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Train Collision Avoidance Using Vibration Sensor
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Train Collision Avoidance Using Vibration Sensor



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  • 1. Train Collision Avoidance Using Vibration Sensor & Micro-Controller
    There is an increasing with the number of accidents at railroad railings. Collisions with train are generally
    catastrophic, in that the destructive forces of a train usually no match for any other type of vehicle. Train collisions
    form a major catastrophe, as they cause severe damage to life and property. Train collisions occur frequently eluding
    all the latest technology. This paper deals about one of the efficient methods to avoid Train Collisions. This approach
    uses the Vibration sensor and a Proximity LASER Detector and the communication mechanism of PLC (Power Line
    Communication) to communicate the Critical Details about the Train to the Control Room.
    Problem Definition
    Train Collisions are of different types depending upon the circumstance. The head to head collisions are nowadays
    mostly avoided with the advancement in the technology. Anti Collision Devices have knowledge embedded intelligence.
    They take inputs from GPS satellite system for position updates and network among themselves for exchanging information
    using their data radio modems to take decisions for timely auto-application of brakes to prevent dangerous ' head to head
    collisions' . so we have to focus on the other potential reasons for the dangerous mishap or catastrophe. The other main
    reasons for the collisions of Train are: 1.Train Derailment in curves and bends,2.Running Train collisions with the
    Standing Train,3.Train Accidents in Slopes,4.Mis- signalling due to fog or Mist. Micro-controller and the embedded
    technology is used in the coherence of the above operation with the sensors and relays and solenoid valves as
    electromechanical switches. h Te Embedded technology has reached its peak so that the design can be so perfect with
    time critical parameters.

    Figure 1. Gap Detector
    Details about the problem
    The avoidance problem in this paper has been split into individual blocks and then joined together with time
    factors for the complete solution. Bottom to top approach is used. The different blocks used to avoid the Collisions
    by above mentioned reasons are:
    1.Gap Detector, 2.Vibration Sensor, 3.Proximity LASER Detector, 4.LED lighting or Fog penetrating
    Lights, 5.FSK Modulator and FSK Demodulator (For Power Line Communication) .A Microcontroller for entire
    Control. The Microcontroller is interfaced with the input sensing devices such as vibration sensor, Gap Detector and
    proximity LASER Detector.
    1. Gap Detector:
    Figure 1. Gap Detector
    In bends or curves, there should be gap between the rails of successive different paths. Even if there is a small gap, the
    train would get mislead and travel in a different path which leads to collisions in most of the cases. Already there are
    sensors to indicate the short circuiting of the gaps but practically even a small dust can short circuit the gap which
    makes the current system futile sometimes. Hence we use adjustable mechanical or elastic claw to find the gap and
    indicate the gap immediately to the Control Room. In the above figure, a rail road indicating a gap and next to it is a
    Electrostatic; capacitance-type Gap Detector : VE Series.
    2. Vibration Sensor: It uses piezoelectric effect to detect the vibrations in the rails due to the arrival or departure of
    train and the direction of vibration indicate the arrival or departure. This could sense the train s position at roughly at
    800 to 900 m away. This input is fed to the microcontroller. This could help in avoiding accidents between trains in
    slopes because the arrival of one train found out using vibration sensor can be immediately sent to the Control Room
    and the power supply can be switched off within 3 minutes so trains could be stopped without colliding each other.
    Vibration or shock sensors are commonly used in alarm systems to activate an alarm whenever the devices to which
    they are attached are touched, moved, or otherwise vibrated. Commercial vibration sensors use a piezoelectric
    ceramic strain transducer attached to a metallic proof mass in order to respond to an externally imposed acceleration.
    Piezoelectric vibration sensors used for detecting vibration from various vibration sources are generally classified into
    two large types, resonant type and nonresonant type.
    Figure 2. An Example of Piezo-electric Vibration Sensor
    3. Proximity LASER Detector: Most of the collisions are of running train colliding with the Standing Train Types.
    A LASER detector can be used to detect the presence of any train before the running train. D A laser proximity sensor
    for a train includes a laser diode having front and rear facets. The diode generates a main laser signal and directs a
    first portion thereof out of the front facet as a source beam. Focusing means focuses the source beam on a target, and
    focuses the return beam reflected from the target into the laser diode through the front facet. The laser diode receives
    the return light beam, provides it with a positive gain, mixes it with the main laser signal, and guides it out the rear
    facet as a mixed beam. A detection focusing device focuses the mixed beam onto a PIN detector. The PIN detector
    coherently detects the mixed beam and provides an output signal having a perturbation where the target enters the
    focal field of the focusing optics. A processor detects the output signal from the PIN detector and may activate a
    breaking mechanism in the train. The processor is also capable of determining the relative velocity between the train
    and the target from measurement of the Doppler shifted signal or from the shape of the perturbation of the output
    signal from the PIN detector.
    Figure 3. LASER Proximity Detector – setup
    4.LED or Fog penetrating Lights are very useful during mist or fog seasons, as, near the signals, still many
    employees use explosives or other form of lights which involves the manual monitoring next to the signal 24*7. So,
    detecting the arrival of signal using Vibration Sensor, the LED lights can be made to switch off automatically in the
    signals reducing the manual labour and monitoring and the driver from the train could get the signal easily even in fog
    times Any given snowy, foggy or rainy night can turn into a disaster because low visibility in these conditions can
    maximize the potential of danger. Rough weather conditions call for precision driving, Using and installing fog lights
    can help signals be seen better.
    5.FSK Demodulation and Modulation:Power line communication(PLC), also called power line carrier, mains
    communication, power line telecom(PLT), or power line networking (PLN) are terms describing several different
    systems for using electric power lines to carry information over the powerline. Data rates over a power line
    communication system vary widely. Low-frequency(about 100-200 KHz) carriers impressed on high-voltage
    transmission lines may carry one or two analog voice circuits, or telemetry and control circuits with an equivalent data
    rate of a few hundred bits per second; however, these circuits may be many miles(kilometres) long.
    Details about the set applied:
    Figure 4. Layout section
    1.Vibration Detector - Train arrival Microcontroller Control Room Power off Stopping of Train
    This vibration detector helps to prevent head on collisions as well as train derailment and during mist conditions.
    2.Proximity LASER Detector Standing Train Detector MicroController Jamming the Brakes or Sending info to
    Control Room Power off Stopping of Train
    This operation helps to prevent the collision of running train over the Standing train
    3.Gap Detector Gaps in Bends or Curves Info about Trains path -1. Correct Path No problem 2. Wrong Path
    .Microcontroller Jamming the brakes or Sending info to Control Room Gap Correction or Power off Stopping of
    Figure 5. Gap between the rails
    Small gaps may lead to disaster
    misleading the train in different direction.
    4.Vibration Sensor Train Arrival Mist of Fog Times Microcontroller Automatic Switching of LED lights or
    Fog penetrating Lights Microcontroller Control Room Communication
    5.Microcontroller FSK Modulator Main Transmitter PLCC Main Receiver FSK Demodulator PC in
    Control Room
    All power line communications systems operate by impressing a modulated carrier signal on the wiring system.
    Different types of powerline communications use different frequency bands, depending on the signal transmission
    characteristics of the power wiring used. Since the power wiring system was originally intended for transmission
    of AC power, in conventional use, the power wire circuits have only a limited ability to carry higher frequencies. The
    propagation problem is a limiting factor for each type of power line communications. A new discovery called ELine
    that allows a single power conductor on an overhead power line to operate as a waveguide to provide low
    attenuation propagation of RF through microwave energy lines while providing information rate of multiple Gbps is
    an exception to this limitation.
    Result and Discussion
    The sensors sense the input and sends to the microcontroller, where it responds and gives
    command to the particular component with predefined algorithm. The time parameters are crucial
    which can be easily changed and modified using Micro-controllers. Thus, this device would work in
    coherence would help to reduce the train collisions.
    ACCIDENTS involving trains are gruesome. There s the magnitude of the loss involved, both of life and
    property, and the trauma it causes to the families of the passengers on board.In railway operations, it is the driver who
    is virtually driving blind in the block section because his vision does not cover the braking distance of a train, and
    only at stations does he have signals to guide him. A simple misjudgement of the colour of a signal at a station can
    lead to a major mishap, notwithstanding the huge investment made in wiring the signals. Many a time, trains on the
    same lines have collided head-on and caused hundreds of passengers to lose their lives. Thus this idea can improve the
    safety of Train system. This idea can be a base and future modifications can be made for an optimised and
    sophisticated system.
    Future Directions
    The Anti Collision Device (ACD) is a self-acting microprocessor-based data communication device
    designed and developed by Konkan Railway (KR). When installed on locomotives (along with an auto braking unit-
    ABU), guard vans, stations and level-crossing gates (both manned and unmanned), the network of ACD systems
    prevents high-speed head on collisions in mid-sections, station areas and at level-crossing gates, thereby saving the
    lives of rail passengers and road users. This device can be integrated with the Anti Collision Device for better
    sophistication and optimisation.
    Case Study made in North Coimbatore Railway Control Room.
    Collision Avoidance Systems
    Vibration Sensors;
    Raksha Kavach Anti Collision Devices.
    Collision Avoidance Using GPS Device and Train Proximity Detector