Aldous Huxley Brave New World
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Aldous Huxley Brave New World Aldous Huxley Brave New World Presentation Transcript

  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World Aldous Huxley 赫胥黎 (1894-1963)
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 參考議題
    • 赫胥黎與他的寫作年代背景為何 ?
    • 本作品是屬於哪一類的小說 ?
    • 本作品的主題為何 ?
    • 本作品有哪些重要的人物角色 ?
    • 本作品的寫作技巧為何 ?
    • 結語 : 什麼是文明 ?
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 赫胥黎與他的寫作年代背景
    • Aldous Huxley (1894-1963): Brave New World (1932)
    • H.G Wells (1866-1946) : The Time Machine (1895), The Invisible Man (1897), and The War Of The Worlds (1898).
    • E. M. Forster (1879-1970) : The Machine Stops (1909)
    • 1928: 希特勒、墨索里尼崛起
    • 1929: 世界經濟大恐慌
    • George Orwell (1903-1950) : Animal Farm (1945), Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949)
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 本小說的類別
    • 政治寓言體
    • Dystopian novel
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • Henry Ford 享利 福特 (1863-1947 )
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • The Assembly Line ( 裝配線 )
    • The innovation sequence leading to the moving assembly line went like this:
    • From 1910 , when Henry Ford opened the 60-acre Highland Park plant, the company had a policy of replacing machines producing parts as quickly as the tool room could develop those specialized, single purpose machines that so greatly improved the production rates for parts. The Ford tool room was a major center for innovation in machining and tooling. They built the machines that made the plant go. The new specialized machines for producing parts were positioned strategically according to 'what' they produced in order to produce parts as close to the assembly area as possible. By 1914 , the tool room had built and installed 15,000 of its special purpose machines. They were installed in a line parallel to the chassis assembly area. Workers on the production machines dropped their parts into bins lined up between their own work area and the assembly area.
    • The parts runners carried parts and sub-assemblies from the centrally located parts bins to the assembly areas, but they had trouble keeping up with the pace set by either the parts producers or the assemblers unless they were just swarming all over the place. When there were too many runners, the parts really didn't seem to get delivered any faster--there was just more confusion.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • The Assembly Line ( 裝配線 )
    • Clarence Avery , the scientific management specialist Ford hired in 1912 , suggested installing conveyor belts ( 輸送帶 ) to take parts from the production areas to the assembly areas more quickly. That cut out the need for so many runners and made things flow better. Next (by early 1913 ) the bottleneck showed up in key sub assemblies, particularly the fly-wheel magneto C&S talk about, but also with engines and transmissions. All the other parts could be produced faster and delivered to the assembly areas more quickly than these key components. Moreover, the assemblers still had an easy time. They could work very comfortably at the rates determined by the delivery of the key sub assemblies.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • The Assembly Line ( 裝配線 )
    • By mid 1913 , the production people set up moving assembly lines for the magnetos, the engines, and the transmissions. As C&S indicate, the assembly time for the magnetos (total labor hour inputs / no. of magnetos produced) dropped from 20 minutes to 5 minutes as a result. Now the magneto line, the engine line, and the transmission line could turn out their assemblies as fast as all the other parts people, but the assembly teams on the chassis line couldn't deal with all the parts pouring into the assembly areas on the conveyor belts.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • The Assembly Line ( 裝配線 )
    • By December 1913, the plant people had set up the experiment with winches and ropes ( 絞索 ) pulling the chassis down a line where the assemblers stood in one place with their parts piles. They put on their wheels, or fenders, or whatever, as each chassis moved past them. In other words, the innovation reversed the old process in which the workers moved in teams down the line receiving their parts at each chassis as they arrived. One of the primary features of the new process is that all work--or as much as possible--was arranged so workers used their tools at waist height--a clear innovation that Avery introduced on the basis of the Gilbreth motion studies.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • The Assembly Line ( 裝配線 )
    • The 1914 improvements C&S mention, which dropped assembly time to 90 minutes, resulted from the fact that the rope and winch system was really only used for one month. It proved so successful that in January 1914 the Ford production engineers installed the continuous chain to keep the chassis line moving . Working out the 'bugs' dropped the time very rapidly from the 6 hrs using the winches--a dramatic drop from the 17 hr. labor input in the old moving team system.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 福特汽車的裝配線生產觀念有何特殊意義 ?
    • 細部分工
    • 統一作業
    • 各司己職
    • 不問他事
    • 固定而一成不變的工作內容
    • 1. 使得作業迅速且不易發生錯誤
    • 2. 精確度與產能大幅提升
    • 3. 但容易造成疲乏感
    • 4. 工人被物化為生產機器
    • 5. 工人被指定從事單一的工作而不需要有多餘的自主性
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 本作品的主題
    • 文明與野蠻
    • 科學與人性
    • 安定與自由
    • 集體與個人
    • 制約與信仰
    • 文化與未來
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 重要的人物角色
    • 柏納 馬克斯 ( 心理學家 )
    • BERNARD MARX
    • A sleep-learning specialist at the Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. Bernard is a misfit . He is unusually short for an Alpha; an accident with alcohol in Bernard's blood-surrogate before his decanting has left him slightly stunted . Bernard's independence of mind stems more from his inferiority-complex and depressive nature than any depth of philosophical conviction.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 重要的人物角色
    • 約翰 ( 野人 )
    • JOHN THE SAVAGE
    • The illicit son of the Director and Linda. He was born and reared on the Savage Reservation ("Malpais") after Linda was unwittingly left behind by her errant lover . John the Savage is an outsider both on the Reservation - where the ignorant natives still practise marriage, natural birth, family life and religion - and the ostensibly civilised Brave New World: a totalitarian welfare-state based on principles of stability and happiness, albeit happiness of a shallow and insipid nature. The Savage has read nothing but The Complete Works of William Shakespeare .
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 重要的人物角色
    • 蕾妮娜 克朗 ( 衍殖員 )
    • LENINA CROWNE
    • A young, beautiful and sexually liberated Alpha. Lenina is a popular and promiscuous vaccination-worker at the Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. Somewhat quirky - she normally dates only one person at a time - Lenina is basically happy and well-conditioned. She uses soma to suppress unwelcome emotions . Lenina has a date with Bernard, to whom she feels ambivalently attracted; and she goes to the Reservation with him. On returning with relief to civilisation, she tries and fails to seduce John the Savage. The Savage loves and desires Lenina; but owing to his quixotic nature, he is repelled by her forwardness and the prospect of pre-marital sex. So he casts her aside as an " impudent strumpet ".
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 重要的人物角色
    • 漢姆荷茲 華森 ( 情緒工程學院寫作系講師 )
    • HELMHOLTZ WATSON
    • Handsome and successful Alpha-plus lecturer at the College of Emotional Engineering . Helmholtz is a friend of Bernard. He is restive at the stifling conformism and philistinism of the World State . Not least, he feels unfulfilled writing endless propaganda doggerel. Helmholtz is ultimately exiled to an Island - a cold asylum for disaffected Alpha-plus non-conformists - after reading a heretical poem to his students on the virtues of solitude.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 重要的人物角色
    • 湯馬金 ( 衍殖室主任 )
    • THOMAS / 'TOMAKIN', 'THE DIRECTOR’
    • Administrator in the year 632AF of the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. The Director runs a futuristic baby-factory where the assembly-line production of genetic castes is streamlined and controlled , and maturing youngsters are brainwashed via neo-Pavlovian conditioning and hypnopaedia ["sleep-learning"] into being happy with their state-allotted roles in life.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 重要的人物角色
    • 瑪斯塔法 蒙德 ( 元首 )
    • MUSTAPHA MOND
    • Resident World Controller of Western Europe . He presides over one of the ten zones of the World State , the global government set up after the cataclysmic Nine Years' War and great Economic Collapse . Sophisticated and good-natured, His Fordship is an urbane and hyperintelligent apologist for Brave New World and its velvet-gloved totalitarianism.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 重要的人物角色
    • 瑪斯塔法 蒙德主張 :
    • MUSTAPHA MOND ARGUES:
    • The Controller argues that art, literature and scientific freedom must be sacrificed in order to secure the ultimate utilitarian goal of maximising societal happiness . He defends the genetic caste system , behavioural conditioning and the lack of personal freedom in the World State as a price worth paying for achieving social stability. Stability is the highest social virtue because it leads to lasting happiness.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 重要的人物角色
    • 琳達 ( 野人的母親 / 湯馬金的前女友 )
    • LINDA
    • Ageing mother of John the Savage . Linda is a Beta-minus left behind for dead after a storm on the Reservation while she was pregnant with the Director's child . Linda had been too ashamed to go back on her own initiative to the Other Place with her illegitimate son; but she misses soma and the comforts of civilisation . She ages and grows fat in the medically primitive conditions of the Reservation. After returning home with Bernard and her now grown-up child to the world she had lost, Linda ends up in Park Lane Hospital for the Dying after overdoing her permanent "soma-holiday".
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 次要的人物角色
    • 享利 福斯特 ( 主任助理、蕾妮娜前男友 )
    • HENRY FOSTER
    • A young, cheerful, conventional Alpha male. Henry is a scientist, a statistician, and assistant to the Director at the Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. He is one of Lenina's ex-lover s.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 寫作技巧
    • 多場景穿插
    • 心理時空轉換
    • 大量引文 (quoting intensively from William Shakespeare’s works)
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 結語 : 什麼是文明 ?
    • "But I like the inconveniences."
    • "We don't," said the Controller. "We prefer to do things comfortably."
    • "But I don't want comfort. I want God, I want poetry, I want real danger, I want freedom, I want goodness. I want sin."
    • "In fact," said Mustapha Mond, "you're claiming the right to be unhappy."
    • "All right then," said the Savage defiantly, "I'm claiming the right to be unhappy."
    • "Not to mention the right to grow old and ugly and impotent; the right to have syphillis and cancer; the right to have too little to eat; the right to be lousy; the right to live in constant apprehension of what may happen tomorrow; the right to catch typhoid; the right to be tortured by unspeakable pains of every kind." There was a long silence.
    • "I claim them all," said the Savage at last.
    • Mustapha Mond shrugged his shoulders. "You're welcome," he said.
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 結語 : 什麼是文明 ?
    • 兩種不同的文明概念各有何利弊 ?
    • 是否可依時空條件與需求不同而適時選擇其中之一 ?
    • 你認為大多數人會選擇哪一種生活方式 ?
    • 一旦做出選擇,是否可逆轉 ?
    • 若無法重新選擇,你會選擇哪一種文明社會的生活方式 ? 為什麼做這樣的選擇 ?
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 章節要點 ( 志文 73 年五版 )
    • 7: 世界邦 -- 共有、劃一、安定
    • 7: 衍殖室、制約 (conditioning)-Skinner
    • 9: 佛特紀元 632 年 (A F 632/A D 2532), incubator/incubation
    • 10: 社會階級與布卡諾夫斯基程序、優生學 (eugenics) 、孿生子、社會安定
    • 11: 以 X-ray 為細胞分裂的刺激能源
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 12: 單一卵巢生出 15000 以上個體
    • 14: 社會先定室—先決定要製造多少那一種階級的人,為胚胎定身份
    • 16: 人口生產線 220m x 200m x 10m
    • 17: 男性、女性、無性人的生產由荷爾蒙控制
    • 18: 人創世界—人取代神
    • 18-19: 少給氧氣使某些胚胎缺氧以降低其成長後的智力—階級愈低,氧氣愈少
    • 20: 四歲性成熟,六歲半完全長成,可是智力有限
    • 20: 冷熱定體質、階級與工作氣候條件與地區
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 24-26: 本能的反射弧使小孩厭惡大自然
    • 27: Ford as God
    • 27-28: 父母、胎生、接生為褻語
    • 29: 催眠教學 ( 睡眠教學 )— 只有記憶力而無智力— 214 AF
    • 31: 催眠教學不能做為智識教育,只能做倫理教育
    • 33: 催眠教學的暗示之總和就成為孩童的心靈且終生不渝
    • 35-38: 小孩的初級性愛遊戲
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 38: 開始進入多重交叉敘述
    • 40: 感覺電影
    • 43: 不任意雜交就被視為怪物、 fling
    • 43: 懷孕替代手術
    • 44: Freud—Ford
    • 45: sex mates
    • 45-47: 家庭、婚姻制、家暴、每一人都屬於其他人
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 48: 安定—文明
    • 49: 馬爾薩斯
    • 53-54: 基督教、自由主義、民主、莎翁、靈魂、永恆、神、
    • 55: 九年戰爭、屠殺、 genecide(59)
    • 60: 避孕劑、 TR Malthus belt
    • 65: Soma 索麻
    • 66: 鎂鹽
    • 72: 障礙高爾夫、性荷爾蒙口香糖、座機
    • 83: 死屍磷回收
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 85: 合成樂
    • 86: 世界上沒有任何一個瓶子比得上我那親愛的小瓶子
    • 87: 索麻假日
    • 88: 團結儀式、去除小我完成大我
    • 89: 障礙高爾夫、電磁高爾夫
    • 101: 制約的奴隸
    • 104: 工作和認知時是成人,感覺和慾望時是個嬰孩
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 107: 迷幻—文明與野蠻
    • 109: 新墨西哥蠻族保留區之旅—馬培斯地區
    • 111: 保留區為 56 萬平方公里、約六萬印第安人和混血種人
    • 115: 過去和未來都令我難耐,我吃下一公克研只有現在
    • 125: John
    • 128: Linda
    • 135: 波培、麥斯柯與索麻 / 文明與野蠻的迷幻藥
    • 141: 莎翁全集、 quotations begin here
    • 143: Oedipus complex
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 147: Tomorrow
    • 150-151: BNW (from The Tempest )
    • 160-161: 柏納與主任角力、 Linda 見主任
    • 罪名 : 社會公敵、顛覆者、陰謀家、冰島
    • Linda— 回歸文明 = 回歸索麻 = 永恆
    • 柏納平步青雲,得意忘形
    • 漢姆荷茲平常心處之
    • 169: 靈魂為獨立於物質環境外之實體 ?
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 179: 蕾妮娜和 John 體驗感覺電影
    • 180: 成人再制約中心和樣板戲
    • 182: John 未與蕾妮娜上床
    • 189: Sanction on publication
    • 193: 「關於孤獨」
    • 197: Shakespeare”s skill of propaganda
    • 201: 激情替代治療
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 209: great quotations from Shakespeare
    • 210: John 與蕾妮娜鬧翻,暴怒
    • 216: 臨終醫院
    • 220: 死亡制約
    • 224: Linda 死亡
    • 228: John 大鬧—索麻與毒藥
    • 232: 警察鎮暴—索麻煙霧、合成音樂、麻醉水槍、合成反暴動演說第二號 ( 中強 )
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )
    • 235-260: 與元首的大辯論
    • 224: 柏納被放遂—醜態畢露
    • 247: 漢姆荷茲被放遂—求仁得仁
    • 261: 三人話別與 John 之自我放遂
    • 280: John 上吊自殺
  • Aldous Huxley: Brave New World ( 赫胥黎 : 美麗新世界 )