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  • 1. NEWGATE INDIA Hyderbad, Andhra Pradesh Pin- 500038 PROJECT REPORT ONA Study on Telecom Sector in India SUBMITTED TO Prof. Samik Shome PREPARED BYIn partial fulfillment of the Course- SUNAM PAL [10PG(J)45] Industry Analytics in Term – III IRFAN HABIB (Batch: Jan. 2010 – 2012) [10PG(J)14]
  • 2. ACKNOWELEDGEMENT 1|Page
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................... 9CHAPTER-1 ......................................................................................................................................................10INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................................................101.1 Overview of Telecom Sector ................................................................................................... 101.2 Beginning of Telecommunication in India ................................................................................ 111.3 Regulatory framework ............................................................................................................ 111.4 Scope of Telecom Sector in India............................................................................................. 121.5 Evolution of Telecom Sector in India ....................................................................................... 121.5.1 Phase:1 (1980-89) ......................................................................................................................... 131.5.2 Phase 2 ( 1990-99) ........................................................................................................................ 131.5.3 Phase 3 (2000-2006) ..................................................................................................................... 131.6 Role of Telecom Sector in Indian Economy .............................................................................. 131.6.1 Direct Benefits............................................................................................................................... 141.6.2 Indirect Benefits ............................................................................................................................ 141.7 Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 14CHAPTER-2 ......................................................................................................................................................15REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................................................................................................15CHAPTER-3 ......................................................................................................................................................18GLOABAL SCENARIO .....................................................................................................................................183.1 World Telecom Sector ............................................................................................................ 183.2 Growth of Telecom Sector world wide .................................................................................... 18 2|Page
  • 4. 3.3 Major Players in world market ............................................................................................... 193.3.1 AM Stereo ..................................................................................................................................... 193.3.2 Digital Wireless Phone .................................................................................................................. 193.3.3 Rockewell Lucent .......................................................................................................................... 203.3.4 AT&T.............................................................................................................................................. 20CHAPTER-4 ......................................................................................................................................................21CURRENT INDIAN SCENARIO ...................................................................................................................214.1 Overview of Indian Telecom sector ......................................................................................... 214.2 Wire Line ................................................................................................................................ 224.3 Wireless Subscriber ................................................................................................................ 224.4 Internet Subscriber ................................................................................................................. 234.5 Broadband subscriber ............................................................................................................. 234.6 Teledensity at India ................................................................................................................ 244.7 National Long Distance Service ............................................................................................... 244.8 Wireless (GSM and CDMA) Services ........................................................................................ 254.9 Growth in subscriber of PSU operators ................................................................................... 254.10 Growth in subscriber of private operators ............................................................................. 26CHAPTER-5 ......................................................................................................................................................27ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................................................275.1 GSM and CDMA technique...................................................................................................... 275.1.1 GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) .................................................................... 275.1.2 Benefits of GSM over CDMA ...................................................................................................... 275.1.3 Code division multiple access (CDMA ........................................................................................ 275.1.4 Benefits of CDMA over GFSM .................................................................................................... 275.1.5 Major players of CDMA and GSM in Indian Market................................................................... 275.2 Indian Telecom Industry Statistics (Mar09-Feb10) ................................................................... 28 3|Page
  • 5. 5.3 Global Telecomtrend Analysis (2005 – 2020) ........................................................................... 315.3.1 Regression Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 325.3.2 Equation of Trend ......................................................................................................................... 335.4 Indian Telecom Trend Analysis ( 2005 – 2020) ......................................................................... 355.5 Percentage Increase/Decrease Trendof Sales .......................................................................... 385.6 Trend Of Teledensity Growth .................................................................................................. 405.7 Market Share On Regional Basis ............................................................................................. 425.8 Growth In Subscriber Base ...................................................................................................... 445.8.1 Public Sector versus Private Sector............................................................................................... 445.9 Share of Telecom Sector to India GDP ..................................................................................... 455.10 Employment In Public & private telecom sector .................................................................... 465.11 SWOT Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 475.11.1 Strengths ..................................................................................................................................... 475.11.2 Weakness ................................................................................................................................... 475.11.3 Opportunity................................................................................................................................ 485.11.4 Threats ........................................................................................................................................ 485.12 4 P’S of Marketing ................................................................................................................ 495.12.1 Product/Service: ......................................................................................................................... 495.12.2 Price: ........................................................................................................................................... 495.12.3 Place: ........................................................................................................................................... 495.12.4 Promotion: .................................................................................................................................. 505.13 SEGMENTATION, TARGETING, POSITIONING ......................................................................... 515.13.1 Segmentation: ............................................................................................................................. 515.13.2 Targeting ..................................................................................................................................... 515.13.3 Positioning .................................................................................................................................. 515.14 Market Share Analysis And Trend Based On Private And Public Sector .................................. 525.14.1 Market share of wireless operator ............................................................................................. 525.14.2 Market share of GSM operators ................................................................................................. 535.14.3 Market share of CDMA operators .............................................................................................. 545.15 Hierarchy of effects model .................................................................................................... 555.15.1 Awareness ................................................................................................................................... 555.15.2 Knowledge .................................................................................................................................. 55 4|Page
  • 6. 5.15.3 Liking ........................................................................................................................................... 555.15.4 Preference................................................................................................................................... 555.15.5 Conviction: .................................................................................................................................. 565.15.6 Purchase:..................................................................................................................................... 56CHAPTER-6 ......................................................................................................................................................57COMPANY ANALYSIS .....................................................................................................................................576.1 Airtel ...................................................................................................................................... 576.1.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Appendix:1) .............................................................................................. 576.1.1 Financial Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 586.1.3 Pricing Stratigy .............................................................................................................................. 586.2 Vodafone ............................................................................................................................... 596.2.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Appendix:2) .............................................................................................. 596.2.2 Financial Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 606.2.3 Pricing Stratigy .............................................................................................................................. 606.3 BSNL....................................................................................................................................... 616.3.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Appendix:3) .............................................................................................. 626.3.2 Financial Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 626.3.3 Pricing Stratigy .............................................................................................................................. 626.4 MTNL ..................................................................................................................................... 666.4.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Apeendix:4) .............................................................................................. 666.4.2 Financial Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 676.4.3 Pricing Stratigy .............................................................................................................................. 676.5 HFCL ....................................................................................................................................... 696.5.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Appendix:5) .............................................................................................. 696.5.2 Financial Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 706.5.3 Pricing Stratigy .............................................................................................................................. 706.6 AIDTYA BIRLA TELECOM.......................................................................................................... 716.6.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Appendix:6) .............................................................................................. 716.6.2 Financial Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 72 5|Page
  • 7. CHAPTER-7 ......................................................................................................................................................73FUTURE OUTLOOK ........................................................................................................................................737.1 Revenue ................................................................................................................................. 737.2 Market Share.......................................................................................................................... 737.3 GDP and Employment ............................................................................................................. 737.4 Prices..................................................................................................................................... 737.5 Technology ............................................................................................................................. 737.6 Upcoming Technology In telecom Sector ................................................................................. 747.7 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 74APPENDIX-1 .....................................................................................................................................................76APPENDIX-2 .....................................................................................................................................................77APPENDIX-3 .....................................................................................................................................................78APPENDIX-4 .....................................................................................................................................................79APPENDIX-5 .....................................................................................................................................................80APPENDIX-6 .....................................................................................................................................................81BIBLIOGRAPHY...............................................................................................................................................82 List of FiguresFigure-1.1 Evolution of telecom sector………………………………………………………… 13Figure-1.2 Evolution of telecom sector…………………………………………………………14Figure:5.1 Promotional strategies………………………………………………………………..51Figure:5.2 Hierarchy of effect model…………………………………………………………....56 6|Page
  • 8. List of TablesTable 5.1: Global Telecom sector revenue 2005- 2011…………………………………………………33Table 5.2: Future World wide Telecom Industry Revenue in billions ( 2012-2020)…………………35Table 5.3: Global telecom sector revenue 2005-20 09………………………………………………….36Table 5.4:FutureIndian Telecom Industry Revenue in billions ( 2010-2020)………………………..38Table 5.5 : Tele density 1989-2007 ( % of population)………………………………………………..41Table 5.6 : Contribution to GDP 2004-2009…………………………………………………………..46Table 5.7 : Direct Employment 2005-2007…………………………………………………………….47Table 5.8 :% change in Direct Employment 2005-2007………………………………………………48Table 6.1 : Ratio Analysis of Bharti Airtel…………………………………………………………….58Table 6.2 : Ratio Analysis of Vodafone………………………………………………………………..60Table 6.2 : Ratio Analysis of BSNL……………………………………………………………………63Table 6.4 : Ratio Analysis of MTNL…………………………………………………………………..67Table 6.5 : Ratio Analysis of HFCL…………………………………………………………………...70Table 6.6 : Ratio Analysis of Aditya Birla telecom…………………………………………………..72 List of charts Chart 3.1: World wide Telecom Industry Revenue in billions ………………………………………..20 Chart 4.1: Growth of subscriber base from 1991-2009 (millions)…………………………………..…22 Chart 4.2: Growth of wire line subscriber base from 2004-2009 (millions)………………………….23 Chart 4.3: Growth of wireless subscriber base from 2004-2009 (millions)………………………..…23 Chart 4.4 Growth of internet subscriber base from 2004-2009 (millions)……………………………….…..…24 Chart 4.5: Growth of broadband subscriber base from 2004-2009 (millions)……………………..…….….24 Chart 4.6: Growth of Tele density in India 2004-2009………………………………………………...25 Chart 4.7: Decline in Tariffs………………………………………….……………….……………...25 7|Page
  • 9. Chart 4.8: Wireless (GSM and CDMA) Services 2004-2009………………………………………………26Chart 4.9: Subscriber base of PSU Operators 1998-2009 (millions)…………………………………..…..27Chart 4.10: Subscriber base of Private Operator 1998-2009 (millions)……………………………….….27Chart: 5.1: Top seven operators GSM & CDMA services monthly net Addition Mar-09 –Feb10……29Chart: 5.2: Top seven operators GSM & CDMA services monthly net Addition in %Mar-09 –Feb10..30Chart: 5.3: Top seven operators Market share in % Mar-09 –Feb10…………………………………...31Chart 5.4: All India subscriber base ………………………………………….……………….…….…….32Chart 5.5 World wide Telecom Industry Revenue in billions(2005-2011) …………………………..….32Chart:5.6 Future World wide Telecom Industry Revenue in billions ( 2012-2020)……….…………....35Chart:5.7 Indian Telecom Industry Revenue in billion(2005-2009)…………………………………..…36Chart:5.8 Future Indian Telecom Industry Revenue in billions (2010-2020)………………………..….38Chart :5.9 % increase in sales in Global Scenario …………………………………………………….…..39Chart :5.10 % increase in sales in Indian Scenario……………………………………………………..…40Chart :5.11 Growth in tele density 1989-2007………………………………………………………….….41Chart: 5.12: Trend analysis of tele density 1988-2008……………………………………………………….42Chart 5.13 Market share region wise in world…………….……………………………………………..…..43Chart 5.14 Market share region wise in India…………….…………………………………………………..44Chart 5.15 Growth in subscriber base 1998-2009…………………………………………………………….45Chart 5.16 Market share of public sector versus private sector 1998 & 2009…………………………………45Chart:5.17 Contribution to GDP 2004-2009 …………………………………………………………………..46Chart:5.18 Direct Employment 2005-2007…………………………………………………………………….47Chart:5.19 Market share of wireless operators……………………………………………………………….53Chart:5.20 Market share of GSM operators……………………………………………………………………54Chart:5.21 Market share ofCDMA operators………………………………………………………………..55 8|Page
  • 10. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Indian telecommunication industry is one of the fastest growing telecommunication industries inthe world. Day by day the technology is becoming more advanced. The competition is alsoincreasing as many companies have entered in the telecom sector. Now the companies are trying toretain their customers by providing various offers. They are trying to make their customer loyal.Now fixed line and mobile has become essential necessity for Indian people. The fixed linetelephony is categorized as fixed wire line and fixed wireless telephony. GSM (Global System forMobile Communication) and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technologies are used in theIndian mobile sector.BSNL is the leading public sector undertakings players and Bharti, Vodafone, Tata, Reliance, Ideaare the leading private sector players. Indian telecom sector is the second largest mobile network inthe world after China.There is the chance to grow for the telecom equipment manufacturer with the growth of Indiantelecom sector. Today the industry offers services such as fixed landlines, WLL, GSM, CDMA, IPservices etc. to the customers. BSNL, Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communication, Vodafone, Idea, Tataare some of the companies those are expected to grow in this sector. The Indian consumers areenjoying wide range of services at the lowest tariffs in the world. The Indian telecom sector isgrowing by adding around 15 million connections per month. It has achieved 429.72 millionsubscribers in India as on 31st March 2009. The teledensity was 36.98 percent at the end of March,2009. The growth in the telecom sector has come in the backdrop of increased competition in themarket leading to cheap call rates which are the lowest in the world. Despite enjoying the lowesttariffs in the world, call rates are set to fall further as operators are set to ignite several rounds ofprice wars as they expand their offerings. The idea of the government of India is to help moderntelecommunication technologies to serve all segments of India‟s culturally diverse society, and totransform it technologically aware people and with TRAI, DoT and NTP‟s. The Indian telecom sector is playing an important role in social relationships. In recent years, thepopularity of SMS and social networking sites has been increased dramatically. It has increased thepublic ability to access to music and film and also transform the way people receive their news. Therole is to gain more important in the coming years with the Vision India 2020.The vision of telecommunication in 2020 is a vision of information society built on an edifice whereIT and telecommunication merge. There will be striving to spread the benefits to rural sector. Moreemphasis will be put on developing the human capital, infrastructure and building capabilities andcapacity for growth. The future is visible with the advent of Web 2.0 and MVNO and strategies likedeveloping strong partnership skills, focusing on customer user groups, embracing internet serviceswill only be enable the players to thrive well into the future. 9|Page
  • 11. CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION1.1 Overview of Telecom sectorThe history of telecommunication industry started with the first public demonstration of Morse‟selectric telegraph, Bealtimore to Washington in 1844. In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell filed hispatent application and the first telephone patent was issues to him on 7th of March.In the mid 1890s several key Bell patents expired and the country emerged from a depression whichcaused independent (non- Bell) companies to proliferate. Bell companies controlled less than half ofthe phones in America by 1903. More than half of incorporated towns and cities had more than oneservice.There was no exact reason why these independent companies could not struggle. There might behigh competition with high fixed costs and low marginal costs associated with telephone network.In 1900, merely 3 percent of all calls were long distance. Many phone companies did not even offerlong distance services. They made their money on short distance toll services. Local phonecompanies found that it was very profitable to combine adjacent towns and extend their reach.Some businesses were willing to pay more for long distance services in urban areas. At first Bellallowed only its affiliates to have access to its long distance network. But later it opened up to non-affiliated companies.In 1913, telegraph was popular way of communication. AT&T commits to dispose its telegraphstocks and agreed to provide long distance connection to independence telephone system.Bell System grew more under the name of AT&T. Many of today‟s companies face such issues asfaced AT&T hundred years ago.In 1956 the final judgment limited the BELL system to common carrier communications andgovernment projects but preserving the long-standing relationship between the manufacturing,researches and operating arms of the Bell system. In this judgment AT&T retained bell laboratoriesand western Electric Company. This final judgment brought to a close the justice department sevenyear old antitrust suit against AT&T and western Electric which sought separation of the bellsystem manufacturing from its operating and research functions. AT&T was still controlling thetelecommunication industry.It was telecommunication act of 1996 that true competition was allowed. The act of 1996 openedthe market to all competitors. AT&T being the first telecommunication company paved the road forthe telecommunication industry as well as set the policy and standards for others to follow. 10 | P a g e
  • 12. 1.2 Beginning of Telecommunication in India  1851 First operational land lines were laid by the government near Calcutta  1881 Telephone services introduced in India  1883 Merger with postal system  1923 Formation of Indian Radio Telegraph Company  1932 Merger of ETC and IRT into India Radio and Cable Communication Company  1947 Nationalization of all foreign telecommunication companies to form the posts, telephone and telegraph.  1985 Department of telecommunication was established to provide domestic and long distance services  1986 Conversion of DoT into two wholly government – owned companies the VSNL for international telecommunication and MTNL for services in metropolitan areas.  1997 Telecom regulatory authority of India (TRAI) created 1.3 Regulatory frameworkThe Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was set up in March 1997 as a regulator fortelecom sector. The TRAI’s functions are recommendatory, regulatory and tariff setting in telecomsector. Telecom Disputes settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) came into existence in May2000.TDSAT has been empowered to adjudicate any dispute.  Between a licensor and a licensee  Between two or more service providers  Between a service provider and a group consumers  Hear and dispose of appeal against and direction, decision or order of TRAI. 11 | P a g e
  • 13. 1.4 Scope of Telecom sector in IndiaTelecommunication is important not only because of its role in bringing the benefits ofcommunication to every corner of India but also in serving the new policy objectives of improvingthe global competitiveness of the Indian Economy and stimulating and attracting Foreign directinvestment.Indian telecom is one of the fastest growing telecom markets in the world. In telecom industry,service provider are the main drivers, whereas equipment manufacturers are witnessing growth anddecline in successive quarters as sale is dependent on order undertaken by the companies.World telecom industry is going to be a booming industry.1.5 Evolution of Telecom sector in India PHASES OF EVOLUTION OF TELECOM SECTOR IN INDIA Figure 1.1 12 | P a g e
  • 14. 1.5.1 Phase:1 (1980-89) Private sector companies penetrated the telecommunication market in 1984.Various kind of equipment related to telecom sector started being manufactured.MTNL was formed to promote communication in the metro city Delhi and Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) got started in 1986 to enable communicate abroad. In 1989 telecom commission was set up to regulate the telecom sector 1.5.2 Phase 2 ( 1990-99) Liberalization of Indian economy and open competition was allowed. TRAI that‟s is Telecom Regulatory Authority was established in 1997.New Telecom Policy (NTP) was announced in 1999 to regulate various companies and have control on Tariffs to meet Indian customer needs. 1.5.3 Phase 3 (2000-2006) BSNL was established in 2000 to have STD connection all over India. It was great initiative to connect whole India. National and International long distance services came into competition. License fees were reduced. Internet telephony and CDMA technology was initiated in 2000. In 2002 VSNL was privatized and BSNL launched mobile services. Calling party pays was initiated in 2003 and broad band policy was formulated in 2004. In 2005 FDI increased from 49% to 72%.Concept of number portability was introduced in 2006.1.6 Role of Telecom sector in Indian Economy Figure 1.2 13 | P a g e
  • 15. India telecom sector basically benefited in two broader perspectives1.6.1 Direct Benefits  It contributes to Indian GDP  It generates revenue for nation thus increasing the national income  It provides employment1.6.2 Indirect Benefits  It improves the existing flow of information system  Access of information in a simplified manner  Increase the speed of services  Increases [productivity of business through voice and data services1.7 Objectives of study  To study telecommunication sector and its growth in depth, and analyze where we would be in a position to define the future trend of telecomm sectors, future outlook and how it is going to impact both Indian and world economy.  To compare Private sector and public sector in regards to telecom sector to understand who would be the market leader in future. Will private company eat away the market shares of public sector?  To analyze top 3 and bottom 3 companies in details in concern to financial, market share, opportunities, threats and other statistical analysis. 14 | P a g e
  • 16. CHAPTER-2 REVIEW OF LITERATUREAnderson (2008) in his interview titled “Developing a route to market strategy for mobilecommunication in rural India An interview with Gurdeep Singh, Operations Director,Uttar Pradesh Hutch India” suggests that managers should help the poor people other thantraditional approach. He also suggested that innovation should be taking in consideration todevelop the market. He said that Hutchison Essar in India had provided good lessons formobile network operators and for other firms also to serve the rural people in a better way. Thecompany had built good relationships with individual entrepreneurs. The company had seenthe opportunity to capture the rural market.http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1747159&show=abstractMani (2008) addresses many issues those are arising in the mid 1990s. He discusses aboutspillover effect for the rest of the economy. There is another important effect to developmajor manufacturing hub in India for telecom equipment and semiconductor devices. Slowlytelecommunication services will be the reason for the growth of the manufacturing sector. Theformation of a Telecom Equipment Expert Forum and the announcement of the Indiansemiconductor policy 2007 show the steps towards this direction.www.imdb.com/title/tt1308183/Shah (February, 2009)analyzed Indian telecom sector basically for the three companiesnamed Bharti, Reliance Communication, idea in the basis of global meltdown. It showedthere is no sign of meltdown in this sector but there is turmoil. In the near future the wirelesstechnology will penetrate in the market and it will help to grow for the market. The growthwill be sustained by the adoption of 3G technology in the market. It also showed thecompetition the industry will face in the future. The article also described how it will be safe tobe in this industry. Therefore the growth can be restricted.www.scribd.com/doc/28299597/telecommunication-sector 15 | P a g e
  • 17. Chowdhury&Datta in their article “Indian Telecom: Regulation, Spectrum, Allocation andDispute Management” suggests that dispute settlement is very important area of focus for thegrowing telecommunication industry. The standard practice of dispute regulation in this sector isregulatory adjudication. Policy makers should improve this mechanism by focusing on the partitioningof judicial functioning for the area of regulation, antitrust measures and consumers‟ disputes. Disputecan be resolved by the involvement with private bodies in arbitration and negotiation. It is alleged thatthe regulation mechanism in India is politically driven bias. Since the regulatory body is appointed bythe Government, political influence cannot be avoided. It can be reduced by the participation of non-official bodies. Many countries such as USA, Australia, Jordan, Hungary etc. have an attributionsystem in place. Many countries dispute settlement is considered it as a separate area of regulation.Indian telecom sector is growing and attracting huge investment as mobile set has become an essentialpart of human life. The news of 3G auction has made interested big foreign firms. There should bewell-designed dispute settlement machinery so that the growth of Indian telecom industry would notbe affected because of legal conflicts.Indian Telecom: Regulation, Spectrum, Allocation and Dispute ManagementIIMB Management Review Vol. 21 No 4 December 2009.Datta, Chatterjee and Goswami in their “Introduction of 3G Technology in India – ProbableScenario” says that though 3G technology has come in India with BSNL but the future path is stilluncertain. The strong side of it is the large telephony market and the population of youth. The majorityof the India population is youth and youths are more receptive to new technology compared to the oldgeneration. The flip side is they will not adopt 3G technology if it is charged more because the percapita income level of India is low. It is found from international experience that the revenue of NTTDoCoMofor for 3G services was low as compared to 2G services because they charged for 3Gservices less than 2G services. The revenue of the services of 3G technology is not well because ofhigh license fee, infrastructural cost, and hand over between 2G and 3G. As BSNL and MTNL are thefirst mover in 3G technology this is terrain for them. But the second mover will have much moreadvantage as they will have all the related information.Introduction of 3G Technology in India – Probable ScenarioSurvey – A Management Research Journal of IISWBM – India’s First B – SchoolVolume 49, No. 3 & 4, July – December, 2009 16 | P a g e
  • 18. Narayana in his article “Telecommunication services and Economic Growth: Evidence fromIndia” calculates approximately that the aggregate economic growth of India will be contributed bythe telecommunication services. A sample survey had been done in Karnataka state in India. Here theprice and income are the determinants for the demand for telecom services. Gross earning of telecomprovider is an important determinant of value added by telecom services in Indian GDP. It is foundthat negative price elasticity of demand and positive income elasticity of demand for telecom services.It showed that non-economic factors influence demand including non-awareness of the usage and costof VAS (Value Added Services). Indian telecom is focused on privatization, deregulation, andcompetition since 1991. Private Service operators are growing in the market of mobile telephony.International and domestic long distance calls have been fallen. India‟s public sector oftelecommunication is growing by providing Value Added Services.http://www.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/cirje/research/dp/2008/2008cf545.pdfReport of the working group on the telecom sector (for the tenth five year plan 2002-2007) saysthat as the telecom sector is increasing fast. The telecom densities will be achieved by the end ofMarch 31, 2007 11.5 percent of the population at the national level, 3 percent for the rural area, and30.74 percent for the urban areas. Universal service is not going to pay for the planning of phones inthe rural areas. The new technologies are very expensive as loading is less expensive thaneconomically optimal in the rural areas. The capital cost of fixed telephony is also high because ofoperational and maintenance costs but the revenue is not good enough. Due to this, many operators arenot willing to provide their service in the rural areas.http://planningcommission.gov.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp/wg_telecom.pdfMelling in his study “PRICE CAP REGULATION IN THE NEW TELECOM SECTOR” saysthat the effects of price cap regulation on fixed line telecom during 1996-2005, and on mobile telecomduring 2001-2005. The fixed line price cap regulation impacts industry productivity growthsignificantly. Price caps on telephone reduce penetration rates. There are two reasons for thesefindings. First, countries which have mobile price caps regulation policies demonstrate a 53.93 percentlower number of subscribers per 100 inhabitants, at the 1 percent significant level. Second, it is verydifficult to penetrate mobile in developing economies. There will be a negative effect on economygrowth by mobile telecom price caps if mobile telecom industry will slow down. When manygovernments felt it is ineffective due to lack of competition within the industry, price caps weredeveloped and used. The telecom competition has changed when mobile telecom usage came in themarket. As competition rises there need policy makers to regulate the telecom industry. It is essentialto allow the market to determine the price in the developing countries.http://www.ryerson.ca/economics/seminars/MRP-Mark.pdf 17 | P a g e
  • 19. CHAPTER-3 GLOABAL SCENARIO3.1 World Telecom SectorThe telecom sector plays a vital role in the economic growth. In the beginning the U.S. telephoneservices was provided by American Telecom and Telegraph (AT&T).Later AT&T was proving long distance connections to the other companies. During the sameperiod Great Britain‟s national telephone company was sold to private investors as was Japan‟sNTT telephone monopoly. In the recent year the world‟s policy makers have recognized thattelecom provides key inputs for:  Economic Development  Contributes to global integration  Enhances public sector effectiveness  Efficiency and transparency3.2 Growth of Telecom sector world wideThe telecom industry has become a global combination industry. An industry is called combinationindustry when it combines the other industry‟s product to serve its customers. The telecom industry is serving their customers by transporting electronic communications whichis combining with computers, media and publishing products before being sold to its customers.There are many examples of telecommunication combinations. EDS offers combinationsnetworking with its data center management and re-engineering services. AOL Time Warnerprovides networking, news, online shopping and entertainment.Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) provides multimedia services as part of its global telecombusiness. Over the last decades the fixed line operators are affected as the customers are usingemail, online chat, and mobile text messaging instead of traditional phone calls. 18 | P a g e
  • 20. Chart 3.1: World wide Telecom Industry Revenue in billions Source:: http://www.3g.co.uk/PR/Dec2005/2388.htmNext Generation Telecommunications has become very important for the emerging digitaleconomy. Some important services depend on NGT such as tele-health, e-education, e-business,digital media, e-government, environmental applications like smart utility meters. NGT will takethe form of wireless NGNs i.e. LTE/WiMAX.3.3 Major Players in world market3.3.1 AM StereoIn 1959 Petition was filled with FCC to adopt AM stereo standards. In 1970Magnavox,Motorala,Harris,Belar & Kaln started competing In 1980 Magnavox was allowed In1982FCC declared “let the market decide” .Later General Motors Electronic division picked theMotorola AM stereo system.It was not cost effective.30% percent of radio station cited market confusion to use AM stereo.Moreover there were insufficient Audience. As a result AM stereo got extinct.3.3.2 Digital Wireless PhoneEurope with a standard war in US. Europe adopted widely GSM (Global system mobilecommunication.US adopted GSM, TDMA, CDMA Now some say that US is 5 years behind Europein wireless technology but some say CDMA technology was superior. Ericson: championTDMA.Qualcomm: Created CDMA.Motorala had disappeared: created FDMA .Switching to othertechnology needed to but new handsets that was expensive Users of one system could make call toother system they could come up with handset where they could use both GSM & CDMAtechnology. Consumers need not care that which systems they are using. So GSM & CDMA systemhad to go hand in hand, wherever one goes. 19 | P a g e
  • 21. 3.3.3 Rockewell Lucent The battle lines were drawn between Rockwell/Lucent & U.S. Robotics over the advent of the path breaking 56k modem.56k modems was an epoch making innovation. The existing 28.8 kbps modem had been in place for long & observers believed that there can be no advancement in the near future. Integrated service digital network(ISDN) was not the savior everyone expected it to be. The concept of asymmetric flow of information (downloading) lead to the advent of 56k.Consumers were unhappy about the limited speed offer by 28.8k The market was a growing one ($5 billion) & 56k had the advantage of compatibility U.S. Robotics controlled 25% of modems & had strong brand name. Rockwell the main advantage was the manufacturing of chips the components of modem.U.S. Robotics introduced X2, it signed up with big time ISP.3COM‟S acquisition of U.S. Robotics strengthen U.S. Robotics position Rockwell & Lucent launched “K56flex” brand.it also entered into a merger alliance with topnotch modem manufacturers. Both U.S. Robotics & Rockwell tried influences to gullible customer with an open advertisement welfare. False information regarding so called supremacy furnished in their respective websites was busted by pc world‟s provides were in favor of U.S. Robotics X2 while households reposted their faith in Rockwell technology. No one take advantage of the high speed that was offer. Compatibility issues were sorted out & both rivals promised to make their modems compatible with ITU standard. Thus in December 1997 the ITU come up with v90 standards & both 3com & Rockwell reached on agreement over the nitty-gritty of standards.3COM‟S stock jumped dramatically while modest gains were reported in Rockwells stocks. The sale of modem reached a zenith with sales of modems rising from 10.8 million in 1997 to 33 million in 1998.3.3.4 AT&T In 1913, telegraph was popular way of communication. AT&T commits to dispose its telegraph stocks and agreed to provide long distance connection to independence telephone system. Bell System grew more under the name of AT&T. Many of today‟s companies face such issues as faced AT&T hundred years ago. In 1956 the final judgment limited the BELL system to common carrier communications and government projects but preserving the long-standing relationship between the manufacturing, researches and operating arms of the Bell system. In this judgment AT&T retained bell laboratories and western Electric Company. This final judgment brought to a close the justice department seven year old antitrust suit against AT&T and western Electric which sought separation of the bell system manufacturing from its operating and research functions. AT&T was still controlling the telecommunication industry. 20 | P a g e
  • 22. CHAPTER-4 CURRENT INDIAN SCENARIO4.1 Overview of Indian Telecom sector Chart 4.1: Growth of subscriber base from 1999 to 2009 (in million) Growth of subscriber base from 1999 to 2009 (in million) 429.72 300.49 206.83 140.32 75.54 98.41 36.29 44.97 54.62 22.81 28.53 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: TRAIThe telecom sector is growing very fast in India. It has become the second largest telecom networkin the world after China. TRAI has introduced significant policies. It let the telecom sector frommonopolistic to open market for competition. The Indian consumers are enjoying wide range ofservices at the lowest tariffs in the world. The Indian telecom sector is growing by adding around15 million connections per month. It has achieved its target of 500 million before the targeted date.There were 6.22 million broadband subscribers and 11.09 million internet subscribers as on 31st2009.The total subscriber base (both wireless and wire line) of telecom sector has achieved 429.72million subscribers in India as on 31st March 2009. 21 | P a g e
  • 23. 4.2 Wire Line Chart 4.2: Wire line Subscriber in million Wireline subscriber in million 41.43 41.54 40.75 40.09 39.42 37.96 Mar-04 Mar-05 Mar-06 Mar-07 Mar-08 Mar-09 Source: TRAIThe subscriber base was 37.96 million subscribers as on 31st March 2009. It was decreased by 1.46million subscribers from the last year. The urban wire line subscribers are 27.38 million out of37.96 million and the rest are the rural subscribers.4.3 Wireless Subscriber Chart 4.3: Wireless Subscriber in million Wireless subscriber in million 391.76 261.07 165.11 90.14 52.22 33.69 Mar-04 Mar-05 Mar-06 Mar-07 Mar-08 Mar-09 Source: TRAIThe wireless subscriber base was 391.76 million at the end of March, 2008. 130.69 millionSubscribers are added over the last year. It shows 50 percent growth rate. 22 | P a g e
  • 24. 4.4 Internet Subscriber Chart 4.4: Internet Subscriber in million Internet subscriber in million 13.54 11.09 9.27 6.94 5.55 4.55 Mar-04 Mar-05 Mar-06 Mar-07 Mar-08 Mar-09 Source: TRAIThe internet subscriber base was 13.54 million as on 31st March 2009. The annual growth rate isaround 22.09 percent over the last year.4.5 Broadband subscriber Chart 4.5: Broadband Subscriber in million Broadband subscribers 6.22 3.87 2.34 1.35 0.18 Mar-05 Mar-06 Mar-07 Mar-08 Mar-09 Source: TRAIThe total broadband subscriber was 6.22 million as on 31st March, 2009. It was 3.87 million in theprevious year. So the growth rate is 60.72 percent over the last year. 23 | P a g e
  • 25. 4.6 Teledensity at India Chart 4.6: Growth of Teledensity Growth of Teledensity 40 36.98 35 30 25 26.22 20 18.23 15 12.86 10 9.08 7.04 5 0 Mar-04 Mar-05 Mar-06 Mar-07 Mar-08 Mar-09 Source: TRAIThe teledensity was 36.98 percent at the end of March, 2009. In the last year it was 26.22 percent.It has been increased by 10.76 percent.4.7 National Long Distance Service Chart 4.7: National Long Distance Service % Decline in Tariffs National Long Distance Service % decline in tariffs 0% -10% -20% Distance slabs -30% -40% -50% -60% -70% -80% -90% -100% 51-100 101-200 201-500 501- Above Kms Kms Kms 1000Kms 1000Kms Series1 -62% -75% -87% -90% -94% Source: TRAI 24 | P a g e
  • 26. The percentage decline shown above takes into account current STD rate of Rs. 1.20 for 2 minutesin BSNL‟s General Plan. The decline would be more if the comparison is made with India OnePlan where STD rate is Re. 1 for 2 minutes irrespective of distance slab.4.8 Wireless (GSM and CDMA) Services . Chart 4.8: Subscriber Growth of Wireless Services in million Subscriber growth of wireless services 297.26 192.7 120.4 94.5 69.19 68.37 41.07 44.64 26.15 20.95 7.54 11.15 Mar-04 Mar-05 Mar-06 Mar-07 Mar-08 Mar-09 GSM CDMA Source: TRAIThere were 297.26 (75.88%) million GSM and 94.50 (24.12%) millions of CDMA subscribers atthe end of the financial year 2008-2009. Around 130.69 million subscribers were added during thefinancial year 2008-2009 and it shows the growth rate of 50.06 percent over the last year.4.9 Growth in subscriber of PSU operatorsThe policies and regulatory regime are established by the Government and it regulated to grow thePublic Sector Undertakings and private sector operators. The growth in subscriber of PSUoperators are 71.73 million where 17.18 million are fixed subscribers and 54.51 million are mobilesubscribers. The below figure shows the growth in subscriber of PSU operators 25 | P a g e
  • 27. Chart 4.9: Subscriber Base of PUS Operators Subscriber base of PSU Operators 89.54 79.55 71.4 61.08 52.08 46.98 43.17 38.16 32.44 26.51 21.59 17.8 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: TRAI4.10 Growth in subscriber of private operators Chart 4.10: Subscriber Base of Private Operator Subscriber base of Private Operator 340.18 220.94 134.46 79.24 46.33 30.66 0.88 1.22 2.02 3.85 6.81 11.45 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009Source: TRAIThe growth in subscriber of private operators is 340.18 million where 10.67 million are fixedsubscribers and 329.51 million are mobile subscribers. The above figure shows the growth insubscriber base of Private operators 26 | P a g e
  • 28. CHAPTER-5 ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK5.1 GSM and CDMA technique5.1.1 GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)  80% of the global market uses this standard.  It is used over 1.5 billion people across globe  Across 212 countries and territories  It differs from its predecessor technologies in both signaling and speech channels. It is a part of 2G second generation mobile system5.1.2 Benefits of GSM over CDMA  Low cost in short message service (SMS)  Wider coverage  Ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing phones.5.1.3 Code division multiple access (CDMA)  Allows several users to access within same frequency.  Mainly used in radio communication & other telematics communication.5.1.4 Benefits of CDMA over GFSM  Efficient usage of frequency band  Flexible allocation of bandwidth to subscribers  Broad range of spectrum5.1.5 Major players of CDMA and GSM in Indian Market  Idea  Vodafone  TATA  Reliance  BSNL  Airtel  AircelAirtel and Aircel had a major market share in the GSM and CDMA market in the year 2010 withless in case of Reliance & Idea. 27 | P a g e
  • 29. Chart 5.1: Top Seven Operators – GSM + CDMA – Monthly Net Additions Source:: http://telecomblogs.in/?p=776The chart shows the monthly net income addition of Top 7 operators in regards to aggregate ofGSM and CDMA services in India. The maximum addition has been done by AIRTEL followedby AIRCEL. Where as RELIANCE,TATA & IDEA had lesser monthly income compared toVodafone and BSNL.5.2 Indian Telecom Industry Statistics (Mar09-Feb10)  MARCH 09-FEB 10, top 7 GSM + CDMA telecom have added more than 100 million sub baseswhich near about 20% of total wireless sub-bases in India.  IDEA,TATA & AIRCEL were stable but all other like AIRTEl,VODAFONE,BSNL & RELIANCE were making loss of market share in last financial year(2009).  The growth of TATA Teleservices was quite high in terms of subscribers addition per month which was taken over by Vodafone in February 2010. 28 | P a g e
  • 30. Chart 5.2: Top Seven Operators – GSM + CDMA – Monthly Net Additions in %age Source:: http://telecomblogs.in/?p=7761. TATA & AIRCEL showed a stable monthly addition over last year2. Whereas Vodafone RELIANCE & IDEA were fluctuating a lot in the fiscal year.3. The % addition of BSNL and AIRTEL was quite stable 29 | P a g e
  • 31. Chart 5.3: Top Seven Operators – GSM + CDMA Mobile & FWT – Market Share in %age Source:: http://telecomblogs.in/?p=7761. In GSM + CDMA technology Vodafone, Airtel & RELIANCE occupied the major market share in the last fiscal year 2009.2. Vodafone around 23%, Airtel around 18% and Reliance around 19%.3. Followed by BSNl around 13% ,Idea around 10%/Least was the market share occupied by AIRCEL among top 7 players. 30 | P a g e
  • 32. Chart 5.4: All India Wire line Subscriber Base Source:: http://telecomblogs.in/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/6.jpg  If we look at the charts below, you can find out how Tata (GSM+CDMA) has clearly dominated the sub addition scene in later half of year 2009.  In Broadband category, India has 80 lacks BB subscriber at the end of Feb-10, as compared to 58 lacks in Mar-09. In implies only 2 million BB subscriber additions during one year period.5.3 Global Telecom trend Analysis (2005 – 2020) Chart 5.5: World wide Telecom Industry Revenue in billions Source:: http://www.3g.co.uk/PR/Dec2005/2388.htm 31 | P a g e
  • 33.  The revenue has significantly increased by 42% over last 5 years.  In 2011 the revenue of world wide telecom go about 3156 billion US $.5.3.1 Regression Analysis STEP:1 Getting the scattered diagram from chart:5.4 Table 5.1 World Telecom Revenue in US $ Revenue in YEAR billion US $ 2005 1851 2006 2085 2007 2320 2008 2547.4 2009 2764.5 2010 2968.8 2011 3156 Chart 5.5.1: Scatter Diagram of table 5.1 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 2004.5 2005 2005.5 2006 2006.5 2007 2007.5 2008 2008.5 STEP:2 Joining the lines in the scatter diagram ( Revenue in Billions) 32 | P a g e
  • 34. Chart 5.5.2: Straight line of scatter diagram 1400 1200 1000 800 600 y = 187.41x - 375057 R² = 0.991 400 200 0 2004.5 2005 2005.5 2006 2006.5 2007 2007.5 2008 2008.55.3.2 Equation of Trend Through regression analysis equation of above trend from 2005 to 2011 was found TREND TYPE: Straight line ( Increasing function) y = 218.83x – 436873 R² = 0.9985  Y : Is the total sales revenue generated  X : The year  R² : Correlation coefficient  R² > 0.8 indicates that the relation is strong enough to justify the trend. STEP:3 Substituting the future values in the same equation. 33 | P a g e
  • 35. Table 5.2 World Telecom expected Revenue in US $ Revenue in YEAR billion in US $ 2012 3412.96 2013 3631.79 2014 3850.62 2015 4069.45 2016 4288.28 2017 4507.11 2018 4725.94 2019 4944.77 2020 5163.6 Chart 5.6: Future World wide Telecom Industry Revenue in billions ( 2012-2020) 4944.77 5163.6 4725.94 4507.11 4288.28 3631.79 4069.45 3850.623412.962012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 The revenue will significantly increased by 37% over last 5 years. In 2011 the revenue of world wide telecom go about 5163 billions US $. 34 | P a g e
  • 36. 5.4 Indian Telecom Trend Analysis ( 2005 – 2020) Chart 5.7: Indian Telecom Industry Revenue in billions Source:: http://www.3g.co.uk/PR/Dec2005/2388.htm  The revenue has significantly increased by 48% over last 4 years.  In 2009 the revenue of Indian telecom go about 1524 billions US $.STEP:1 Getting the scattered diagram from chart:5.7 Table 5.3 Indian Telecom Revenue in US $ Revenue in YEAR billion US $ 2005 716 2006 867 2007 1053 2008 1291 2009 1524 35 | P a g e
  • 37. Chart 5.7.1: Scatter Diagram of table 5.3 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 2004.5 2005 2005.5 2006 2006.5 2007 2007.5 2008 2008.5 STEP:2 Joining the lines in the scatter diagram Chart 5.7.2: Straight line of scatter diagram 1400 1200 1000 800 y = 187.41x - 375057 600 R² = 0.991 400 200 0 2004.5 2005 2005.5 2006 2006.5 2007 2007.5 2008 2008.55.4.2 Equation Of Trend Through regression analysis equation of above trend from 2005 to 2011 was found TREND TYPE: Straight line ( Increasing function) y = 204x – 408338 R² = 0.9915 36 | P a g e
  • 38.  Y : Is the total sales revenue generated X : The year R² : Correlation coefficient R² > 0.8 indicates that the relation is strong enough to justify the trend.STEP:3 Substituting the future values in the same equation. Table 5.4: Indian Telecom expected Revenue in US $ Revenue in YEAR billion in US $ 2010 1702 2011 1906 2012 2110 2013 2314 2014 2518 2015 2722 2016 2926 2017 3130 2018 3334 2019 3538 2020 3742 Chart 5.8: Indian Telecom Revenue generated in US $ Indian Telecom Revenue generated in US $ 3538 3742 3742 3130 3334 2722 2926 2314 2518 1906 2110 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2020  The revenue will significantly increased by 34% over last 5 years.  In 2011 the revenue of world wide telecom go about 3742 billions US $. 37 | P a g e
  • 39. 5.5 Percentage Increase/Decrease Trend of Sales% increase = 100 X ( Current Year sales - Previous Year sales ) / Previous year sales Chart 5.9: % increase in sales in Global Scenario (calculated from chart: 5.5 & 5.6) ( Y:axix-> % increase/decrease) 12 10 8 Axis Title 6 4 2 0 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 Axis Title 1. There has been substantial decline in the rate of increased sales. 2. However there is spike in between 2010 to 2014 indicating that that the revenue will increase by 2012 and then it would come down to a normal rate by 2014. 3. The trend that it is following is a linearly decreasing function with rate of decrease as 0.444 part of revenue. 38 | P a g e
  • 40. Chart 5.10: % increase in sales in Global Scenario (calculated from chart: 5.7 & 5.8) ( Y:axix-> % increase/decrease)201816141210 8 6 4 2 0 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 1. There has been substantial decline in the rate of increased sales. 2. However there was spike in between 2006 to 2010 indicating that that the revenue will increase by 208 and than it would come down to normal rate by 2010 3. The trend that it is following is a linearly decreasing function with rate of decrease as 0.965 part of revenue. 39 | P a g e
  • 41. 5.6 Trend Of Teledensity Growth Chart 5.11: India’s Growing Teledensity Source:http://www.trai.com/2288.htm  The teledensity increase over time  However it started accelerating at a higher rate after 2001 taking a exponential curve from linear line.  In 2007 the teledensity was 11.4%  It has increased by 22 times compared to that in 1989 Table 5.5 Teldensity in India TELEDENSITY (percentage of YEAR population) 1989 0.5 1991 0.6 1993 0.8 1995 1.1 1997 1.6 1999 2.3 2001 3.6 2003 5.1 2005 11.4 2007 22 40 | P a g e
  • 42. Chart 5.12: Telendensity trend in India 25 20 15 y = 9E-179e0.2056x R² = 0.9674 10 5 0 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008TREND TYPE: ExponentialThrough regression analysis equation of above trend from 2005 to 2011 was found y = 9E-179e0.2056x R² = 0.9674  Y : Is the teledensity  X : The year  R² : Correlation coefficientR² > 0.8 indicates that the relation is strong enough to justify the trend. 41 | P a g e
  • 43. 5.7 Market Share On Regional Basis World telecom Industry is an uprising industry, proceeding towards a goal of achieving two third of worlds telecom connections. Over the past few years‟ information and communications technology has changed in dramatic manners and as a result of that world telecom industry is going to be a booming industry. Substantial economic growth and mounting population enable the rapid growth of this industry.  The world telecom industry is expected to grow by 11%  The total revenue earned from this industry is 3% of the gross world economy  16.9% of the world population has access to internet. Chart 5.13: Market Share Region Wise in World Source:: http://www.trai.com 42 | P a g e
  • 44. Today the industry offers services such as fixed landlines, WLL, GSM mobiles, CDMA and IPservices to customers. AIRTEL, RELIANCE, TATA, Vodafone, IDEA, SPICE are some of thecompanies that are expected to grow in this sector. The robust countries teledensity is 35.62%.  About there are 36 phone connections for every 100 people in India  India has over 375.74 million mobile connections. Chart 5.14: Market Share Region Wise in India Source:: http://www.trai.comThe Indian telecom services with 203 million connection is the 3rd largest Telecom network in theworld & 2nd largest among the emerging economies of Asia. Today, it is one of the fastest growingmarkets in the world. The Telecommunication sector continued to register significant success duringthe year and has emerged as one of the key sectors responsible for India‟s economic growth  Telecom sector in India comprises 3% of India‟s GDP alone. Likely to be double by 2012.  Telecom services contribute 30% of India‟s Total Tax revenue.  Indian Telecom sector gives direct employment to more than 4, 00,000 people compared to 6, 00,000 people in china. 43 | P a g e
  • 45. 5.8 Growth In Subscriber Base Chart 5.15: Growth in Subscriber Base in million Source:: http://www.trai.com This rapid growth has been possible due to various proactive and positive decisions of the Government and contribution of both the public and private sector. The rapid strides in the telecom sector have been facilitated by liberal policies of the government that provides easy market access for telecom equipment and a fair regulatory framework for offering telecom services to the Indian consumers at affordable prices. 5.8.1 Public Sector versus Private Sector Chart 5.16: Market Share of Public & Private Sector Source:: http://www.trai.com 44 | P a g e
  • 46.  Initially in the introduction stage public sectors company like BSNL, MTNL held the major share in the market. It accounted for 95% of total telecom market. But with time governments act of allowing competition in telecom sector & allowing other telecom sectors over the globe to enter India has changed the trend in India. Most of the telecom subscriber in Indian Metro cities are private companies like Airtel, Reliance, Vodafone, Idea etc. 20.8% of total market share is captured by private company. Still the rural areas are dominated by public sector landlines & BSNL/MTNL services.5.9 Share of Telecom Sector to India GDP Table 5.6: Contribution to GDP Gross Contribution Domestic of telecom YEAR Product at sector to factor cost (Rs GDP (%) bn) 2004-2005 2.52 28439 2005-2006 2.71 32006 2006-2007 2.83 37175 2007-2008 2.97 39345 2008-2009 3.08 400231 Source::http://www.dnb.co.in/IndianTelecomIndustry/OverviewTI.asp Chart 5.17: Contribution to GDP2008-20092007-20082006-20072005-20062004-2005 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 45 | P a g e
  • 47. 1. Telecom sector is playing a major role in Indian GDP.In 2004 around 2.5 % came from this sector. 2. However now it constitutes 3.5% in 2009. 3. It expected that by 2015 it will constitute 3.5% of Indian GDP alone. 5.10 Employment In Public & private telecom sector Table 5.7 Direct Employment YEAR 2005 2006 2007 Government 394334 382,105 369035 Private 42,557 47,295 63736 Total 436,891 429,400 432771 Source:: http://www.dnb.co.in/IndianTelecomIndustry/OverviewTI.asp Chart 5.18 : Employment in Government & Private 450000 400000 350000 Employment 300000 250000 Governement 200000 Private 150000 100000 Total 50000 0 2005 2006 2007 YearSo we can see that around 4, 00,000 plus employees are employed in telecom sector  The number of direct employees for government sector has decreased by 3.2%  The number of direct employees for private sector is increased by 22%  The net employment has decreased by 0.46% 46 | P a g e
  • 48. Table 5.8 :% change in employment (calculated from Table 5.7) % change 2005-2006 2006-2007 NET Government -3.10117819 -3.42052577 -3.26085 Private 11.13330357 34.7626599 22.94798 Total -1.71461532 0.785048905 -0.464785.11 SWOT Analysis5.11.1 Strengths  There are many telecom vendors and operators who are providing their services to the customers. So the customers have the option to choose any telecom operator.  The industry is gathering many wireless subscriber bases.  The consumers are willing to pay extra for cutting edge services  As the FDI limit has been increased from 49% to 74%, the Indian telecom marketing attracting foreign markets to invest.  The telecom service providers have an equal level of platform throughout the country because of the unified license regime  The telecom industry is more advanced by its technology and easy to implement. Recently the telecom industry has implemented 3G technology.5.11.2 Weakness  The lowest call tariffs in the world  Every private operator depends on BSNL for providing them power grids and switching station.  They do not have enough reach to the rural areas  The problem of limited spectrum availability and the interconnection charges between the private and the state operators  ARPU in India is very low comparative to the other developing nations.  The congestion level is still high  The portability of mobile number is another weakness  Telecom sector is regulated by the government bodies, also there are many regulatory authorities in India under whose regulation the mobile operators work.  The infrastructure cost of telecom industry is very high.  The customer retention power is very low. The customers change their service provider very soon. 47 | P a g e
  • 49. 5.11.3 Opportunity  The rural market is very large. So the scope is very high in the rural market. BSNL wants to provide their service to the rural market at affordable prices.  The number of population without telecom service is very high in India.  The population psyche is changing. Previously telecom services were thought as an emergency but now it has become an essential part of life in India.  The disposable income of Indian people is increasing even in rural areas. So the telecom sector can get more customers by providing better value to the customers.  The majority of Indian population is youth. As youths are more receptive to the new technologies, the telecom sector can come up with the latest technologies.  Broadband push – In order to further promote the use of internet in the country, the government is taking proactive steps to develop this sector  As there are less than 5 million internet connections, the telecom industry can come up with better strategies in the coming years.  There is huge scope to offer more Value added services.  Foreign investment in form of equity or technology5.11.4 Threats  The telecom infrastructure is not good enough at a globally competitive tariffs  The government policies are not simple.  The service providers have to incur a huge initial fixed cost to make a mark in the rural market. Achieving break even under these circumstances may prove to be difficult  The political instability in a country hinders the growth of the sector.  Due to the regular government and regulatory interference, the private service providers are at a huge risk.  The low cost service providers pose a threat to the other big players. For example Virgin mobile to Airtel and Vodafone.  The new technology can be substitute for the existing telecom services. For example: E-mail, Voice Chat 48 | P a g e
  • 50. 5.12 4 P’S of Marketing5.12.1 Product/Service:  Wire line  CDMA mobile  GSM Mobile  Internet  Broadband  Carrier service  MPLS-VPN  VSAT  VoIP services  IN Services5.12.2 Price:For STD charges in mobile  Same price all over India  Also coming with no roaming chargesFor local Call Charge  1 paisa/sec ( is the most common scenario now)  50 paisa/minSMS  Free sms packages both local and national  Free offers with new sim cards5.12.3 Place:  Metros ( like MTNL)  Urban &Cities ( like Vodafone, Airtel, Idea, Spice, Reliance)  A part of Rural areas ( like BSNL) 49 | P a g e
  • 51. 5.12.4 Promotion:  TV advertisement  telemarketing  Newspaper  Magazine  Journals  Bill Board  Rebates & package offers PROMOTIONAL STRATIGIES Print Public media Relations/ Sales publicity Promotion Broadcast Product media placements Target Audience Internet/ Events and interactive sponsorship Direct Word-of- marketing mouth Out-of- Point-of- home purchase media Figure:5.1 50 | P a g e
  • 52. 5.13 SEGMENTATION, TARGETING, POSITIONING5.13.1 Segmentation: Market Segmentation Some Telecom service operators operate in Indian market and some operators operate in the global market. They are mass market players. Geographic Segmentation The market has 429.72 million subscribers who are from cities, urban, and a part of rural areas. If the disposable income will increase then the growth of the market will increase. A major part of rural areas is still uncovered. Demographic Segmentation  Sex: For all sexes  Age: For every age  Income: Medium to high  Occupation: Any sector  Religion: For every religion 5.13.2 Targeting When telecom industry came into India, BSNL targeted the high income people. All the telecom operators have targeted the metros, cities, and urban areas. BSNL is targeting to capture the rural market with their vast coverage. Majority of the Indian population is youth. All the telecom service operators are targeting the youths as they are more receptive to the new technologies. 5.13.3 Positioning The Indian telecom industry positioned themselves with their better service by adding VAS and the lowest tariffs in the world. 51 | P a g e
  • 53. 5.14 Market Share Analysis And Trend Based On Private And Public Sector5.14.1 Market share of wireless operator The market share of different mobile operators as on 31st March 2009 is shown in below fig. Chart 5.19: Market share of wireless Operators (%) as on 31st March 2009 Market share of wireless Operators (%) as on 31st March 2009 Aircel MTNL 4.72% 1.14% Tata Bharti 8.96% 23.97% Idea 9.93% Sistema Spice 0.15% 1.05% BSNL Reliance 13.31% 18.55% Vodafone 17.55% Loop 0.55% HFCL 0.10% Source: TRAI 52 | P a g e
  • 54. 5.14.2 Market share of GSM operatorsThere were 297.26 million GSM subscribers in the wireless segment at the end of financial year2008-2009. It added around 104.56 million subscribers during this year. The below figure showsthe market share of GSM operators as on 31st March 2009 Chart 5.20: Market share (%) of GSM operators as on 31st March 2009 Market share (%) of GSM operators as on 31st March 2009 BSNL Vodafone 15.71% 23.13% Idea 13.08% Bharti 31.60% Reliance 6.73% Aircel 6.22% Loop Spice MTNL 0.73% 1.39% 1.41% Source: TRAI 53 | P a g e
  • 55. 5.14.3 Market share of CDMA operatorsThere were 94.5 million CDMA subscribers in the wireless segment at the end of financial year2008-2009. The below figure shows the market share of different CDMA operators as on 31stMarch 2009 Chart 5.21: Market share (%) of different CDMA Operators as on 31st March 2009 Market share (%) of different CDMA Operators as on 31st March 2009 37.16% Tata BSNL 55.72% Sistema HFCL 5.76% MTNL Reliance 0.41% 0.63% 0.32% Source: TRAI 54 | P a g e
  • 56. 5.15 Hierarchy of effects model • Awareness Cognitive Stage • Knoweldge • Liking Attractive Stage • Preference • Conviction Behavioural Stage • Purchase Figure:5.25.15.1 Awareness It created awareness of the brand rather late. In its early days its popularity was confined to Metro cities. But the slowly campaign created awareness among the Indian masses about the brand and the brand finally caught the attention of urban India.5.15.2 Knowledge Telecom services were positioned as easy access and connecting people. It emphasized on its product hygiene which got favourable response from the media. Thus customers knew about the attributes of the brand at a time when competing brands were few and far between.5.15.3 Liking As we mentioned earlier in its hey days (even now) people liked the brand like BSNL,MTNL. The brand always had a tinge of nationalism which coupled with impressive promotion activities. We are talking about a few decades back when national when private companies like Airtel came with jingles5.15.4 Preference While MTNL was a major preference over Delhi and Munbai,BSNL was the only options available in rural areas. Reliance preferred the low income states, whereas airtel and Vodafone was a preference in urban sectors due to better connectivity & broader frequency band. 55 | P a g e
  • 57. 5.15.5 Conviction: Telecom sector as a brand managed to create an image for itself on the lines of quality and service. Such was the power of campaign that whenever Indian masses thought of subscribing k products Companies like Airtel, BSNL, and Vodafone automatically topped the list of likely brands. People were convinced about the quality of the brand .5.15.6 Purchase: As a brand got a head start in the fag with its focus on promotion campaign. Thus the following decade saw unprecedented sales thanks to a large chunk of first time users. The high quality of the products, lack of any major competing brand till the nineties meant that there were repeat customers. It enjoys a large base of loyal customers whose purchasing decisions are governed by TRAI. 56 | P a g e
  • 58. CHAPTER-6 COMPANY ANALYSIS6.1 AirtelBharti Airtel is Flagship Company of Bharti Enterprises. Bharti Airtel has created global brands inthe telecom sector. It is the largest and first private telecom service provider in India. It has enteredin the telecom market providing its world class product and service. The business at Bharti Airtelhas been structured into three individual strategic business units (SBUs) – Mobile services, Airteltelemedia services, and Enterprise services. The mobile business provides mobile voice & dataservices, fixed line, high speed broadband, and mobile and fixed wireless services with GSMtechnology across 23 telecom circle. Airtel Telemedia Services provides broadband and telephoneservices across 95 cities. It has launched Direct-to-Home (DTH) service, Airtel digital TV.Enterprise services provide end-to-end telecom solutions to corporate customers and national andinternational long distance services to carriers. Airtel is the leading global telecom company withoperations in19 countries across Asia and Africa. Bharti airtel had 200 million customers across itsoperations.6.1.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Appendix:1) Table: 6.1 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Current Ratio -0.281466 -0.314663 -0.483464 -0.506372 -0.535413 -0.47583 - - - - - - Working Capital 16,452.42 18,079.75 17,978.03 16,150.94 10,774.01 6,578.20 Net worth 36,737.18 27,643.96 20,241.49 11,413.26 7,333.43 4,533.60 Debt Equity Ratio 0.1371613 0.2790356 0.3245976 0.4653193 0.6540309 1.101617 Credit Risk ( unsecured loan/secured+unsecured 99.217491 99.329371 99.202172 94.982875 40.300315 20.71185 loan) Source: www.capitaline.com 57 | P a g e
  • 59. 6.2.1 Financial Analysis  Current Ratios negative over years shows that the company has more liabilities than actually what it can generate in form of liquid cash  Ability to pay back is quite low  Credit risk has increased over period of time due to increased ratio of unsecured loans  However the debts compared to its net worth have decreased over time.  It‟s a good sign that Net worth has increased  Negative working capital over year shows that there is cash inflow going on6.2.3 Pricing Stratigy  ONE TIME CHARGES Pulse Rate 60 sec Price of Pack (Rs.) 49 Free Airtime on Pack (Rs.) 0 Incoming Calls (Rs.) Free in Home Network  CALL CHARGES Airtel GSM/CDMA Landline Local 1.00 1.00 1.00 Rates STD Rates 1.50 1.50 1.50  ISD  SMS Local Rs 1 per 160 characters National Rs 1.50 1 per 160 characters International Rs 5 per 160 characters o 58 | P a g e
  • 60. 6.2 VodafoneVodafone Essar is a subsidiary of Vodafone Group and commenced operations in 1994 when itspredecessor Hutchison Telecom acquired the cellular license for Mumbai. The company is a jointventure of Essar Communication Holdings Ltd and the UK based Vodafone Group. Over the years,Vodafone has been named as the „Most respected telecom company‟, the „Best mobile service in thecountry‟, and the „most creative and most effective advertiser of the year‟.The company now has operations across the country with over 121.16 million customers as on 30thNovember 2010. Vodafone is the worlds leading international mobile communications group withapproximately 347 million proportionate customers as on 30 June 2010. Vodafone currently hasequity interests in 31 countries across five continents and around 40 partner networks worldwide.Essar employs more than 50,000 people across offices in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas. 6.2.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Appendix:2) Table: 6.2 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Current Ratio 1.93536 0.67833 0.23326 0.1605 -0.5053 Working Capital 508.52 -133.27 -239.03 -216.38 -383.02 Net worth 1,790.91 1,223.67 832.00 573.42 411.79 Debt Equity Ratio 0.22364 0.00087 0.10993 0.53095 0.69441 Credit Risk ( unsecured loan/secured + 99.8702 0 100 30.0401 31.9846 unsecured loan) Table: 6.2 Source: www.capitaline.com 59 | P a g e
  • 61. 6.2.2 Financial Analysis  Current Ratios has improved over time and very close to 2 is a good sign that shows that the company can generate cash in form of liquid cash when needed to pay back the liabilities  Ability to pay back is quite high  Credit risk has increased over period of time due to large extent  However the debts compared to its net worthis low  It‟s a good sign that Net worth has increased  Increase working capital over year shows that there is cash outflow is going on 6.2.3 Pricing Stratigy  Customers Initial Talk time nil  SIM Card Validity Lifelong  Local call rates Vodafone-to-Vodafone calls Rs 1/ min  Vodafone - Other Mobiles Rs 1/ min  Vodafone To Landlines Rs 1/ min STD call rates Rs1 / min  Vodafone-to-Vodafone calls Rs 1.5/min ISD call rates Rs 6.4 / min USA & Canada; SE Asia; Landline numbers in Australia, New Zealand, UK, Germany & France (excluding premium destinations)SAARC: China, Russia, Egypt, South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria, Japan, South Korea, Mobilenumbers in Australia, UK, Germany & France (excluding premium destinations) Rs 10 MiddleEast including UAE and Saudi Arabia excluding Oman Rs 11 Oman (excluding premiumdestinations) Rs 15 Afghanistan. Mobile numbers in New Zealand, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland,Rest of Europe, Rest of Africa, Rest of World (excluding premium destinations) Rs 15 Egypt,Maldives, Bulgaria, Pacific Rim Countries, North Korea, Specific destinations in Africa & Europe(excluding premium destinations) Rs 45 Premium Destinations Rs 100 Satellite Calls Rs 500 SMSLocal SMS Rs 1 National SMS Rs 1.5 International SMS Rs 5 60 | P a g e
  • 62. 6.3 BSNLBharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (BSNL) is formed in October, 2000. It is the 7th largest telecomcompany in the world. It provides a range of services such as:  Wire line  CDMA mobile  GSM Mobile  Internet  Broadband  Carrier service  MPLS-VPN  VSAT  VoIP services  IN ServicesAt present it is one of the leading and largest telecom companies in India. Today, it has about 46million line basic telephone capacity, 8 million WLL capacity, 52 Million GSM Capacity, morethan 38302 fixed exchanges, 46565 BTS, 3895 Node B ( 3G BTS), 287 Satellite Stations, 614755Rkm of OFC Cable, 50430 Rkm of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts, 7330cities/towns and 5.6 Lakhs villages. BSNL has Quality Telecom Network.BSNL is focusing more on rural areas. It offers vide range and most transparent tariffs to itscustomers. BSNL cellular service, CellOne, has 55,140,282 2Gcellular customers and 88,493 3Gcustomers as on 30.11.2009. It has 35.1 million Basic Phone subscribers i.e. 85 percent of thesubscriber base. Its revenue is 92 percent of share. The turnover of BSNL is more than Rs.351,820million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs.99,390 million (US $ 2.26 billion) for lastfinancial year. The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs.630,000 million (US $14.37 billion). 61 | P a g e
  • 63. 6.3.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Appendix:3) Table: 6.3 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005Current Ratio 0.136898 1.239343 1.458992 1.2040345 0.9750069 0.7489111 -Working Capital 41,733.09 6,195.86 10,884.16 5,409.15 -628.89 -5,524.35Net worth 86,475.66 88,633.58 88,128.25 86,948.02 80,756.51 72,779.11Debt Equity Ratio 0.0177356 0.0385163 0.0384538 0.0637583 0.0901962 0.1129567Credit Risk ( unsecured loan/secured 100 100 100 100 100 100 + unsecured loan) Source: www.capitaline.com 6.3.2 Financial Analysis  Current Ratios has decreased over time which is not a very good sign that shows that the company cannot generate sufficient amount of cash in form of liquid cash when to pay back the liabilities  Ability to pay back is quite low  Credit risk is very high that is 100%  However the debts compared to its net worth is very low  Net worth has been quite same over year  Increase working capital over year shows that there is cash outflow is going on 6.3.3 Pricing Stratigy Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) has brought its national long-distance land-line tariffs at par with local land-line calls. STD call rates are reduced from 80 paisa for 2 minutes to 80 paisa for 3 minutes, which is the existing local call rate. After 300 calls, the rate goes up to Re 1, up to a maximum of Rs 1.20. 62 | P a g e
  • 64. These revised rates will be automatically available to all BSNL fixed line consumers across tariff 2. Call Charges A. Intra circle calls (Rs./Min) General General Saral Anant Student General (all @ (GL-I & Power (1p/sec) * 49) GL-II) SA ( I & (1p/sec) (all @ Plan II) * 49) 1 60 60 60 1 60 60 Pulse rate (Second) Own 0.01 0.49 0.90 1.00 0.01 0.49 0.40 Network (i) To GSM/Fixed/WLL Other 0.012 0.49 0.90 1.00 0.012 0.49 0.60 Network (ii) Reduced callcharges to any two BSNL Own 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.30 NA 5-F&F#numbers(60 sec pulse) NetworkB. Inter Circle Calls(Rs./Min) General General Saral Anant Student General (all @ (GL-I & Power (1p/sec) * 49) GL-II) SA ( I & (1p/sec) (all @ Plan II) * 49) 1 60 60 60 1 60 60 Pulse rate (Second) Own 0.01 0.49 1.20 1.50 0.01 0.49 1.20 To GSM /WLL /Fixed Network line Other 0.012 0.49 1.50 1.50 0.012 0.49 1.50 NetworkReduced call charges toany one BSNL number Own 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.50 NA NA 0.60(note)(60 sec pulse) NetworkC. International Calls (ISD) (Rs./Min) Student General Saral Anant Power (All) (All) Plan 60 60 60 Pulse rate (Second) 7.20 7.20 7.20 (i) USA, CANADA, UK & Sri Lanka (ii) Nepal 9.00 9.00 9.00 63 | P a g e
  • 65. (iii) Europe (Other than UK), Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, 9.60 9.60 9.60 Indonesia, Hongkong, Kuwait, Bahrain, UAE (iv) Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives 9.00 9.00 9.00 and Pakistan (v) Oman, Qatar & Rest of the 12.00 12.00 12.00worldD. National Roaming Charges (Rs./Min) General Student Saral Anant 1p/Sec (GL- Power all@49 I&II * (SA- I & II) Plan 1 60 60 60 60 Pulse rate (Second) Outgoing calls within visited LSA 0.01 0.49 1.00 1.00 1.00 (Local) On Net Outgoing calls within visited LSA 0.012 0.49 1.00 1.00 1.00 (Local) Off Net Outgoing calls beyond visited LSA 0.01 0.49 1.50 1.50 1.50 (STD) On Net Outgoing calls beyond visited LSA 0.012 0.49 1.50 1.50 1.50 (STD) Off Net 0.01 0.49 1.00 1.00 1.00 Incoming calls As mentioned above in point C ISD Calls* For west zone circle please see note H3. SMS Charges (Rs. per SMS) General General Saral Anant Student General (all @ (GL Power (1p/sec) (all @ 49) I&II) SA- I & II (1p/sec) 49) Plan 0.50 0.49 0.80 1.00 0.50 0.49 0.05** Local 0.60 0.49 1.20 1.50 0.60 0.49 0.50 National 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 3.00 International NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL Delivery Report Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Missed call alerts 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 0.50 SMS while Roaming (National) Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Incoming SMS Non - P2P SMS (from home 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 LSA/while Roaming) As determined by the content provider Premium non - P2P SMS 64 | P a g e
  • 66. ** After 300 Free Local SMS4. GPRS Service Student General Power Saral Anant Plan 0.00 0.00 0.00 Activation charges 0.00 0.00 0.00 Monthly subscription Volume based usage charges per 0.01 0.01 0.01 10 KB in Rs.(Home Location) Usage charges per 10 KB in 0.01 0.01 0.01Rs.(while Roaming)5. MMS Service Student General Power Saral Anant Plan Local/National P2P (Rate per 3.00 5.00 3.00 MMS in Rs.) (Home LSA/while Roaming) International (Rate per MMS in 8.00 8.00 8.00 Rs.) (Home LSA/while Roaming) M2P (Downloader to pay) (Home As determined by the content provider LSA/while Roaming)6. Miscellaneous Student General Power Saral Anant Plan 0.10 (from Concessional Night calling NA NA 11:PM to 7:00AM) Recording Free Voice mail facility Retrieval O/G Charges Free CLIP Free Call waiting / Call hold Call forwarding (Only within same Normal call charges LSA) in Rs. 20 SIM replacement in Rs. Replacement of defective SIM 0.00 (BSNL fault) 65 | P a g e
  • 67. 6.4 MTNL Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) was set up in 1st April 1986 by the Government of India. It was launched to provide better services by introducing new technology, better quality. The Government wanted to raise good revenue for the telecommunication development in India. It provides its service in Delhi and Mumbai. It grew fast with new technologies. It provides various services like fixed line telephone, wireless, telex, data communication, telematics, and internet. It brought first digital exchange technology in India. The company introduced Voice mail in 1992. It introduced Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) services in 1996.It launched first toll-free services in Delhi in 1998. In 1999 it brought internet. The company launched GSM mobile service under the brand name Dolphin in 2001. It also launched Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) mobile service under the brand name Garuda in 2001. 6.4.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Apeendix:4) Table: 6.4 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Current Ratio -0.34635 0.41766 0.450285 0.451943 0.462269 0.377243 Working Capital -34,184 -6,439.64 -5,379.56 -5,358.39 -4,910.26 -6,643.99 Net worth 9,448.40 12,059.37 11,921.36 11,629.30 11,236.77 10,943.83 Debt Equity Ratio 0 0 0 0 0 0 Credit Risk ( unsecured 0 0 0 0 0 0loan/secured + unsecured loan) Source: www.capitaline.com 66 | P a g e
  • 68. 6.4.2 Financial Analysis  Current Ratios has gone negative & also reduced over time which is not a very good sign that shows that the company cannot generate sufficient amount of cash in form of liquid cash when to pay back the liabilities  Ability to pay back is quite low  Credit risk is very low to 0% which is a very good sign  However the debts compared to its net worthis as low as 0  Net worthdecreased in last year showing shortage in funds  Decreasing working capital over year shows that there is cash inflow is going on 6.4.3 Pricing Stratigy Revised Roaming Tariff(Rs. per articulars minute) Outgoing calls within visited LSA(Local) Rs.1.40 Outgoing calls beyond visited LSA(Local) Rs.2.40 Incoming calls under roaming Rs.1.75 Notes: 1. No fixed monthly/weekly/daily charges on national roaming subscriber will be applicable under any plan. 2. No extra surcharge. 3. No separate PSTN charges on roaming calls. 4.Recieving SMS is free while roaming. 5.Outgoing SMS charges and all other terms and conditions will remain the same.Tariff for Conversion from Trump to Dolphin 1. Activation Charges Rs.562/-(Inclusive of S.Tax) Security Deposit Local NIL 2. STD RS.1000/- ISD Rs.5000/-(In addition to Rs.1000/-) 3. IR Rs.4000 (IN addition to above) 67 | P a g e
  • 69. Launching of New Dolphin Plan(MTNL Home) Amount (Rs.) Charges Activation Rs.500/- (S.tax extra) Charges. Monthly Rs.199/- rental. FreeCall 1500 Minutes(worth Rs.900/-) of talk time per Allowance. month for calls made to any MTNL Delhi GSM,CDMA and two MTNL Delhi landline numbers. 68 | P a g e
  • 70. 6.5 HFCLThe Investment Trust of India (ITI) is managed by chairman and managing director B KKothari. It was incorporated on 2nd August 1946. The name of the company was changed toHFCL Infotel Ltd. during 2002-03. It was operating in Punjab Circle merged with the companythrough a Scheme of Amalgamation and decided to hive off the business of hire purchase,finance, leasing and securities trading by way of an outright sales with effect from 1stSeptember to its owned subsidiary „Rajam Finance & investment company that is nowrenamed as „Investment Trust of India Ltd‟.The business activity of ITI includes sugar, petrochemicals, industrial alcohol etc. It has twosubsidiaries named ITI Pioneer AMC and ITI Capital markets.The company launched its prepaid mobile service during 2003-04. It launched VAS and dataproducts in May 2004. It launched DSL service first in Punjab and Chandigarh during 2004-05.The company provides fixed line telephony, mobile telephony, broadband internet access, anddata networking access under the brand name „CONNECT‟.6.5.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Appendix:5) Table: 6.5 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Current Ratio 2.12478 2.5405 2.03779 0.98034 2.75646 3.48912 Working Capital 228.59 389.84 341.08 -7.73 407.13 546.86 Net worth 137.77 481.57 659.80 355.82 1,295.06 1,529.92 Debt Equity Ratio 8.96603 2.35305 1.5278 2.95014 0.70428 0.56897 Credit Risk ( unsecured 26.9136 26.4208 16.8545 25.5582 14.0064 17.6558 loan/secured + unsecured loan) Source: www.capitaline.com 69 | P a g e
  • 71. 6.5.2 Financial Analysis  Current Ratios has been quite stable close to 2 showing a good sign that that the company can very easily generate sufficient amount of cash in form of to pay back the liabilities  Ability to pay back is quite high  Credit risk is moderate as is feasible as per the financial standards.  However the debts compared to its net worth is very high  Net worth has significantly decreased by 14 times showing a huge reduction in funds  Increase working capital over year shows that there is cash outflow is going on6.5.3 Pricing StratigyAll calls would cost Rs 1.20 per three minutes for calls made to any telecom network in the stateof Punjab and Chandigarh, be it on GSM, CDMA, WLL or fixed line phone, thereby makingevery call a local call, Mahendra Nahata, chairman, HFCL InfotelThe company would be asking for a commitment of minimum Rs 290 per month out of which thesubscriber would be getting free calls worth Rs 150, he said adding actually the subscriber wouldbe paying just Rs 140 a month. long with this, the company has decided to offer caller lineidentification free of cost. The new tariffs translate into reduction of call charges by 75 per cent and HFCL has become thefirst operator in the history of Indian telephony to offer such tariffs like uniform rates and pulserates across all telecom networks. 70 | P a g e
  • 72. 6.6 AIDTYA BIRLA TELECOMAditya Birla Telecom Ltd was established in February 28, 2007 in Mumbai. It is a subsidiaryof Idea Cellular. It provides wireless telecom service. It provides its service in Bihar andJharkhand because it is the second highest population among all service areas in India. But themobile penetration in their areas is the lowest. They partners with telecom, retail,manufacturing, banking, media and entertainment, healthcare, and public sector. Minacs hasdeveloped and delivered 20 major systems that have passed client audit control reviews.6.6.1 Ratio Analysis ( Prefer Appendix:6) Table: 6.6 2010 2009 2008 2007 Current Ratio 4.87127 -0.839 -0.24 302 Working Capital 750.60 -82.59 -0.93 6.02 Net worth 2,069.53 6.14 7.44 9.86 Debt Equity Ratio 0.14656 4.3143 0.5376 0 Credit Risk ( unsecured loan/secured + 39.6175 98.339 100 0 unsecured loan) Source: www.capitaline.com 71 | P a g e
  • 73. 6.6.2 Financial Analysis  Current Ratios has gone over time which is not a very good sign that shows that the company cannot generate sufficient amount of cash in form of liquid cash when to pay back the liabilities  Ability to pay back is quite low  Credit risk is very high that is 100%  However the debts compared to its net worth is very low  Net worth has been quite same over year  Increase working capital over year shows that there is cash outflow is going on 72 | P a g e
  • 74. CHAPTER-7 FUTURE OUTLOOK7.1 Revenue  A Rise in world wide Industry telecom Revenue to 5163.6 billion by 2020 which around an increase in 64%  There will be increase in Indian telecom revenue to 3742 billion by 2020 which will around increase in 116%  Growth of telecom industry is higher In case of India compared to growth at global level.7.2 Market Share  By 2020 India alone will constitute 72% of the shares in the telecom sector.  Teledenity will substantially increase in exponential pattern with both increase in population and national income in India  Private sector will take over public sector in terms of number of subscribers.7.3 GDP and Employment  Telecom sector will contribute 3.65% of GDP by 2015  Direct Employment will substantially rise to 5,00,000 above in next 5 years  The major provider of telecom sector will be from Private companies7.4 Prices  Low/Nil cost of roaming  Reduction in ISD rates  Bringing bigger territories within local range  High pulse rate with lost cost per pulse7.5 TechnologyThe most common technology that will evolve will be  4G ( 4th generation of telecom sector)  Umbrella technology  Shorter Towers with wider coverage  Broad GSM  RFID & GPRS technology in lined with each other 73 | P a g e
  • 75. 7.6 Upcoming Technology In telecom Sector  3G is the abbreviation of Third Generation. It will be the next growth wave in the telecom sector. First BSNL has launched it in India. Slowly other private telecom service operators are also launching 3G technology.  WiMAX provides seamless connectivity with a high speed more than 4Mbps.  4G is the abbreviation of Fourth Generation. It will be the future technology used in telecom sector. It is upgrade version of 3G. It will have download speed at 100Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility communication. It will provide all IP based mobile broad band solution to laptop, smartphones with high security. Some features of 4G are o Anytime anywhere can be used o Support for multimedia service at low transmission costs. o Personalization o Integrated service There is no formal definition for what 4G is; however, there are certain objectives those are projected for 4G technology. These objectives are o Fully IP integrated system o Capable of providing between 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s speed for both indoor and outdoor. o Premium quality o High security Many companies have taken self-serving definition and distortions about 4G to suggest they have 4G already in existence today, such as several early trails and launches of WiMAX. Other companies have made prototype systems calling those 4G. It is possible that some current demonstrated technologies may become part of 4G, until 4G standards have been defined. It is impossible for any company currently to provide with any certainty wireless solutions that could be called 4G cellular networks that would conform to the eventual international standards for 4G. The international telecommunication regulatory and standardization bodies are working for commercial deployment of 4G networks roughly in the 2012-15 time scale. At that point it is predicted that even with current evolutions of the 3G networks, these will tend to be congested. 74 | P a g e
  • 76. 7.7 Conclusion The Indian telecommunication sector is growing rapidly for the last a few years after the government allowed the foreign competitors to operate in India. It integrated the Indian telecom with the rest of the world. The Indian telecom sector was dominated by the Public Sector Undertakings (PSU). The Private companies were growing as they were getting huge FDIs from the foreign players. The competition is increased in this sector because many private players entered in this market. To sustain the growth of this market innovation and expansion was required. It is maintaining its expansion with the new technologies such as 3G, WiMAX, 4G etc. Many people from rural area started to use a mobile. It has a great contribution in the growth rate of India‟s GDP. Over the last five years this telecom sector has grown by around 50 percent. At present Indian telecommunication industry is the second largest telecommunication industry in the world. It is growing at the fastest pace. Due to the competition in the Indian telecom sector the tariffs has become the lowest price in the world. It is expected that by 2015 it will constitute 3.5% of Indian GDP alone.The world telecom industry is expected to grow by 11%.In 2020 the revenue of world wide telecom will go about 5163 billions US $ and where as in India it will go about 3742 billions US $. .Direct Employment will substantially rise above 5,00,000 in next 5 years.The major provider of telecom sector like GSM,CDMA will be from Private companies.Growth of telecom industry is higher in case of India compared to growth at global level.By 2020 India alone will constitute 72% of the shares in the telecom sector as per our analysis.Teledenity will substantially increase in exponential pattern with both increase in population and national income in India Private sector will take over public sector in terms of number of subscribers.The most common technology that will evolve will be 4G,Umbrella technology,Shorter Towers with wider coverage,Broadband, GSM,RFID & GPRS technology in lined with each other. From the detailed analysis that we did for the Indian telecom sector, we conclude that robust growth of this sector is indeed indispensible for the Indian growth story to continue. It not only provides the connection from one end to the other end but also it changed the way business was conducted. BSNL and MTNL the PSU who have rule the industry earlier but now they are finding hard to compete with the private companies. The market is dominated by Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, and Vodafone. The lowest tariffs is the biggest weakness for the telecom sector because it creates high exist barriers for the players. The scope for expanding their market is the large rural market. The government wants to enter in the rural market at affordable price. 75 | P a g e
  • 77. APPENDIX-1 Balance sheet of Bharti Airtel (Rs in Crs) Year Mar 10 Mar 09 Mar 08 Mar 07 Mar 06 SOURCES OF FUNDS : Share Capital 1,898.77 1,898.24 1,897.91 1,895.93 1,893.88 Reserves Total 34,838.41 25,745.43 18,342.35 9,517.33 5,439.55 Equity Share Warrants 0 0 0 0 0 Equity Application Money 0 0.29 1.23 0 0 Total Shareholders Funds 36,737.18 27,643.96 20,241.49 11,413.26 7,333.43 Secured Loans 39.43 51.73 52.42 266.45 2,863.37 Unsecured Loans 4,999.49 7,661.92 6,517.92 5,044.36 1,932.92 Total Debt 5,038.92 7,713.65 6,570.34 5,310.81 4,796.29 Total Liabilities 41,776.10 35,357.61 26,811.83 16,724.07 12,129.72 APPLICATION OF FUNDS : Gross Block 44,212.52 37,266.70 28,115.65 26,509.93 17,951.74 Less : Accumulated Depreciation 16,187.56 12,253.34 9,085.00 7,204.30 4,944.86 Less: Impairment of Assets 0 0 0 0 0 Net Block 28,024.96 25,013.36 19,030.65 19,305.63 13,006.88 Lease Adjustment 0 0 0 0 0 Capital Work in Progress 1,594.74 2,566.67 2,751.08 2,375.82 2,341.25 Investments 15,773.32 11,777.76 10,952.85 705.82 719.7 Current Assets, Loans & Advances Inventories 27.24 62.15 56.86 51.55 18.59 Sundry Debtors 2,104.98 2,550.05 2,776.46 1,873.30 1,076.17 Cash and Bank 816.74 2,251.60 502.94 780.46 307.43 Loans and Advances 6,276.12 4,561.21 2,923.61 2,587.25 1,857.82 Total Current Assets 9,225.08 9,425.01 6,259.87 5,292.56 3,260.01 Less : Current Liabilities and Provisions Current Liabilities 12,179.99 13,117.98 11,909.07 9,459.42 6,477.71 Provisions 658.76 634.4 209.88 1,262.33 539.3 Total Current Liabilities 12,838.75 13,752.38 12,118.95 10,721.75 7,017.01 Net Current Assets -3,613.67 -4,327.37 -5,859.08 -5,429.19 -3,757.00 Deferred Tax Assets 796.29 1,041.62 436.3 143.74 80.73 Deferred Tax Liability 799.54 714.51 500.17 380.41 269.78 Net Deferred Tax -3.25 327.11 -63.87 -236.67 -189.05 Total Assets 41,776.10 35,357.61 26,811.83 16,724.07 12,129.72 Contingent Liabilities 5,396.61 3,241.16 2,148.87 1,615.17 1,501.51http://www.capitaline.com 76 | P a g e
  • 78. APPENDIX-2 Balance sheet of Vodafone (Rs in Crs) Year Mar 08 Mar 07 Mar 06 Mar 05 Mar 04 SOURCES OF FUNDS : Share Capital 199.72 199.72 199.72 199.72 199.72 Reserves Total 1,591.19 1,023.95 632.28 373.7 212.07 Equity Share Warrants 0 0 0 0 0 Equity Application Money 0 0 0 0 0 Total Shareholders Funds 1,790.91 1,223.67 832 573.42 411.79 Secured Loans 0.52 1.07 0 213 194.49 Unsecured Loans 400 0 91.46 91.46 91.46 Total Debt 400.52 1.07 91.46 304.46 285.95 Total Liabilities 2,191.43 1,224.74 923.46 877.88 697.74 APPLICATION OF FUNDS : Gross Block 1,784.23 1,367.84 1,233.10 1,095.72 913.9 Less : Accumulated Depreciation 994.13 748.4 673.21 546.65 425.95 Less:Impairment of Assets 0 0 0 0 0 Net Block 790.1 619.44 559.89 549.07 487.95 Lease Adjustment 0 0 0 0 0 Capital Work in Progress 69.21 50.46 13.5 19.92 52.56 Investments 276.21 276.21 276.21 276.21 276.21 Current Assets, Loans & Advances Inventories 0 0 0 0 0 Sundry Debtors 88.51 67.27 57.48 47.81 27.16 Cash and Bank 36.23 99.03 79.1 28.99 26.48 Loans and Advances 1,471.10 529.05 247.89 222.32 72.24 Total Current Assets 1,595.84 695.35 384.47 299.12 125.88 Less : Current Liabilities and Provisions Current Liabilities 508.19 398.77 298.61 246.2 253.72 Provisions 35.47 15.54 13.14 11.55 0.73 Total Current Liabilities 543.66 414.31 311.75 257.75 254.45 Net Current Assets 1,052.18 281.04 72.72 41.37 -128.57 Miscellaneous Expenses not written off 0 0 0 0 0 Deferred Tax Assets 3.73 2.82 2.36 9.75 9.59 Deferred Tax Liability 0 5.23 1.22 18.44 0 Net Deferred Tax 3.73 -2.41 1.14 -8.69 9.59 Total Assets 2,191.43 1,224.74 923.46 877.88 697.74 Contingent Liabilities 8,400.53 5,556.72 3,959.07 172.39 101.04http://www.capitaline.com 77 | P a g e
  • 79. APPENDIX-3 Balance sheet of BSNL (Rs in Crs) Year Mar 10 Mar 09 Mar 08 Mar 07 Mar 06 Mar 05 SOURCES OF FUNDS :Share Capital 12,500.00 12,500.00 12,500.00 12,500.00 12,500.00 12,500.00 Reserves Total 73,975.66 76,133.58 75,628.25 74,448.02 68,256.51 60,279.11 Equity Share Warrants 0 0 0 0 0 0 Equity Application Money 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Shareholders Funds 86,475.66 88,633.58 88,128.25 86,948.02 80,756.51 72,779.11 Secured Loans 0 0 0 0 0 0Unsecured Loans 1,533.70 3,413.84 3,388.87 5,543.66 7,283.93 8,220.89 Total Debt 1,533.70 3,413.84 3,388.87 5,543.66 7,283.93 8,220.89 Total Liabilities 88,009.36 92,047.42 91,517.12 92,491.68 88,040.44 81,000.00 APPLICATION OF FUNDS : Gross Block 160,469.62 132,242.91 124,578.23 118,649.01 111,692.03 104,182.61Less : AccumulatedDepreciation 86,589.30 77,922.03 69,879.74 60,715.11 51,503.54 42,333.09 Less:Impairment of Assets 0 0 0 0 0 0Net Block 73,880.32 54,320.88 54,698.49 57,933.90 60,188.49 61,849.52 Lease Adjustment 0 0 0 0 0 0Capital Work in Progress 6,044.20 4,975.08 2,669.51 2,633.04 3,893.94 4,572.26 Investments 200 200 200 200 200 200Inventories 5,058.33 4,793.73 3,472.15 2,711.33 2,952.28 2,245.35 Sundry Debtors 4,744.57 4,720.54 5,465.51 5,580.66 6,302.05 6,637.03Cash and Bank 30,343.40 38,134.30 40,551.58 37,452.96 30,579.48 21,931.13 Loans and Advances 14,825.49 10,321.19 8,821.28 12,686.12 9,862.32 7,665.28 Total Current Assets 54,971.79 57,969.76 58,310.52 58,431.07 49,696.13 38,478.79 Less : Current Liabilities andProvisions Current Liabilities 42,776.42 20,727.02 17,397.88 16,679.19 16,123.24 14,615.41Provisions 5,576.02 5,159.93 6,315.30 9,831.77 9,039.27 7,386.16 Total Current Liabilities 48,352.44 25,886.95 23,713.18 26,510.96 25,162.51 22,001.57 Net Current Assets 6,619.35 32,082.81 34,597.34 31,920.11 24,533.62 16,477.22 Miscellaneous Expenses notwritten off 1,389.33 1,113.49 662.31 1,050.68 928.39 945.02 Deferred Tax Assets 5,671.52 5,439.02 5,167.04 6,135.10 6,334.97 6,024.77 Deferred Tax Liability 5,795.36 6,083.86 6,477.57 7,381.15 8,038.97 9,068.79 Net Deferred Tax -123.84 -644.84 -1,310.53 -1,246.05 -1,704.00 -3,044.02 Total Assets 88,009.36 92,047.42 91,517.12 92,491.68 88,040.44 81,000.00Contingent Liabilities 17,249.75 10,621.80 9,886.62 26,736.54 5,744.86 1,794.26http://www.capitaline.com 78 | P a g e
  • 80. APPENDIX-4 Balance sheet of MTNL (Rs in Crs) Year Mar 10 Mar 09 Mar 08 Mar 07 Mar 06 Mar 05SOURCES OF FUNDS :Share Capital 630 630 630 630 630 630 10,313.8Reserves Total 8,818.40 11,429.37 11,291.36 10,999.30 10,606.77 3Equity Share Warrants 0 0 0 0 0 0Equity Application Money 0 0 0 0 0 0 10,943.8Total Shareholders Funds 9,448.40 12,059.37 11,921.36 11,629.30 11,236.77 3Secured Loans 0 0 0 0 0 0Unsecured Loans 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Debt 0 0 0 0 0 0 10,943.8Total Liabilities 9,448.40 12,059.37 11,921.36 11,629.30 11,236.77 3APPLICATION OF FUNDS : 14,252.2 Gross Block 28,275.76 16,293.27 15,842.58 15,291.35 14,854.15 5Less : Accumulated Depreciation 11,720.79 10,009.44 9,522.78 8,887.68 8,285.40 7,783.62 Less:Impairment of Assets 0 0 0 0 0 0Net Block 16,554.97 6,283.83 6,319.80 6,403.67 6,568.75 6,468.63 Lease Adjustment 0 0 0 0 0 0Capital Work in Progress 1,177.96 950.48 964.99 764.38 525.5 627.06 Investments 509.54 465.09 557.39 441.4 418.72 397.47 Current Assets, Loans & AdvancesInventories 188.61 222.64 191.1 221.28 137.81 186.6 10,230.7Loans and Advances 10,811.60 9,868.32 9,689.79 11,140.55 9,713.39 4 14,693.3Total Current Assets 16,596.69 15,676.80 14,192.62 14,195.73 13,352.62 5 Less : Current Liabilities and ProvisionsCurrent Liabilities 17,094.45 4,835.26 4,309.30 4,330.91 4,025.12 5,064.49Provisions 8,296.31 6,222.96 5,476.79 5,446.15 5,106.32 5,604.18 10,668.6Total Current Liabilities 25,390.76 11,058.22 9,786.09 9,777.06 9,131.44 7Net Current Assets -8,794.07 4,618.58 4,406.53 4,418.67 4,221.18 4,024.68Miscellaneous Expenses not written off 0 96.69 159.17 221.66 114.25 0Deferred Tax Liability 1,283.48 1,295.42 1,316.70 1,352.39 1,264.32 1,126.54Net Deferred Tax 0 -355.3 -486.52 -620.48 -611.63 -574.01 10,943.8 Total Assets 9,448.40 12,059.37 11,921.36 11,629.30 11,236.77 3Contingent Liabilities 3,751.13 2,576.60 2,911.79 3,870.16 7,430.77 6,667.82http://www.capitaline.com 79 | P a g e
  • 81. APPENDIX-5 Balance sheet of HFCL (Rs in Crs) Year Mar 09 Mar 08 Mar 07 Mar 06 Mar 05 SOURCES OF FUNDS :Share Capital 523.29 523.29 523.29 430.63 410.26 Reserves Total -385.52 -41.72 136.51 -74.81 884.8 Equity Share Warrants 0 0 0 0 0 Equity Application Money 0 0 0 0 0 Total Shareholders Funds 137.77 481.57 659.8 355.82 1,295.06 Secured Loans 902.8 833.77 838.14 781.43 784.33Unsecured Loans 332.45 299.39 169.9 268.29 127.75 Total Debt 1,235.25 1,133.16 1,008.04 1,049.72 912.08 Total Liabilities 1,373.02 1,614.73 1,667.84 1,405.54 2,207.14 APPLICATION OF FUNDS : Gross Block 467.03 467.75 460.86 521.02 518.2Less : Accumulated Depreciation 255.23 230.71 205.53 209.5 184.76 Less:Impairment of Assets 0 0 0 35.65 35.65Net Block 211.8 237.04 255.33 275.87 297.79 Lease Adjustment 0 0 0 0 0Capital Work in Progress 9.73 9.62 11.89 11.39 33.84 Investments 719.67 725.17 730.88 732.86 1,236.59 Current Assets, Loans & AdvancesInventories 58.78 80.78 74.81 78.79 109.77 Sundry Debtors 453.51 680.62 794.92 543.81 457.7Cash and Bank 24.7 27.91 36.17 63.3 34.64 Loans and Advances 98.06 106.65 92.5 92.67 268.6 Total Current Assets 635.05 895.96 998.4 778.57 870.71 Less : Current Liabilities and Provisions Current Liabilities 200.51 242.33 319.13 391.8 230.24Provisions 2.72 10.73 9.53 1.35 1.55 Total Current Liabilities 203.23 253.06 328.66 393.15 231.79 Net Current Assets 431.82 642.9 669.74 385.42 638.92 Miscellaneous Expenses not written off 0 0 0 0 0 Deferred Tax Assets 46.46 51.08 53.89 56.66 72.44 Deferred Tax Liability 46.46 51.08 53.89 56.66 72.44 Net Deferred Tax 0 0 0 0 0 Total Assets 1,373.02 1,614.73 1,667.84 1,405.54 2,207.14Contingent Liabilities 839.84 874.88 970.04 1,008.09 949.19http://www.capitaline.com 80 | P a g e
  • 82. APPENDIX-6 Balance sheet of Aditya Birla telecom (Rs in Crs) Mar Mar Year Mar 09 08 07 Mar 06 SOURCES OF FUNDS :Share Capital 11.93 10 10 10 Reserves Total 2,057.60 -3.86 -2.56 -0.14 Equity Share Warrants 0 0 0 0 Equity Application Money 0 0 0 0 Total Shareholders Funds 2,069.53 6.14 7.44 9.86 Secured Loans 183.14 0.44 0 0Unsecured Loans 120.16 26.05 4 0 Total Debt 303.3 26.49 4 0 Total Liabilities 2,372.83 32.63 11.44 9.86 APPLICATION OF FUNDS : Gross Block 398.78 11.16 10 0Less : Accumulated Depreciation 12.01 0.31 0 0 Less:Impairment of Assets 0 0 0 0Net Block 386.77 10.85 10 0 Lease Adjustment 0 0 0 0Capital Work in Progress 69.44 59.47 0.39 0 Investments 957.32 0 1.23 3.82 Current Assets, Loans & AdvancesInventories 2.16 0 0 0 Sundry Debtors 3.65 0 0 0Cash and Bank 550.75 0.04 0 0.06 Loans and Advances 581.82 7.17 0.57 6 Total Current Assets 1,138.38 7.21 0.57 6.06 Less : Current Liabilities and Provisions Current Liabilities 193.89 44.9 0.75 0Provisions 0 0 0 0.02 Total Current Liabilities 193.89 44.9 0.75 0.02 -Net Current Assets 944.49 37.69 -0.18 6.04Miscellaneous Expenses not written off 0 0 0 0Deferred Tax Assets 24.14 0 0 0 Deferred Tax Liability 9.33 0 0 0Net Deferred Tax 14.81 0 0 0 Total Assets 2,372.83 32.63 11.44 9.86Contingent Liabilities 0 0 7 0http://www.capitaline.com 81 | P a g e
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