of
multimedia to contrast and convey knowledge. As for example, students can use concept
mapping software such as inspiration to brainstorm. They can also create digital movie to
demonstrate their artwork. According to Literacy, Learning from Multimedia Sources,
multimedia is often used to decorate text with the goal of making the text more interesting for
the readers (Colomina, 2010).
To improve the quality of learning visual arts in schools, using multimedia is very effective in
the teaching and learning situation. It benefits the students to understand as much information
as possible, to retain information longer, to grasp information easily and to gain knowledge
Multimedia can make learning become interesting and active for the students. The teacher
through the use of multimedia can design elements in delivering the oral lecture to the
students. By using multimedia, teachers can conceptualize ideas for slides that are arranged in
logical progression (Colomina, 2010).
According to (Kian) on his previous research on Teachers as Multimedia Developers, in an
opening address at the conference on E-Learning held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 25th
May 2000, the Secretary-General from the Ministry of Education, Dr. Johari Bin Mat stated
that, "Technology has been and is becoming an important component of teaching and learning
in our educational system.......Information and Communication Technology (ICT) provides
powerful tools for accessing, storing, and disseminating information.....Our approaches to
teaching, preparing contents and delivering learning materials need to be adjusted according
to the existence of this technology. The classroom is no more a static physical set-up, but a
rather dynamic existence...Teachers should be able to integrate technology in their process of
teaching and learning...Technology supports learning. It will enable teachers to pursue
traditional goals with new fervor and success. This impact of technology will give a new
dimension to the quality of our education system...Technology supports the learners to bring
about significant change in learning”.
Currently, the multimedia technology can help teachers in order to be able to address different
modes of teaching. The ability to incorporate multiple media elements in conjunction with
interactive features into teaching and learning will enhance and modify the traditional
instructional approaches. This will inevitably change the way teachers teach and students
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The role of the teacher is to provide information and content to the students in the traditional
education realm. This can be done in the form of many instructional media, such as diagrams,
notes, models and more. The information or content that is presented is based on the teacher's
curriculum and other relevant information for the class. By using technology, the very same
content can be converted into the electronic form and presented on the PC. The multimedia
technologies then will be used to transform the traditional materials into an interactive
According to (Kian) on his previous research, with this transformation, multimedia is
changing the way for the students to communicate with each other. The way they send and
receive messages is more effective. The inclusion of media elements reinforces the message
and the delivery, which leads to a better learning and teaching environment. The power of
multimedia lies in the fact that it is multi-sensory, stimulating the many senses of the
audience, which consequently leads to better attention and retention rates. In other words,
multimedia provides "an individual or a small group using a computer to interact with
information that is represented in several media, by repeatedly selecting what to see and hear
As such, many are turning to multimedia as a tool to a better communication and to foster
better feedback on the information exchanged. For many years, multimedia and multimedia
developers were housed in selected industries such as advertising, entertainment and
edutainment, games and corporate computer-based training (CBT) systems. However,
multimedia is now penetrating the education field and changing the way teachers teach and
students learning. With the advent of multimedia and technology in the classrooms, teachers
can equip themselves with these technological skills and become better communicators of
their content materials, and thus enabling the students to learn in a more productive and very
effective way (Kian).
He is also stated that on the previous research by other researcher, "Multimedia provides a
means to supplement a presenter's efforts to garner attention, increase retention, improve
comprehension, and to bring an audience into agreement". In light of this, educators can thus
take advantage of the multi-sensory environment created by the multiple digital media
elements to create multimedia education materials that would not only stimulate a variety of
senses from the audience, but also elicit high attention and retention rates from them. This
alliance of sophisticated computing hardware and software technologies provides educators
with a powerful toolset for creating multimedia courseware content.
Besides that, multimedia offers an excellent alternative to traditional teaching. By allowing
the students to explore and learn at different paces, every student has the opportunity to learn
at his or her full potential in creating his or her own creativity. Thus, with the combination of
multimedia technology and educational content materials, the final interactive content can be
delivered in various and effective ways and made available for the different teaching and
learning modes such as teacher-centric, student-centric and mixed modes.
This section discusses some problems with the current traditional educational system in
Malaysia. Those problems may not be always true because some of the problems are also
related to the proposed enhancements and do not focus on other issues such as the
international quality standards for educational systems.
As stated by (Sawsan Nusir, 2012) on the previous research, the issue that surrounds many
educators is the need to use multimedia in their lesson plans and curricula, the effectiveness of
using multimedia in teaching learning situation and the impact or problems in order to deliver
knowledge and information to the students to help them to learn better. There is now an
increasingly growing level of PC-users in the world, and computers are becoming integral
parts of people lives. As the next generation becomes more familiar with computers and the
Internet, they are going to expect information in the classrooms to follow in the same pattern.
Enhanced methods of learning extend the learning experience beyond the traditional physical
boundaries of the school. Teachers and students can securely access the system from any
location using the internet. This can be achieved using a range of different devices such as
desktops, laptops, wireless phones, etc. Elimination of physical boundaries has many benefits.
For example, the student learning experience can be achieved from home and is no longer
limited by physical or actual presence in the school. This means that parents can be actively
involved in the educational process through online visibility of student accomplishment and
greater involvement in the support of specific educational needs. External educators or
experts can be invited to deliver talks and presentations using web-conferencing technologies
and teachers can share learning resources and build upon other external resources to enrich
the process of creating educational content (Sawsan Nusir, 2012).
A major problem with the current educational system in Malaysia and many other countries in
the region is the large number of students per classes. This problem arises as a large
percentage of population in these countries is usually young or in the age of schools and in the
universities. Most people in this age category prefer joining higher education institutions
which is likely to increase the pressure on class size and teachers. Large classes may cause
several problems for the teachers. They are usually harder to control. It is not easy for the
teachers to ensure that all students are concentrating on the course material. It is not easy also
for students of large classes to focus especially where teaching traditional using the board or
through directly listening to the teachers. It will take more time from teachers to monitor
attendance. Teachers will also have a hard time and problems dealing with students on the
individual basis and interact with them, answer their queries or evaluate their understanding
in terms of learning (Sawsan Nusir, 2012).
Large classes imposed a further headache on the teachers to manage his/her exams. Another
problem with the large size is the problem of teachers’ ability to write and correct exams. It
may decrease the chances to give quizzes, homework and any extra works by teachers (Mai
Neo, 2001). Teachers will also have a hard time to grade main exams. Another thing is the
ability of students to generate media into their learning especially when it comes to present of
their artwork. Current traditional educational systems are also incapable of dealing with
students of special needs and disabilities. Students who have visual, or hearing problems may
not be able to see or hear well the class material especially when the class size is large. This
condition will make those students cannot understand about what they have learnt in school.
In the age of information evolutions, students are equipped with cell phones, laptops with
wireless internet and probably some other high technology gadgets. It is sometime boring and
uninteresting to present to them with the course material on a board or direct rehearsal. The
educational system may need to utilize and compete with the new Information and
communication technologies and benefit from them. There are lots of possibilities of such
utilization such as using simulation and animation to present some of the complex boring
problems in a more appealing format. Such techniques are particularly useful for teaching
students in the classroom (Sawsan Nusir, 2012).
Rural areas usually face the problem of shortages in the number of teachers in their schools.
This is the challenge for the teachers in using multimedia into the teaching and learning.
Usually teachers may not be willing to teach in rural areas because of some factors.
Traditional educational systems may not provide a solution to this problem, but new
technologies might be helpful by recording different teacher courses or through an e-learning
Acknowledging and dealing with those new technologies can help teachers develop students’
skills for a future that is different from the present. Teachers should be proactive in their
teaching methods and should help prepare those students to a different future. The role of the
teachers as multimedia developers is very important in order to enhance teaching and learning
of visual arts in the classroom. In Australia for example, the department of education focused
on such elements in their periodic publications. In one of those in 2003, they mentioned that
educators should prepare children to “think flexibly and creatively and to manage their
learning throughout life”. They should also help them improve “the ability to apply
knowledge to new situations and make informed choices and decisions will be of paramount
importance” (Sawsan Nusir, 2012).
The objectives of this study are:
To identify the significance of using multimedia in teaching and learning visual arts
To identify the impact of using multimedia in teaching and learning visual arts
To identify the problems that occur when using multimedia in teaching and learning
The following question will be drawn from the quantitative component of this study:
How significance is multimedia in teaching and learning visual arts?
What is the impact of using multimedia in teaching and learning visual arts?
What is the problem that will occur when using multimedia in teaching and learning?
There are varieties of terms that will be used in this study. The definition of this term has been
stated by several experts from previous research.
According to an article of (Multimedia as an educational tool), multimedia is a term
that frequently heard and discussed among educational technologists today. Unless
clearly defined, the term can alternately mean “a judicious mix of various mass media
such as print, audio and video” or it may mean the development of computer-based
hardware and software packages produced on a mass scale and yet allow
individualized use and learning. In essence, multimedia merges multiple levels of
learning into an educational tool that allows for diversity in curricula presentation for
students and teachers. Multimedia is the simultaneous use of a variety of media in a
presentation or self-study program. It consists all of the following elements that
include text, images, video, audio, animations, motion graphic and etc. The uses of
these types of media can make the teaching and learning system become more realistic
In this article also stated that, multimedia is the exciting combination of computer
hardware and software that allows you to integrate video, animation, audio, graphics,
and test resources to develop effective presentations on an affordable desktop
computer. Multimedia is characterized by the presence of text, pictures, sound,
animation and video, some or all of which are organized into some coherent program.
In this study, multimedia can be defined as an integration of multiple media elements
(audio, video, graphics, text, animation etc.) into one synergetic and symbiotic whole
that results in more benefits for the students.
Traditional and Multimedia Classroom
In this study, traditional classroom situation is teachers stand in front of the students,
giving explanations, informing, and instructing. As stated by (Joshi, 2012) on his
previous research, they usually use chalk to write something on the blackboard. These
technique needs slightly to be modified regarding with the development of the
technology. The using of multimedia in classroom cannot be denied anymore. That
will make possible for teachers giving more opportunity to students being happier and
more enjoy during the course. Traditional classrooms have different settings from the
multimedia classrooms. Students seat in rows and a chalkboard in the front. The
teacher is standing in front of the class giving a lecture. Compared with traditional
classrooms, multimedia classrooms setting differ greatly from traditional classrooms.
Inside the classrooms, all the equipment is available and makes the students feel
comfortable to study. The use of multimedia described here makes use of print texts,
film and Internet to develop and enhance linguistics and knowledge. Through the
interactions with multimedia texts on topic of interest, students become increasingly
familiar with academic vocabulary and language structures. As they pursue sustained
study of one content area through focus discipline research, the students become
actively engaged in the process of meaning construction within and across different
media. Using print, film and Internet as resources for studying provides students with
opportunities to gather information through stimuli that will stimulate their
imaginations, engage their interest and introduce them to the raw materials for analysis
and interpretation of both language and context. Students develop solid foundation in
several subject areas and become “content experts” in one. Thus they greatly increase
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their overall knowledge. Although various studies support the application of
multimedia in the classroom, another researcher point out that the design of
multimedia is useful when technology is to have any effect on learning. One of the
main purposes of software in writing is to facilitate the development of academic
writing skills for students through the use of the objects matter for writing assignments
or produce an artwork when it comes to presentation.
Multimedia and Education
According to (Mai Neo, 2001), the advancement of technology has made a significant
impact on the evolvement of teaching methods from traditional face-to-face teaching
to e-learning systems in all levels of education. Modern education and communication
environments can offer alternative ways in the teaching and learning process. In this
study, multimedia has been widely used in educational technologies. In this study, it is
also expected that future will see more of the utilization of such tools in education.
Some argue that multimedia and e-learning tools can be used as a supplement to
traditional classes and not as a replacement. Using interactive multimedia in the
teaching and learning process is a growing phenomenon in education. It plays a very
important role in assisting students in learning processes. Therefore, it can be
concluded that the multimedia can enhance and enable students to learn in a more
effective and productive way. More efforts are needed to create new programs using
multimedia elements and multimedia authoring tools to fulfill a content-rich learning
software and courseware to different students. Multimedia is not only animation or
image and video related products. Those maybe incorporated with programming and
other methods to provide a portal, an application, etc. in which data, video, and images
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LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is only limited to identify the significance of using multimedia and how it will
contribute into teaching and learning visual arts subject. It was carried out among secondary
school both students and teachers of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Abdul Jalil,
Kluang, Johor. In order to make this research more successful, a survey research has been
conducted because not every students and teachers have the courage and ability to use
multimedia as a method into their learning and teaching visual arts because of the several
factors that might be appear in the classroom.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research is conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using multimedia in teaching
and learning visual arts. This research will provide students with the elements of multimedia
in order to use it into their learning of visual arts. Besides that, this research will focus on the
use of multimedia in the classroom as tools to help students visualize, synthesize, convey and
construct their knowledge.
This chapter has covered the background of study, the problem statements, the research
objectives, the research questions, the operational definitions, the limitations and the
significance of the study. The literature review of the topics related to this study will be
presented in the next chapter.
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The purpose of this chapter is to review the previous research on the effectiveness of using
multimedia among teachers and students. The reviews will provide the theoretical framework
for this research. This chapter will discuss about the multimedia, the advantages of using
multimedia and the limitations in teaching and learning visual arts.
The roles of interactive multimedia and its effectiveness have been the subject of many
studies. According to the researcher by (Sawsan Nusir, 2012), results indicate that using
multi-modal instruction is more effective than using any single mode. In other words, this
finding demonstrates that media do impact learning, through the instructional possibilities that
they enable. For example, based on Sawsan’s on the previous research, one could state that
when used appropriately, the video medium should be more effective than radio, since the
latter cannot provide visual information. The presentation of ideas in visual form has proven
to be particularly important as it critically helps the educational process.
In a review by various researchers of studies that have investigated the effectiveness of
multimedia in learning suggested that the people who used computer-based multimedia
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instruction performed better in terms of test scores, compared to those who received
instruction through traditional classroom lectures.
He is also stated that, on the previous research by other researcher, study shows that the use of
animation in teaching cell biology and all fields of biology are beneficial. It was found that
scalable interactive animation with hot keys and rollover help to enhance the learning in
effective way. Animated illustration accompanied with audio, video, and kinetic are much
better to the cell biology learners than static illustrations (Sawsan Nusir, 2012).
Another review from various researchers addressed the effects of using simulation to teach
complex physiological models to 96 students of college of medicine. They also found that the
effectiveness of the designed simulator and the conventional text lessons are equivalent.
Using additional guidance to the designed simulator helps to improve the learning process.
Another project conducted by other researcher was based on the results of a test on a number
of interactive multimedia packages for grade I to IV. These multimedia packages are usually
used for subjects like science, mathematics, geography, history, etc. It was concluded that
interactive multimedia is much better than traditional educational methods, which depends on
classrooms and lecturers using chalk and talk (Sawsan Nusir, 2012).
Sawsan’s study confirmed previous findings on the positive effect of media richness within elearning educational systems on the user’s intention to use such systems. E-learning systems
that present its materials using text, audio, and video stimulating a higher perceived
usefulness (PU) and concentration than their counterparts which used text only, text and
audio, or text and video, or audio and video.
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As stated by (Sawsan Nusir, 2012) on his previous research, e-learning should not be a
replacement to the traditional learning, but an improvement to the efficiency of learning
process. Academic institutions adopt a number of learning strategies to enrich learning
process, and this is called blended learning. The experimental research shows a high retention
rate of improvement for learning by reading and practicing.
Many studies conducted by several researchers have found that the effectiveness of
multimedia is equivalent to traditional way of teaching. Moneta et al. explored the
effectiveness of interactive multimedia online courses versus the traditional lecture based on
studying an introductory computing course (Losike-Sedimo, 2006). It was concluded that well
designed e-learning modules have its pros, but could not prevent the cons found in traditional
Active engagement, participation in groups; frequent interaction and feedback is provided;
and connections to real world contexts are made. Traditional teaching methods are quite poor
at providing such contexts and in fact, the characteristics of innovative uses of computers are
conducive to learning that is all of those listed (Hammer & Kellner, 1999).
Due to the lack of sufficient proficient English language teachers in Philippines public
schools, alternative ways are used to bridge this need. Atienza et al. and the department of
education at the University of the Philippines created handheld electronic reader that helps
students to pronounce English words correctly and to supplement English materials for third
grade students at Philippines elementary schools. The electronic reader was used to monitor,
test and evaluate the performance of 300 students. Results show that the electronic reader
improved significantly the learning process (Sawsan Nusir, 2012).
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Recent studies attempted to evaluate the cognitive load (CL) to learn and understand online,
multimedia curriculum. These studies concluded that as the interactivity of the presented
materials increase, the CL decrease. Gender differences were statistically significant, where
males are overloaded with reading scientific articles, while females are engaged with chat
rooms and search activities. Scientific articles, online notebooks, flash animations and online
tests, might need high mental effort, while chat rooms, videos, and interactivity need low
Most of the e-Learning materials designed linearly forcing its users to sequential learning, so
that all users are forced into same path pedagogy regardless of their experience and their
needs. Because of that Hammer and Kellner asserts the need for designing interactive
nonlinear e-learning educational systems. Those are intelligent enough to dialogue with the
learners according to their actions and responses. Also the e-learning educational systems
should attract different learners regardless of their experience (Hammer & Kellner, 1999).
Educators should incorporate entertainment through education and should get students
involved actively in classes. This can be achieved through showing them that the things they
use and appreciate such as games, social websites, etc, can be used and utilized in the class as
well for educational purposes.
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THE ADVANTAGES OF MULTIMEDIA
According to an article on (Multimedia as an educational tool), the pedagogical strength of
multimedia is that it uses the natural information-processing abilities that already possess as
humans. The eyes and ears, in conjunction with the brain, form a formidable system for
transforming meaningless sense data into information. The old saying that "a picture is worth a
thousand words" often understates the case especially with regard to moving images, as the eyes
are highly adapted by evolution to detect and interpret movement.
For the student, one advantage of multimedia is that the application looks better. If the
courseware includes only a few images at least it gives relief from screens of text and stimulates
the eye, even if the images have little pedagogical value. More often than not, the inclusion of
non-textual media into courseware adds pedagogical value to the application. For example, a
piece of courseware describing a dig at an archeological site would be more valuable to the
student, if it included images of the site, such as enhanced aerial images showing features like
old field boundaries, or diagrams illustrating where the digging and scanning took place. In this
respect, using the text only, even in a creative way, has obvious limitations as compared to the
use of both text and pictures (Multimedia as an educational tool).
According to an article of (Science Education Resource Center, 2012), many media sources such
as feature films, music videos, visualizations and news stories have very high production quality
capable of showcasing complex ideas in a short period of time. This helps develop quantitative
reasoning. Media offers both cognitive and affective experiences. It can provoke discussion,
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which are an assessment of one's values and an assessment of self if the scenes have strong
emotional content. The uses of media sources help connect learners with events that are
culturally relevant. As a result, a positive consequence of utilizing media is that instructors must
keep their materials and examples up-to-date. News stories can be used to connect theories
taught in the classroom with real world events and policies.
Popular media such as films and music are a familiar medium to students that helps gain
attention and maintain student interest in the theories and concepts under discussion. Students
can see the theories and concepts in action. In more than a figurative sense, theories and concepts
leap from the screen. Students can hone their analytical skills by analyzing media using the
theories and concepts they are studying (Losike-Sedimo, 2006). The use of media in the
classroom enables students to see concepts and new examples when they are watching television
or listening to music. Students can experience worlds beyond their own, especially if the media
is sharply different from their local environment (Science Education Resource Center, 2012).
THE LIMITATIONS OF MULTIMEDIA
Multimedia has other weaknesses too. While proponents of this new technology are very
enthusiastic about its potential, they often leave the financial and technical issues unattended.
Development costs in multimedia are very high and the process of developing effective
multimedia takes time. Time spent on developing the multimedia package requires money so that
the true cost of an interactive programmer mounts with each delay (Multimedia as an educational
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Further, if the prerequisites for using multimedia include access to computers with related
software, the user must possess a minimum level of computer literacy in order to exploit the
capabilities of this medium for learning. And finally, training of the educator who is unfamiliar
with the production and design of multimedia courseware or packages can be equally
complicating. Besides that, using multimedia sometimes can become a distraction and it requires
a complete understanding of copyright law.
Define goals and
audio, video, etc.
Figure 2.1: Framework of using multimedia
This framework in Figure 2.1 shows that how multimedia can be used in teaching and learning
visual arts. Designing an interactive educational multimedia needs to present the learning
material in an adequate form and needs to provide the facilities to enable the process of learner
activities. In designing new technologies for learning it is very important to know the types of
multimedia that would be used in learning before making a decision of what types of multimedia
that would be used (Hon Loong Lam, 2009). In addition to that, it is important to know how
multimedia is used in teaching and learning visual arts.
One of the most important issues in designing a course material is how to transfer the course
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contents to students via a combination of text, graphics, sound and animation (Cason, 1998). The
use of multi-sensing communication can lead to a better learning result, increasing the
motivation for students to learn, achieving larger volumes of knowledge transfer and more
attractive ways in presenting and delivering the educational content.
Various researcher mentioned that “Educators should have access to appropriate ways to design
software packages that will take advantage of multimedia capabilities without losing the focus
on the user's needs or the content being presented” (Sawsan Nusir, 2012).
Researchers from the previous study have proved that multimedia is very effective in order to be
used as a teaching and learning method. It is very important for the students and teachers to use
multimedia rather than traditional method because of the technological developments. By using
multimedia, they can develop their skill and think in a creative way in order to produce the
artwork when it comes to presentation and deliver the information in an effective and creative
way so that it will become interesting for the audience to see.
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The aim of this study was to learn the knowledge and understanding of multimedia in the
teaching and learning process of visual arts. This chapter discusses the research method used to
achieve the research objective and answer the research question of this study. It consists of
research design, the population and sample, the instrument used and an approach to data
collection and analysis procedure. The methodology will be used in this study was quantitative.
The quantitative data provide a sense of how most students and teachers responded to the related
topic. This provided general level of knowledge and understanding of multimedia and the
effectiveness in teaching and learning process.
In the quantitative approach, a survey design is carried out using questionnaire. This research can
be said to be a descriptive research as it is only have been set out to find out on their knowledge
and understanding of multimedia itself. This type of research design was used because of the
difficulty in conducting other research types such as experimental research. Other research type
required for an extensive time allocation. As the researcher had to another to a specific time
constraint, a descriptive quantitative design was employed as it was seen as the most practical
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way in conducting this study. The quantitative research method will be the basic research design
for this study. It will have to use a questionnaire in which for each respondents will be given
several question to answer based on their knowledge and understanding of multimedia.
POPULATION AND SAMPLE
The target population of this study was students and teachers of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan
Sultan Abdul Jalil, which is situated in Kluang, Johor. The students of this sample will be
described as students who are taking visual arts subject of different classes. For the teachers of
this sample, it can be described as teachers who are teaching visual arts subject at that school.
The sample of students and teachers for this study will be selected by using systematic random
sampling by class.
The instrumentation will be used in this research was a questionnaire. This type of
instrumentation was used as it was considered as being most cost-effective and very convenient
for the researcher. The construction of the questionnaire took several factors into account.
The questions were divided into two part namely part one and part two. Part one were consisted
of questions on personal background and the understanding of multimedia. Part two consists of
question on the knowledge, opinion and experience of using multimedia into teaching and
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Each questionnaire was attached with a letter that explained the purpose of study and how to
return back the questionnaire. In addition, the note emphasized the importance of completing the
questionnaire and that the confidentially of the respondents would be maintained throughout the
The study will be conducted at Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Abdul Jalil, Kluang,
Johor. On a set date, 50 set of questionnaires were distributed to students and teachers of the
school. The purpose of this data collection is to analyze the information based on the related
topic of this study. The permission to conduct this research was given by the teachers who are
teaching visual arts subject to use his/her time to answer the questionnaire. Only three teachers
and the others were from form four and form five students answer the questionnaire. A total of
50 questionnaires were distributed and returned and were fully answered.
DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
Upon receiving the data, the results will be calculated and presented in tables and were also
converted into percentage using SPSS. Statistical analysis was used in presenting the data
demographic findings. In answering the research questions, descriptive statistics such as
percentage was used. This type of analysis was the most convenient to be used as the research
has employed a descriptive methodology which means it was set out only to describe the overall
findings of the research.
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Mabalot-Bomogao, M. (2012, February 5). Sun.Star Baguio. Retrieved from Effective Instruction Using
Mai Neo, K. T. (2001). Innovative teaching: Using multimedia in a problem-based learning environment.
Educational Technology & Society .
Sawsan Nusir, I. A.-K. (2012). STUDYING THE IMPACT OF USING MULTIMEDIA INTERACTIVE PROGRAMS
AT CHILDREN ABILITY TO LEARN BASIC MATH SKILLS. Retrieved from
Schroeder, B. (2010, August 4). Global Grid For Learning. Retrieved from 10 Reasons to Use Multimedia
in the Classroom: http://www.globalgridforlearning.com/10-reasons-to-use-multimedia-in-theclassroom
Science Education Resource Center. (2012, May 15). Retrieved from Pedagogy in action: why use
multimedia to enhance teaching and learning: http://serc.carleton.edu/sp/library/media/why.html
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MARA University of Technology
The Effectiveness of Using Multimedia on Teaching and Learning Visual Arts among Secondary
I am very pleased to inform that you have been selected to participate in this research. I
appreciate if you could spend a few minute of your time to fill in the attached questionnaire.
Please be assured that all responses will strictly be used for academic purpose only. Thank you
for your effort, times and cooperation in order to complete this questionnaire.
Faculty of Education
University Technology MARA (UiTM)
This research will be used for academic purpose only. All details that have been given are
CONFIDENTIAL and will only used for the purpose. Thank you for your commitment and
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This part has five questions. Please tick (√) your answer in the box given.
Please tick (√) in the box.
What is your race?
What is your age?
13-15 years old
16-18 years old
19-21 years old
22 and above
Do you know the meaning of multimedia?
Do you know how to use multimedia into teaching and learning?
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This part of questions contains statement about the use of multimedia. You will be asked to
express your agreement on each statement. There is no right or wrong answers.
Please tick (√) in the box.
Multimedia is very effective to
be used in today’s learning
Multimedia is very fun and
interesting to be used
Multimedia is very easy to use
Multimedia gives much easier
for students and teachers to
Multimedia can create an
interesting environment in
Students can get a better
understanding when using
multimedia to provide
When using multimedia, I can
be more creative in order to
present my artwork
When using multimedia, I can
enhance my skill in producing
I think, it is very effective to
use multimedia in classroom
rather than traditional method
I think multimedia is important
because it stimulates my
I would use multimedia as my
teaching and learning method
I always use multimedia into
my teaching and learning
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Multimedia sometimes has the
limitation to be used in the
Multimedia gives a positive
impact to the student’s learner
I don’t have any problem when
use multimedia in my teaching
and learning process
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