The New Digital DivideLIS 768 Group ProjectFall 2009 by Toni Gzehoviak Kasia Grabowska Dan McPhillips Sheila Cody
What is the Digital Divide? The term digital divide refers to the gap between people who have access to digital technology – such as computers, Internet, mobile phones, etc. – and those who have very limited access or no access at all.
1 in 5 Households Worldwide has Broadband Internet Access 2008 – 382 million households 2009 – 422 million households 2013 – 580 million households Source: http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1189323
Old vs. New “Old” digital divide -- divide between those who have access to technology and those who do not New digital divide – divide between those who use technology and those who do not
The New Digital Divide digital divide = circumstance new digital divide = choice
Reasons 21st century literacy / social media literacy Access and restrictions Socioeconomic barriers Fear, resistance, privacy, security Awareness, visibility, relevance
Digitally Excluded and ‘E-solated’ Digital natives Digital immigrants People lacking opportunities Conscientious objectors
Socioeconomic Barriers to Information Access Bridging the Gap
Internet Statistics 79% of American adults used the internet in 2009, up from 67% in Feb. 2005 Source: http://www.pewinternet.org/Infographics/Growth-in-Adult-SNS-Use-20052009.aspx
Using the Internet as a Tool Some 69% of all Americans have used the internet to cope with the recession as they hunt for bargains, jobs, ways to upgrade their skills, better investment strategies, housing options, and government benefits. That amounts to 88% of internet users. Source: http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/11-The-Internet-and-the-Recession.aspx
Poverty 1 in 10 Americans are unemployed 1 in 5 seniors are poor These are people that desperately need access to the internet, the ones that would benefit most from the resources available online (e.g. Medicare, Social Security information, job searching …) Source: http://uspoverty.change.org/blog/view/1_in_5_elderly_are_poor
E-Government Bridge or barrier?
Internet Access as a Human Right Estonia, France, and most recently Finland have made internet access a human right
Government Countries are adopting legal measures to ensure internet access The government has allocated $7.2 billion for broadband development as part of the stimulus package. The money will be distributed in January (Source: http://bit.ly/8OMCNt) The U.S. Government is moving towards reaching people electronically – and getting people more involved
Government Source: http://www.youtube.com/user/USGovernment#p
Government Source: http://bit.ly/65BB3h
Homeless Patrons They can be some of our best patrons considering their informational needs: law, justice, and citizenship (http://bit.ly/546p66)
Homeless Bloggers Daniel Suelo Eric Sheptock http://bit.ly/19cg72 http://bit.ly/4r4W0G
Libraries with policies that deter homeless Manatee County Library System (http://bit.ly/4NuvOq) Schaumburg Township District Library (http://bit.ly/5gaipO) Libraries that require a permanent address to get a library card
Bridging the Gap
Chicago Public Library System
A model example
74 locations, ~ 1100 computers
Chicago Poverty Statistics Residents with income below the poverty level in 2007: Chicago: 20.5% Whole state: 11.9% Source: http://www.city-data.com/poverty/poverty-Chicago-Illinois.html
N.C. Digital Initiative $3.1 million John and James Knight Foundation grant will go to 12 communities across the U.S. to build better digital library centers $804,100 Grant will go to create a career lab where people can search for jobs, build skills, and create resumes Will also help increase bandwidth and purchasing new computers for libraries in Charlotte and Mecklenburg Counties Source: http://www.knightfoundation.org/news/press_room/knight_press_releases/detail.dot?id=352422
Here are some examples of the New Digital Divide …
The Divide Among Digital Natives Access to Technology through Schools Nearly universal in the U.S. • No Child Left Behind • Telecommunications Act of 1996 Nationwide average of four students per computer in schools
The Divide Among Digital Natives Access to Technology at Home 70% of individuals aged 3 – 17 live in households with internet access. — U.S. Census Bureau’s 2007 population report (released online in 2009)
Lack of Home Internet Access Creates a Divide when Using Technology at School “Children who have access to home computers demonstrate more positive attitudes towards computers and show greater ease when using computers than those who do not… More often than not, those youth who have developed the most comfort with the online world are the ones who dominate classroom use of computers, pushing aside less technically skilled classmates.” (Jenkins 8; 13)
The NEW Divide = a Division in Knowledge We must “shift the focus of the conversation about the digital divide from questions of technological access to those of opportunities to participate and to develop the cultural competencies and skills needed for full involvement” in society. “Access to today’s participatory culture functions as a new form of the hidden curriculum, shaping which youth will succeed and which will be left behind as they enter school and the workplace.” (Jenkins 3)
Media Literacy - knowledge Media Literacy Education All states have adopted educational standards detailing what students should know and be able to do with technology. But… (Hightower)
Media Literacy - knowledge Only 5 states actually test students’ knowledge and skills with technology (Hightower). The focus of technology education must shift to the “new media literacies: a set of skills that young people need in the new media landscape…The new literacies almost all involve social skills developed through collaboration and networking” (Jenkins 4).
Participatory Culture A study conducted by the Pew Internet and American Life Project suggests that “we are moving away from a world in which some produce and many consume media, toward one in which everyone has a more active stake in the culture that is produced” (Lenhardt & Madden)
Participatory Divide More than half of American teens could be considered media creators Created a blog or webpage Posted original artwork, photos, stories, videos Remixed online content into a new creation What about the other half ? ? ? (Lenhardt & Madden)
Participatory Divide Benefits of this participatory culture: Opportunities for peer-to-peer learning A changed attitude toward intellectual property Diversification of cultural expression Development of skills valued in the modern workplace A more empowered concept of citizenship (Jenkins 3)
The NEW Divide = Denial of Access Blocking and Filtering 21 states have Internet filtering laws for public schools or libraries Internet Use Policies Filtering Software (National Council of State Legislators)
Denial of Access Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) Requires the use of filtering software to block access to websites with offensive photos or materials (In order to participate in the E-Rate program) (Federal Communications Commission)
Denial of Access National Coalition Against Censorship Filtering: Limits the free exchange of ideas Filtering operates by keywords, so studies show frequent examples of “egregious overblocking” (Heins & Cho)
Closing the Divide for Youth Media Literacy Education — in school libraries and public libraries Access to participatory technologies — in school libraries and public libraries Expanded access to computers in general Advocate against filtering laws or requirements
Digital Immigrants People who “were not born into the digital world but have, at some later point in their lives, become fascinated by and adopted many or most aspects of the new technology.” (Prensky, 2001)
Reasons Skills and education Awareness and relevance Fear, privacy and security
21st Century Literacy “No prior technological advance has had such a profound cognitive impact as computing.” Source: http://www.asaecenter.org/PublicationsResources/JALArticleDetail.cfm?ItemNumber=44004
Example: Pete Taylor Pete had been considering using the internet but feared it would be complicated. Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2009/oct/25/internet-uk-martha-lane-fox
Builidng 21st Century Literacy Skills “Far worse than the economic divide is the fact that technology remains so complicated that many people couldn't use a computer even if they got one for free.” Source: http://www.useit.com/alertbox/digital-divide.html
Awareness and Relevance “Pew survey indicates that about 65 million Americans don’t go online. Of this group, only five percent cite money as the reason; 39 percent say only that they’re not interested or it’s a waste of time.” Source: http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1395/1313
Example: My Mom My Mom has been around computers for years, but she never found much use in them.
Creating Awareness and Relevance “As the old familiar formats become less available and more information and entertainment goes digital, those in their 50s, 60s and beyond can become marginalized if they don’t pick up computer skills. They must learn!” Source: http://www.nypl.org/blogs/subject/digital-immigrants
Fear – Privacy – Security “It is often fear, however, as much as absence of opportunity that holds people back.” Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2009/oct/25/internet-uk-martha-lane-fox
Facing Technology Fears What are libraries doing to help digital immigrants learn about privacy and security online?
Digital Inclusion Lead by example Build awareness Educate Empower
The “Conscientious Objectors (COs)” Of the nearly 65 million Americans who don’t go online, 39% say they’re “not interested.” –Pew Internet Life Statistics, qtd. in Green. Why? Learning habits Demonization of technology Ideas about technology users/early adopters Nonusers’ social networks are narrow Sources: Green, R. Michelle. “Unpacking ‘I Don’t Want It’” – why novices and non-users don’t use the Internet.” First Monday 11(9). 9 September 2006. Via http://firstmonday.org/htbin/ cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1395/1313
“Permission to Speak, Sir” New media guru Clay Shirky: Those who choose not to engage with social media “don’t sense they have permission to speak in public.” How can we enfranchise this population? Source: Clay Shirky, “Social Media’s Growing Influence.” National Public Radio interview. Via www.npr.org/templates/story/ story.php?storyId=112779080
COs: An Intergenerational Perspective Boomers: Learning new literacies takes too much time Feel guilty using social media at work Embarrassed to ask Millennials for help Gen X: Uncomfortable with homogenization Technological burnout Time demands Sources: Lynne Lancaster, “Social Media: Jumping In or Opting Out?” Twin Cities Business Magazine via http://tinyurl.com/yfn6mkb Michael Martin, “’Refuseniks’ Say They’ll Pass on Facebook, Twitter” National Public Radio Interview. Via http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=113928457
COs: An Intergenerational Perspective, Continued Millennials: View overlapping social media as “redundant” Disdain a “me, me, me” mentality Josh Friedman, “Twitter for Business? Call Me Dr. Jekyll…” Central Desktop Blog via http://tinyurl.com/yh22fp4
“Call me an 80s Hangover, but…” “…[I]f there’s a choice to be made, I choose life – fresh air and actual human contact.” –Quoted by commenter Rod on The Shifting Conversation About the Digital Divide, via Chieftech's Blog IS there even a choice to be made? Is there a middle ground between these two extremes?
What if they JUST DON’T WANNA!? Since “I’m not interested” can be verbal shorthand for a variety of issues, how can librarians determine pure disinterest? How much should we push those who are purely disinterested?
Selling COs on Social Media Understand their concerns: fear of change? Lack of skills? Educate your audience on each tool and how others are using it Do your homework: research tools; anticipate questions Use pilot projects: stage small, successful demos Explain benefits Be honest about pros and cons; don’t oversell social media Source: Adapted from Marie Ulysse, Health and Human Resources Health and Services Administration. “Social media – To be or not to be…How to get management ‘to be.’ Via http://govsocmed.blogspot.com/