Film Lighting Overview

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Film Lighting Overview

  1. 1. LLiigghhttiinngg OOvveerrvviieeww Lecture Created 9/8/10 Updated 10/13/14 by John M. Grace, film worker and instructor D.A.T.A. Charter High School Albuquerque, NM © 2010, John M. Grace Free to use in the classroom under a Creative Commons attribution license
  2. 2. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg 3-Point lighting is the lighting technique used by cinematographers on most professional productions. It is easy to understand but it takes a lifetime to master. In addition to 3-Point lighting, there are also 5- Point and 7-Point lighting scenarios which we will also discuss and analyze.
  3. 3. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg Just as it sounds, 3-Point lighting refers to lighting the subject from three angles. The lighting positions are referred to as the Key Light, the Fill Light and the Back Light .
  4. 4. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg Just as it sounds, 3-Point lighting refers to lighting the subject from three angles. The lighting positions are referred to as the Key Light, the Fill Light and the Back Light . Camera
  5. 5. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg Just as it sounds, 3-Point lighting refers to lighting the subject from three angles. The lighting positions are referred to as the Key Light, the Fill Light and the Back Light . Camera 600w Key Light
  6. 6. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg Just as it sounds, 3-Point lighting refers to lighting the subject from three angles. The lighting positions are referred to as the Key Light, the Fill Light and the Back Light . Camera 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light
  7. 7. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg Just as it sounds, 3-Point lighting refers to lighting the subject from three angles. The lighting positions are referred to as the Key Light, the Fill Light and the Back Light . Camera 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light
  8. 8. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg The Key and Fill lights are roughly 45o from the camera axis. Like all rules, this rule is made to be broken as you will see in the upcoming lighting scenarios. Camera 150w Back Light 45o 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light
  9. 9. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg The Key and Fill lights are roughly 45o from the camera axis. Like all rules, this rule is made to be broken as you will see in the upcoming lighting scenarios. 45o 45o Camera 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light
  10. 10. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg The Key light is generally twice the intensity of the Fill light which is twice the intensity of the Back light. Again, these numbers are very general and vary depending on the application. Camera 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light
  11. 11. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg The Key light is generally twice the intensity of the Fill light which is twice the intensity of the Back light. Again, these numbers are very general and vary depending on the application. Camera 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light
  12. 12. 33--PPooiinntt LLiigghhttiinngg The Key light is generally twice the intensity of the Fill light which is twice the intensity of the Back light. Again, these numbers are very general and vary depending on the application. Camera 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light
  13. 13. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg There are two primary and two secondary types of lighting used in film and television. The primary types are Tungsten and HMI. Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe. These are sometimes called quartz lights because the globes are made of hard glass – almost as hard as quartz rock. They emit a yellowish light.
  14. 14. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg There are two primary and two secondary types of lighting used in film and television. The primary types are Tungsten and HMI. HMI’s (Hydrargyum Medium Arc-Length Iodide) produce a bluish light (like daylight) very efficiently due to their unique ballast system. Unlike Tungsten lights, they are slow to come up to full brightness.
  15. 15. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg There are two primary and two secondary types of lighting used in film and television. The secondary types are Fluorescent and LED. Both types are energy efficient, long lasting and come in a variety of color temperatures. Both can be dimmable and tend to be expensive but can save money over time. Fluorescents come to full brightness slowly.
  16. 16. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg The most common type of lighting instrument used in film and television is the Fresnel. The Fresnel is named for the inventor of the lens which was originally designed for lighthouses. The Fresnel lens has concentric rings that help focus and direct the light. Most Fresnels utilize tungsten globes or lamps (not bulbs). Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe.
  17. 17. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg The most common type of lighting instrument used in film and television is the Fresnel. The Fresnel is named for the inventor of the lens which was originally designed for lighthouses. The Fresnel lens has concentric rings that help focus and direct the light. Most Fresnels utilize tungsten globes or lamps (not bulbs). Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe.
  18. 18. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg The most common type of lighting instrument used in film and television is the Fresnel. The Fresnel is named for the inventor of the lens which was originally designed for lighthouses. The Fresnel lens has concentric rings that help focus and direct the light. Most Fresnels utilize tungsten globes or lamps (not bulbs). Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe.
  19. 19. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg The most common type of lighting instrument used in film and television is the Fresnel. The Fresnel is named for the inventor of the lens which was originally designed for lighthouses. The Fresnel lens has concentric rings that help focus and direct the light. Most Fresnels utilize tungsten globes or lamps (not bulbs). Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe.
  20. 20. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg The most common type of lighting instrument used in film and television is the Fresnel. The Fresnel is named for the inventor of the lens which was originally designed for lighthouses. The Fresnel lens has concentric rings that help focus and direct the light. Most Fresnels utilize tungsten globes or lamps (not bulbs). Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe.
  21. 21. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg The Fresnels made by Mole Richardson have been the workhorses of the film industry for the past 30-40 years. All Fresnels are constructed similarly and it is important to learn the parts of these popular lighting instruments. Mole Richardson
  22. 22. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg The Fresnels made by Mole Richardson have been the workhorses of the film industry for the past 30-40 years. All Fresnels are constructed similarly and it is important to learn the parts of these popular lighting instruments. Mole Richardson
  23. 23. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg The Fresnels made by Mole Richardson have been the workhorses of the film industry for the past 30-40 years. All Fresnels are constructed similarly and it is important to learn the parts of these popular lighting instruments. Mole Richardson
  24. 24. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg In addition to Mole Richardson, Fresnels are also manufactured by a number of other companies including Arriflex (Arri), Bardwell McCallister, LTM and DeSisti. They range in intensity from 125 watts to over 20,000 watts. Arri Fresnel Bardwell-McAlister LTM Fresnel DeSisti Fresnel
  25. 25. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg In addition to Mole Richardson, Fresnels are also manufactured by a number of other companies including Arriflex (Arri), Bardwell McCallister, LTM and DeSisti. They range in intensity from 125 watts to over 20,000 watts. Arri Fresnel Bardwell-McAlister LTM Fresnel DeSisti Fresnel
  26. 26. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg In addition to Mole Richardson, Fresnels are also manufactured by a number of other companies including Arriflex (Arri), Bardwell McCallister, LTM and DeSisti. They range in intensity from 125 watts to over 20,000 watts. Arri Fresnel Bardwell-McAlister LTM Fresnel DeSisti Fresnel
  27. 27. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg In addition to Mole Richardson, Fresnels are also manufactured by a number of other companies including Arriflex (Arri), Bardwell McCallister, LTM and DeSisti. They range in intensity from 125 watts to over 20,000 watts. Arri Fresnel Bardwell-McAlister LTM Fresnel DeSisti Fresnel
  28. 28. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg In addition to Mole Richardson, Fresnels are also manufactured by a number of other companies including Arriflex (Arri), Bardwell McCallister, LTM and DeSisti. They range in intensity from 125 watts to over 20,000 watts. Arri Fresnel Bardwell-McAlister LTM Fresnel DeSisti Fresnel
  29. 29. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg HMI’s are available as both Fresnels and PAR (Parabolic Aluminized Reflector) spot lights. Their output per watt is almost 2X greater that that of tungsten instruments, they have a lower operating temperature and come in a range of wattages.
  30. 30. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg HMI’s are available as both Fresnels and PAR (Parabolic Aluminized Reflector) spot lights. Their output per watt is almost 2X greater that that of tungsten instruments, they have a lower operating temperature and come in a range of wattages.
  31. 31. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg HMI’s are available as both Fresnels and PAR (Parabolic Aluminized Reflector) spot lights. Their output per watt is almost 2X greater that that of tungsten instruments, they have a lower operating temperature and come in a range of wattages.
  32. 32. TTyyppeess ooff LLiigghhttiinngg HMI’s are available as both Fresnels and PAR (Parabolic Aluminized Reflector) spot lights. Their output per watt is almost 2X greater that that of tungsten instruments, they have a lower operating temperature and come in a range of wattages.
  33. 33. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Three Basic Attributes of Light: · Coherence (Quality) Hard and Soft Light · Color Temperature Daylight and Tungsten · Intensity Wattage and Output Foot Candles and Lumens
  34. 34. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Hard Light Light is transmitted directly from a small point source and results in relatively coherent (parallel) rays. This gives the light a hard, crisp, sharply defined appearance. The light from a clear, unfrosted light bulb, a focused spotlight, or the sun in a clear sky are hard light sources
  35. 35. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Hard Lighting Instruments LTM PAR Light Ianiro “Red Head” ETC Source 4 Leko Spotlight Mole Open Face Ianiro “Blonde”
  36. 36. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Soft Light Soft (diffused) light has the opposite effect. As shown in the photo on the left, soft light tends to hide surface irregularities and minimize detail. There are numerous techniques used to soften or diffuse hard light sources.
  37. 37. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Soft Lighting Instruments China Balls “Chimera” Soft Boxes Mole Richardson Fresnel LED Lighting Ziplight KinoFlo Diva Fluorescent or Soft Light
  38. 38. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Coherence Flags: Flags are frames covered in fabric that are used to control Coherence Color Temperature and Intensity
  39. 39. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Coherence Flags: Flags are frames covered in fabric that are used to control Coherence Color Temperature and Intensity They come in a variety of sizes including: • 12”X16” • 18”X24” • 24”X36” • 48”X48”
  40. 40. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Coherence Diffusion refers to the practice of softening hard light with diffusers. A common type of diffuser is silk fabric stretched in a frame. Small diffusion frames are called flags, 6x6 to 10x10 frames are butterflies and the 12x12 to 20x20 frames are called overheads.
  41. 41. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Coherence Diffusion refers to the practice of softening hard light with diffusers. A common type of diffuser is silk fabric stretched in a frame. Small diffusion frames are called flags, 6x6 to 10x10 frames are butterflies and the 12x12 to 20x20 frames are called overheads.
  42. 42. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Coherence Diffusion refers to the practice of softening hard light with diffusers. A common type of diffuser is silk fabric stretched in a frame. Small diffusion frames are called flags, 6x6 to 10x10 frames are butterflies and the 12x12 to 20x20 frames are called overheads.
  43. 43. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Coherence Filters also known as lenses are attached to open-face lights (especially HMI’s) to help diffuse and direct the light. A set of lenses usually includes a spot, a fresnel, a “stipple” and one or two wide angles.
  44. 44. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Coherence Diffusion also refers to many types of gels (plastic filters) that are used to soften and reduce the intensity of lights. Some popular diffusing gels are frosts (250 and 216 and Hampshire ), grid cloth, opal, and toughspun. Gels are attached to barn doors with clothespins (C-47’s or bullets).
  45. 45. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Coherence Diffusion also refers to many types of gels (plastic filters) that are used to soften and reduce the intensity of lights. Some popular diffusing gels are frosts (250 and 216 and Hampshire ), grid cloth, opal, and toughspun. Gels are attached to barn doors with clothespins (C-47’s or bullets).
  46. 46. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Coherence Diffusion also refers to many types of gels (plastic filters) that are used to soften and reduce the intensity of lights. Some popular diffusing gels are frosts (250 and 216 and Hampshire ), grid cloth, opal, and toughspun. Gels are attached to barn doors with clothespins (C-47’s or bullets).
  47. 47. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Color Temperature The second attribute of light, color temperature, refers to its basic color as measured in degrees on the Kelvin color temperature scale (Ko).
  48. 48. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Color Temperature Although light can be any color between ultraviolet and infrared, There are two colors we are concerned with: 5,600oK for daylight and 3,200oK for tungsten lamps. Camcorders are programmed with these two values as their white balance presets. Ultraviolet 5600o K 3200o K Infrared
  49. 49. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Color Temperature Tungsten lights operate at 3,200oK while HMI’s burn at 5,600oK. To match a tungsten instrument with daylight or an HMI, we attach a CTB (color temperature blue) color correction gel to the light. To match an HMI with tungsten we attach CTO (color temperature orange).
  50. 50. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Color Temperature Tungsten lights operate at 3,200oK while HMI’s burn at 5,600oK. To match a tungsten instrument with daylight or an HMI, we attach a CTB (color temperature blue) color correction gel to the light. To match an HMI with tungsten we attach CTO (color temperature orange).
  51. 51. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Color Temperature Tungsten lights operate at 3,200oK while HMI’s burn at 5,600oK. To match a tungsten instrument with daylight or an HMI, we attach a CTB (color temperature blue) color correction gel to the light. To match an HMI with tungsten we attach CTO (color temperature orange).
  52. 52. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Intensity Dimmers are the traditional way to control the intensity of lights. Unfortunately, as the wattage decreases, the color temperature decreases as well. Dimmers come in sizes ranging from 600 watts called “hand squeezers” to dimmers that can handle 20,000 watts.
  53. 53. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Intensity Dimmers are the traditional way to control the intensity of lights. Unfortunately, as the wattage decreases, the color temperature decreases as well. Dimmers come in sizes ranging from 600 watts called “hand squeezers” to dimmers that can handle 20,000 watts.
  54. 54. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Intensity Dimmers are the traditional way to control the intensity of lights. Unfortunately, as the wattage decreases, the color temperature decreases as well. Dimmers come in sizes ranging from 600 watts called “hand squeezers” to dimmers that can handle 20,000 watts.
  55. 55. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Intensity Scrims resemble a frame of finely-woven screen wire like that found in a screen door. A full set includes two doubles, a single, a half-single, a half-double and a gel frame. Adding a single reduces the light's intensity by 30% and a double reduces it by 60%.
  56. 56. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Intensity Scrims resemble a frame of finely-woven screen wire like that found in a screen door. A full set includes two doubles, a single, a half-single, a half-double and a gel frame. Adding a single reduces the light's intensity by 30% and a double reduces it by 60%.
  57. 57. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Intensity Scrims resemble a frame of finely-woven screen wire like that found in a screen door. A full set includes two doubles, a single, a half-single, a half-double and a gel frame. Adding a single reduces the light's intensity by 30% and a double reduces it by 60%.
  58. 58. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Intensity Like scrims, some flags (called nets) can reduce the intensity of a light without changing the color temperature. In addition to a single net and a double net, a full set of flags includes two solids, and a silk. One side of some flags is open to make it easier to blend the shadow.
  59. 59. LLiigghhttiinngg 110011 Controlling Intensity Like scrims, some flags (called nets) can reduce the intensity of a light without changing the color temperature. In addition to a single net and a double net, a full set of flags includes two solids, and a silk. One side of some flags is open to make it easier to blend the shadow.
  60. 60. TThhee EElleeccttrriicc DDeeppaarrttmmeenntt • Director of Photography Oversees all the visual aspects of the film
  61. 61. TThhee EElleeccttrriicc DDeeppaarrttmmeenntt • Director of Photography • Gaffer
  62. 62. TThhee EElleeccttrriicc DDeeppaarrttmmeenntt • Director of Photography • Gaffer (AKA: Chief Lighting Technician or CLT)
  63. 63. TThhee EElleeccttrriicc DDeeppaarrttmmeenntt • Director of Photography • Gaffer (AKA: Chief Lighting Technician or CLT) • Best Boy Electric (AKA: ACLT)
  64. 64. TThhee EElleeccttrriicc DDeeppaarrttmmeenntt • Director of Photography • Gaffer (AKA: Chief Lighting Technician or CLT) • Best Boy Electric (AKA: ACLT) • Electricians/Lamp Operators
  65. 65. TThhee EElleeccttrriicc DDeeppaarrttmmeenntt • Director of Photography • Gaffer (AKA: Chief Lighting Technician or CLT) • Best Boy Electric (AKA: ACLT) • Electricians/Lamp Operators • Generator Operator
  66. 66. TThhee EElleeccttrriicc DDeeppaarrttmmeenntt • Director of Photography • Gaffer (AKA: Chief Lighting Technician or CLT) • Best Boy Electric (AKA: ACLT) • Electricians/Lamp Operators • Generator Operator • Rigging Crew (same as above)
  67. 67. EEnndd ooff LLiigghhttiinngg OOvveerrvviieeww Thanks for your attention This presentation is continued on the PPT entitled “Lighting Analysis”

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