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Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and  identity
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Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and identity

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Counseling Psychology and Pedagogy Master Program …

Counseling Psychology and Pedagogy Master Program
PSD 437

Published in: Education, Spiritual, Technology
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  • 1. CULTURE AND IDENTITY
  • 2. CULTURE (FRISBY, 1992)  A pattern of living, customs, traditions, values, attitudes.  A significant artistic/humanitarian/scientific achievement of the group.  A “race consciousness” -guide individual identification.
  • 3.  Refers to superficial differences between macro and micro groups (clothing, music, speech, ect).  Refers to outer appearance (“culturally different”).
  • 4. WHAT IS CULTURE?  Some people regard the term “culture” as having “refinement”, “social etiquette” or “appropriate manners”.  Social scientists use “culture” to mean the patterns of learned behaviour that are shared and transmitted among members of society in an ongoing social heritage.
  • 5.  Some perceived attributes of culture:  Mateship,  Loyalty,  Easy going nature,  Honesty,  Sports loving.  Culture may also be thought of as the way of life for a social group with values, norms and institutions
  • 6. THE IMPORTANCE OF IDENTITY WHO AM I? I am… I am… I am… I am…I am… Multiple Identities I am…
  • 7. DEFINITION OF IDENTITY: “THE REFLECTIVE SELF-CONCEPTION OR SELF- IMAGE THAT WE EACH DERIVE FROM OUR FAMILY, GENDER, CULTURAL, ETHNIC, AND INDIVIDUAL SOCIALIZATION PROCESS” (TING- TOOMEY).
  • 8. TWO LEVELS OF IDENTITY (HALL): 1- PERSONAL (WHAT MAKES US UNIQUE) 2-CULTURAL, COMMUNAL OR SOCIAL (LARGE- SCALE COMMUNITIES SUCH AS NATIONALITY, ETHNICITY, GENDER, RELIGIOUS OR POLITICAL AFFILIATION)
  • 9. CULTURE AND IDENTITY GLOBALIZATION & CULTURE  Influences of globalization on traditional, languages and cultures;  Cultural imperialism;  Resistance to globalization among cultures;  Migration and population movements;  Diasporic communities;  Global virtual communities;  Negotiation among cultures;
  • 10.  Globalization and religion;  Comparative religion study;  The growing role of Global Islam;  Transformation of the international workforce;  The local in a globalized world – “glocalization”;  The globalization of sport (Olympics, Super Bowl, and World Cup ect)  Transformation of the university and education
  • 11. CULTURE AND IDENTITY HOW ARE INDIVIDUAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF IDENTITY INFLUENCED BY GLOBALIZATION?  Changing nature of race and ethnicity in a globalized world;  Technology, global interactions and identity;  Identity and citizenship in the context of globalization;
  • 12.  Influences of immigration and migration on identity and culture;  Youth culture and advances in technology  Technology, games and identity  Changing identity pathways
  • 13. TYPES OF SOCIAL IDENTITIES 1- RACIAL IDENTITY – A SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED IDEA BASED ON THE RACE 2- ETHNIC IDENTITY – DERIVED FROM A SENSE OF SHARED HERITAGE, HISTORY, TRADITIONS, VALUES, AREA OF ORIGIN, AND SOMETIMES LANGUAGE 3- GENDER IDENTITY – HOW A PARTICULAR CULTURE DIFFERENTIATES MASCULINE AND FEMININE SOCIAL ROLES 4- NATIONAL IDENTITY – THE NATION/COUNTRY ONE WAS BORN INTO ( OR A SENSE OF PLACE)
  • 14. Identity models:  RACIAL IDENTITY: reactions to societal dynamics of “racial” oppression based on physical characteristics assumed to be racial or genetic in nature.  ETHNIC IDENTITY: if acquisition or maintenance of cultural characteristics (eg language, religion) are defining principles.
  • 15. CULTURAL IDENTITY: captures change, uncertainty and ambiguity;  incorporates diversity and pluralism  there are a number of different „selves‟ at different levels and their true psychological integration will lead to better psychological functioning  Incorporates any factor that may account for “differential” patterns of learned or shared behaviour
  • 16. ACCULTURATION Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals with different cultures come into continuous first hand contact; subsequent changes in both groups (Redfield et al, 1936)
  • 17. ACCULTURATION ShantiRaman Phinney 1990, based on Berry et al 1986
  • 18. RACIAL/CULTURAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT MODEL ATKINSON, MORTEN, & SUE (1989)  Conformity: dominant cultural values  Dissonance: question identity  Resistance & Immersion: appreciate group and reject dominant culture  Introspection: differentiate individual views  Integrative Awareness: self & other appreciation
  • 19. CROSS-CULTURAL AWARENESS DEVELOPMENT MODEL CHRISTENSEN (1989)  Unawareness: avoid personal responsibility  Transition: begin to acknowledge Whiteness  Conscious Awareness: over-identification  Consolidated Awareness: acceptance of Whiteness  Transcendent Awareness: appreciation of diversity & commitment to societal change
  • 20. BIRACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT MODEL POSTON (1990)  Personal Identity: within family group  Choice of Group Categorization: compelled to choose a specific group  Enmeshment/Denial: struggle w/ rejection of part of self  Appreciation: exploration of heritage(s)  Integration: value multicultural identity
  • 21. “GENERIC” STAGES OF CULTURAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT MODELS  Stage one: Lack of awareness of the importance of culture  Intermediate Stages: Psychological discomfort, self-examination, over-identification with own culture  Final Stage: Self-acceptance and appreciation of culture
  • 22. OTHER DIMENSIONS OF MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT  Feminist identity development model (Downing and Roush, 1985)  Minority ethnicity and sexual orientation identity development (Morales, 1992)
  • 23. CULTURE.....COMPLEX!  Change is constant  Difference is the norm  Context is central
  • 24. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE, MODERATOR VARIABLES Dominant Culture Influences Nondominant Cultural Influences Acculturation Enculturation Ethnic/Racial Identity Psychological functioning Moderator Variables Moderator Variables
  • 25. MODERATOR VARIABLES  Type of acculturating group (voluntary or forced);  Social characteristics;  Oppression and legal constraints;  Racism, prejudice and discrimination;  Cultural characteristics;  Language used and fluency;  Individual characteristics;
  • 26.  How Might Social and Personal Identities Influence Behavior and Achievement?  Through Their Influence of Individuals‟  Expectancies/ Ability Self-Concepts  Values and Goals
  • 27. Personal Experiences Subcultural Beliefs, Images, Stereotypes Societal Beliefs, Images, Ideology, Stereotypes • Personal Identities Self-concepts Self-schema Future possible selves Values Goals, Aspirations • Social Identities Salience Content Perception of barriers and opportunities linked to category membership Expectations Personal Efficacy Perceived Value of Specific Activities Behavior Patterns & Choices
  • 28. SOCIAL GROUP MEMBERSHIP CAN AFFECT THE WAYS IN WHICH PEOPLE RESPOND TO YOU Experiences related to daily experiences of discrimination and racism (Boykin; Cross; Essed; Feagin; Jackson; Spencer; Thorne)
  • 29. SOCIAL GROUP MEMBERSHIP CAN AFFECT THE OPPORTUNITIES AND BARRIERS YOU ARE LIKELY TO CONFRONT  More pervasive structural forms of racism and inequality (Boykin; Cross; Jackson; McLoyd; Ogbu; Omi & Winant)
  • 30. GROUP MEMBERSHIP CAN AFFECT SELF PROCESSES LINKED TO STEREOTYPES AND STEREOTYPING  Incorporating stereotypes into one‟s personal identity can lead to stereotypic perceptions of one’s skills and opportunities and stereotypic goals and aspirations (Ashmore; Crocker; Deaux; Eccles; Ruble)  Stereotypes about future discrimination can lead to oppositional identity formation (Fordham & Ogbu)
  • 31. GROUP MEMBERSHIP AND IDENTITY FORMATION  Social group salience can influence social identity formation (Aboud; Cooper; Cross; Garcia-Cole; McGuire; Phinney; Omi & Winant; Sellers; Thorne)  Social identities can influence goals and aspirations, as well as behavioral style and friendship networks, which, in turn can influence behavior (Chavous; Cross; Eccles; Gurin; Fordham & Ogbu; Fuligni; Kao; Mickelson; Moje; O‟Connor; Oyserman; Rotherman & Phinney; Spencer; Sellers; Taylor; Thorne; Ruble)  Social identities can help adolescents make meaning of experiences of racism and discrimination (Boykin; Cross; Deaux; Phelan; Phinney; Sellers; Spencer)

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