MARA University of Technology
FACULTY OF EDUCATION

EDU 702: RESEARCH METHODS IN EDUCATION
Lecturer: Dr. Johan @ Eddy Luar...
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER 1 (INTRODUCTION)………………………………………………………. 1
1.0

Introduction………………………………………………………………… 1

1.1

Backg...
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0

INTRODUCTION

As technology advances and hardware and software improve, it becomes much more...
students. By using multimedia, teachers can conceptualize ideas for slides that are arranged in
logical progression (Colom...
1.1

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The role of the teacher is to provide information and content to the students in the traditional...
their content materials, and thus enabling the students to learn in a more productive and very
effective way (Kian).
He is...
1.2

PROBLEM STATEMENTS

This section discusses some problems with the current traditional educational system in
Malaysia....
the region is the large number of students per classes. This problem arises as a large
percentage of population in these c...
educational system may need to utilize and compete with the new Information and
communication technologies and benefit fro...
1.3

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this study are:
i.

To identify the significance of using multimedia in teachi...
1.5

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS

There are varieties of terms that will be used in this study. The definition of this term ha...
that results in more benefits for the students.

1.5.1

Traditional and Multimedia Classroom

In this study, traditional c...
their overall knowledge. Although various studies support the application of
multimedia in the classroom, another research...
1.6

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study is only limited to identify the significance of using multimedia and how it will
...
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this chapter is to review the previous research on the eff...
instruction performed better in terms of test scores, compared to those who received
instruction through traditional class...
As stated by (Sawsan Nusir, 2012) on his previous research, e-learning should not be a
replacement to the traditional lear...
Recent studies attempted to evaluate the cognitive load (CL) to learn and understand online,
multimedia curriculum. These ...
2.2

THE ADVANTAGES OF MULTIMEDIA

According to an article on (Multimedia as an educational tool), the pedagogical strengt...
which are an assessment of one's values and an assessment of self if the scenes have strong
emotional content. The uses of...
Further, if the prerequisites for using multimedia include access to computers with related
software, the user must posses...
contents to students via a combination of text, graphics, sound and animation (Cason, 1998). The
use of multi-sensing comm...
CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0

INTRODUCTION

The aim of this study was to learn the knowledge and understanding of ...
way in conducting this study. The quantitative research method will be the basic research design
for this study. It will h...
Each questionnaire was attached with a letter that explained the purpose of study and how to
return back the questionnaire...
Bibliography
(n.d.). Retrieved from Multimedia as an educational tool:
http://cemca.org.in/ckfinder/userfiles/files/Sectio...
MARA University of Technology
QUESTIONNAIRE

The Effectiveness of Using Multimedia on Teaching and Learning Visual Arts am...
INTRODUCTION
This part has five questions. Please tick (√) your answer in the box given.
Part 1
Please tick (√) in the box...
Part 2
This part of questions contains statement about the use of multimedia. You will be asked to
express your agreement ...
13.

14.
15.

Multimedia sometimes has the
limitation to be used in the
classroom
Multimedia gives a positive
impact to th...
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  1. 1. MARA University of Technology FACULTY OF EDUCATION EDU 702: RESEARCH METHODS IN EDUCATION Lecturer: Dr. Johan @ Eddy Luaran The Effectiveness of Using Multimedia on Teaching and Learning Visual Arts among Secondary School Name: Mohammad Shanizam bin Jasmani ID no: 2013475344 Date of Submission: 20.12.2013
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER 1 (INTRODUCTION)………………………………………………………. 1 1.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 1 1.1 Background of study……………………………………………………….. 3 1.2 Problem statements……………………………………………………….... 5 1.3 Research objectives……………………………………………………….... 8 1.4 Research questions…………………………………………………………. 8 1.5 Operational definitions……………………………………………………...9 1.5.0 Multimedia…………………………………………………………. 9 1.5.1 Traditional and multimedia classroom…………………………….. 10 1.5.2 Multimedia and education…………………………………………. 11 1.6 Limitation of the study……………………………………………………... 12 1.7 Significance of the study………………………………………………….... 12 1.8 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………. 12 CHAPTER 2 (LITERATURE REVIEW)………………………………………………. 13 2.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………….... 13 2.1 Multimedia…………………………………………………………………. 13 2.2 The advantages of multimedia……………………………………………... 17 2.3 The limitations of multimedia……………………………………………… 18 2.4 Conceptual framework……………………………………………………... 19 2.5 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………. 20 CHAPTER 3 (RESEARCH METHODOLOGY)………………………………………. 21 3.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 21 3.1 Research design……………………………………………………………. 21 3.2 Population and sample……………………………………………………... 22 3.3 Instrumentation…………………………………………………………….. 22 3.4 Data collections…………………………………………………………….. 23 3.5 Data analysis procedure……………………………………………………. 23 BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………… 24 QUESTIONNAIRE………………………………………………………………………. 25
  3. 3. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION As technology advances and hardware and software improve, it becomes much more feasible to integrate multimedia directly into the teaching and learning system. By incorporating multimedia into the teaching, teachers can capture students’ attention, engage learners, inspire creativity, explain the difficult concepts and theory and have fun with the students (Schroeder, 2010). According to (Mabalot-Bomogao, 2012) for the students, they can be involved in the use of multimedia to contrast and convey knowledge. As for example, students can use concept mapping software such as inspiration to brainstorm. They can also create digital movie to demonstrate their artwork. According to Literacy, Learning from Multimedia Sources, multimedia is often used to decorate text with the goal of making the text more interesting for the readers (Colomina, 2010). To improve the quality of learning visual arts in schools, using multimedia is very effective in the teaching and learning situation. It benefits the students to understand as much information as possible, to retain information longer, to grasp information easily and to gain knowledge (Mabalot-Bomogao, 2012). Multimedia can make learning become interesting and active for the students. The teacher through the use of multimedia can design elements in delivering the oral lecture to the 1|Page
  4. 4. students. By using multimedia, teachers can conceptualize ideas for slides that are arranged in logical progression (Colomina, 2010). According to (Kian) on his previous research on Teachers as Multimedia Developers, in an opening address at the conference on E-Learning held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 25th May 2000, the Secretary-General from the Ministry of Education, Dr. Johari Bin Mat stated that, "Technology has been and is becoming an important component of teaching and learning in our educational system.......Information and Communication Technology (ICT) provides powerful tools for accessing, storing, and disseminating information.....Our approaches to teaching, preparing contents and delivering learning materials need to be adjusted according to the existence of this technology. The classroom is no more a static physical set-up, but a rather dynamic existence...Teachers should be able to integrate technology in their process of teaching and learning...Technology supports learning. It will enable teachers to pursue traditional goals with new fervor and success. This impact of technology will give a new dimension to the quality of our education system...Technology supports the learners to bring about significant change in learning”. Currently, the multimedia technology can help teachers in order to be able to address different modes of teaching. The ability to incorporate multiple media elements in conjunction with interactive features into teaching and learning will enhance and modify the traditional instructional approaches. This will inevitably change the way teachers teach and students learning. 2|Page
  5. 5. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY The role of the teacher is to provide information and content to the students in the traditional education realm. This can be done in the form of many instructional media, such as diagrams, notes, models and more. The information or content that is presented is based on the teacher's curriculum and other relevant information for the class. By using technology, the very same content can be converted into the electronic form and presented on the PC. The multimedia technologies then will be used to transform the traditional materials into an interactive multimedia courseware. According to (Kian) on his previous research, with this transformation, multimedia is changing the way for the students to communicate with each other. The way they send and receive messages is more effective. The inclusion of media elements reinforces the message and the delivery, which leads to a better learning and teaching environment. The power of multimedia lies in the fact that it is multi-sensory, stimulating the many senses of the audience, which consequently leads to better attention and retention rates. In other words, multimedia provides "an individual or a small group using a computer to interact with information that is represented in several media, by repeatedly selecting what to see and hear next". As such, many are turning to multimedia as a tool to a better communication and to foster better feedback on the information exchanged. For many years, multimedia and multimedia developers were housed in selected industries such as advertising, entertainment and edutainment, games and corporate computer-based training (CBT) systems. However, multimedia is now penetrating the education field and changing the way teachers teach and students learning. With the advent of multimedia and technology in the classrooms, teachers can equip themselves with these technological skills and become better communicators of 3|Page
  6. 6. their content materials, and thus enabling the students to learn in a more productive and very effective way (Kian). He is also stated that on the previous research by other researcher, "Multimedia provides a means to supplement a presenter's efforts to garner attention, increase retention, improve comprehension, and to bring an audience into agreement". In light of this, educators can thus take advantage of the multi-sensory environment created by the multiple digital media elements to create multimedia education materials that would not only stimulate a variety of senses from the audience, but also elicit high attention and retention rates from them. This alliance of sophisticated computing hardware and software technologies provides educators with a powerful toolset for creating multimedia courseware content. Besides that, multimedia offers an excellent alternative to traditional teaching. By allowing the students to explore and learn at different paces, every student has the opportunity to learn at his or her full potential in creating his or her own creativity. Thus, with the combination of multimedia technology and educational content materials, the final interactive content can be delivered in various and effective ways and made available for the different teaching and learning modes such as teacher-centric, student-centric and mixed modes. 4|Page
  7. 7. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENTS This section discusses some problems with the current traditional educational system in Malaysia. Those problems may not be always true because some of the problems are also related to the proposed enhancements and do not focus on other issues such as the international quality standards for educational systems. As stated by (Sawsan Nusir, 2012) on the previous research, the issue that surrounds many educators is the need to use multimedia in their lesson plans and curricula, the effectiveness of using multimedia in teaching learning situation and the impact or problems in order to deliver knowledge and information to the students to help them to learn better. There is now an increasingly growing level of PC-users in the world, and computers are becoming integral parts of people lives. As the next generation becomes more familiar with computers and the Internet, they are going to expect information in the classrooms to follow in the same pattern. Enhanced methods of learning extend the learning experience beyond the traditional physical boundaries of the school. Teachers and students can securely access the system from any location using the internet. This can be achieved using a range of different devices such as desktops, laptops, wireless phones, etc. Elimination of physical boundaries has many benefits. For example, the student learning experience can be achieved from home and is no longer limited by physical or actual presence in the school. This means that parents can be actively involved in the educational process through online visibility of student accomplishment and greater involvement in the support of specific educational needs. External educators or experts can be invited to deliver talks and presentations using web-conferencing technologies and teachers can share learning resources and build upon other external resources to enrich the process of creating educational content (Sawsan Nusir, 2012). A major problem with the current educational system in Malaysia and many other countries in 5|Page
  8. 8. the region is the large number of students per classes. This problem arises as a large percentage of population in these countries is usually young or in the age of schools and in the universities. Most people in this age category prefer joining higher education institutions which is likely to increase the pressure on class size and teachers. Large classes may cause several problems for the teachers. They are usually harder to control. It is not easy for the teachers to ensure that all students are concentrating on the course material. It is not easy also for students of large classes to focus especially where teaching traditional using the board or through directly listening to the teachers. It will take more time from teachers to monitor attendance. Teachers will also have a hard time and problems dealing with students on the individual basis and interact with them, answer their queries or evaluate their understanding in terms of learning (Sawsan Nusir, 2012). Large classes imposed a further headache on the teachers to manage his/her exams. Another problem with the large size is the problem of teachers’ ability to write and correct exams. It may decrease the chances to give quizzes, homework and any extra works by teachers (Mai Neo, 2001). Teachers will also have a hard time to grade main exams. Another thing is the ability of students to generate media into their learning especially when it comes to present of their artwork. Current traditional educational systems are also incapable of dealing with students of special needs and disabilities. Students who have visual, or hearing problems may not be able to see or hear well the class material especially when the class size is large. This condition will make those students cannot understand about what they have learnt in school. In the age of information evolutions, students are equipped with cell phones, laptops with wireless internet and probably some other high technology gadgets. It is sometime boring and uninteresting to present to them with the course material on a board or direct rehearsal. The 6|Page
  9. 9. educational system may need to utilize and compete with the new Information and communication technologies and benefit from them. There are lots of possibilities of such utilization such as using simulation and animation to present some of the complex boring problems in a more appealing format. Such techniques are particularly useful for teaching students in the classroom (Sawsan Nusir, 2012). Rural areas usually face the problem of shortages in the number of teachers in their schools. This is the challenge for the teachers in using multimedia into the teaching and learning. Usually teachers may not be willing to teach in rural areas because of some factors. Traditional educational systems may not provide a solution to this problem, but new technologies might be helpful by recording different teacher courses or through an e-learning system. Acknowledging and dealing with those new technologies can help teachers develop students’ skills for a future that is different from the present. Teachers should be proactive in their teaching methods and should help prepare those students to a different future. The role of the teachers as multimedia developers is very important in order to enhance teaching and learning of visual arts in the classroom. In Australia for example, the department of education focused on such elements in their periodic publications. In one of those in 2003, they mentioned that educators should prepare children to “think flexibly and creatively and to manage their learning throughout life”. They should also help them improve “the ability to apply knowledge to new situations and make informed choices and decisions will be of paramount importance” (Sawsan Nusir, 2012). 7|Page
  10. 10. 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study are: i. To identify the significance of using multimedia in teaching and learning visual arts ii. To identify the impact of using multimedia in teaching and learning visual arts iii. To identify the problems that occur when using multimedia in teaching and learning 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION The following question will be drawn from the quantitative component of this study: i. How significance is multimedia in teaching and learning visual arts? ii. What is the impact of using multimedia in teaching and learning visual arts? iii. What is the problem that will occur when using multimedia in teaching and learning? 8|Page
  11. 11. 1.5 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS There are varieties of terms that will be used in this study. The definition of this term has been stated by several experts from previous research. 1.5.0 Multimedia According to an article of (Multimedia as an educational tool), multimedia is a term that frequently heard and discussed among educational technologists today. Unless clearly defined, the term can alternately mean “a judicious mix of various mass media such as print, audio and video” or it may mean the development of computer-based hardware and software packages produced on a mass scale and yet allow individualized use and learning. In essence, multimedia merges multiple levels of learning into an educational tool that allows for diversity in curricula presentation for students and teachers. Multimedia is the simultaneous use of a variety of media in a presentation or self-study program. It consists all of the following elements that include text, images, video, audio, animations, motion graphic and etc. The uses of these types of media can make the teaching and learning system become more realistic and engaging. In this article also stated that, multimedia is the exciting combination of computer hardware and software that allows you to integrate video, animation, audio, graphics, and test resources to develop effective presentations on an affordable desktop computer. Multimedia is characterized by the presence of text, pictures, sound, animation and video, some or all of which are organized into some coherent program. In this study, multimedia can be defined as an integration of multiple media elements (audio, video, graphics, text, animation etc.) into one synergetic and symbiotic whole 9|Page
  12. 12. that results in more benefits for the students. 1.5.1 Traditional and Multimedia Classroom In this study, traditional classroom situation is teachers stand in front of the students, giving explanations, informing, and instructing. As stated by (Joshi, 2012) on his previous research, they usually use chalk to write something on the blackboard. These technique needs slightly to be modified regarding with the development of the technology. The using of multimedia in classroom cannot be denied anymore. That will make possible for teachers giving more opportunity to students being happier and more enjoy during the course. Traditional classrooms have different settings from the multimedia classrooms. Students seat in rows and a chalkboard in the front. The teacher is standing in front of the class giving a lecture. Compared with traditional classrooms, multimedia classrooms setting differ greatly from traditional classrooms. Inside the classrooms, all the equipment is available and makes the students feel comfortable to study. The use of multimedia described here makes use of print texts, film and Internet to develop and enhance linguistics and knowledge. Through the interactions with multimedia texts on topic of interest, students become increasingly familiar with academic vocabulary and language structures. As they pursue sustained study of one content area through focus discipline research, the students become actively engaged in the process of meaning construction within and across different media. Using print, film and Internet as resources for studying provides students with opportunities to gather information through stimuli that will stimulate their imaginations, engage their interest and introduce them to the raw materials for analysis and interpretation of both language and context. Students develop solid foundation in several subject areas and become “content experts” in one. Thus they greatly increase 10 | P a g e
  13. 13. their overall knowledge. Although various studies support the application of multimedia in the classroom, another researcher point out that the design of multimedia is useful when technology is to have any effect on learning. One of the main purposes of software in writing is to facilitate the development of academic writing skills for students through the use of the objects matter for writing assignments or produce an artwork when it comes to presentation. 1.5.2 Multimedia and Education According to (Mai Neo, 2001), the advancement of technology has made a significant impact on the evolvement of teaching methods from traditional face-to-face teaching to e-learning systems in all levels of education. Modern education and communication environments can offer alternative ways in the teaching and learning process. In this study, multimedia has been widely used in educational technologies. In this study, it is also expected that future will see more of the utilization of such tools in education. Some argue that multimedia and e-learning tools can be used as a supplement to traditional classes and not as a replacement. Using interactive multimedia in the teaching and learning process is a growing phenomenon in education. It plays a very important role in assisting students in learning processes. Therefore, it can be concluded that the multimedia can enhance and enable students to learn in a more effective and productive way. More efforts are needed to create new programs using multimedia elements and multimedia authoring tools to fulfill a content-rich learning software and courseware to different students. Multimedia is not only animation or image and video related products. Those maybe incorporated with programming and other methods to provide a portal, an application, etc. in which data, video, and images are mixed. 11 | P a g e
  14. 14. 1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This study is only limited to identify the significance of using multimedia and how it will contribute into teaching and learning visual arts subject. It was carried out among secondary school both students and teachers of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Abdul Jalil, Kluang, Johor. In order to make this research more successful, a survey research has been conducted because not every students and teachers have the courage and ability to use multimedia as a method into their learning and teaching visual arts because of the several factors that might be appear in the classroom. 1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research is conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using multimedia in teaching and learning visual arts. This research will provide students with the elements of multimedia in order to use it into their learning of visual arts. Besides that, this research will focus on the use of multimedia in the classroom as tools to help students visualize, synthesize, convey and construct their knowledge. 1.8 CONCLUSION This chapter has covered the background of study, the problem statements, the research objectives, the research questions, the operational definitions, the limitations and the significance of the study. The literature review of the topics related to this study will be presented in the next chapter. 12 | P a g e
  15. 15. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to review the previous research on the effectiveness of using multimedia among teachers and students. The reviews will provide the theoretical framework for this research. This chapter will discuss about the multimedia, the advantages of using multimedia and the limitations in teaching and learning visual arts. 2.1 MULTIMEDIA The roles of interactive multimedia and its effectiveness have been the subject of many studies. According to the researcher by (Sawsan Nusir, 2012), results indicate that using multi-modal instruction is more effective than using any single mode. In other words, this finding demonstrates that media do impact learning, through the instructional possibilities that they enable. For example, based on Sawsan’s on the previous research, one could state that when used appropriately, the video medium should be more effective than radio, since the latter cannot provide visual information. The presentation of ideas in visual form has proven to be particularly important as it critically helps the educational process. In a review by various researchers of studies that have investigated the effectiveness of multimedia in learning suggested that the people who used computer-based multimedia 13 | P a g e
  16. 16. instruction performed better in terms of test scores, compared to those who received instruction through traditional classroom lectures. He is also stated that, on the previous research by other researcher, study shows that the use of animation in teaching cell biology and all fields of biology are beneficial. It was found that scalable interactive animation with hot keys and rollover help to enhance the learning in effective way. Animated illustration accompanied with audio, video, and kinetic are much better to the cell biology learners than static illustrations (Sawsan Nusir, 2012). Another review from various researchers addressed the effects of using simulation to teach complex physiological models to 96 students of college of medicine. They also found that the effectiveness of the designed simulator and the conventional text lessons are equivalent. Using additional guidance to the designed simulator helps to improve the learning process. Another project conducted by other researcher was based on the results of a test on a number of interactive multimedia packages for grade I to IV. These multimedia packages are usually used for subjects like science, mathematics, geography, history, etc. It was concluded that interactive multimedia is much better than traditional educational methods, which depends on classrooms and lecturers using chalk and talk (Sawsan Nusir, 2012). Sawsan’s study confirmed previous findings on the positive effect of media richness within elearning educational systems on the user’s intention to use such systems. E-learning systems that present its materials using text, audio, and video stimulating a higher perceived usefulness (PU) and concentration than their counterparts which used text only, text and audio, or text and video, or audio and video. 14 | P a g e
  17. 17. As stated by (Sawsan Nusir, 2012) on his previous research, e-learning should not be a replacement to the traditional learning, but an improvement to the efficiency of learning process. Academic institutions adopt a number of learning strategies to enrich learning process, and this is called blended learning. The experimental research shows a high retention rate of improvement for learning by reading and practicing. Many studies conducted by several researchers have found that the effectiveness of multimedia is equivalent to traditional way of teaching. Moneta et al. explored the effectiveness of interactive multimedia online courses versus the traditional lecture based on studying an introductory computing course (Losike-Sedimo, 2006). It was concluded that well designed e-learning modules have its pros, but could not prevent the cons found in traditional modules. Active engagement, participation in groups; frequent interaction and feedback is provided; and connections to real world contexts are made. Traditional teaching methods are quite poor at providing such contexts and in fact, the characteristics of innovative uses of computers are conducive to learning that is all of those listed (Hammer & Kellner, 1999). Due to the lack of sufficient proficient English language teachers in Philippines public schools, alternative ways are used to bridge this need. Atienza et al. and the department of education at the University of the Philippines created handheld electronic reader that helps students to pronounce English words correctly and to supplement English materials for third grade students at Philippines elementary schools. The electronic reader was used to monitor, test and evaluate the performance of 300 students. Results show that the electronic reader improved significantly the learning process (Sawsan Nusir, 2012). 15 | P a g e
  18. 18. Recent studies attempted to evaluate the cognitive load (CL) to learn and understand online, multimedia curriculum. These studies concluded that as the interactivity of the presented materials increase, the CL decrease. Gender differences were statistically significant, where males are overloaded with reading scientific articles, while females are engaged with chat rooms and search activities. Scientific articles, online notebooks, flash animations and online tests, might need high mental effort, while chat rooms, videos, and interactivity need low mental effort. Most of the e-Learning materials designed linearly forcing its users to sequential learning, so that all users are forced into same path pedagogy regardless of their experience and their needs. Because of that Hammer and Kellner asserts the need for designing interactive nonlinear e-learning educational systems. Those are intelligent enough to dialogue with the learners according to their actions and responses. Also the e-learning educational systems should attract different learners regardless of their experience (Hammer & Kellner, 1999). Educators should incorporate entertainment through education and should get students involved actively in classes. This can be achieved through showing them that the things they use and appreciate such as games, social websites, etc, can be used and utilized in the class as well for educational purposes. 16 | P a g e
  19. 19. 2.2 THE ADVANTAGES OF MULTIMEDIA According to an article on (Multimedia as an educational tool), the pedagogical strength of multimedia is that it uses the natural information-processing abilities that already possess as humans. The eyes and ears, in conjunction with the brain, form a formidable system for transforming meaningless sense data into information. The old saying that "a picture is worth a thousand words" often understates the case especially with regard to moving images, as the eyes are highly adapted by evolution to detect and interpret movement. For the student, one advantage of multimedia is that the application looks better. If the courseware includes only a few images at least it gives relief from screens of text and stimulates the eye, even if the images have little pedagogical value. More often than not, the inclusion of non-textual media into courseware adds pedagogical value to the application. For example, a piece of courseware describing a dig at an archeological site would be more valuable to the student, if it included images of the site, such as enhanced aerial images showing features like old field boundaries, or diagrams illustrating where the digging and scanning took place. In this respect, using the text only, even in a creative way, has obvious limitations as compared to the use of both text and pictures (Multimedia as an educational tool). According to an article of (Science Education Resource Center, 2012), many media sources such as feature films, music videos, visualizations and news stories have very high production quality capable of showcasing complex ideas in a short period of time. This helps develop quantitative reasoning. Media offers both cognitive and affective experiences. It can provoke discussion, 17 | P a g e
  20. 20. which are an assessment of one's values and an assessment of self if the scenes have strong emotional content. The uses of media sources help connect learners with events that are culturally relevant. As a result, a positive consequence of utilizing media is that instructors must keep their materials and examples up-to-date. News stories can be used to connect theories taught in the classroom with real world events and policies. Popular media such as films and music are a familiar medium to students that helps gain attention and maintain student interest in the theories and concepts under discussion. Students can see the theories and concepts in action. In more than a figurative sense, theories and concepts leap from the screen. Students can hone their analytical skills by analyzing media using the theories and concepts they are studying (Losike-Sedimo, 2006). The use of media in the classroom enables students to see concepts and new examples when they are watching television or listening to music. Students can experience worlds beyond their own, especially if the media is sharply different from their local environment (Science Education Resource Center, 2012). . 2.3 THE LIMITATIONS OF MULTIMEDIA Multimedia has other weaknesses too. While proponents of this new technology are very enthusiastic about its potential, they often leave the financial and technical issues unattended. Development costs in multimedia are very high and the process of developing effective multimedia takes time. Time spent on developing the multimedia package requires money so that the true cost of an interactive programmer mounts with each delay (Multimedia as an educational tool). 18 | P a g e
  21. 21. Further, if the prerequisites for using multimedia include access to computers with related software, the user must possess a minimum level of computer literacy in order to exploit the capabilities of this medium for learning. And finally, training of the educator who is unfamiliar with the production and design of multimedia courseware or packages can be equally complicating. Besides that, using multimedia sometimes can become a distraction and it requires a complete understanding of copyright law. 2.4 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OVERVIEW DECIDE DESIGN DELIVER EVALUATE Multimedia definition, types of multimedia. Define goals and assess resources. Classroom management issues. Production of audio, video, etc. Reflection Figure 2.1: Framework of using multimedia This framework in Figure 2.1 shows that how multimedia can be used in teaching and learning visual arts. Designing an interactive educational multimedia needs to present the learning material in an adequate form and needs to provide the facilities to enable the process of learner activities. In designing new technologies for learning it is very important to know the types of multimedia that would be used in learning before making a decision of what types of multimedia that would be used (Hon Loong Lam, 2009). In addition to that, it is important to know how multimedia is used in teaching and learning visual arts. One of the most important issues in designing a course material is how to transfer the course 19 | P a g e
  22. 22. contents to students via a combination of text, graphics, sound and animation (Cason, 1998). The use of multi-sensing communication can lead to a better learning result, increasing the motivation for students to learn, achieving larger volumes of knowledge transfer and more attractive ways in presenting and delivering the educational content. Various researcher mentioned that “Educators should have access to appropriate ways to design software packages that will take advantage of multimedia capabilities without losing the focus on the user's needs or the content being presented” (Sawsan Nusir, 2012). 2.5 CONCLUSION Researchers from the previous study have proved that multimedia is very effective in order to be used as a teaching and learning method. It is very important for the students and teachers to use multimedia rather than traditional method because of the technological developments. By using multimedia, they can develop their skill and think in a creative way in order to produce the artwork when it comes to presentation and deliver the information in an effective and creative way so that it will become interesting for the audience to see. 20 | P a g e
  23. 23. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to learn the knowledge and understanding of multimedia in the teaching and learning process of visual arts. This chapter discusses the research method used to achieve the research objective and answer the research question of this study. It consists of research design, the population and sample, the instrument used and an approach to data collection and analysis procedure. The methodology will be used in this study was quantitative. The quantitative data provide a sense of how most students and teachers responded to the related topic. This provided general level of knowledge and understanding of multimedia and the effectiveness in teaching and learning process. 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN In the quantitative approach, a survey design is carried out using questionnaire. This research can be said to be a descriptive research as it is only have been set out to find out on their knowledge and understanding of multimedia itself. This type of research design was used because of the difficulty in conducting other research types such as experimental research. Other research type required for an extensive time allocation. As the researcher had to another to a specific time constraint, a descriptive quantitative design was employed as it was seen as the most practical 21 | P a g e
  24. 24. way in conducting this study. The quantitative research method will be the basic research design for this study. It will have to use a questionnaire in which for each respondents will be given several question to answer based on their knowledge and understanding of multimedia. 3.2 POPULATION AND SAMPLE The target population of this study was students and teachers of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Abdul Jalil, which is situated in Kluang, Johor. The students of this sample will be described as students who are taking visual arts subject of different classes. For the teachers of this sample, it can be described as teachers who are teaching visual arts subject at that school. The sample of students and teachers for this study will be selected by using systematic random sampling by class. 3.3 INSTRUMENTATION The instrumentation will be used in this research was a questionnaire. This type of instrumentation was used as it was considered as being most cost-effective and very convenient for the researcher. The construction of the questionnaire took several factors into account. The questions were divided into two part namely part one and part two. Part one were consisted of questions on personal background and the understanding of multimedia. Part two consists of question on the knowledge, opinion and experience of using multimedia into teaching and learning process. 22 | P a g e
  25. 25. Each questionnaire was attached with a letter that explained the purpose of study and how to return back the questionnaire. In addition, the note emphasized the importance of completing the questionnaire and that the confidentially of the respondents would be maintained throughout the study. 3.4 DATA COLLECTIONS The study will be conducted at Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Abdul Jalil, Kluang, Johor. On a set date, 50 set of questionnaires were distributed to students and teachers of the school. The purpose of this data collection is to analyze the information based on the related topic of this study. The permission to conduct this research was given by the teachers who are teaching visual arts subject to use his/her time to answer the questionnaire. Only three teachers and the others were from form four and form five students answer the questionnaire. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed and returned and were fully answered. 3.5 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE Upon receiving the data, the results will be calculated and presented in tables and were also converted into percentage using SPSS. Statistical analysis was used in presenting the data demographic findings. In answering the research questions, descriptive statistics such as percentage was used. This type of analysis was the most convenient to be used as the research has employed a descriptive methodology which means it was set out only to describe the overall findings of the research. 23 | P a g e
  26. 26. Bibliography (n.d.). Retrieved from Multimedia as an educational tool: http://cemca.org.in/ckfinder/userfiles/files/Section2.pdf Cason, N. F. (1998). Interactive multimedia: An alternative context for studying works of art. Studies in Art Education , 336. Center, S. E. (2012, May 15). Pedagogy in Action. Retrieved from Why use media to enhance teaching and learning: http://serc.carleton.edu/sp/library/media/why.html Colomina, B. (2010). Introduction to Multimedia Reviews. Society of Architectural Historians. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians , 459. Hammer, R., & Kellner, D. (1999). Multimedia pedagogy for the new millennium. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy , 522-526. Hon Loong Lam, P. V. (2009). Retrieved from The role of structured multimedia to improve the teaching impact in process integration: http://www.aidic.it/cet/09/18/125.pdf Joshi, A. (2012). Multimedia: A technique in teaching process in the classrooms. Current World Environment . Kian, K. N. (n.d.). Retrieved from TEACHERS AS MULTIMEDIA DEVELOPERS: USING MULTIMEDIA AUTHORING TOOLS TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM: http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/e-jist/docs/Vol7_No1/CurrentPractice/Teachers_mm_dev.htm Losike-Sedimo, N. (2006). Bringing Teaching To Life: Using Multimedia To Engage and Empower Students. Edith Cowan University Research Online . Mabalot-Bomogao, M. (2012, February 5). Sun.Star Baguio. Retrieved from Effective Instruction Using Multimedia: http://www.sunstar.com.ph/baguio/feature/2012/02/05/effective-instruction-usingmultimedia-204494 Mai Neo, K. T. (2001). Innovative teaching: Using multimedia in a problem-based learning environment. Educational Technology & Society . Sawsan Nusir, I. A.-K. (2012). STUDYING THE IMPACT OF USING MULTIMEDIA INTERACTIVE PROGRAMS AT CHILDREN ABILITY TO LEARN BASIC MATH SKILLS. Retrieved from http://dppd.ubbcluj.ro/adn/article_5_2_3.pdf Schroeder, B. (2010, August 4). Global Grid For Learning. Retrieved from 10 Reasons to Use Multimedia in the Classroom: http://www.globalgridforlearning.com/10-reasons-to-use-multimedia-in-theclassroom Science Education Resource Center. (2012, May 15). Retrieved from Pedagogy in action: why use multimedia to enhance teaching and learning: http://serc.carleton.edu/sp/library/media/why.html 24 | P a g e
  27. 27. MARA University of Technology QUESTIONNAIRE The Effectiveness of Using Multimedia on Teaching and Learning Visual Arts among Secondary School I am very pleased to inform that you have been selected to participate in this research. I appreciate if you could spend a few minute of your time to fill in the attached questionnaire. Please be assured that all responses will strictly be used for academic purpose only. Thank you for your effort, times and cooperation in order to complete this questionnaire. Researcher Faculty of Education University Technology MARA (UiTM) This research will be used for academic purpose only. All details that have been given are CONFIDENTIAL and will only used for the purpose. Thank you for your commitment and cooperation. 25 | P a g e
  28. 28. INTRODUCTION This part has five questions. Please tick (√) your answer in the box given. Part 1 Please tick (√) in the box. 1. Gender Male Female 2. What is your race? Malay Chinese Indian Other 3. What is your age? 13-15 years old 16-18 years old 19-21 years old 22 and above 4. Do you know the meaning of multimedia? Yes No Maybe 5. Do you know how to use multimedia into teaching and learning? Yes No Maybe 26 | P a g e
  29. 29. Part 2 This part of questions contains statement about the use of multimedia. You will be asked to express your agreement on each statement. There is no right or wrong answers. Please tick (√) in the box. No. The statement 1. Multimedia is very effective to be used in today’s learning system Multimedia is very fun and interesting to be used Multimedia is very easy to use in classroom Multimedia gives much easier for students and teachers to deliver information Multimedia can create an interesting environment in classroom Students can get a better understanding when using multimedia to provide information When using multimedia, I can be more creative in order to present my artwork When using multimedia, I can enhance my skill in producing my artwork I think, it is very effective to use multimedia in classroom rather than traditional method I think multimedia is important because it stimulates my thinking I would use multimedia as my teaching and learning method I always use multimedia into my teaching and learning process 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Strongly disagree Disagree No opinion Agree Strongly agree 27 | P a g e
  30. 30. 13. 14. 15. Multimedia sometimes has the limitation to be used in the classroom Multimedia gives a positive impact to the student’s learner I don’t have any problem when use multimedia in my teaching and learning process 28 | P a g e

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