Lighting overview
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This PowerPoint was created for high school film classes by a professional gaffer and cinematographer.

This PowerPoint was created for high school film classes by a professional gaffer and cinematographer.

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Lighting overview Lighting overview Presentation Transcript

  • Lighting Overview Lecture prepared 9/8/10 by John M. Grace, film worker and instructor D.A.T.A. Charter High School Albuquerque, NM © 2010, John M. Grace All Rights Reserved for use availability, email Newestprod@aol.com
  • 3-Point Lighting 3-Point lighting is the lighting technique used by cinematographers on most professional productions. It is easy to understand but it takes a lifetime to master. In addition to 3-Point lighting, there are also 5-Point and 7-Point lighting scenarios which we will also discuss and analyze.
  • 3-Point Lighting Just as it sounds, 3-Point lighting refers to lighting the subject from three angles. The lighting positions are referred to as the Key Light, the Fill Light and the Back Light .
  • 3-Point Lighting Just as it sounds, 3-Point lighting refers to lighting the subject from three angles. The lighting positions are referred to as the Key Light, the Fill Light and the Back Light . Camera
  • 3-Point Lighting Just as it sounds, 3-Point lighting refers to lighting the subject from three angles. The lighting positions are referred to as the Key Light , the Fill Light and the Back Light . 600w Key Light Camera
  • 3-Point Lighting Just as it sounds, 3-Point lighting refers to lighting the subject from three angles. The lighting positions are referred to as the Key Light, the Fill Light and the Back Light . 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light Camera
  • 3-Point Lighting Just as it sounds, 3-Point lighting refers to lighting the subject from three angles. The lighting positions are referred to as the Key Light, the Fill Light and the Back Light . 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light Camera
  • 3-Point Lighting The Key and Back lights are roughly 45 o from the camera axis. Like all rules, this rule is made to be broken as you will see in the upcoming lighting scenarios. 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light Camera 45 o
  • 3-Point Lighting The Key and Back lights are roughly 45 o from the camera axis. Like all rules, this rule is made to be broken as you will see in the upcoming lighting scenarios. 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light Camera 45 o 45 o
  • 3-Point Lighting The Key light is generally twice the intensity of the Fill light which is twice the intensity of the Back light. Again, these numbers are very general and vary depending on the application. 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light Camera
  • 3-Point Lighting The Key light is generally twice the intensity of the Fill light which is twice the intensity of the Back light. Again, these numbers are very general and vary depending on the application. 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light Camera
  • 3-Point Lighting The Key light is generally twice the intensity of the Fill light which is twice the intensity of the Back light . Again, these numbers are very general and vary depending on the application. 150w Back Light 600w Key Light 300w Fill Light Camera
  • Types of Lighting The most common type of lighting instrument used in film and television is the Fresnel . The Fresnel is named for the inventor of the lens which was originally designed for lighthouses . The Fresnel lens has concentric rings that help focus and direct the light. Most Fresnels utilize tungsten globes or lamps (not bulbs). Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe.
  • Types of Lighting The most common type of lighting instrument used in film and television is the Fresnel . The Fresnel is named for the inventor of the lens which was originally designed for lighthouses . The Fresnel lens has concentric rings that help focus and direct the light. Most Fresnels utilize tungsten globes or lamps (not bulbs). Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe.
  • Types of Lighting The most common type of lighting instrument used in film and television is the Fresnel . The Fresnel is named for the inventor of the lens which was originally designed for lighthouses . The Fresnel lens has concentric rings that help focus and direct the light. Most Fresnels utilize tungsten globes or lamps (not bulbs). Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe.
  • Types of Lighting The most common type of lighting instrument used in film and television is the Fresnel . The Fresnel is named for the inventor of the lens which was originally designed for lighthouses . The Fresnel lens has concentric rings that help focus and direct the light. Most Fresnels utilize tungsten globes or lamps (not bulbs). Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe.
  • Types of Lighting The most common type of lighting instrument used in film and television is the Fresnel . The Fresnel is named for the inventor of the lens which was originally designed for lighthouses . The Fresnel lens has concentric rings that help focus and direct the light. Most Fresnels utilize tungsten globes or lamps (not bulbs). Tungsten refers to the steel used in the filament inside the globe.
  • Types of Lighting The Fresnels made by Mole Richardson have been the workhorses of the film industry for the past 30-40 years. All Fresnels are constructed similarly and it is important to learn the parts of these popular lighting instruments. Mole Richardson
  • Types of Lighting The Fresnels made by Mole Richardson have been the workhorses of the film industry for the past 30-40 years. All Fresnels are constructed similarly and it is important to learn the parts of these popular lighting instruments. Mole Richardson
  • Types of Lighting The Fresnels made by Mole Richardson have been the workhorses of the film industry for the past 30-40 years. All Fresnels are constructed similarly and it is important to learn the parts of these popular lighting instruments. Mole Richardson
  • Types of Lighting In addition to Mole Richardson, Fresnels are also manufactured by a number of other companies including Arriflex (Arri), Bardwell McCallister, LTM and DeSisti. They range in intensity from 125 watts to over 20,000 watts. DeSisti Fresnel LTM Fresnel Bardwell-McAlister Arri Fresnel
  • Types of Lighting In addition to Mole Richardson, Fresnels are also manufactured by a number of other companies including Arriflex (Arri) , Bardwell McCallister, LTM and DeSisti. They range in intensity from 125 watts to over 20,000 watts. DeSisti Fresnel LTM Fresnel Bardwell-McAlister Arri Fresnel
  • Types of Lighting In addition to Mole Richardson, Fresnels are also manufactured by a number of other companies including Arriflex (Arri), Bardwell McCallister , LTM and DeSisti. They range in intensity from 125 watts to over 20,000 watts. DeSisti Fresnel LTM Fresnel Bardwell-McAlister Arri Fresnel
  • Types of Lighting In addition to Mole Richardson, Fresnels are also manufactured by a number of other companies including Arriflex (Arri), Bardwell McCallister, LTM and DeSisti. They range in intensity from 125 watts to over 20,000 watts. DeSisti Fresnel LTM Fresnel Bardwell-McAlister Arri Fresnel
  • Types of Lighting In addition to Mole Richardson, Fresnels are also manufactured by a number of other companies including Arriflex (Arri), Bardwell McCallister, LTM and DeSisti . They range in intensity from 125 watts to over 20,000 watts. DeSisti Fresnel LTM Fresnel Bardwell-McAlister Arri Fresnel
  • Types of Lighting The other type of lights commonly used in the motion picture business are referred to as HMI’s (Hydrargyum Medium Arc-Length Iodide). HMI’s produce daylight color temperature light very efficiently due to their unique ballast system.
  • Types of Lighting HMI’s are available as both Fresnels and PAR (Parabolic Aluminized Reflector) spot lights. Their output per watt is almost 2X greater that that of tungsten instruments, they have a lower operating temperature and come in a range of wattage.
  • Types of Lighting HMI’s are available as both Fresnels and PAR (Parabolic Aluminized Reflector) spot lights. Their output per watt is almost 2X greater that that of tungsten instruments, they have a lower operating temperature and come in a range of wattage.
  • Types of Lighting HMI’s are available as both Fresnels and PAR (Parabolic Aluminized Reflector) spot lights . Their output per watt is almost 2X greater that that of tungsten instruments, they have a lower operating temperature and come in a range of wattage.
  • Types of Lighting HMI’s are available as both Fresnels and PAR (Parabolic Aluminized Reflector) spot lights. Their output per watt is almost 2X greater that that of tungsten instruments, they have a lower operating temperature and come in a range of wattage .
  • Lighting 101
    • Three Basic Attributes of Light:
        • Coherence (Quality)
            • Hard and Soft Light
        • Color Temperature
            • Daylight and Tungsten
        • Intensity
            • Wattage and Output
            • Foot Candles and Lumens
    • Hard Light
    Lighting 101 Light is transmitted directly from a small point source and results in relatively coherent (parallel) rays. This gives the light a hard, crisp, sharply defined appearance. The light from a clear, unfrosted light bulb, a focused spotlight, or the sun in a clear sky are hard light sources
        • Hard Lighting Instruments
    Lighting 101 LTM PAR Light Ianiro “ Red Head” ETC Source 4 Leko Spotlight Mole Open Face Ianiro “ Blonde”
    • Soft Light
    Lighting 101 Soft (diffused) light has the opposite effect. As shown in the photo on the left, soft light tends to hide surface irregularities and minimize detail. There are numerous techniques used to soften or diffuse hard light sources.
        • Soft Lighting Instruments
    Lighting 101 China Balls “ Chimera” Soft Boxes Mole Richardson Fresnel LED Lighting Ziplight or Soft Light KinoFlo Diva Fluorescent
    • Controlling Coherence
    Diffusion refers to the practice of softening hard light with diffusers. A common type of diffuser is silk fabric stretched in a frame. Small diffusion frames are called flags, 6x6 to 8x8 frames are butterflies and the 12x12 to 20x20 frames are called overheads. Lighting 101
    • Controlling Coherence
    Diffusion refers to the practice of softening hard light with diffusers. A common type of diffuser is silk fabric stretched in a frame. Small diffusion frames are called flags , 6x6 to 8x8 frames are butterflies and the 12x12 to 20x20 frames are called overheads. Lighting 101
    • Controlling Coherence
    Diffusion refers to the practice of softening hard light with diffusers. A common type of diffuser is silk fabric stretched in a frame. Small diffusion frames are called flags, 6x6 to 8x8 frames are butterflies and the 12x12 to 20x20 frames are called overheads. Lighting 101
    • Controlling Coherence
    Filters also known as lenses are attached to open-face lights (especially HMI’s) to help diffuse and direct the light. A set of lenses usually includes a spot, a fresnel, a “stipple” and one or two wide angles. Lighting 101
    • Controlling Coherence
    Diffusion also refers to many types of gels (plastic filters) that are used to soften and reduce the intensity of lights. Some popular diffusing gels are frosts (250 and 216 and Hampshire ), grid cloth, opal, and toughspun. Gels are attached to barn doors with clothespins (C-47’s or bullets). Lighting 101
    • Controlling Coherence
    Diffusion also refers to many types of gels (plastic filters) that are used to soften and reduce the intensity of lights. Some popular diffusing gels are frosts (250 and 216 and Hampshire ), grid cloth, opal, and toughspun. Gels are attached to barn doors with clothespins (C-47’s or bullets). Lighting 101
    • Controlling Coherence
    Diffusion also refers to many types of gels (plastic filters) that are used to soften and reduce the intensity of lights. Some popular diffusing gels are frosts (250 and 216 and Hampshire ), grid cloth, opal, and toughspun . Gels are attached to barn doors with clothespins (C-47’s or bullets). Lighting 101
    • Color Temperature
      • The second attribute of light, color temperature , refers to its basic color as measured in degrees on the Kelvin color temperature scale (K o ).
    Lighting 101
    • Color Temperature
    Although light can be any color between ultraviolet and infrared, There are two colors we are concerned with: 5,600 o K for daylight and 3,200 o K for tungsten lamps. Camcorders are programmed with these two values as their white balance presets. Lighting 101 Infrared Ultraviolet 5600 o K 3200 o K
    • Color Temperature
    Tungsten lights operate at 3,200 o K while HMI’s burn at 5,600 o K. To match a tungsten instrument with daylight or an HMI, we attach a CTB (color temperature blue) color correction gel to the light. To match an HMI with tungsten we attach CTO (color temperature orange). Lighting 101
    • Color Temperature
    Tungsten lights operate at 3,200 o K while HMI’s burn at 5,600 o K. To match a tungsten instrument with daylight or an HMI, we attach a CTB (color temperature blue) color correction gel to the light. To match an HMI with tungsten we attach CTO (color temperature orange). Lighting 101
    • Color Temperature
    Tungsten lights operate at 3,200 o K while HMI’s burn at 5,600 o K. To match a tungsten instrument with daylight or an HMI, we attach a CTB (color temperature blue) color correction gel to the light. To match an HMI with tungsten we attach CTO (color temperature orange). Lighting 101
    • Controlling Intensity
    Dimmers are the traditional way to control the intensity of lights. Unfortunately, as the wattage decreases, the color temperature decreases as well. Dimmers come in sizes ranging from 600 watts called “hand squeezers” to dimmers that can handle 20,000 watts. Lighting 101
    • Controlling Intensity
    Dimmers are the traditional way to control the intensity of lights. Unfortunately, as the wattage decreases, the color temperature decreases as well. Dimmers come in sizes ranging from 600 watts called “hand squeezers” to dimmers that can handle 20,000 watts. Lighting 101
    • Controlling Intensity
    Dimmers are the traditional way to control the intensity of lights. Unfortunately, as the wattage decreases, the color temperature decreases as well. Dimmers come in sizes ranging from 600 watts called “hand squeezers” to dimmers that can handle 20,000 watts . Lighting 101
    • Controlling Intensity
    Scrims resemble a frame of finely-woven screen wire like that found in a screen door. A full set includes two doubles, a single, a half-single, a half-double and a gel frame. Adding a single reduces the light's intensity by 30% and a double reduces it by 60%. Lighting 101
    • Controlling Intensity
    Scrims resemble a frame of finely-woven screen wire like that found in a screen door. A full set includes two doubles, a single, a half-single, a half-double and a gel frame. Adding a single reduces the light's intensity by 30% and a double reduces it by 60%. Lighting 101
    • Controlling Intensity
    Scrims resemble a frame of finely-woven screen wire like that found in a screen door. A full set includes two doubles, a single, a half-single, a half-double and a gel frame . Adding a single reduces the light's intensity by 30% and a double reduces it by 60%. Lighting 101
    • Controlling Intensity
    Like scrims, some flags (called nets ) can reduce the intensity of a light without changing the color temperature. In addition to a single net and a double net, a full set of flags includes two solids, and a silk. One side of some flags is open to make it easier to blend the shadow. Lighting 101
    • Controlling Intensity
    Like scrims, some flags (called nets ) can reduce the intensity of a light without changing the color temperature. In addition to a single net and a double net, a full set of flags includes two solids, and a silk. One side of some flags is open to make it easier to blend the shadow. Lighting 101
    • Thanks for your attention
    End of Lighting Overview This presentation is continued on the PPT entitled “Lighting Analysis”