The Effects of the Image ofAuthenticity and Immediacy on Celebrities‟ Tweets Kanittha T. 514 53140 28 Chayanit C. 514 53170 28 Parada S. 514 53564 28 Pornnicha C. 514 53593 28 Yosvadee K. 514 53724 28
Statement of PurposeTo examine the effects of the image of authenticity and immediacy that Twitter has cultivated from looking at the tweets that have been posted by celebrities, both in Thailand and abroad.
HypothesisTwitter users whole-heartedly believe in the tweets that has been posted by celebrities because of the image of authenticity and immediacy that Twitter has cultivated.
What is Twitter?“A social networking and micro-blogging site that is accessible via mobile phone, SMS, or a web interface.”
What is Twitter?• Enables users to keep in touch with people through a sentence of up to 140 characters called “tweets”• 200 million users worldwide• Available in seven languages
Twitter Users1. “The Do-Gooders” Those who provide their followers with valuable information, news, tips, and advices.2. “The Dreamers” Those who tweet motivational words and optimistic ideas to their followers.3. “The Conversationalists” Those who ask, response, and discuss questions regarding a general topic of interest.4. “The Thankful Darlings” Those who spread the love and smiles to others.
Twitter Users5. “The Wage Earners” Those employees who are paid to tweet about their company‟s service or product while trying hard not to seem disturbing.6. “The Humble Artists” Those who tweet to promote their talents.7. “The Friends with Benefits” Those who tweet for friendship.8. “The Seductors” Those female users who tweet to attract men.
Twitter Users9. “The Music Lovers” Those who tweet about what song they are listening to.10. “The Experts” Those who often tweet about a certain thing, making them look like experts through their biography and their tweets.11. “The Thoughtless Linkers” Those who tweet just to spread the links to other websites.
Twitter Users12. “The Automators” Those who automatically tweet or send direct messages.13. “The Ramblers” Those who tweet to answer the question of “what are you doing?”14. “The Just Promoters” Those who tweet just to promote brands, products, and services.15. “The Stars/Celebrities” Those who tweet to promote themselves, to express emotions and feelings, and to maintain relationship with their fans.
Tweet Contents 3.60% 3.75% News Spam 5.85% Self-promotion 8.70% Pass-along- value 40.55% Pointless babble 37.55% ConversationalSource: Pearl Analytics
Image of Immediacy• “What are you doing?” was officially dropped in 2009 due to the shift in users‟ focus, interest, and behavior• Replaced by “What‟s happening?”• Encourages users to share and discover whats happening in real-time among all the things, people, and events they care about
Image of Immediacy• Faisal, 16, went missing from his family‟s home in Saudi Arabia• Image of him, along with the contact information of his family, was tweeted• Found in less than three hours
Image of Immediacy• 8.8 magnitude quake in Chile• Use Twitter to connect with a local in the area• She gave her sister-in-law‟s address to the local man and asked him to go check on her• With less than two hours, the man sent a direct message to Breuker saying he found Maria and she is ok
Image of Immediacy• Dr. Nattakul Yamprasert used his smart phone to tweet and sent pictures of his hospital after it had been hit by the flood at Nakorn Ratchasima• It worked and massive amounts of food and relief supplies were delivered to the hospital just in time
Image of Authenticity• Twitter is also creating an image of authenticity as well• It delivers the users with problems, updates, comments, concer ns, and complaints of real-time events
Image of Authenticity• Cultivates the sense that Twitter users are the first hand witnesses of those events, making them feel that what they‟re reading is real• However, just because Twitter claims to offer “real-time” tweets by a “real person” doesn‟t mean that it is not mediated
Image of AuthenticityKim was actually being paid $25,000 to tweet about Reebok
Image of Authenticity• Most of the tweets are just “useless” and there is no real value in it• Tweets are “raw” – Typed and posted immediately – No proofreading – No reliable source to back up the information
1. As Self-Expression• Celebrity‟s Twitter feeds conversed their own “celebrity-industry”• Celebrity‟s tweets are one of the first sources tabloids are drawn into• Does not stop celebrities to tweet about their personal lifeHowever,• Offers the celebrity-industry a way to regain control over their image, to challenge the real “truth”
1. As Self-Expression Lindsay Lohan‟s Case “get the news straight from me”
1. As Self-Expression• Twitter enables the celebrity to bypass other players in the circuit of celebrity production• Get back control over their image• Increase the illusion of intimacy with their audience or followers
2. As Self-Promotion• Promote themselves through the constant updates of their work schedule • Download codes • Answer his fans‟ questions
3. As way to keep in touch with their fans• Nichkhun Horvejakul of 2PM joined Twitter with the purpose of strengthening the relationship amongst him and his fans globally• Although he is Thai, he ranks third on Seoul‟s most followed chart with 431,476 followers
3. As way to keep in touch with their fans • He frequently tweets whenever he has time in order to keep his fan updated on his daily activities • He sometimes responds to his fans‟ messages personally
3. As way to keep in touch with their fans FanTalk: randomly selects which tweet he would respond to
Secondary ResearchA survey by Brand Affinity Technologies shows that: • 61% of Americans ages 18-44 agree they feel more connected to celebrities because of online media and tools • 14% have followed a star on Twitter, and 4% have used the application to send a direct message to a celebrity
Secondary ResearchA survey by Brand Affinity Technologies shows that: • More Americans would be most excited to receive a direct online message from their favorite celebrity (31%) than from President Obama (20%) • Twice as many people would prefer to hear from their favorite athlete than from the Dalai Lama
Secondary Research Most followed on TwitterSource: www.twittercounter.com
Secondary Research Most followed on TwitterSource: www.twittercounter.com
Secondary Research• More people want to know what Lady Gaga has to say (9.4 million) than the President (7.4 million)• More people are interested in Taylor Swifts musings (6.0 million) than are in breaking news from CNN (4.1 million)Source: www.twittercounter.com
Secondary Research Most followed News Agencies on TwitterSource: www.twittercounter.com
Secondary ResearchCases from Thailand and abroad: 1. May Pitchanat 2. Dome Pakorn Lam 3. Ashton Kutcher 4. Courtney Love
Case 1: May Pitchanat • She accused Rit The Star 6 of being gay • A matter of timeliness where the actual tweets and retweets were being posted in just a matter of seconds • The case has attracted a lot of attention from the media and Twitter users in general • In the end, she apologized to Rit through the network but his fans might not put an end to this case so easily
Case 2: Dome Pakorn Lam• A replica of Dome‟s Twitter account has been made where it had all the same details that he had on his real account• The replica account created a big confusion among Dome‟s followers and the public• Use“i” as a replacement of the “L” in Lam
Case 3: Ashton Kutcher • In April 2009, Kutcher challenged CNN to get one million followers on their Twitter • Kutcher ended up beating CNN with less than 2,000 total followers • A celebrity has more followers than the number one leading news agency
Case 4: Courtney Love• In March 2009, she accused Simorangkir, a fashion designer of being a drug pusher and a prostitute after they had quarreled about Love failing to pay for the outfits that Simorangkir had designed for her
Case 4: Courtney Love• A libel lawsuit was filed against Love• Simorangkir‟s lawyer claimed that Love had made at least 40 negative tweets about her• The dispute between Love and Samorangkir has portrayed the first high- profile defamation trial as a response to a celebrity‟s online remarks on Twitter
Primary Research1. Online Survey – Varying in age and profession – Online survey of 50 respondents all of which are Twitter users – 10 multiple choices questions • Questions about perspectives on the accuracy of celebrity tweets
Online Survey: Results What kind of Twitter category do you mostly follow? 78.10% 73.10% 53.80% 38.50% 26.90%23.10% 23.10% 19.20% 15.40% 11.50%
Online Survey: Results Why do you choose to follow celebrities? 13% To have a direct connection 20% Their tweets are inspiring 23% Their tweets are 44% interesting To know their updates
Online Survey: Results Do you whole-heartedly believe in the news that celebrities posted?2520 46%15 28% 26%1050 Yes No Sometimes
Online Survey: Results46% of respondents said YES• “Yes. Because I don‟t think they would tweet hoax—especially not when the social spotlights are on them.”• “I do because if its official account then I dont think s/he would lie to everyone.”• “Yes. It‟s first hand.”• “Yes. They have no reason to lie.”
Primary Research2. Interview with fans• Qualitative interview at Chulalongkorn University and Paragon• To identify users‟ attitude towards Twitter‟s immediacy and authenticity• Total of 10 interviewees varying in ages and profession
Interview: Results• Answer were similar• Most people use Twitter for tracking down updates• All interviews follow at least one celebrity and prefer to use Twitter to find out of information about their favourite celeb through Twitter from other channel• Most admitted that they partially believe in celebrity‟s tweets
Results• Online Survey- supports the hypothesis as 46% of respondents whole-heartedly believe in celebrities‟ tweets• Interview- partially supported
Conclusion• The difference between the results from the two methods can be explained by: 1. Knowledge of media consumption 2. Tweets are “raw” in nature
1. Knowledge of Media Consumption• Changing drastically - more compelled to share their feelings• Integration of celebrities and social networking – TV Network recognize social networking power as “second half” of the experience
But how much of this type of consumption is genuine?
According to our in-depth interview, half of celebrity twitter followers either partially or don’t believe in celebrities‟ tweets at all:• Respondents‟ awareness of the nature of the celebrity - not accounted for journalism ethics• Followers are attentive to the misleading facts: “I partially believe because they sometimes tweet pointless stuff.”
2. Tweets are “Raw”• Celebrity twitter account is authentic – e.g. Justin Bieber‟s Twitter with 8,887,974 followers• However, celebrities‟ tweets are not authentic• Note that Twitter is most often used to prop the existing star image
Kayne West’s Tweets “Sometimes I get emotional over fonts.”“Just looking at my closet, woo suits, fedoras, trenches, andfurs…I’m bout to put fall in the hospital…Ima hurt the season” • He is reifying his existing image • No proof that Kanye West himself is typing these words
2. Tweets are “Raw”• Acceptance of Twitter accounts as the end of organized publicity and manufacture of image should be re-considered• No device or people check the tweets to prove that these tweet are real• No barrier filtering the information
• Lastly, no matter how real the tweets seem, it‟s still part of the celebrities‟ cultivation of his or her image So be smart about what you take as “truth”and make sure you use your judgments before consuming celebrity‟s tweets