Urban cycling routes and cycling network
Devellopping strategic policy for cycling
Marjolein de Lange, LCDG conference New...
Spuistraat, Amsterdam

1950-1970
More and more cars
Congestion
Road unsafety
Parking problems
Call for safety and liveability in
many Dutch cities
Amsterdam Extension Plan
1935
main roads and living areas
industrial areas
green, blue and leisure
designated cyclepaths
i...
The bicycle:
The perfect vehicle in the city

• clean

• silent
• affordable
• healthy
• saves energy
• and
space
time

Traffic lights at National Museum:
± 20 cars in 40 seconds
> 50 cyclists in 10 seconds
But how to get the cyclists?
Make cycling safe for all

And easy and fast
Road user as measure for design

• cycling means physical and mental effort
• cyclists are diverse
• design must fit the h...
Road Safety: Sustainable Safety

- Roads have a clear function:
streaming, connecting or living area
- Cyclists and cars c...
Residential zones:
30 km/h and < 6000 mvh/24hrs
bikes and cars mix
speed humps
circulation in favour of bicycles
Partial one-way street
Short cuts for cyclists
Main roads
(distributor roads)
through traffic
50 (or 70) km/h
seperate cycle paths
Challenges

Main roads with too
many functions…
Amsterdam 1979: City and Cyclists’ Union define bicycle network

Main Bicycle Network
Quality requirements for bicycle network

Coherent
Direct (logical, straight routes)
Safe (traffic safety and social sa...
Cycling network as a policy document

• quality

requirements

• planning instrument
• allocating money
• safeguarding rou...
Network
Coherent: - origins - destinations
Direct
- mesh width 250m
Safe
- options of routes
- linked to other modes
C...
Network
Coherent

- minimal d-tour factor

Direct:

NL: 1,25 < 90% < 1,5

Safe

- min. stopping chance
NL: 0,4 < 90% < ...
Network
Coherent
Direct

Safe

- min. conflictpoints
- low speed at conflictpoints
- high speeds or volumes:
seperation...
Bicycle network in Amsterdam
 Step by step bicycle network is completed
 Now about 90-95% meet the standards
 Vision, p...
Safe, easy and fast

New lay out:
Alternating one way for cars
Weteringschans,
Amsterdam

Cycle path/ cycle lane
Free tram...
 More cyclists
 More road safety
 Cycling for all
Safety and bicycle use
1800

1975 - now:

Development in time

- Suburbanisation
- Car use
+ Transport policy
+ Clean & He...
Challenges

Main roads with too
many functions…
Van Woustraat, Amsterdam
Marjolein de Lange (1)
Marjolein de Lange (1)
Marjolein de Lange (1)
Marjolein de Lange (1)
Marjolein de Lange (1)
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Marjolein de Lange, Dutch Cycling Embassy

Love Cycling Go Dutch Conference
Newcastle, 5 November 2013

Workshop 2: Developing strategic cycling routes

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  • Like many other cities, Amsterdam got overful with cars when in the 1950’s and 1960’s more and more people started to own and ride cars.
    In an old city with narrow streets like Amsterdam so many cars, riding or standing still, were eating up the little public space there was. Soon the growth caused major congestion and severe parking problems.
    Space for cyclists and pedestrians was poor and road unsafety increased.
    The growth in car-use went together with a steep decline of cycling.
    A solution was badly needed
  • Cyclists Union
    In 1975 cyclists no longer put up with them being pushed of the roads. Cyclists groups from all over the country joined forces and established the Cyclists’ Union. A year later a local section in Amsterdam was set up.
    Cyclists’ unionists recognized the bicycle as the solution to the urban mobility problems.
    If cycling would be safer and more comfortable, and driving a car would be discouraged, people would get back to cycling.
    Cycling could make the unsafe and congested city liveable and reachable again.
    Hundreds of members joined the union, of quite a lot became very active. Some of them very dedicated, still involved with a lot of expertise.
    The first task was to draw political and social attention to the bicycle.
    The Cyclists’ Union went looking for supporters in political parties and organized demonstrations to demand more road safety and better facilities for cyclists. (some with even more than 25 thousand participants)
    At the same time the Cyclists’ Union compiled a Bottle-Neck statement in which we described more than 300 botlenecks for cyclists throughout the city.
    They were problems like:
    missing cycle paths,
    double parked cars,
    dangerous junctions,
    absence of bike parking facilities and
    discomforts such as long waiting times at traffic lights.
    The Cyclists’ Union found a keen ear with labor party councilor Michael van der Vlis. And how lucky we were! He was appointed alderman for transport after the elections in 1978.
    Here began an intensive and still lasting cooperation between the Cyclists’ Union and the municipality.
    A municipal workgroup on bicyling was established in which partook the departments for trafic, for town planing and for public works, the traffic police and two members of the Cyclists’ Union. It was their task to solve the bottlenecks mentioned in statement.
    In 1979 the city council voted for the Traffic Circulation Plan in which for the first time real positive attention is given to the bicycle.
    The goal was to limit car-use by reducing the number of parking places and by making them expensive. And at the same time providing good alternatives, such as the bicycle and public transport.
    Space occupied by cars would have to be reclaimed and given back to pedestrians, cyclists and public transport.
    The parking fees were put into a mobility fund where facilities for road safety, bicycles, public transport and cars are paid from.
    The bicycle workgroup had work to do, and money to do it with.
    However this was not done overnight.
  • AUP (1935) van van Eesteren maakt als eerste melding van straatprofielen met aparte fietspaden (plaatje)
    Het betrof hier vooral de uitbreidingen van Amsterdam in Nieuw West, Noord en Buitenveldert. Straten als de Johan Huizingalaan, Burg. De Vlughtlaan enz. zijn ontworpen met vrijliggende fietspaden.
    Huizingalaan (plaatje)
  • The Bicycle, the ideal vehicle in the city
    * Bicycles are clean and they don’t produce noise. These are big advantages in places where many people live together.
    * Bicycling is not expensive, nor are bicycle facilities, if we compare them to the prize of infrastructure for cars or public transport.
    * Cycling is healthy. It is good and practical exercise and that is especially welcome in times of overweight.
    * And a bicycle doesn’t need any gazoline.
    And...
  • Space
    Probably the most important reason for the bicycle to be an important mode of transport in Amsterdam is that bicycles use space much more economic than cars.
  • Efficient at traffic lights
    Bicycles have are also fast at traffic lights:
    At this traffic light for example about 10 seconds is enough for over 40 cyclists to cross, while no more than 20 cars can pass in 40 seconds in the other direction.
    If all cyclists in Amsterdam would go by car traffic lights could not cope and streets would be overfull. Not to mention the parking space that would be needed. With nearly 40% of trips done by bike Amsterdam remains reachable and liveable.
  • Safety for all cyclists
    The basic principle of cycling policy is that cycling must be safe for all cyclists and that it must be easier and faster to go by bike than by car.
    Some examples that have been realized in the past 30 years:
  • Partial one-way streets reduce through traffic while cyclists can find their way in both directions.
  • Living areas:
    By making shortcuts for cyclists (in bridges, or simply by puting up poles at strategic places) it is faster and more direct to go by bike than to go by car.
  • Main Roads are designated for through traffic. Speed is 50 km/h (exceptionally 70 km/h) and bicycles should have a seperate bicycle path.
  • However it has never been easy to realize this in main roads. Streets in Amsterdam are not wide and there are many demands:
    Cyclists, pedestrians, public transport, cars, parking, trees, shops and café’s.
    Rebuilding streets like this is always a complex proces were civil servants, politicians, citizens, shop-owners and the Cyclists’ Union are involved
  • Main Bicycle Network
    To get plans realized that add up to something usefull for the whole city the Main Bicycle Network is proposed in the Traffic Circulation Plan of 1979.
    It is a dense network of routes that should provide safe and comfortable routes for cyclists.
    Bottlenesks in the network are to be solved and every time a street in the Bicycle Network is being rebuilt good facilities have to be made.
    The Cyclists’ Union urges the municipality to get this realized. This asks for good political involvement and finding public support.
    Over the past 25 years most of the routes of the main bicycle network have been realized: An impressive accomplishment by many in Amsterdam.
    Bicycle network: dense network of bicycle routes where it should be good and save to cycle. Sometimes is was posible to make facilities just like that: bridges, routes etc. At other times you have to wait for money and time, and politcal coourage to be there to get things better for cyclists. When a road belongs to bicycle network standards are to be met. Its the city boroughs that ere responsible for the routes. However the central city lays down the network (Cyclists’Union helped) and the standards that should be met.
    We keep up with politics. Plans where the bicycle is involved always have our attention. When neede we dill go and speek to make plans good for cyclists. Finding cooporation in politicians, local citizens groups etc. Etc.
    To support the many volunteers etc. 2 staff are working for Amstrerdam section of cyclists union. (I am one of them). Their salary is subsidized by the Amsterdam municipality, money in fact coming from the parking fund (where all the parking fees in Amsterdam come to). A nice thing to tell car driving friends who complain about parking fees.
    Main Bicycle Network
    To get plans realized that add up to something usefull for the whole city the Main Bicycle Network is proposed in the Traffic Circulation Plan of 1979.
    It is a dense network of routes that should provide safe and comfortable routes for cyclists.
    Bottlenesks in the network are to be solved and every time a street in the Bicycle Network is being rebuilt good facilities have to be made.
    The Cyclists’ Union urges the municipality to get this realized. This asks for good political involvement and finding public support.
    Over the past 25 years most of the routes of the main bicycle network have been realized: An impressive accomplishment by many in Amsterdam.
    Several times there have been proposals to make network less dens. The Cyclists Union has always opposed these plans. Cyclists will not cycle an extra km to find a bicycle route.
  • The first good bicycle route to be realized was Weteringsschans
    Once packed with cars and unsafe it is turned into a one-way street for cars while cyclists and public can go both ways. The single direction for cars is alternating: on one track it is westward, on the following eastward. In this way cars can reach all destinations but through traffic is avoided.
    Now it is one of the busiest cycle routes in the city and trams can run freely.
    Because there’s few cars, seperate cycle paths are not necesarry.
    At first shop owners were very much opposed to the plan. Now they profit from the many cycling customers.
  • However it has never been easy to realize this in main roads. Streets in Amsterdam are not wide and there are many demands:
    Cyclists, pedestrians, public transport, cars, parking, trees, shops and café’s.
    Rebuilding streets like this is always a complex proces were civil servants, politicians, citizens, shop-owners and the Cyclists’ Union are involved
  • However it has never been easy to realize this in main roads. Streets in Amsterdam are not wide and there are many demands:
    Cyclists, pedestrians, public transport, cars, parking, trees, shops and café’s.
    Rebuilding streets like this is always a complex proces were civil servants, politicians, citizens, shop-owners and the Cyclists’ Union are involved
  • Marjolein de Lange (1)

    1. 1. Urban cycling routes and cycling network Devellopping strategic policy for cycling Marjolein de Lange, LCDG conference Newcastle, 5 November 2013
    2. 2. Spuistraat, Amsterdam 1950-1970 More and more cars Congestion Road unsafety Parking problems
    3. 3. Call for safety and liveability in many Dutch cities
    4. 4. Amsterdam Extension Plan 1935 main roads and living areas industrial areas green, blue and leisure designated cyclepaths implementation from 1950
    5. 5. The bicycle: The perfect vehicle in the city • clean • silent • affordable • healthy • saves energy • and
    6. 6. space
    7. 7. time Traffic lights at National Museum: ± 20 cars in 40 seconds > 50 cyclists in 10 seconds
    8. 8. But how to get the cyclists?
    9. 9. Make cycling safe for all And easy and fast
    10. 10. Road user as measure for design • cycling means physical and mental effort • cyclists are diverse • design must fit the human limitations
    11. 11. Road Safety: Sustainable Safety - Roads have a clear function: streaming, connecting or living area - Cyclists and cars can mix when number of cars and speed are low - Separating when speed and/or car intensities are high - Concentrate car traffic on main roads - Quiet residential zones
    12. 12. Residential zones: 30 km/h and < 6000 mvh/24hrs bikes and cars mix speed humps circulation in favour of bicycles
    13. 13. Partial one-way street
    14. 14. Short cuts for cyclists
    15. 15. Main roads (distributor roads) through traffic 50 (or 70) km/h seperate cycle paths
    16. 16. Challenges Main roads with too many functions…
    17. 17. Amsterdam 1979: City and Cyclists’ Union define bicycle network Main Bicycle Network
    18. 18. Quality requirements for bicycle network Coherent Direct (logical, straight routes) Safe (traffic safety and social safety) Comfort (pavement, wide curves) Attractive (clean air, no steep hills)
    19. 19. Cycling network as a policy document • quality requirements • planning instrument • allocating money • safeguarding routes
    20. 20. Network Coherent: - origins - destinations Direct - mesh width 250m Safe - options of routes - linked to other modes Comfort Attractive
    21. 21. Network Coherent - minimal d-tour factor Direct: NL: 1,25 < 90% < 1,5 Safe - min. stopping chance NL: 0,4 < 90% < 1,56 /km Comfort Attractive
    22. 22. Network Coherent Direct Safe - min. conflictpoints - low speed at conflictpoints - high speeds or volumes: seperation Comfort Attractive
    23. 23. Bicycle network in Amsterdam  Step by step bicycle network is completed  Now about 90-95% meet the standards  Vision, patience, persistence,  Space is the most difficult to find  Easier in 30km/h zones
    24. 24. Safe, easy and fast New lay out: Alternating one way for cars Weteringschans, Amsterdam Cycle path/ cycle lane Free tram lane + 56% cycling, trams faster
    25. 25.  More cyclists  More road safety  Cycling for all
    26. 26. Safety and bicycle use 1800 1975 - now: Development in time - Suburbanisation - Car use + Transport policy + Clean & Healthy 1600 1400 50 1200 1000 30 800 600 •400 •200 •0 1950 20 1950 –1975: - Suburbanisation - Car use - Transport policy - Old fashioned 10 0 1955 1960 1965 1970 ThinkBike workshop Washington 1975 1980 Bicycle use 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Bicycle fatalities Cycle fatalities per billion bicycle km Bicycle km pppy 40
    27. 27. Challenges Main roads with too many functions…
    28. 28. Van Woustraat, Amsterdam

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