AO3 – Adaptations to training What are the 4 main physiological systems in the human body? Body Systems Skeletal System Muscular System Respiratory System Cardiovascular System
AO3 – Adaptations to training The Task… You have been asked by the Head of PE to prepare some material that could be used for key stage 4 students. It is hoped that the work could be displayed in either the PE or Science teaching rooms and be used as visual guidance for the students in their coursework and revision. The work could be presented as a set of display posters, with additional supplementary sheets where necessary.
AO3 – Adaptations to training The material will look at the 4 major systems in the body. The topics to be disscussed are: • Short Term Responses • Long Term Responses Skeletal Muscular Cardiovascular Respiratory
Short Term Adaptations Activity… Watch the following 2 minute video. In small groups try and make a list of all the effects that performing exercise will have on the body in the short term. http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =X8ABifVq0pA&feature=related
We are going to concentrate on 4 main adaptations:
Increased Heart Rate (HR)
Blood Pressure Changes
Increased Heart Rate (HR) Heart rate will increase as we begin exercise. Heart rate will increase linearly with the demands of the activity.
Vascular Shunt Activity… What is Blood for? Where does the blood go to? We only have a certain amount of blood in our bodies (approx 8 pints). When sprint cycling, where is the blood needed most? In groups make a list.
Vascular Shunt During rest approx 50% blood goes to metabolically active tissues (e.g. liver, kidneys and resting skeletal muscles get about 15% During exercise blood is redirected to the areas where it is needed most. Results in some cases in 25 times more blood flow to active muscles during exercise
Vascular Shunt Blood is redistributed towards active skeletal muscle during exercise and away from inactive organs As body heat builds up some blood flow is shifted to the skin to help maintain internal temperatures within acceptable limits
Blood Pressure During exercise , blood flow is increased and the heart is stimulated to pump harder ands more frequently. Activity… Blood Pressure is made up of two values Systolic (pressure when the heart is contracted) and diastolic (pressure when the heart is relaxed). When performing as many push ups as possible in a minute, how will blood pressure be affected? Discuss and record your ideas in groups.
Blood Pressure During exercise , blood flow is increased and the heart is stimulated to pump harder ands more frequently Hence the SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE is increased - which in turn forces greater blood flow into the arteries - at greater BLOOD VELOCITY.
Theory into Practice Activity… Why does a dog pant with his mouth open and tongue out after running in the park??? Discuss this as a group.
Increased Perspiration When we begin to exercise the body temperature increases. To stop itself over heating the body secretes water onto the skin which will then be allowed to cool. This cool layer of water on the surface of the skin will cool the body. This is why it is so important to drink during exercise
AO3 – Adaptations to training Your assessment You need to write a short report on the affects of exercise. You first section will be based around the short term affects. You will be graded as follows:
Candidates provide a comprehensive description of the adaptations to training. Their description demonstrates a thorough understanding and is supported with a range of relevant examples. Candidates provide a detailed description of the adaptations to training. Their description demonstrates a good understanding and is supported with a range of examples. Describe the adaptations to training. Candidates provide a basic description of the adaptations to training. Their description demonstrates a limited understanding and is supported with few examples. Distinction Merit Pass
AO3 – Adaptations to training You must include the following information. Show your understanding by justifying your explanation with examples. (3 for Distinction) Describe/ Explain the affect State the affect Examples Description Affect
AO3 – Adaptations to training Activity… In your small groups you will be given one of the adaptations we have just discussed. You have 10 minutes to draw up a poster which includes all of the information required. You will then present this to the group.
Candidates provide a comprehensive description of the adaptations to training. Their description demonstrates a thorough understanding and is supported with a range of relevant examples. Distinction
Identify, discuss and investigate the short term affects of exercise
Explain the assessment
Recommended Reading Honeybourne ‘A level PE’ Wesson & Wiggins ‘Sport & PE’ Davis, Bull Roscoe and Roscoe ‘PE & the Study of Sport’ Stafford-Brown J BTEC National in Sport and Exercise Science (Hodder andStoughton, 2004) Web sites: www.brianmac.demon.co.uk (excellent resource) www.exercise.about.com
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