NewGate India             Hyderbad, Andhra Pradesh- 500038               Website: www.newgate.in               Email: cont...
Table of Contents1.Executive Summary ........................................................................................
2.2 SWOT ANALYSIS ...........................................................................................................
3.4.3 Sample design:- .......................................................................................................
Mean and variance ...........................................................................................................
5.3.5 KEY FINDINGS ..........................................................................................................
Box Plot diagram of Expansion % Data ........................................................................................
1.Executive Summary   The Project was focused on quality control using various statistical tool/techniques. 1.1 OVERVIEW O...
APPARENT POSROSITY & BULK DENSITYIt is important to know apparent porosity needed for a particular green bulk density.Orde...
2.Introduction2.1 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW OCL INDIA LTD                                        OCL              Refractor       ...
2.1.1.4 IRON & STEELOCL, as per scheme of arrangement approved by the honourable High Court of Orissademerged its Steel un...
2.1.5 Quality PolicyOCL, believes and aim at Total Quality in their products and services to satisfy Customers,and are com...
2.1.8 AWARDS & RECOGNITION    In 2007-08 the Quality circle UTPADAN of Cement Division bagged Silver Medal     Award in I...
» Renovated the school building of Municipal Gandhi Girl’s  High School, Rajgangpur» Constructed three new rooms and suppl...
» Operating one mobile health unit (allopathic) for senior  citizens through “Help Age-India” in different villages of  Ja...
2.1.9 Summary of expenses incurredUnder different heads during 2004-05 and 2005-06 aregiven below :         AREA          ...
2.2.2 WEAKNESS      Though the quality of refractory products is good, the cost of product is very high.       Though oth...
The initial technical know how came from M/S Dr.C.Otto of Germany for Coke Oven Silicabricks and from M/S TYK Corporation ...
2.3.3 REFRACTORY CAPACITY             PRODUCTION                             CAPACITYSILICA BRICKS                        ...
2.3.5 PRODUCTSOCL refractory has various products mainly classified in to 5 categories                                 PRO...
 NICKEL,ZINC & LEAD           o Lead Roatart Furnance           o QSL Reactor           o KIVCET Proces2.3.5.1 Glass    ...
2.3.6.2 BLAST FURNANE STOVEWith its initial experience in manufacturing silica bricks for coke oven, OCL developedworld cl...
2.3.6.4 BOF/LD ConvertorNew LiningDifferent quality Magnesia carbon bricks with improved carbon bonding and having special...
2.3.6.5 MELTING & HOLDING FURNANCEPRECAST SHAPESThese are tailor-made to different shapes and sizes manufactured as per sp...
2.3.6.6 LF/VD & VADZone and Bottom varies with different operating conditions such as LRF, VD and VAD.Magnesia carbon bric...
2.3.6.8 REGENERATOROCL India has series of products for regenerator in Basic & high Alumina quality. In recentyears, Mag-z...
2.4.1 Silica Plant Operational Process FlowContinued ............Next Page                                              Pa...
Page 27
3.1 PROJECT PROFILE3.1 Objectives of the Study   1) Quality Control in chamber kiln.   2) Kaizan,5S & Safety plan inside t...
3.4.2 Secondary data:       The main source of secondary data was recorded from      Company’s Resorce allocation book   ...
3.5. 2 Office Work :    We had to report twice in office regarding our work , then we had a discussion with OCL’s     man...
3.7 Pyramid of Problem ApproachIt shows how a client is approached & finally the deal is made in 7 stages.                ...
3.2 Application to Company3.2.1 Application of quality control:INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:1 ( CHAMBER KILN)Refractory has thre...
CHAMBER KILN                                             CHAMBERSOCL Silica Refractory has 8 kilns.Eack Kiln has 22 to 28 ...
CHAMBER LAYOUTTOP layer4th layer Middle layer2nd layer Bottom  layer                 BENCH-A           BENCH-B            ...
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:3 ( PRESS MACHINE)                       Apprarnt Posrosity α Bulk Density                         ...
QUALITYCONTROL      Page 36
4.1 QUALITY CONTROL4.1.1Quality controlIt is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in pro...
Arithmetic mean (AM)Main article: Arithmetic meanThe arithmetic mean is the "standard" average, often simply called the "m...
     the minimum and maximum of all the data       the lowest datum still within 1.5 IQR of the lower quartile, and the ...
BOX PLOT DIAGRAMAGGREGATE                       BENCH-A        Max Val     5              Upper       5                   ...
BENCH-C                              BENCH-DMean                 4.124333   Mean                 4.1451852Standard Error  ...
BENCH-C                          BENCH-D          Max Val    4.9            Max Val    5                    Upper         ...
4.2.3 ANALYSIS                                                          Bench-A  4.3                                      ...
AGGREGATE OF BENCH - A,C & D4.25                                                      4.25 4.2                            ...
Layer-Top                                                        Layer-4th  4.3                                           ...
Layer-Bottom                                                     Aggregate of All layers 4.08                             ...
Vertical expansion      Layer Top:      Expansion Max at :C      Expansion Min at :A      Expansion Average at: D      A t...
4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION     The bricks which are very sensitive can be put in the 2nd layer as it is highly      predictable...
5.3 PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION5.3.1 METHODOLOGY      Collecting 2700 raw datas from kiln      % containt in whole sum    ...
binomial distribution is a Bernoulli distribution. The binomial distribution is the basis forthe popular binomial test of ...
It can also be represented in terms of the regularized incomplete beta function, as follows:For k ≤ np, upper bounds for t...
Quality control report
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Quality control report

  1. 1. NewGate India Hyderbad, Andhra Pradesh- 500038 Website: www.newgate.in Email: contact@newgate.inSlideshare URL : http://www.slideshare.net/newgateindia Report on Quality Control,Kaizen & 5S In Silica Plant
  2. 2. Table of Contents1.Executive Summary .........................................................................................................................7 1.1 OVERVIEW OF QUALITY CONTROL done in OCL ....................................................................7 CHAMBER KILN: .............................................................................................................................7 EXPANSION PROBABILITY : .............................................................................................................7 APPARENT POSROSITY & BULK DENSITY .........................................................................................8 EXCEL SHEET SIMULATION ..............................................................................................................8 1.2 KAIZEN & 5S suggested ........................................................................................................8 PICTORIAL LAYOUTS .......................................................................................................................82.Introduction....................................................................................................................................9 2.1 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW ...............................................................................................................9 2.1.1 ABOUT OCL ............................................................................................................................9 2.1.1.1 CEMENT: .............................................................................................................................9 2.1.1.2 REFRACTORY.......................................................................................................................9 2.1.1.3 SPONGE IRON .....................................................................................................................9 2.1.1.4 IRON & STEEL .................................................................................................................... 10 2.1.2 EXECUTIVES & BORAD MEMBERS ......................................................................................... 10 DIRECTORS ............................................................................................................................... 10 PRESIDENT ............................................................................................................................... 10 2.1.3 VISION ................................................................................................................................. 10 2.1.4 MISSION .............................................................................................................................. 10 2.1.5 Quality Policy....................................................................................................................... 11 2.1.6 Safety Policy ........................................................................................................................ 11 2.1.7 Certification ......................................................................................................................... 11 2.1.8 AWARDS & RECOGNITION .................................................................................................... 12 2.1.8 Corporate Social Responsibility ............................................................................................ 12 EDUCATION .............................................................................................................................. 12 DRINKING WATER..................................................................................................................... 13 HEALTH .................................................................................................................................... 13 GAMES & SPORTS ..................................................................................................................... 14 COMMUNITY DVELOPMENT/DONATION/CHARITY .................................................................... 14 2.1.9 Summary of expenses incurred ............................................................................................ 15
  3. 3. 2.2 SWOT ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................................... 15 2.2.1 STRENGTH ........................................................................................................................... 15 2.2.2 WEAKNESS .......................................................................................................................... 16 2.2.3 OPPORTUNITY ..................................................................................................................... 16 2.2.4 THREAT ............................................................................................................................... 16 2.3 Company overview ................................................................................................................. 16 2.3.1 ABOUT REFRACTORY............................................................................................................ 16 2.3.2 MILESTONES YEAR WISE....................................................................................................... 17 2.3.3 REFRACTORY CAPACITY........................................................................................................ 18 2.3.4 GLOBALIZATION................................................................................................................... 18 2.3.5 PRODUCTS ........................................................................................................................... 19 2.3.5.1 Iron & Steel Making .......................................................................................................... 19 2.3.5.1 Non Ferrous ...................................................................................................................... 19 2.3.5.1 Glass ................................................................................................................................. 20 2.3.5.1 Hydrocaron ....................................................................................................................... 20 2.3.5.1 Cement ............................................................................................................................. 20 2.3.6 FEW MAJOR PRODUCTS STUDIED ......................................................................................... 20 2.3.6.1 COKE OVEN ....................................................................................................................... 20 2.3.6.2 BLAST FURNANE STOVE ..................................................................................................... 21 2.3.6.3 GLASS MELTING TANK ....................................................................................................... 21 2.3.6.4 BOF/LD Convertor ............................................................................................................. 22 2.3.6.5 MELTING & HOLDING FURNANCE ...................................................................................... 23 2.3.6.6 LF/VD & VAD .................................................................................................................... 24 2.3.6.7 QSL REACTOR .................................................................................................................... 24 2.3.6.8 REGENERATOR .................................................................................................................. 25 2.4. SILICA PLANT OVERVIEW........................................................................................................ 25 2.4.1 Silica Plant Operational Process Flow ................................................................................... 263.1 PROJECT PROFILE ....................................................................................................................... 28 3.1 Objectives of the Study ........................................................................................................... 28 3.2 Project Type & Tools ............................................................................................................... 28  Production Operation Management .................................................................................. 28 3.3 Target..................................................................................................................................... 28 3.4 Sources of data:- ..................................................................................................................... 28 3.4.1 Primary data: ................................................................................................................... 28 3.4.2 Secondary data: ............................................................................................................... 29
  4. 4. 3.4.3 Sample design:- ................................................................................................................... 29 3.4.4 Sample size:-........................................................................................................................ 29 3.5 Details Of Work ...................................................................................................................... 29 3.5. 1 Initial Training :- ............................................................................................................. 29 3.5. 2 Office Work :....................................................................................................................... 30 3.5.3 Intial Onsite Work :- ............................................................................................................. 30 3.6 Working Hierarchy Model ....................................................................................................... 30 3.7 Pyramid of Problem Approach ................................................................................................ 313.2 Application to Company ............................................................................................................. 32 3.2.1 Application of quality control: .............................................................................................. 32 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:1 ( CHAMBER KILN) .............................................................................. 32 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:2 ( CHECKING)...................................................................................... 34 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:3 ( PRESS MACHINE) ............................................................................ 35 3.2.1 Application of Kaizen,Safety & 5S: ........................................................................................ 354.1 QUALITY CONTROL ..................................................................................................................... 37 4.1.1Quality control ..................................................................................................................... 37 4.1.2 Total quality control............................................................................................................. 37 4.1.3 Quality control in project management ................................................................................ 374.2 EXPANSION % of bricks ............................................................................................................... 37 4.2.1 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 37 Arithmetic mean (AM) .............................................................................................................. 38 4.2.2 OBSERVATION ..................................................................................................................... 39 BOX PLOT DIAGRAM .................................................................................................................... 40 4.2.3 ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 43 4.2.4 Interpretation ...................................................................................................................... 46 Hozizontal expansion ................................................................................................................... 46 Vertical expansion ........................................................................................................................ 47 4.2.5 OVERALL FINDINGS .............................................................................................................. 47 4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION .............................................................................................................. 48 4.2.5 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 485.3 PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION ....................................................................................................... 49 5.3.1 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 49 NORMAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION .......................................................................................... 49 BINOMIAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION ........................................................................................ 49 Probability mass function ......................................................................................................... 50
  5. 5. Mean and variance ....................................................................................................................... 51 Mode and median ........................................................................................................................ 52 Covariance between two binomials .............................................................................................. 52 5.3.2 OBSERVATION ..................................................................................................................... 53 5.3.3 ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 55 5.3.4 Interpretation ...................................................................................................................... 57 5.3.5 OVERALL FINDINGS .............................................................................................................. 57 4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION .............................................................................................................. 57 4.2.5 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 575.3 Apparent Posrosity Versus Bulk Density ...................................................................................... 58 5.3.1 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 58 5.3.2OBSER VATION ..................................................................................................................... 61 5.3.3 ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 62 5.3.3.1 DERIVATION ..................................................................................................................... 62 5.3.4 Interpretation ...................................................................................................................... 63 Apparent Porosity is inversely related to burnt Bulk Density. ........................................................ 63 5.3.5 FINDINGS............................................................................................................................. 64 4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION .............................................................................................................. 64 4.2.5 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 654.1 KAIZEN ....................................................................................................................................... 674.2 5S .............................................................................................................................................. 68 4.2.1 Phases of 5S......................................................................................................................... 68 Sorting (Seiri) ............................................................................................................................... 68 Straightening or setting in order / stabilize (Seiton) ....................................................................... 68 Sweeping or shining or cleanliness / systematic cleaning (Seiso) .................................................... 68 Standardizing (Seiketsu) ............................................................................................................... 68 Sustaining the discipline or self-discipline (Shitsuke) ..................................................................... 694.3 Safety ........................................................................................................................................ 694.4 Security ...................................................................................................................................... 694.5 SMALL IMPROVEMENT & SAFETY................................................................................................ 69 5.5.1 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 69 DRAWING LAYOUT ....................................................................................................................... 70 5.3.2 Observation ......................................................................................................................... 70 5.3.3 ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 71 5.3.4 INTERPRETATION ................................................................................................................. 71
  6. 6. 5.3.5 KEY FINDINGS ...................................................................................................................... 72 5.3.6 RECCOMENDATION .............................................................................................................. 72 5.3.7 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 736.EXCEL SIMULATION TOOL .............................................................................................................. 75 6.1 Tool-1 ..................................................................................................................................... 75 6. 2 Tool-2 .................................................................................................................................... 76 6.3 Tool-3 ..................................................................................................................................... 77 6.4 Tool-4 ..................................................................................................................................... 78 6.5 Tool-5 ..................................................................................................................................... 79 6.6 Tool-6 ..................................................................................................................................... 797.PICTORIAL RECCOMENDATION ...................................................................................................... 81 7.1 Suggestion 1: .......................................................................................................................... 81 7.2 Suggestion 2: .......................................................................................................................... 81 7.3 Suggestion 3: .......................................................................................................................... 82 7.4 Suggestion 4: .......................................................................................................................... 82 7.5 Suggestion 5: .......................................................................................................................... 83 7.6 Suggestion 6: 7.7 Suggestion 7:........................................................ 83 7.8 Suggestion 8: .......................................................................................................................... 84 7.9 Suggestion 9: .......................................................................................................................... 84 7.10 Suggestion 10: ...................................................................................................................... 85 7.11 Suggestion 11: ...................................................................................................................... 85 7.12 Suggestion 12: ...................................................................................................................... 86 7.13 Suggestion 13: ...................................................................................................................... 868. LEARNING OUTCOME: .................................................................................................................. 87 8.1 QUALITY CONTROL PROJECT: .................................................................................................. 87 8.2 KAIZEN,5S & SAFETY PROJECT ................................................................................................. 87APPENDIX-1 ..................................................................................................................................... 88 PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION ......................................................................................................... 88APPENDIX-2 ..................................................................................................................................... 89 EXPANSION % LAYER WISE ........................................................................................................... 89APPENDIX-3 ..................................................................................................................................... 90 AP-BD table.................................................................................................................................. 90APPENDIX-4 ..................................................................................................................................... 95 Brick Expansion % Data ................................................................................................................ 95APPENDIX-5 ..................................................................................................................................... 96 Page 5
  7. 7. Box Plot diagram of Expansion % Data .......................................................................................... 96APPENDIX-6 ..................................................................................................................................... 97 Stock Data:................................................................................................................................... 97APPENDIX-7 ..................................................................................................................................... 98 A7.1 TOTAL ASSETS of OCL ( 2007,2008,2009) ............................................................................... 98 A7.2 DEBT & NET WORTH of OCL ( 2007,2008,2009) ...................................................................... 98APPENDIX-8 ..................................................................................................................................... 99 A8.1CREDIT RISK .......................................................................................................................... 99 A8.2 TOTAL LIABILILTIES ............................................................................................................... 99APPENDIX-9 ................................................................................................................................... 100 A9.1 TOTAL INCOME................................................................................................................... 100 A9.2 TOTAL EXPENDITURE .......................................................................................................... 100APPENDIX-10 ................................................................................................................................. 101 A10.1 OPERATING PROFIT .......................................................................................................... 101 A10.2 PROFIT AFTER TAX ............................................................................................................ 101GLOSSARY & ABBREVIATION .......................................................................................................... 102BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................................... 103 Page 6
  8. 8. 1.Executive Summary The Project was focused on quality control using various statistical tool/techniques. 1.1 OVERVIEW OF QUALITY CONTROL done in OCLCHAMBER KILN:OCL Silica Refractory has 8 kilns.Eack Kiln has 22 to 28 chambers. Again each chamber has4 benches (A,B,C,D) across length & 5 layers ( Top,4th,Middle,2nd,Bottom) across height. Experiemntally it was found that the bricks size within the same chamber of a kiln differedacross length & height.Position of bricks inside a kiln mattered a lot.So a very microscopicobsevation was done using statistical tools & techniques. For this experiment 2700 raw data ofbricks were taken.It was an assumption that the bricks inside the kiln expanded by 4.2% after firing. So ourmotive was to observe if the assumption was accurate & how the bricks expanded at verymicrossopic level.Following were the findings & observation.  Expansion of silica bricks at Macroscopic level at various physical Parameters.  Expansion of silica bricks & heat phenemenon at horizontal & vertical direction inside a kiln  Expansion of bricks in each benches inside the kiln.  Expansion of bricks in each layers inside the kiln.EXPANSION PROBABILITY : Not only bricks expansion was different across different physical parameters but at thesame parameter the probability that the bricks expanded to a defined level varied.Many timesit deviated from its expected size. So probability distribution was done to estimate theoccurence of various sized bricks.Following were the findings & observation.  Probability distribution of expansion of bricks to a defined size  Probaility of deviation  Probability that a particular lot failed to pass. Page 7
  9. 9. APPARENT POSROSITY & BULK DENSITYIt is important to know apparent porosity needed for a particular green bulk density.Orders areplaced in terms of maximum apparent posrosity.So it is importnat to know, what should bethe pressure applied by the press machine to maintain a proper bulk density, keeping in mindthe expansion factor & moisture loss due to which density reduces.Following were the findings & observation.  Relation between AP & Burnt BD  Relation between AP & Green BD  Relation between Burnt BD & Green BDEXCEL SHEET SIMULATION It has been developed to make observation user friendly and flexible in case of anychange of situation and it will be of immense help to our company.1.2 KAIZEN & 5S suggested Small stratigic improvement & safety is an important concern for any company. IMPROVEMENT Following were the findings & observation.  Designing layouts of plant,roads & machinery  What Operational startigies can be implemented  Safety precautions  Optimization of paths & tracks  Housekeeping  Prioritizing the task  Kiln operation SAFETY Following were the findings & observation.  Trolley safety  Mixer Bucket pulling  Chair Car safety  Road safety  Plant Safety  Disaster ManagementPICTORIAL LAYOUTS It has been developed to make observation user friendly to lay man for whomunderstanding technical terms becomes difficult Page 8
  10. 10. 2.Introduction2.1 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW OCL INDIA LTD OCL Refractor Cement Sponge yryct Iron2.1.1 ABOUT OCLOCL INDIA LIMITED, formerly "Orissa Cement Limited" and better known as "OCL",2.1.1.1 CEMENT:Itwas established in the year 1949, which started producing Cement through wetprocess technology under the brand name of "Konark". Keeping a steady progress withtime and technology it has modernized to fully automated dry process plant in 1988. OCLcommands the position of market leadership in the state of Orissa since its inception andtoday it is the premier lead brand in the state of Orissa. ‘Konark brand cement enjoysbrand advantage in the region. It is a name cemented to Quality.2.1.1.2 REFRACTORYOCL diversified from Cement to the field of Refractories in 1954. Over the years, it hasbecome one of the largest and well-equipped state of the art Refractory plant in Indiacovering a wide range of products for use in the Ferrous & the non-ferrous Industries. Itscustomer base spreads from iron and steel to cement, aluminum, glass, copper, chemicalsand hydrocarbon industries. Today, OCL enjoys a huge market share in India and overseasextending to five continents across the globe.2.1.1.3 SPONGE IRONDuring the year 2001-02 OCL diversified its activities into Sponge Iron and now forayedfurther into Steel making. In line with this vision, the Company has already installed aCaptive Power plant and is going to commission 0.25 million tons steel billet plant. Page 9
  11. 11. 2.1.1.4 IRON & STEELOCL, as per scheme of arrangement approved by the honourable High Court of Orissademerged its Steel undertaking and Real Estate undertaking by transferring the assetsand liabilities as on 1st January 2007 into “OCL Iron and Steel Ltd.” and“Landmark Property Development Company Ltd(formerly Konark Minerals Ltd.)”respectively. The scheme of arrangement also involved merger of the business of Dalmia Cement(Meghalaya) Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Ltd, as on 1stJuly 2007 with the approval of the honourable Court of Guwahati. OCL is a globally focussed organization with presence in key areas of infrastructure development. With its range of product and strong R & D orientation it enjoys a strong customer and brand loyalty.2.2 Refractory Overview2.1.2 EXECUTIVES & BORAD MEMBERSDIRECTORS  Shri Pradip Kumar Khaitan (Chairman)  Shri V.D. Jhunjhunwala  Shri D.N. Davar  Shri Puneet Dalmia  Dr. Ramesh C. Vaish  Dr. S.R. Jain  Shri V.P. Sood (Whole time Director & CEO)PRESIDENT ;Shri M.H. Dalmia2.1.3 VISION » Grow profitably with commitment to customer satisfaction » Strive for excellence » Be in chosen areas » Continuously develop a committed team of people » Build good corporate image & high customer esteem » Endeavour to serve society2.1.4 MISSION » OCL is in the business of Cement and Refractories. These will continue to be our prime business focus areas We shall strive to improve our image in the eyes of all stakeholders - present and » potential » We shall endeavour to build a vibrant and responsive organization with a team of motivated people driving for excellence, achievement and high performance » We will create conditions and climate for empowerment through enhancement of Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills with emphasis on multiskilling Page 10
  12. 12. 2.1.5 Quality PolicyOCL, believes and aim at Total Quality in their products and services to satisfy Customers,and are committed to: » Adhere strictly to quality parameters at all stages to provide products / services conforming to customer requirements » Meet Requirements of Quality management System and strive to continually improve its effectiveness » Develop competent human resource through planned training Establish Quality Objectives and review periodically to achieve continual » improvement2.1.6 Safety PolicyOCL INDIA LIMITED considers all its employees as primary asset and attaches utmostimportance to their safety and health. To promote safety & health in all its factories andmines, the company makes all possible efforts and will continue to do so by which safetyand health of all its employees will be ensured. TThey are committed to: » Consider eliminating safety and health hazard while planning, designing and adopting any process or system » Select and deploy plant machinery which are safe and free of hazard Maintain and upgrade the facilities and operations to ensure safety on continuous » basis » Provide the knowledge & necessary skills to employees, contractors & other agency through planned training & awareness programs » Periodically review safety & health performance to achieve continual improvements thereon » Implement & abide by all statutory rules & regulations » Make available adequate resource for promotion of safety and health » Review the policy periodically and revise as necessary2.1.7 Certification  ISO 9001:2008 ( Quality Management System)  ISO 14001:2004 ( Environment )  ISO 18001:2007 ( Occupational Health and Safety Assement Series) Page 11
  13. 13. 2.1.8 AWARDS & RECOGNITION  In 2007-08 the Quality circle UTPADAN of Cement Division bagged Silver Medal Award in International convention of Quality circle held in BEIJING, CHINA.  The Quality Circle ANVESHAN of Cement Division was awarded Par Excellent Presentation Award in CCQC held at Rourkela  Achieved Excellent Award in National convention of Quality Circle held in Kolkata for their case study presentation during the year 2007-08.  In 2007-08 one of the Company’s Quality Circles ‘KAMYAB’ bagged award of Golden Trophy and Gold medal in International Chapter Quality Circle (ICQC) held at Indonesia.  Quality circle “Nirjharani’ was recognized as par excellence and other two QC teams UTPADAN and TALASH were recognized as EXCELLENT in National Chapter Quality Circle(NCQC) at Kanpur.  Engineering personnel won 3 prizes in National Supervisory competition organized by IIPM, Khansbahal.2.1.8 Corporate Social ResponsibilityIn its 57 years of untiring service to Nation, OCL has always given priority to communitydevelopment. In its endeavor to uplift the conditions of poor and hapless tribals of thislocality, OCL has undertaken various developmental activities in peripheral areas ofRajgangpur and Lanjiberna. The activities are mainly focused on areas like Health,Education, Drinking Water, Games and Sports etc. Some of the major activities undertakenduring last three years are given below : EDUCATION» Constructed one big hall and made drinking water supply arrangement in Gopabandhu High School, Rajgangpur» Constructed boundary wall of Primary School in village Kunmuru» Constructed boundary wall and an additional room in Jampali High School» Continuing Literacy programs in different villages» Renovated school building of Bastia M E School, I T Colony, Rajgangpur» Donated Rs. 1,00,000/- to Saraswati Sishu Mandir for construction of school building in Rajgangpur» Repaired school building in Saliameta and Kheramuta, Lanjiberna» Repaired roof of Nodal U P School in Lanjiberna Page 12
  14. 14. » Renovated the school building of Municipal Gandhi Girl’s High School, Rajgangpur» Constructed three new rooms and supplied desk and bench for students in M E School, Teleimunda» Renovated the school building of Santa Devi High School, Khatang» Made drinking water supply arrangement in Lanjiberna Shramik High School, Lanjiberna» Repaired the school play ground in Ramabahal» Making payment of salary to four adhoc teachers in Lanjiberna Shramik High School, LanjibernaDRINKING WATER» Sunk 44 Tube wells in Rajgangpur, Lanjiberna and its surrounding villages» Repaired 7 Tube wells in Lanjiberna» Supplying water to five villages in Lanjiberna for irrigation» Arranged drinking water supply system in the premises of Bar Association, Rajgangpur» Donated Rs.17,000/- on behalf of villagers of Khatang to Village Water and Sanitation Committee for arranging drinking water facility under “Sajal Dhara Scheme’ of Govt. of Orissa» Donated Rs.50,000/- on behalf of villagers of Dharuda (Kukuda GP) to Village Water and Sanitation Committee for arranging drinking water facility under “Sajal Dhara Scheme’ of Govt. of OrissaHEALTH» Providing medical facilities including supply of medicine to villagers in Lanjiberna from OCL Dispensary» Providing ambulance for shifting serious patients to nearby hospitals in Rajgangpur and Lanjiberna» Operating charitable homoeopathic dispensary in Rajgangpur and Lanjiberna» Carried out renovation work in RGP. Govt. Hospital, planted neem trees, arranged water supply system, constructed additional toilets etc.» Provided financial assistance to Bharatiya Jana Seva Sansthan, New Delhi for running a charitable dispensary at Sonakhan» Operating mobile health unit (homeopathic) in different villages in Rajgangpur and Lanjiberna Page 13
  15. 15. » Operating one mobile health unit (allopathic) for senior citizens through “Help Age-India” in different villages of Jagatsinghpur» Organised health check-up camp for villagers in Lanjiberna» Organised Eye, E & T and Dental Camp in Rajgangpur» Organised awareness program on “Maleria, Dengu and Chikungunia” and distributed 300 mosquito nets to villagers in LanjibernaGAMES & SPORTS» Conducted Inter-village Dalmia Cup Football and Hockey Tournament» Providing games materials like football, volley ball, hockey sticks etc to villagersCOMMUNITYDVELOPMENT/DONATION/CHARITY» Operating ‘SWAYAMPRABHA”, a tailoring centre for providing training to poor women and providing swing machine free of cost in Lanjiberna» Provided electricity in two villages i.e, Bihabandha Rehabilitated Colony and Tungritoli in Lanjiberna» Provided financial assistance to Bharatiya Jana Seva Sansthan, New Delhi for implementing Gram Mangla Yogna in 50 villages in Rajgangpur & Lanjiberna» Distributed 500 blankets to old and poor people in Rajgangpur and Lanjiberna» Donated Rs. 19,00,000/- to District Peripheral Development Committee for undertaking various developmental activities in the District» Donated Rs. 3,50,000/- to “HOPE” for construction of school building for mentally retarded children in Rajgangpur» Donated Rs. 31,00,000/- for construction of “Community Kalyan Mandap” in Rajgangpur Page 14
  16. 16. 2.1.9 Summary of expenses incurredUnder different heads during 2004-05 and 2005-06 aregiven below : AREA 2004-05 2005-06 2007-08 EDUCATION RS. 7,60,320.00 RS. 7,60,320.00 RS. 9,90,347.00 DRINKING WATER RS. 11,51,509.00 RS. 8,95,309.00 RS. 1,69,301.00 HEALTH RS. 6,35,000.00 RS. 13,52,984.00 RS. 15,76,002.00 GAMES & SPORTS RS. 20,845.00 RS. 54,000.00 RS. 76,760.00 CHARITY & DONATIONS RS. 13,58,537.00 RS. 46,15,540.00 RS. 11,81,725.00 TOTAL RS. 39,26,211.00 RS. 73,80,325.00 RS. 39,94,135.00Besides, OCL has also donated generously to Prime Minister’s and Chief Minister’s ReliefFund when natural calamities like cyclone, flood etc struck the Nation.OCL pledges to continue its endeavor in the above direction more vigorously in future.2.2 SWOT ANALYSIS2.2.1 STRENGTH  OCL cement factory produces its brand Konark cement which has exceeded so much of its order that, today this factory has more order than what actually it can produce. Customers are having more demand than its capacity. Demand > Supply.  OCL Refractory produces the best quality products all over Asia. On the basis of quality rating its Ranked – 1 and there is no company which can bid OCL in eastern world.  Rapid industrialization at Jharsuguda ( 55 Km) from OCL and other industrial places like Jamashedpur,Rourkela,bilaspur,durg,Raipur,Raigarh,Durgapur,Bokaro by companies like RSP,L&T,VEDANTA,Bhusan Steel,MCL,Birla cement,Jindal,Tata will create more demands. Page 15
  17. 17. 2.2.2 WEAKNESS  Though the quality of refractory products is good, the cost of product is very high. Though other companies have managed to reduce the overall price but OCL refractory has not shown much interest on it  OCL sponge iron has not been very contributing and needs to improve its quality.2.2.3 OPPORTUNITY  VEDANTA, OCL, Rourkela Steel plant are in a continuous process of recycling the products. The by-product of one company is a raw material for other company.  Profit and turnover has increased over period of time. Orders have increased to such extent that OCL cement factory is coming up with a new plant as cement factory line- 2, that will enhance the productivity of company and meet its emerging customers.  Refractory’s high quality bricks & silica will be the major point of target to countries like Japan, Korea as they are in scarce of this product. Moreover its competitor in Germany, is far distant from Japan than India which reduces the transportation cost of good from India to Japan rather than Germany to Japan.2.2.4 THREAT  The Refractory companies of china are coming up with same products at very cheaper rates. Their product is more subjective to alteration.  Refractory at Belpahar of TATA industries is located very near to it which is more automated than OCL’s manual production.  Its competitors in Germany also targets the same type of market , controlling half of the globe like Europe,Africa,America thus creating hindrance to OCL to go for globalization in western countries.2.3 Company overview2.3.1 ABOUT REFRACTORYOCL diversified from Cement to the field of Refractories in 1954. Over the years, it hasbecome one of the largest and state of the art Refractory plants in India with an annualcapacity of 80,000 Mt, covering a wide range of products for use in the ferrous & the non-ferrous Industries. Page 16
  18. 18. The initial technical know how came from M/S Dr.C.Otto of Germany for Coke Oven Silicabricks and from M/S TYK Corporation of Japan for Magnesia-Carbon, Alumina-Mag-Carbon,Alumina-Silicon Carbide-Carbon, Concast Refractories, Lance-pipe, Precast, Purging Plug, &BF Runner castables. All the other products were developed in-house. To keep pace withever-growing expectation of customers for quality Refractories, our highly experienced &well-equipped technology & research teams upgrade these on a continuous basis. Withintensive R&D efforts, OCL has registered a number of patents to its credit.OCL happens to be the first Refractory Company in India to be certified under ISO 9001, byRWTUV of Germany in 1994, now updated to 2000 version for all range of its products.OCL is a globally focussed organization with a large range of product and strong R & Dorientation towards its customer both in product and in services. It has a long-term visionto emerge as a globally accepted refractory solution provider.2.3.2 MILESTONES YEAR WISE YEAR MILESTONES 1949 Established as Orissa Cement Limited 1954 Diversified into refractories 1956 Commissioning of firebricks plant 1958 Commissioning of silica plant 1959 Commissioning of burnt basic brick plant 1962 Manufacture of chemically bonded basic bricks 1963 Manufacture of coke oven silica 1972 Expansion of silica plant 1986 Manufacture of MG-C brick 1986 Manufacture of slide plate 1992 Commissioning of concast plant 1992 Commissioning of castable & precast plant 1992 Export of silica bricks 1994 ISO 9001 certification 1997 Further expansion of silica plant 1999 Manufacture of directional purging element 2000 Modernisation of concast plant 2001 Modernisation of castable & precast plant 2004 Further modernisation of concast started 2005 Modernisation of concast plant in process Page 17
  19. 19. 2.3.3 REFRACTORY CAPACITY PRODUCTION CAPACITYSILICA BRICKS 30,000 MT / YRBASIC BURNT BRICKS 22,000 MT / YRMAGNESIA CARBON BRICKS 8,000 MT / YRFIRECLAY & HIGH ALUMINA BRICKS 25,000 MT / YRCONTINUOUS CASTING 2,000 MT / YRSLIDE GATE REFRACTORIES 2,000CASTABLES & PRECAST BLOCKS 11,000 MT / YRBASIC, SILICA & HIGH ALUMINA 6,400 MT / YRRAMMING MASSES / MORTARS TOTAL 106,400 MT / YR2.3.4 GLOBALIZATIONOCL is among the market leaders & undisputedly, one of the best in world in the segment ofSilica bricks for Coke ovens & Blast Furnace stoves having extraordinary supply referencesall through the globe. With aggressive thrust on the exports of special Refractories likeContinuos casting, Slide plates & Purging Refractories for the Steel Sector, Direct bondedMag-Chrome bricks for the Copper and Fireclay & High Alumina bricks for the AluminumIndustries, it enjoys clientele of reputed overseas customers.OCL is reckoned to be in the big league of reputed refractory suppliers in the world market.OCL refractories has been used in the largest Steel plants & other non-ferrous plants inCanada, USA, Brazil, UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Hungary, Spain, Italy, Turkey, Japan,South Korea, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, Egypt, Kenya, SouthAfrica, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, Iran, UAE, Kuwait, Pakistan, Bangladesh, SriLanka & many more. Page 18
  20. 20. 2.3.5 PRODUCTSOCL refractory has various products mainly classified in to 5 categories PRODUCT CATEGORY IRON & NON GLASS HYDROCA CEMENT STEEL FERROUS RBON MAKING2.3.5.1 Iron & Steel Making  Coke Oven  Sponge/DRI  Blast Furnance  Hot Metal Transport  Hot Metal Mixer  Ladles  BOF/LD Convertor  Electric Arc Convertor  Slide Gate Category2.3.5.1 Non Ferrous  Aluminium o Anode Baking Furnance o Melting & Holding Furnance  Copper Industries o Flash Smeltor o ISA Smeltor o Flash Convertor o Noranda Reactor o Reverberatory Furnance o Top Blown Roatary convertor o RS Convertor o TEINITE Convertor o Slag Cleaning Furnance o Anode Converter Page 19
  21. 21.  NICKEL,ZINC & LEAD o Lead Roatart Furnance o QSL Reactor o KIVCET Proces2.3.5.1 Glass  Glass melting tank  Glass regenerator2.3.5.1 Hydrocaron2.3.5.1 Cement2.3.6 FEW MAJOR PRODUCTS STUDIED2.3.6.1 COKE OVENOCL through its initial know-how from Dr. C. OTTO and subsequent intensive R&D effortshas established itself as a leading silica coke oven manufacturer in the world. With itsinstalled capacity of 30000Tons/year OCL has to its credit an impressive list of supplyreferences for Coke Oven, both in domestic and overseas markets. With its wide experienceOCL can supply silica refractories to all international specifications such as DIN, JIS, BS, NSCand also all international designs.The special features of OCL silica bricks for Coke Oven are : • Low residual quartz • Low creep • Consistent thermal expansion characteristics • High hot strength • Low statistical variation in property data ensured by quality assurance system • High dimensional accuracy enabling accurate and fast construction. Page 20
  22. 22. 2.3.6.2 BLAST FURNANE STOVEWith its initial experience in manufacturing silica bricks for coke oven, OCL developedworld class silica bricks for heavy duty Blast Furnace Stoves. Winning the confidence ofworld known stove designers like DCE, DME, Siemen-VAI, NSC. OCL has supplied silica, fireclay and high alumina refractories for a number of projects worldwide. OCL India has experience of over four decades for the manufacture of High DutySilica bricks having very low flux factor & residual quartz.OCL has received wideappreciation from overseas customers for timely delivery, god packing and dimensionalaccuracy of the product.2.3.6.3 GLASS MELTING TANKGlass melting furnaces, particularly of high pulling rate, are lined with various high qualityrefractories.Most glass manufacturers have been preferring super duty Silica Bricks for thecrown because crown constructed with Super Duty Silica Bricks can be insulated, resultingin saving of 10-12% input energy.The advantage of Super Duty Silica bricks overconventional quality is due to its low Alumina, Titania & Alkali content, its high P.C.E. value,high resistance to penetration of Alkali vapour encountered during furnace operation &volume stability at furnace operating temperature.OCL India has experience of over four decades for the manufacture of High Duty Silicabricks having very low flux factor & residual quartz.These bricks are having very highrefractoriness under load & shows excellent volume stability at service temperature.OCLs Silica insulating bricks have very low thermal conductivity which results in excellentthermal insulation. Page 21
  23. 23. 2.3.6.4 BOF/LD ConvertorNew LiningDifferent quality Magnesia carbon bricks with improved carbon bonding and having specialcharacteristics as regard to corrosion resistance, erosion resistance, oxidation resistanceand thermal shock resistance are used in different zones for balanced/ uniform erosion andcost effective lining.MaintenanceTailor made gunning material and hot patching mass is applied for prevention as well asrepair maintenance of BOFs. The characteristics of these materials are-- » Gunning Mass » Easy steakability with low rebound loss and high corrosion and erosion resistance » Hot patching Mass » High flowability, steakability, corrosion and erosion resistance » Tap Hole Sleeve Assembly • Characterised by excellent corrosion, abrasion and thermal shock resistance • Available in single piece made by CIP and also in segmented assembled form • Produce different designs of Tap hole sleeve assembly as per customers’ requirement » Tap Hole Fixing Mass Magnesia ramming mass is applied in between Tap hole block and tap hole sleeves by very high purity gunning material having high bonding strength. Our products OC tap ram M95 and OC Tap Ram M95S are specially designed for this purpose Page 22
  24. 24. 2.3.6.5 MELTING & HOLDING FURNANCEPRECAST SHAPESThese are tailor-made to different shapes and sizes manufactured as per specific customerrequirement.BURNER BLOCKS (EXCELCAST 70 D)High thermal spalling resistance, corrosion and abrasion resistance and volume stability atthe operating temperature.FLOORING BLOCKS (EXCELCAST 45 A)Precast flooring blocks in variety of sizes and thickness to withstand impact and abuse ofdross handling pots and equipment.Special features • Superior mechanical strength to withstand the load of heavy machinery and equipment movement over it. • Resistant to liquid Aluminum penetration.MONOBLOCK FOR FLUEWALL TOP (EXCELCAST 45N)Superior thermal spalling resistance and high degree of volume stability. Resistant to COdisintegration.CASTABLES Castables are manufactured for varied application in casthouse, holding furnace door and roof etc. Page 23
  25. 25. 2.3.6.6 LF/VD & VADZone and Bottom varies with different operating conditions such as LRF, VD and VAD.Magnesia carbon bricks with improved carbon bonding and special characteristics like low cokedporosity, high coked CCS, excellent corrosion, erosion, thermal shock and oxidation resistanceand high hot strength have been developed and given for different zones depending onoperational severity and cost effectiveness.Alumina magnesia carbon bricks having controlled residual expansion are recommended for theMZ and bottom of ladle furnaces to prevent joint erosion and metal penetration. Specially forimpact resistance in striker pad area AMC-3 bricks are preferred.2.3.6.7 QSL REACTORThis is a cylindrical horizontal oxygen reactor where bullion is produced from leadconcentrate. This is a special type of reactor which is characterised by extremely shortmixing time, high turbulence, short reaction time but very high resistance time.Wet or air dry pellets of concentrated flux and flue dust are fed to reactor and drop in to aheterogeneous mixture of molten lead, slag, PbO & charge material where oxygen is blownto form SO2, sulphate content flue dust and PbO and carbothermal reduction of lead oxideslag by means of coal dust.OCL’s direct bonded bricks have excellent resistance to PbO containing slag and SO2. Page 24
  26. 26. 2.3.6.8 REGENERATOROCL India has series of products for regenerator in Basic & high Alumina quality. In recentyears, Mag-zir quality is added to its range of product. Mag-zir quality chimney blocks intop course of regenerator shows superior resistance to Silica carry over attack & V2O5attack as the matrix is completely converted to forsterite and enriched with tiny Zirconiagrains. In the middle course of regenerator Mag-zir shows superior resistance to Alkalies,Sulphate attack & deposition as the Magnesite grains are enveloped with tiny Zirconiagrains.2.4. SILICA PLANT OVERVIEWSilica has 3 palnts  Silica-1  Silica-2  Silica-3 Page 25
  27. 27. 2.4.1 Silica Plant Operational Process FlowContinued ............Next Page Page 26
  28. 28. Page 27
  29. 29. 3.1 PROJECT PROFILE3.1 Objectives of the Study 1) Quality Control in chamber kiln. 2) Kaizan,5S & Safety plan inside the the silica plant3.2 Project Type & Tools  Production Operation Management  Statistical Tools: o Regression analysis o Correlation o Probability Distribution o Binomial Probability Distribution o Normal Probability Distribution o Central Tendencies: Mean,Median,Mode,Quartiles o Skewness,Kurtosis,Standard Deviation, Variance o Ranges, Outliers & box plot diagrams  Concepts Applied o Density & weight relationship o Heat phenomenon o Volumetric Expansion of bricks3.3 Target 1. Studying Expansion of bricks 2. Probability distribution of bricks 3. Deriving relationship between porosity & bulk density 4. Kaizen a. Desigining Layouts b. Suggesting techniques c. Safety techniques d. Possible improvement within company3.4 Sources of data:-3.4.1 Primary data: The main source of primary data was recorded from  Observing few samples alone  Attending checking department while checking  Deriving relations scientifically to generate data from given above collected data Page 28
  30. 30. 3.4.2 Secondary data: The main source of secondary data was recorded from  Company’s Resorce allocation book  Company’s Monthly bricks Checking records  Slica Brick Failure record  Bricks dimension layout bulletin  Mould house specifications  Laboratory checking results  Advise of experienced & experts3.4.3 Sample design:-  The sample design used for the purpose of the research was randomly taken such that it covered all the kilns, chambers type, bench & layer type.  The sample were taken based on different days & different point of time3.4.4 Sample size:-  For target:1, 2700 data were taken  For target:2, 2700 data were taken  For target:3, 200 data were taken3.5 Details Of Work3.5. 1 Initial Training :- During first week of our internship we went through training in OCL INDIA LTD regarding operation flow & how silica plant functions .In those period we did following thing  At first , We went through the PPT of OCL INDIA LTD which contained some product information and overview of plant.  We anailzed company’s website carefully  After that they gave us brief introduction about their company,plant,machinery,safety measures to be taken and told us some consequence regarding their current operation .  They also shared their some experience with us .  They told us that safety is the main motive and suggested us some tips that how would can be safe Page 29
  31. 31. 3.5. 2 Office Work : We had to report twice in office regarding our work , then we had a discussion with OCL’s manager . They try to guide us in perfect manner so whatever mistake we have done so far that will not be committed again and how can we sharply develop ourselves for future . We had to give them regular updates related to our work. 3.5.3 Intial Onsite Work :- We had to start in morning around 8 A.M. , then for a particular day we had to choose particular area (example kiln),then we have to cover there every block to know opertations At first, We had to meet with the person incharge of that operational zone , then we had to introduce ourselves & what was our purpose of visting. After that, we had to meet with manager,executives & workers to undersand the operations better. They gave us only information about company . Sometimes as i predict they couldn’t give the right answer to our query Sometime we used to get appointment with opertational managers/executiuve manager/ to dicuss on any particulr topic. Company which have tied up with ICICI & Syndicate bank , they are not so satisfied, so in that case they want to meet with manager for further discussion of opening a current or salary A/C . 3.6 Working Hierarchy Model Human Resource Senior General Manager Chief Deputy Manager Manager Internship Engineering Management Project vocational Trainee Trainee Trainee Trainee Trainee Page 30
  32. 32. 3.7 Pyramid of Problem ApproachIt shows how a client is approached & finally the deal is made in 7 stages. prepare report Excel simulation/pict orial diagrams Derive conclusion,recommend ations Observe & analize the results obtained Apply statistical tools & techniques compare both the data & check if they match Collect primary & secondary data Design the plan & methods Know the problem statement Page 31
  33. 33. 3.2 Application to Company3.2.1 Application of quality control:INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:1 ( CHAMBER KILN)Refractory has three types of kiln KILN TUNNEL CHAMBER BELL In this klin the Heat is In this klin the Heat is In this klin the bricks constant & Bricks rotates & Bricks are are static & the kiln move inside the kiln. static the kiln. itself movable. Specifically we did observation for chamber kiln. KILN CHAMBER FB 1 to 24 Kiln-1 1 to 24 Kiln-2 1 to 24 Kiln-3 1 to 22 Kiln-4 1 to 26 Kiln-5 1 to 28 Kiln-6 1 to 28 Kiln-2A 1 to 28 Page 32
  34. 34. CHAMBER KILN CHAMBERSOCL Silica Refractory has 8 kilns.Eack Kiln has 22 to 28 chambers. Again each chamber has4 benches (A,B,C,D) across length & 5 layers ( Top,4th,Middle,2nd,Bottom) across height. Experiemntally it was found that the bricks size within the same chamber of a kiln differedacross length & height.Position of bricks inside a kiln mattered a lot.So a very microscopicobsevation was done using statistical tools & techniques. For this experiment 2700 raw data ofbricks were taken.It was an assumption that the bricks inside the kiln expanded by 4.2% after firing. So our motivewas to observe if the assumption was accurate & how the bricks expanded at very microssopiclevel.Following were the findings & observation.  Expansion of silica bricks at Macroscopic level at various physical Parameters.  Expansion of silica bricks & heat phenemenon at horizontal & vertical direction inside a kiln  Expansion of bricks in each benches inside the kiln.  Expansion of bricks in each layers inside the kiln. Page 33
  35. 35. CHAMBER LAYOUTTOP layer4th layer Middle layer2nd layer Bottom layer BENCH-A BENCH-B BENCH-C BENCH-D  To check whether Expansion % mean is 4.2  How the expansion differs over benches & Layers. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:2 ( CHECKING) CHECKING PHYSICAL LABORATORY  To know probabilty of failure  Probability of brick size deviating  Probability disribution of occurence of bricks with defined size  Occurence of a particular type out of whole set Page 34
  36. 36. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:3 ( PRESS MACHINE) Apprarnt Posrosity α Bulk Density Density = Weight / Volume Volume reduces increases in Kiln reducing the Bulk Density Weight is lost reducing the Bulk DensityIn PRESS MACHINE It is a very complicated process to detect apparent porosity needed fora particular green bulk density.Orders are placed in terms of maximum apparentposrosity.So its an importnat that what should be the pressure applied by the pressmachine to maintain a proper bulk density, keeping in mind the expansion factor &moisture loss, due to which density reduces.  To Know relation between AP & BD  To know what BD should be maintained for the ordered AP  How BD depends on Expansion % of bricks.3.2.1 Application of Kaizen,Safety & 5S:  To maintain proper house keeping  Proper synergy in factory  Improved quality & efficiency  Maintain Discipine  Advantage at the time of inspection  Give a better feel inside the comapny Page 35
  37. 37. QUALITYCONTROL Page 36
  38. 38. 4.1 QUALITY CONTROL4.1.1Quality controlIt is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. Thisapproach places an emphasis on three aspects: 1. Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes, performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records 2. Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications 3. Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation, team spirit, and quality relationships.The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects is deficient in any way.Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects, and reporting tomanagement who make the decision to allow or deny the release, whereas qualityassurance attempts to improve and stabilize production, and associated processes, toavoid, or at least minimize, issues that led to the defects in the first place4.1.2 Total quality control"Total quality control" is a measure used in cases where, despite statistical quality controltechniques or quality improvements implemented, sales decrease. If the originalspecification does not reflect the correct quality requirements, quality cannot be inspectedor manufactured into the product. For instance, the parameters for a pressure vesselshould include not only the material and dimensions, but also operating, environmental,safety, reliability and maintainability requirements.4.1.3 Quality control in project managementIn project management, quality control requires the project manager and the project teamto inspect the accomplished work to ensure that its aligned with the project scope. Inpractice, projects typically have a dedicated quality control team which focuses on thisarea.4.2 EXPANSION % of bricks4.2.1 METHODOLOGY  Collecting 2700 raw datas from kiln  Finding Central Tendencies Mean,Mode,Median,Quartiles  Calculating Standard deviation,Variance,Skewness  Calculating Range,Outliers,IQR  Making Box plot Diagram.  Comparative Analysis  Graphical Analysis Page 37
  39. 39. Arithmetic mean (AM)Main article: Arithmetic meanThe arithmetic mean is the "standard" average, often simply called the "mean".Quartile:  first quartile (designated Q1) = lower quartile = cuts off lowest 25% of data = 25th percentile  second quartile (designated Q2) = median = cuts data set in half = 50th percentile  third quartile (designated Q3) = upper quartile = cuts off highest 25% of data, or lowest 75% = 75th percentileThe difference between the upper and lower quartiles is called the inter quartile range.There is no universal agreement on choosing the quartile values.The formula for locating the position of the observation at a given percentile, y, with n datapoints sorted in ascending order is:  Case 1: If L is a whole number, then the value will be found halfway between positions L and L+1.  Case 2: If L is a decimal, round to the nearest whole number. (for example, L = 1.2 becomes 1).VarianceIf a random variable X has the expected value (mean) μ = E[X], then the variance of X isgiven by:BOX PLOTBox and whisker plots are uniform in their use of the box: the bottom and top of the box arealways the 25th and 75th percentile (the lower and upper quartiles, respectively), and theband near the middle of the box is always the 50th percentile (the median). But the ends ofthe whiskers can represent several possible alternative values, among them: Page 38
  40. 40.  the minimum and maximum of all the data  the lowest datum still within 1.5 IQR of the lower quartile, and the highest datum still within 1.5 IQR of the upper quartile  one standard deviation above and below the mean of the data  the 9th percentile and the 91st percentile  the 2nd percentile and the 98th percentile4.2.2 OBSERVATIONAGGREGATE of ALL BENCHES BENCH-A 4.165504359 Mean 4.1271941Standard Error 0.005251262 Standard Error 0.0127295Median 4.2 Median 4.2Mode 4 Mode 4Standard Deviation 0.257740157 Standard Deviation 0.3620653Sample Variance 0.066429988 Sample Variance 0.1310913Kurtosis -0.36200066 Kurtosis 2.0335368Skewness 0.063940314 Skewness -1.1046595Range 1.3 Range 2.1Minimum 3.6 Minimum 2.8Maximum 4.9 Maximum 4.9Sum 10034.7 Sum 3338.9Count 2409 Count 809Largest(1) 4.9 Largest(1) 4.9Smallest(1) 3.6 Smallest(1) 2.8 Confidence Confidence 0.01029746 0.0249869 Level(95.0%) Level(95.0%)Q1 Mean Q1 4Q2 4.2 Q2 4.2Q3 4.3 Q3 4.4 % distribution % distributionabove 4.2 50% above 4.2 50%Below 4.2 50% Below 4.2 50%b/w 3.55 to 4 25% b/w 3.6 to 4 25%b/w 4 to 4.2 25% b/w 4 to 4.2 25%b/w 4.2 to 4.3 25% b/w 4.2 to 4.4 25%b/w 4.3 to 4.75 25% b/w 4.4 to 5 25%IQR 0.3 IQR 0.4Upper 4.75 Upper 5Lower 3.55 Lower 3.6 Page 39
  41. 41. BOX PLOT DIAGRAMAGGREGATE BENCH-A Max Val 5 Upper 5 Upper Max Val 4.75 4.9 Q3 4.3 Q3 4.4 Q2 4.2 Q2 4.2 Q1 4 Q1 4 Lower Lower 3.55 3.6 Min Val Min Val 1.7 2.8 Page 40
  42. 42. BENCH-C BENCH-DMean 4.124333 Mean 4.1451852Standard Error 0.012193 Standard Error 0.0096234Median 4.2 Median 4.2Mode 4 Mode 4Standard Deviation 0.365803 Standard Deviation 0.2738866Sample Variance 0.133812 Sample Variance 0.0750139Kurtosis 13.36301 Kurtosis 6.0016874Skewness -2.13153 Skewness -0.94433Range 3.2 Range 2.8Minimum 1.7 Minimum 2.2Maximum 4.9 Maximum 5Sum 3711.9 Sum 3357.6Count 900 Count 810Largest(1) 4.9 Largest(1) 5Smallest(1) 1.7 Smallest(1) 2.2 Confidence Confidence 0.023931 0.0188898 Level(95.0%) Level(95.0%)Q1 4 Q1 0.3164508Q2 4.2 Q2 4.2Q3 4.3 Q3 4.3 % distribution % distributionabove 4.2 50% above 4.2 50%Below 4.2 50% Below 4.2 50%b/w 3.55 to 4 25% b/w 3.55 to 4 25%b/w 4 to 4.2 25% b/w 4 to 4.2 25%b/w 4.2 to 4.3 25% b/w 4.2 to 4.3 25%b/w 4.3 to 4.75 25% b/w 4.3 to 4.75 25%IQR 0.3 IQR 0.3Upper 4.75 Upper 4.75Lower 3.55 Lower 3.55 Page 41
  43. 43. BENCH-C BENCH-D Max Val 4.9 Max Val 5 Upper Upper 4.75 4.75 Q3 4.3 Q3 4.3 Q2 4.2 Q2 4.2 Q1 4 Q1 4 Lower Lower 3.55 3.55 Min Val Min Val 1.7 2.2 Page 42
  44. 44. 4.2.3 ANALYSIS Bench-A 4.3 4.3 4.254.25 y = -0.075x + 4.347 4.2 4.2 R² = 0.864 4.15 4.1 Top,4.15 4.05 4.283333 4th, 4 333 4.195061 3rd, 4.1 3.95 728 4.138888 3.9 889 2nd, Bottom,4.05 4.018518 3.85 3.966666 3.8 667 519 4 Top 4th3.95 3rd 2nd Bottom 0 1 2 Axis3Title 4 5 6 Bench-C 4.3 4.34.25 4.2 4.2 4.14.15 4th, 4 4.1 Top, 4.2444444 3rd, 2nd, 4.19166664.05 3.9 4.0855555 44 4.1666666 67 56 67 4 y = -0.038x + 4.239 3.8 bottom, 3.93333333.95 R² = 0.248 3.7 33 Top 4th 3.9 3rd 2nd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 bottom Page 43
  45. 45. AGGREGATE OF BENCH - A,C & D4.25 4.25 4.2 4.2 y = -0.044x + 4.262 4.154.15 R² = 0.682 4.1 4.05 4.1 4 3.954.05 3.9 3.85 4 Top 4th 3rd 2nd Bottom3.95 Axis Title 0 2 4 6 Bench-D4.35 y = -0.018x + 4.2 4.3 4.3 R² = 0.046 4.254.25 4.2 4.15 4.2 4.14.15 4.05 4 4.1 3.954.05 3.9 3.85 4 3.8 3.753.95 Top 4th 3.9 3rd 2nd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 bottom Page 44
  46. 46. Layer-Top Layer-4th 4.3 4.25 4.24 4.25 y = -0.0491x + 4.2828 4.23 4.2 R² = 0.2463 4.22 4.15 4.21 y = 0.0191x + 4.186 R² = 0.5456 4.1 4.2 4.05 4.19 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4Layer-3 Layer-2nd 4.25 4.35 y = 0.1599x + 3.8202 4.2 4.3 R² = 0.9794 4.25 4.15 4.2 4.1 4.15 4.05 4.1 4 y = -0.0926x + 4.2799 R² = 0.549 4.05 3.95 4 3.9 3.95 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Page 45
  47. 47. Layer-Bottom Aggregate of All layers 4.08 4.15 4.06 y = 0.0244x + 3.9576 4.145 y = 0.012x + 4.105 R² = 0.1293 R² = 0.863 4.04 4.14 4.02 4.135 4 4.13 3.98 4.125 3.96 3.94 4.12 3.92 4.115 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 4.2.4 Interpretation Hozizontal expansion Bench-A  The expansion is exceptionaly high or low in the 3rd layer of Bench-A. The temperature at 3rd layer vastly differs from its neighbouring layer.Most of the graphs takes a upward or downward turn in this layer. Somewhat 2nd layer also shows same characteristics. Bench-C  The expansion is exceptionaly high or low in the 3rd layer of Bench-B. The temperature at 3rd layer vastly differs from its neighbouring layer.Most of the graphs takes a upward or downward turn in this layer. Somewhat 2nd layer also shows same characteristics. Bench-D  The expansion is exceptionaly low in the 3rd layer of Bench-C. The temperature at 3rd layer vastly differs from its neighbouring layer.Most of the graphs takes a upward or downward turn in this layer. 2nd layers also shows exceptonally high value Page 46
  48. 48. Vertical expansion Layer Top: Expansion Max at :C Expansion Min at :A Expansion Average at: D A to C: upward steep slope C to D: Curve U turn shape Layer 4th: Expansion Max at :C Expansion Min at :A Expansion Average at: D A to C: upward steep slope C to D: Curve U turn shape Layer Middle: Expansion Max at :C Expansion Min at :D Expansion Average at: A C to D: Downward steep slope Layer 2nd: Expansion Max at :D Expansion Min at :C Expansion Average at: A A to D: Straight line,steep,upward with slope 0.98 Layer Bottom: Expansion Max at :D Expansion Min at :C Expansion Average at: A A to C: Downward steep slope C to D: Curve U turn shape4.2.5 OVERALL FINDINGS  Expansion is maximum at 4th layer.The expansion gradually increases from top to 4th layer,maintains a flat structure till the 2nd layer .In between curve goes slight down taking a turn in middle( 3rd layer).Curve gradually falls from 2nd layer to bottom layer.  The overall trend is quite similar to the trend of 2nd layer Expansion Max at :bench-D Expansion Min at :bench-C Expansion Average at: bench-A A to C: Downward steep slope C to D: upward steep slope U turn at C Page 47
  49. 49. 4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION  The bricks which are very sensitive can be put in the 2nd layer as it is highly predictable.  The bricks at Bench-A also can be predicted to large extent with respect to its distance from ground.  The bricks that require minimum expansion can be placed in bottom layer of bench-A  The bricks that require maximum expansion can be placed in Top layer or 4th layer of bench-D  The bricks which are least sensitive can be put in the bottom layer as it is least predictable.  The bricks at Bench-D should be those to whom high tolerance level is allowed.4.2.5 CONCLUSION  Bricks are highly predictable layer wise in horizontal direction with correlation r>0.8 and thus demosnstrate a stable trend to be followed.  Bricks at vertical direction that is bench wise is very risky while predicting as its trend is very variable with correlation r<0.8  Standard average expansion of bricks is 4.165% Page 48
  50. 50. 5.3 PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION5.3.1 METHODOLOGY  Collecting 2700 raw datas from kiln  % containt in whole sum  Finding Binomial Probabilty distribution  Finding Normal Distribution  Comparative Analysis  Graphical AnalysisNORMAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONIn probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution, is a continuous probabilitydistribution that is often used as a first approximation to describe real-valued randomvariables that tend to cluster around a single mean value. The graph of the associatedprobability density function is “bell”-shaped, and is known as the Gaussian function or bellcurve:Where parameter μ is the mean (location of the peak) and σ 2 is the variance (the measureof the width of the distribution). The distribution with μ = 0 and σ 2 = 1 is called thestandard normal.BINOMIAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONprobability theory and statistics, the binomial distribution is the discrete probabilitydistribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes/noexperiments, each of which yields success with probability p. Such a success/failureexperiment is also called a Bernoulli experiment or Bernoulli trial. In fact, when n = 1, the Page 49
  51. 51. binomial distribution is a Bernoulli distribution. The binomial distribution is the basis forthe popular binomial test of statistical significanceProbability mass functionIn general, if the random variable K follows the binomial distribution with parameters nand p, we write K ~ B(n, p). The probability of getting exactly k successes in n trials is givenby the probability mass function:For k = 0, 1, 2, ..., n, whereis the binomial coefficient (hence the name of the distribution) "n choose k", also denotedC(n, k), nCk, or nCk. The formula can be understood as follows: we want k successes (pk) andn − k failures (1 − p)n − k. However, the k successes can occur anywhere among the n trials,and there are C(n, k) different ways of distributing k successes in a sequence of n trials.In creating reference tables for binomial distribution probability, usually the table is filledin up to n/2 values. This is because for k > n/2, the probability can be calculated by itscomplement asSo, one must look to a different k and a different p (the binomial is not symmetrical ingeneral). However, its behavior is not arbitrary. There is always an integer m that satisfiesAs a function of k, the expression ƒ(k; n, p) is monotone increasing for k < m and monotonedecreasing for k > m, with the exception of one case where (n + 1)p is an integer. In thiscase, there are two maximum values for m = (n + 1)p and m − 1. m is known as the mostprobable (most likely) outcome of Bernoulli trials. Note that the probability of it occurringcan be fairly small.The cumulative distribution function can be expressed as:where is the "floor" under x, i.e. the greatest integer less than or equal to x. Page 50
  52. 52. It can also be represented in terms of the regularized incomplete beta function, as follows:For k ≤ np, upper bounds for the lower tail of the distribution function can be derived. Inparticular, Hoeffdings inequality yields the boundand Chernoffs inequality can be used to derive the boundMoreover, these bounds are reasonably tight when p = 1/2, since the following expressionholds for all k ≥ 3n/8Mean and varianceIf X ~ B(n, p) (that is, X is a binomially distributed random variable), then the expectedvalue of X isand the variance isThis fact is easily proven as follows. Suppose first that we have a single Bernoulli trial.There are two possible outcomes: 1 and 0, the first occurring with probability p and thesecond having probability 1 − p. The expected value in this trial will be equal to μ = 1 · p +0 · (1−p) = p. The variance in this trial is calculated similarly: σ2 = (1−p)2·p + (0−p)2·(1−p) =p(1 − p).The generic binomial distribution is a sum of n independent Bernoulli trials. The mean andthe variance of such distributions are equal to the sums of means and variances of eachindividual trial: Page 51

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