Migrant IntegrationMigrant Integration
in Japan:in Japan:
The local governmentThe local government
perspectiveperspective
...
Migrant Integration in JapanMigrant Integration in Japan
 IntroductionIntroduction
 Local governmentsLocal governments
...
Foreign residents in JapanForeign residents in Japan
 Increase up to 2008Increase up to 2008
 Impact of the global finan...
Japanese population in 2055Japanese population in 2055
 Japanese population reached its peak inJapanese population reache...
Changes in populationsChanges in populations
of three age groupsof three age groups
Japan’s response to globalizationJapan’s response to globalization
 Japan is slow to respond to globalization,Japan is sl...
Japan’s future:Japan’s future:
from homogeneity to diversity?from homogeneity to diversity?
 The only industrialized coun...
Migrant integration policy
by local governments
 Immigration policy: admission policy and
integration policy
 1970s: loc...
Tabunka KyoseiTabunka Kyosei
 Key concept for local migrant policyKey concept for local migrant policy
 Tabunka as many ...
Recent initiatives
by local governments
 Council of Municipalities with a Large
Foreign Population, led by Hamamatsu
City...
National government
 1990s: Countermeasures but no policy
 2006: Plan for intercultural communities
General measures reg...
MIC’s Plan for InterculturalMIC’s Plan for Intercultural
Communities (2006)Communities (2006)
 Support for communication:...
Council of MunicipalitiesCouncil of Municipalities
with a Large Foreign Population (1)with a Large Foreign Population (1)
...
Council of MunicipalitiesCouncil of Municipalities
with a Large Foreign Population (2)with a Large Foreign Population (2)
...
Intercultural Cities ProgrammeIntercultural Cities Programme
 Program started in 2008 by Council ofProgram started in 200...
5 types of migrant policy5 types of migrant policy
 Based on the experience in migrant integrationBased on the experience...
Tabunka kyosei and
Intercultural City
 MIC’s plan consists of support for foreign
residents and intercultural community
b...
Xenophobic movements
at the grassroots
 Because of recent tensions with China andBecause of recent tensions with China an...
Summits of Intercultural CitiesSummits of Intercultural Cities
 January 2012: Tokyo SummitJanuary 2012: Tokyo Summit
 9 ...
Tokyo Declaration (1)Tokyo Declaration (1)
 Having acknowledged that in an age ofHaving acknowledged that in an age of
gl...
Tokyo Declaration (2)Tokyo Declaration (2)
 That we regard the cultural diversity of ourThat we regard the cultural diver...
Tokyo Declaration (3)Tokyo Declaration (3)
 And that the ultimate goal of interculturalAnd that the ultimate goal of inte...
Challenge of HamamatsuChallenge of Hamamatsu
 2001: Establishing the Council of2001: Establishing the Council of
Municipa...
ConclusionConclusion
 November 2012: Conference in Tokyo ofNovember 2012: Conference in Tokyo of
the Council of Municipal...
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Migrant Integration in Japan

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  • First, basic statistics about foreign residents in Japan and two major factors affecting the Japanese society, that is demographic change and globalization. Second, initiatives of local governments in migrant integration, then those of the national government. Then focus on the network of cities called as Council of Municipalities with a Large Migrant Population. Next, discuss the ICC programme, organized by CoE and European Commission. Finally, conclude by talking about the Conference of Council of Municipalities, which took place this week.
  • Productive age population reached its peak in 1995
  • Migrant Integration in Japan

    1. 1. Migrant IntegrationMigrant Integration in Japan:in Japan: The local governmentThe local government perspectiveperspective Yamawaki Keizo, Meiji UniversityYamawaki Keizo, Meiji University Integrating Cities ConferenceⅥIntegrating Cities ConferenceⅥ 10 Septemnber 2013, Tampere10 Septemnber 2013, Tampere
    2. 2. Migrant Integration in JapanMigrant Integration in Japan  IntroductionIntroduction  Local governmentsLocal governments  National governmentNational government  Networking of citiesNetworking of cities  Policy exchange with European citiesPolicy exchange with European cities  ConclusionConclusion
    3. 3. Foreign residents in JapanForeign residents in Japan  Increase up to 2008Increase up to 2008  Impact of the global financial crisis in 2008Impact of the global financial crisis in 2008 and the earthquake in 2011and the earthquake in 2011  2 million (1.6%) as of December 20122 million (1.6%) as of December 2012  Chinese, Koreans, Brazilian and FilipinosChinese, Koreans, Brazilian and Filipinos  2/3 are de-facto immigrants2/3 are de-facto immigrants
    4. 4. Japanese population in 2055Japanese population in 2055  Japanese population reached its peak inJapanese population reached its peak in 20042004  127,787,000 (in 2004) → 89,930,000 (in127,787,000 (in 2004) → 89,930,000 (in 2055)2055)  Productive-age population: 87,165,000Productive-age population: 87,165,000    (in 1995) → 45,951,000 (in 2055)(in 1995) → 45,951,000 (in 2055)  The aging rate: 24% (in 2013)→ 41% (inThe aging rate: 24% (in 2013)→ 41% (in 2055)2055)
    5. 5. Changes in populationsChanges in populations of three age groupsof three age groups
    6. 6. Japan’s response to globalizationJapan’s response to globalization  Japan is slow to respond to globalization,Japan is slow to respond to globalization, butbut  Companies are seeking highly skilledCompanies are seeking highly skilled foreign workersforeign workers  Universities are seeking foreign studentsUniversities are seeking foreign students  Companies and universities are the majorCompanies and universities are the major forces promoting diversityforces promoting diversity
    7. 7. Japan’s future:Japan’s future: from homogeneity to diversity?from homogeneity to diversity?  The only industrialized country with aThe only industrialized country with a relatively few migrantsrelatively few migrants  Will aging and declining population andWill aging and declining population and globalization lead to more immigration?globalization lead to more immigration?  Is Japan to become more diverse?Is Japan to become more diverse?
    8. 8. Migrant integration policy by local governments  Immigration policy: admission policy and integration policy  1970s: local governments with a large Korean community  1990s: local governments with a large Brazilian community  2000s: Tabunka Kyosei policy
    9. 9. Tabunka KyoseiTabunka Kyosei  Key concept for local migrant policyKey concept for local migrant policy  Tabunka as many cultures, Kyosei as livingTabunka as many cultures, Kyosei as living togethertogether  NGOs then local governments started toNGOs then local governments started to use the term in the late 1990suse the term in the late 1990s  2006: Ministry of Internal Affairs made the2006: Ministry of Internal Affairs made the plan to promote Tabunka Kyosei in localplan to promote Tabunka Kyosei in local communitiescommunities
    10. 10. Recent initiatives by local governments  Council of Municipalities with a Large Foreign Population, led by Hamamatsu City (2001)  Council for the Promotion of Intercultural Communities, led by Aichi Prefecture (2004)  Shinjuku, Ota, Osaka and Kawasaki  Miyagi Prefecture
    11. 11. National government  1990s: Countermeasures but no policy  2006: Plan for intercultural communities General measures regarding foreigners as residents  2011: Action plan on measures for foreign residents of Japanese descent  2012: Commission on building a society to live with foreigners
    12. 12. MIC’s Plan for InterculturalMIC’s Plan for Intercultural Communities (2006)Communities (2006)  Support for communication: JapaneseSupport for communication: Japanese language education & multilinguallanguage education & multilingual translationtranslation  Support for living: housing, education,Support for living: housing, education, welfare, labourwelfare, labour  Intercultural community building:Intercultural community building: participation in community & awarenessparticipation in community & awareness buildingbuilding
    13. 13. Council of MunicipalitiesCouncil of Municipalities with a Large Foreign Population (1)with a Large Foreign Population (1)  Established in 2001 with 13 municipalities with aEstablished in 2001 with 13 municipalities with a large number of migrant workers, mostlylarge number of migrant workers, mostly Brazilians of Japanese origin.Brazilians of Japanese origin.  27 municipalities as of 2013.27 municipalities as of 2013.  Most of them are from Tokai region, the centreMost of them are from Tokai region, the centre of Japanese manufacturing industryof Japanese manufacturing industry  Conference in Tokyo for policy dialogue withConference in Tokyo for policy dialogue with the national government every two yearsthe national government every two years
    14. 14. Council of MunicipalitiesCouncil of Municipalities with a Large Foreign Population (2)with a Large Foreign Population (2)  Making policy proposals to the nationalMaking policy proposals to the national government for migrant integrationgovernment for migrant integration  Has been influential in the nationalHas been influential in the national government’s policy-making, such asgovernment’s policy-making, such as  MIC’s plan for intercultural communities inMIC’s plan for intercultural communities in 2006, Cabinet’s office’ adoption of action plan2006, Cabinet’s office’ adoption of action plan for policy on resident foreigners of Japanesefor policy on resident foreigners of Japanese origin in 2011, the reform of the system oforigin in 2011, the reform of the system of registration for foreign residents in 2012.registration for foreign residents in 2012.
    15. 15. Intercultural Cities ProgrammeIntercultural Cities Programme  Program started in 2008 by Council ofProgram started in 2008 by Council of Europe and European Commission.Europe and European Commission. Participation of more than 60 cities.Participation of more than 60 cities.  Intercultural policy aims at making theIntercultural policy aims at making the most of diversity at the same timemost of diversity at the same time promoting social integration throughpromoting social integration through interaction among different groups.interaction among different groups.
    16. 16. 5 types of migrant policy5 types of migrant policy  Based on the experience in migrant integrationBased on the experience in migrant integration of European cities since 1970sof European cities since 1970s  1. non-policy1. non-policy  2. guest worker policy2. guest worker policy  3. assimilationist policy3. assimilationist policy  4. multicultural policy: emphasis on group4. multicultural policy: emphasis on group identitiesidentities  5. intercultural policy: emphasis on interaction,5. intercultural policy: emphasis on interaction, mixing and hybriditymixing and hybridity
    17. 17. Tabunka kyosei and Intercultural City  MIC’s plan consists of support for foreign residents and intercultural community building  Local governments have focused on support for foreign residents  Emphasis on community building may lead to Japanese-style intercultural city  Tabunka kyosei defined as intercultural rather than multicultural
    18. 18. Xenophobic movements at the grassroots  Because of recent tensions with China andBecause of recent tensions with China and South Korea, xenophobic groups areSouth Korea, xenophobic groups are getting more active in Japangetting more active in Japan  They tend to quote xenophobic discourseThey tend to quote xenophobic discourse in Europe and regard European countriesin Europe and regard European countries as ‘failed’ in migrant integrationas ‘failed’ in migrant integration  Unbiased view on European experience inUnbiased view on European experience in migrant integration is vital for Japanmigrant integration is vital for Japan
    19. 19. Summits of Intercultural CitiesSummits of Intercultural Cities  January 2012: Tokyo SummitJanuary 2012: Tokyo Summit  9 mayors from Europe, Japan and Korea9 mayors from Europe, Japan and Korea (Lisbon, Botkyrka, Reggio Emilia, Hamamatsu,(Lisbon, Botkyrka, Reggio Emilia, Hamamatsu, Shinjuku, Ota, Ansan, Suwon, Seodaemun)Shinjuku, Ota, Ansan, Suwon, Seodaemun)  October 2012: Hamamatsu SummitOctober 2012: Hamamatsu Summit  1111 mayors from Europe, Japan and Koreamayors from Europe, Japan and Korea (Copenhagen, Dublin, Rotterdam, Hamamatsu,(Copenhagen, Dublin, Rotterdam, Hamamatsu, Shinjuku, Ota, Higashi-Osaka, Gwangmyeong,Shinjuku, Ota, Higashi-Osaka, Gwangmyeong, Gwangsan, Guro, Cheonan)Gwangsan, Guro, Cheonan)
    20. 20. Tokyo Declaration (1)Tokyo Declaration (1)  Having acknowledged that in an age ofHaving acknowledged that in an age of globalization, which has been changing ourglobalization, which has been changing our economies and our societies, theeconomies and our societies, the understanding of the concept and practicesunderstanding of the concept and practices of interculturalism can only grow inof interculturalism can only grow in importance, for cities in Asia, Europe andimportance, for cities in Asia, Europe and the wider world, we declare:the wider world, we declare:
    21. 21. Tokyo Declaration (2)Tokyo Declaration (2)  That we regard the cultural diversity of ourThat we regard the cultural diversity of our cities as an asset, and that we will explore acities as an asset, and that we will explore a new urban vision which can build uponnew urban vision which can build upon diversity to foster dynamism, innovation,diversity to foster dynamism, innovation, creativity and growth. To that end, we willcreativity and growth. To that end, we will seek to establish a partnership betweenseek to establish a partnership between intercultural cities to learn from eachintercultural cities to learn from each other’s achievements and seek answers toother’s achievements and seek answers to our common challenges.our common challenges.
    22. 22. Tokyo Declaration (3)Tokyo Declaration (3)  And that the ultimate goal of interculturalAnd that the ultimate goal of intercultural cities should be to bring individuals ofcities should be to bring individuals of different cultural backgrounds together fordifferent cultural backgrounds together for the purpose of building prosperous andthe purpose of building prosperous and harmonious cities of the future.harmonious cities of the future.
    23. 23. Challenge of HamamatsuChallenge of Hamamatsu  2001: Establishing the Council of2001: Establishing the Council of Municipalities with Large MigrantMunicipalities with Large Migrant PopulationsPopulations  2013: Making a2013: Making a vision of Hamamatsu as anvision of Hamamatsu as an intercultural cityintercultural city  Toward a national network of interculturalToward a national network of intercultural cities in Japancities in Japan
    24. 24. ConclusionConclusion  November 2012: Conference in Tokyo ofNovember 2012: Conference in Tokyo of the Council of Municipalitiesthe Council of Municipalities  Ex-minister Nakagawa vs HamamatsuEx-minister Nakagawa vs Hamamatsu Mayor on the interim report of theMayor on the interim report of the commissioncommission  Agreement on a more diverse societyAgreement on a more diverse society  Disagreement: integration policyDisagreement: integration policy immigration (admission) policyimmigration (admission) policy

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