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Topic: Mammalian Circulatory System              Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.      Class Instructor: Geonyzl Lepiten-Al...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System    Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.REPORT OUTLINE:I- Brief Introduction of ...
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Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System   Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System     Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart a...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System   Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.  Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart a...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System   Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H. Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart an...
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Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System   Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System   Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System      Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammal...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System       Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mamma...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System   Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System        Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mamm...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System   Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System   Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System       Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mamma...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System                     Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Event...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System       Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mamma...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System    Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalia...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System      Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammal...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System        Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mamm...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System      Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammal...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System    Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalia...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System         Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mam...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System    Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalia...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System      Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammal...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System    Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalia...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System          Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Ma...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System     Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammali...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System       Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mamma...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System                 Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and I...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System    Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlCar...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System                      Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output ...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System                 Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and I...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System                  Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and ...
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Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System     Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlHe...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System     Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlHe...
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Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System     Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlHe...
Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System          Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its Cont...
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Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System     Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart ...
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Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System                       Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.                     ...
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Mammalian Circulatory system

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Mammalian Circulatory System, in comparison with aves, reptiles, and fish.
Animal Physiology

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Transcript of "Mammalian Circulatory system"

  1. 1. Topic: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H. Class Instructor: Geonyzl Lepiten-Alviola, MSBio
  2. 2. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.REPORT OUTLINE:I- Brief Introduction of the Mammalian HeartII- Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleIII- Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlIV-Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart Muscle (Coronary Circulation)VI- Circulatory Pathways and VesselsVII- Vessels: Flow Regulation and HemodynamicsVIII-Pathways: Open CirculationIX- Pathways: Closed Circulation
  3. 3. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and CirculationThe Mammalian Heart has four chambers:Right Atrium, Left Atrium, Right Ventricle, Left Ventricle1) The Right Atrium and Left Atrium are reservoirs for blood (to be sentto Right Ventricle and Left Ventricle)2) The Right Ventricle and Left Ventricle are the main pumpingchambers of the heart
  4. 4. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and CirculationThe Mammalian Heart has four chambers: Right Atrium Left Atrium Left Ventricle Right Ventricle
  5. 5. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and CirculationThe Mammalian Heart has four valves: two Atrioventricular Valves (AV) and two Semilunar Valves (SV)1) Tricuspid Valve – an AV valve between Right Atrium - Right Ventricle2) Bicuspid Valve – an AV valve, also called “Mitral Valve” between Left Atrium and Left Ventricle3) Pulmonary Valve – a SV valve between the Right Ventricle and Pulmonary artery4) Aortic Valve – a SV valve between Left Ventricle and Aorta Valves act as one-way doors to keep blood moving forward
  6. 6. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H. Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and Circulation The Mammalian Heart has four chambers:Pulmonary Valve Aortic Valve Tricuspid Valve Bicuspid Valve
  7. 7. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H. Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and CirculationOther Parts AortaSuperior Vena Cava Pulmonary Artery Sinoatrial Node Pulmonary VeinAtrioventricular Node Septum Bundle of His Purkinjie FibersInferior Vena Cava Myocardium
  8. 8. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and CirculationThe Circulation (Brief Diagram):Deoxygenated blood from the body returns to the heart via:Superior and Inferior Vena Cava Right Atrium Tricuspid ValveRight Ventricle Pulmonary Valve Pulmonary Artery Lungs (the blood now comes oxygenated)Oxygenated blood from the lungs returns to the heart via:Pulmonary Vein Left Atrium Bicuspid Valve Left VentricleAortic Valve Aorta Body (the blood now comes deoxygenated)
  9. 9. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and Circulation
  10. 10. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and Circulation
  11. 11. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and Circulation
  12. 12. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleThe cardiac cycle consists of alternate periods of Systole – the contraction and emptying Diastole – relaxation and filling In vertebrates, the atria and ventricles go through separate cycles of systole and diastole.
  13. 13. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleHearts alternately contract to empty and relax to fill. Contraction – occurs as a result of the spread of excitationacross the heart; depolarization of the muscles of the heart follows thecontraction. Relaxation – follows the subsequent repolarization of thecardiac musculature.
  14. 14. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleECG – Electrocardiogram The electrical currents generated by cardiac muscle duringpolarization and repolarization spread into tissues surrounding theheart and are conducted through body fluids. A small portion of this electrical activity reaches the bodysurface, where it can be detected using recording electrodes on skin.The record produce is an electrocardiogram.
  15. 15. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleElectrocardiogram- it is a recording of that portion of the electrical activity induced by thebody fluids by the cardiac impulse that reaches the surface of the body.- is a complex recording representing the over-all spread of activitythroughout the heart during depolarization and repolarization.
  16. 16. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleElectrocardiogram
  17. 17. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleElectrocardiogramP wave represents atrialdepolarizationQRS complex represents ventriculardepolarization.T wave represents ventricularrepolarization
  18. 18. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle Depolarization – a change in a cells membranepotential, making it more positive, or less negative. Repolarization – reestablishment of polarity, especially thereturn of cell membrane potential to resting potential Action Potential – is a short-lasting event in which the electricalmembrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and fall, following aconsistent trajectory; whenever there’s large depolarization amongcells Resting Potential – resting event, opposite to actionpotential, comes after action potential, whenever there’s a largerepolarization among cells
  19. 19. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleExcitation/Activation of heart by Sino-Atrial Node (especialized auto-rhythmic cells). (animation / presentation) File name: conduction_ct.swf Download my file at: http://www.4shared.com/rar/13zOoh6I/animal_physio_reports_ppt.html
  20. 20. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleThe Full Cardiac Cycle: 1) Early Ventricular Diastole 2) Late Ventricular Diastole 3) End of Ventricular Diastole 4) Ventricular Excitation and Onset of Ventricular Systole 5) Isovolumetric Ventricular Contraction 6) Ventricular Ejection 7)End of Ventricular Systole 8) Ventricular Repolarization and Onset of Ventricular Diastole 9) Isovolumetric Ventricular Relaxation 10) Ventricular Filling
  21. 21. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle1st : Early Ventricular Diastole During early ventricular diastole, the atrium is still also indiastole. This stage corresponds to the TP interval (on the ECG) – theresting stage. The AV valve is open.
  22. 22. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle2nd : Late Ventricular Diastole SA node reaches threshold and fires. Impulse spreads through out the atria and is recorded on theECG as P wave. Atrial depolarization brings about atrial contraction whichsqueezes more blood into the ventricle, causing a rise in the atrialpressure curve.
  23. 23. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle3rd : End Ventricular Diastole Ventricular Diastole ends at the onset of ventricularcontraction. By this time, atrial contraction and ventricular filling arecompleted. The volume of the blood in the ventricle at the end of diastoleis known as “end-diastolic volume” (EDV), which averages about135mL in humans. No more blood is added to the ventricle during this cycle.
  24. 24. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle4th: Ventricular Excitation and Onset of Ventricular Systole Following atrial excitation, the impulse passes through the AVnode and specialized conduction system to excite the ventricle. QRS complex represents this ventricular excitation whichinduce ventricular contraction.
  25. 25. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle5th: Isovolumetric Ventricular Contraction After ventricular pressure exceeds atrial pressure and AV valvehas closed, the ventricular pressure must continue to increase before itcan open the aortic valve. Between closure of the AV valve and opening of Aorticvalve, there is a brief period of time when the ventricle remains aclosed chamber. During this time, no blood can enter or leave theventricles.
  26. 26. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle6th: Ventricular Ejection It is when ventricular pressure exceeds aortic pressure. Theaortic valve is forced open and ejection of the blood begins. The ventricular volume decreases substantially as bloodrapidly pumped out.  Ventricular systole includes both the period of isovolumetric contraction and the ventricular ejection phase.
  27. 27. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle7th : End of Ventricular Systole After ventricular pressure exceeds atrial pressure and AV valvehas closed, the ventricular pressure must continue to increase before itcan open the aortic valve. Between closure of the AV valve and opening of Aorticvalve, there is a brief period of time when the ventricle remains aclosed chamber. During this time, no blood can enter or leave theventricles.
  28. 28. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle8th : Ventricular Repolarization and Onset of Ventricular Diastole It is signified by T wave, occurring at the end of ventricularsystole. As the ventricles starts to relax on repolarization, ventricularpressure falls below aortic pressure and the aortic valves closes. Closure of the aortic valve produces a disturbance as notch onthe aortic pressure curve known as the “discrotic notch”. No more blood leaves the ventricle during thiscycle/phase, because the aortic valve has closed.
  29. 29. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle9th : Isovolumetric Ventricular Relaxation When the aortic valve closes, the AV valve is not yetopen, because ventricular pressure still exceeds atrial pressure, so noblood can enter the ventricle from the atrium. Therefore, all valves areonce again closed for a brief period of time. The muscle fiber length and chamber volume remain constant.No blood moves as the ventricle continues to relax; pressure steadilyfalls.
  30. 30. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle10th : Ventricular Filling When the ventricular pressure falls below the atrialpressure, the AV valve opens and ventricular filling occurs once again.  Ventricular Diastole includes both the period of isovolumetric ventricular relaxation and the ventricular filling phase.
  31. 31. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle(Points to Ponder) Atrial repolarization and Ventricular depolarization occur simultaneously, so the atria are in diastole throughout ventricular systole. Blood continues to flow from the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. As this incoming blood pools in the atrium, atrial pressure rises continuously. When the AV Valve opens at the end of ventricular systole, the blood that accumulated in the atrium during ventricular systole pours rapidly in the ventricle.
  32. 32. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle(Points to Ponder) Ventricular filling thus occurs rapidly at first because of the increased atrial pressure resulting from the accumulation of blood in the atria. Then ventricular filling slows down and atrial pressure starts to fall. During the period of ventricular filling, the blood continues to flow from the pulmonary veins into the left atrium and through the open AV valve into the left ventricle. During late ventricular diastole, when ventricular filling is proceeding slowly, the SA node fires again and the cardiac cycle starts over.
  33. 33. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlCardiac Output It is the volume of blood per minute pumped by a heart to thebody, and is the most important physiological parameter of a circulatorypump. It depends on the heart rate and the stroke volume. Thus, thekey formula is: Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume (volume per minute) (beats per minute) (volume per pumped per beat of stroke)
  34. 34. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlCardiac Output depends on the heart rate and the stroke volume. Heart rates vary tremendously with activity state of an individual and across the animal kingdom. Larger animals tend to have slower heart rates. Ex: 6 beats/min for whales and 300 beats/min in a rat. During any period of time, the volume of blood flowing through pulmonary circulation is equivalent to the volume flowing through systemic circulation. Cardiac output from each ventricle is normally identical, minor variations may occur.
  35. 35. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlCardiac Output depends on the heart rate and the stroke volume. CARDIAC OUTPUT = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume Horse 13, 500 mL/min = 30 beats/min x 450 mL/beat Human 4, 900 mL/min = 70 beats/min x 70 mL/beat Pigeon 195.5 mL/min = 115 beats/min x 1.7 mL/beat Trout 17.4 mL/min = 37.8 beats/min x 0.46 mL/beat
  36. 36. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlCardiac Output depends on the heart rate and the stroke volume. Cardiac Output changes with development. In young broilerchicks, stroke volume almost doubles in a two-week period: CARDIAC OUTPUT = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume4 weeks old 253 mL/min = 362 beats/min x 0.70 mL/beat6 weeks old 434 mL/min = 328 beats/min x 1.33 mL/beat
  37. 37. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlCardiac Output depends on the heart rate and the stroke volume. Cardiac Output also Thorough Bred Horse 300, 000 mL/min changes with activity, often by large amounts. Human (untrained) 25, 000 mL/min The following are Human (athlete) 40, 000 mL/min some values that have been measured at high Pigeon 1, 072 mL/min activity levels ( running, flying, swimming) Trout 53 mL/min
  38. 38. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlHeart rate is determined primarily by antagonistic regulation ofautonomic influences on the SA node. The vertebrate heart is innervated by both division of theANS, which is the sympathetic and parasympathetic NervousSystem, which can modify the rate ( as well as strength) ofcontraction, even though nervous stimulation is not required to initiatecontraction. The parasympathetic nerve to the mammalian heart, the vagusnerve, primarily supplies the atrium especially the SA and AV nodes.Parasympathetic innervation of the ventricles is sparse. The cardiac sympathetic nerves also supply the atria, includingSA and AV nodes, and richly innervates the ventricles as well.
  39. 39. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlHeart rate is determined primarily by antagonistic regulation ofautonomic influences on the SA node. Both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system affectthe heart by altering the activity of the cyclic AMP (second messengersystem in the innervated cells.
  40. 40. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlHeart rate is determined primarily by antagonistic regulation ofautonomic influences on the SA node. Both parasympathetic and sympathetic affect the heart throughthe release of: 1) Acetylcholine (Ach) – released from the vagus nerve binds tomuscarinic receptors that are coupled to an inhibitory G protein, whichreduces the cyclic AMP pathway. cAMP in turn increases thepermeability of the SA node to K+ by slowing the closure of EAG K+channel.
  41. 41. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlHeart rate is determined primarily by antagonistic regulation ofautonomic influences on the SA node. Both parasympathetic and sympathetic affect the heart throughthe release of:2) Norepinephrine (NE) – sympathetic neurotransmitter binds with a B-adrenergic receptor that is coupled to a stimulatory G protein, whichaccelerates cAMP pathway. In turn, cAMP appears to decrease K+permeability by accelerating inactivation of EAG channels.
  42. 42. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlHeart rate is determined primarily by antagonistic regulation ofautonomic influences on the SA node. Both parasympathetic and sympathetic affect the heart throughthe release of: 3) Ach and NE that both affects Ca++ conduction.
  43. 43. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlEffect of Parasympathetic Stimulation on the Mammalian Heart Parasympathetic stimulation reduces cardiac output throughthese effects:1) It decreases heart rate.2) It decreases excitability of the AV node.3) It shortens the action potential of the atrial contractile cells.
  44. 44. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlEffect of Sympathetic Stimulation on the Mammalian Heart Sympathetic stimulation increases cardiac output throughthese effects:1) It increases heart rate through its effect on pacemaker tissue.2) It reduces AV nodal delay at the node by increasing conduction velocity.3) It speeds up the spread of the action potential throughout the specialized conduction pathway.4) It increases contractile strength of the atrial and ventricular contractile cells.
  45. 45. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlControl of the Heart Rate Thus, as typical of the ANS, parasympathetic and sympatheticeffects on heart rate are example of antagonistic relation. At any givenmoment, the heart rate is determined largely by the existing balancebetween the inhibitory effects of vagus nerve and the stimulatoryeffects of the cardiac sympathetic nerves. The relative level of activity in these two branches in turn isprimarily coordinated by the cardiovascular control center located atthe brain stem.
  46. 46. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlControl of the Heart Rate Although autonomic innervation is the primary means by whichheart rate is regulated, other factors affect it as well. The mostimportant is epinephrine, a hormone that is secreted into the bloodfrom the adrenal medulla on sympathetic stimulation and the acts in amanner similar to norepinephrine to increase the heart rate.
  47. 47. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlStroke Volume is determined by the extent of venous return and bysympathetic activity. The other component that determines the cardiac output isstroke volume, the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricleduring each beat. Two types of controls influence stroke volume:1) Intrinsic Control – related to the extent of venous return2) Extrinsic Control – related to the extent of sympathetic stimulation of the heart.
  48. 48. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlIncreased end-diastolic volume results in increased stroke volume As more blood is returned to the vertebrate heart, the heartpumps out more blood, but the heart does not eject all the blood itcontains. The direct correlation between end-diastolic volume andstroke volume constitutes the intrinsic control of stoke volume, whichrefers to the heart’s inherent ability to vary the stroke volume.
  49. 49. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlFrank-Starling Law of the Heartstates that: “ Heart normally pumps all the blood returned to it”This effect is not unique to invertebrates; for example, mollusk heartsalso respond in this way to increased filling (they also beat faster inresponse)
  50. 50. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlFrank-Starling Law of the Heart The built-in relationship matching stroke volume with venousreturn has two important advantages:1) It is for equalization of output between the right and left sides of the avian and mammalian hearts, so that the blood pumped out by the heart is equally distributed between pulmonary and systemic circulation.2) When larger cardiac output is needed in any vertebrate, venous return is increased through action of the sympathetic nervous system.
  51. 51. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlThe contractility of the heart and venous return are increased bysympathetic stimulation. In addition to intrinsic control, stroke volume is also subject toextrinsic control by factors originating outside the heart, the mostimportant of which are actions of the cardiac sympathetic nerves andepinephrine. Sympathetic stimulation and epinephrine act into twoways:1) The heart contracts more forcefully and squeezes out a greater percentage of the blood it contains on sympathetic stimulation.2) Sympathetic stimulation increases stroke volume also by enhancing venous return.
  52. 52. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlThe contractility of the heart and venous return are increased bysympathetic stimulation. The strength of cardiac muscle contraction andaccordingly, the stroke volume can thus be graded by1) Varying the initial length of the muscle fibers, which turn depends on the degree of ventricular filling before contraction and;2) Varying the extentof sympathetic stimulation (extrinsic control).
  53. 53. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart MuscleThe heart receives most of its own blood supply through the coronarycirculation. Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the bloodvessels of the heart muscle (the myocardium). The vessels that deliveroxygen-rich blood to the myocardium are known as coronary arteries.The vessels that remove the deoxygenated blood from the heartmuscle are known as cardiac veins.
  54. 54. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart MuscleThe heart receives most of its own blood supply through the coronarycirculation. Although the blood passes though the heart, the heart musclecannot extract O2 or nutrients from the blood within its chamber, in partbecause the walls are too thick to permit diffusion of O2 and othersupplies from the blood in the chamber to all the cardiac cells. Therefore, like other tissues of the body, heart muscle mustreceive blood through blood vessels, specifically by means of thecoronary circulation (which first evolved in fishes). The coronaryarteries branch in fishes from the branchial arteries leaving thegills, and in mammals from the aorta just beyond the aortic valve.
  55. 55. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart MuscleCoronary Circulation
  56. 56. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart MuscleCoronary Circulation
  57. 57. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart MuscleCoronary Circulation
  58. 58. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart MuscleCoronary Circulation
  59. 59. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart MuscleCoronary Circulation During locomotory activity, the rate of coronary blood flow increases several-fold above its resting state. Increased delivery of blood to the cardiac cells is accomplished primarily by vasodilation, or enlargement, of the coronary vessels, which allows more blood to flow through them. Coronary blood flow is adjusted primarily in response to changes in the heart’s O2 requirements. The major link that coordinates coronary blood flow with myocardial O2 needs is adenosine (which is formed from ATP).
  60. 60. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart MuscleCoronary CirculationIncreased formation and release of adenosine from cardiac cells occur:1) When there is cardiac O2 deficit or2) When cardiac activity is increased and the heart accordingly requires more O2 for ATP production.The heart primarily uses free fatty acids, glucose, lactate as fuelsources. Note: depending on their availability and it can shift metabolicpathways to use whatever nutrient is available.The primary danger of insufficient coronary blood flow is not fuelshortage but O2 deficiency.
  61. 61. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart MuscleCoronary Circulation Reduced O2 in cardiac adenosine release vasodilation of coronary vessels increased blood flow and O2 delivery to myocytes
  62. 62. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Circulatory Pathways and VesselsCirculatory fluids transport materials in a parallel manner, especially inclosed systems. Most animals have either open (hemolymph) or a closed(blood) system. Blood moves through closed vessels. Hemolymph moves more randomly through open spaces “lacunae” among organs.
  63. 63. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Circulatory Pathways and VesselsCirculatory fluids transport materials in a parallel manner, especially inclosed systems. There are two important design features in closed ( and oftenin open system)1) Closed systems always have initial parallel branching in arteries, and many open system do as well. Parallel plumbing allows individual organs or body regions to obtain fresh blood (or hemolymph).2) There can be muscular valves on some of the branching parallel vessels. These appear universally in closed system and occur in some open ones.
  64. 64. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Circulatory Pathways and VesselsCirculatory fluids are driven by pressure and can transmit useful force. Directing fluid flow in parallel manner can serve anotherpurpose – force of transmission to specific organs. To move from onepoint to another it needs pressure ( is created by a pump, and is thedriving force for fluid movement).But it can be used to exert a force for other functions:1) Movement2) Ultrafiltration3) Erection
  65. 65. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Circulatory Pathways and VesselsCirculatory fluids are driven by pressure and can transmit useful force.1) Movement – hemolymph pressure (rather then skeletal muscle) is used to extend the legs in arachnids such as spiders. Arteries branch to the legs and flow to them controlled. Hemolymph entering into bent leg at high pressure (from an open artery) makes the leg straighten out.2) Ultrafiltration – Blood pressure can force water and small, dissolved solutes out of pores in capillary linings. This is usedin the initial process of urine formation in the kidney and for interactions with the ECF in many tissues.
  66. 66. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Circulatory Pathways and VesselsCirculatory fluids are driven by pressure and can transmit useful force.3) Erection – Blood can enter a flaccid organ under high pressure, and if exiting blood is restricted, the force of the pressure will inflate that organ. This occurs during arousal of erectile genitalia (penis, clitoris) Scientist also think it inflates the sensitive snout of the echidna ( a monotreme) which pokes its snout into termite and ant nests to feed.
  67. 67. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Vessels: Flow Regulation and HemodynamicsBlood flow through vessels depends on the pressure gradient andvascular resistance.Flow of fluid obeys certain physical law called the hemodynamic law.The Flow rate of blood (volume of blood passing through per unit oftime) is directly proportional to the pressure gradient and inverselyproportional to vascular resistance. Expressed in Hemodynamic FlowLaw. F= P/R or F = (P1 - P2) / Rwhere F = flow rate of fluid through a vessel P = (P1 - P2) , P1 =pressure at the inflow end of a vessel P2 =pressure at the end flow end of a vessel R = resistance of blood vessels
  68. 68. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Vessels: Flow Regulation and HemodynamicsCirculatory fluids are driven by pressure and can transmit useful force.Factors affecting flow rate:1) Pressure Gradient2) Resistance
  69. 69. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Vessels: Flow Regulation and HemodynamicsCirculatory fluids are driven by pressure and can transmit useful force.1) Pressure Gradient – the difference in pressure between thebeginning and end of a vessel – is the main driving force for flowthrough the vessel; that is, The blood flows from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure down a pressure gradient. The greater the pressure gradient for forcing of blood through a vessel, the greater the rate of flow through that vessel. Gravity is another major factor in establishing the pressuregradient. This is particularly important in terrestrial animals such ashuman and giraffe.
  70. 70. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Vessels: Flow Regulation and HemodynamicsCirculatory fluids are driven by pressure and can transmit useful force.2) Resistance – is a measure of the hindrance to blood flow through a vessel caused by friction between the moving fluid and the stationary vascular walls. As resistance to flow increases, it is more difficult for blood to pass through the vessel, so flow decreases ( as long as the pressure gradient remains unchanged). When resistance increases, the pressure gradient must increase correspondingly to maintain the same flow rate.
  71. 71. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Vessels: Flow Regulation and HemodynamicsCirculatory fluids are driven by pressure and can transmit useful force.2) Resistance – is a measure of the hindrance to blood flow through a vessel caused by friction between the moving fluid and the stationary vascular walls. Resistance to blood flow depends on several factors. (Laminarflow is the term for smooth flow). Three key factors are:- Viscosity of the blood (the greater the viscosity , the greater the R)- Vessel Length (the longer the vessel, the greater the R)- Vessel Radius ( the smaller the radius, the greater the R)
  72. 72. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Open Circulation In an open circulatory system, blood is pumped from the heartthrough blood vessels but then it leaves the blood vessels and entersbody cavities (hemocoel), where the organs are bathed in blood, orsinuses (spaces) within the organs.Blood flows slowly in an open circulatory system because there is noblood pressure after the blood leaves the blood vessels. The animalmust move its muscles to move the blood within the spaces. The most widely studied animals with open circulations aredominated by a single hemolymph space. Wide group of animals thathave open circulatory system are: Mollusks (decapods except snailsand octopuses) Insects, Crustaceans
  73. 73. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Open Circulation
  74. 74. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Open CirculationMollusks
  75. 75. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Open CirculationInsects
  76. 76. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Open CirculationCrustaceansThe heart is a muscular sac, situated dorsally, beneath thecarapace, and it gives origin to six arterial trunks, which convey theaerated blood to all parts of the body. The terminations of the arteriesopen into a series of irregular venous sinuses, whence the blood iscollected into a principal ventral sinus, and distributed to thebranchiae, where it undergoes aeration.From the gills the now aerated blood is carried by a series of branchialvessels to a large sac, which is badly termed the "pericardium," andwhich envelops and surrounds the heart. The arterial blood gainsaccess to the cavity of the heart by means of six pairs of valvularfissures, which allow of the ingress of the blood, but preventregurgitation. A portion of the venous blood, however, is not sent to thebranchiae, but is returned directly, without aeration, to the pericardium;so that the heart finally distributes to the body a mixture of venous andarterial blood.
  77. 77. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Open Circulation Diagram of the circulation of the Lobster. The systemic arteries are shaded longitudinally, the veins are dotted, and the branchial vessels are black. h Heart; a a Systemic arteries; b b Branchial vessels; c c Venous sinuses; g g Branchiae; p Pericardium.
  78. 78. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Closed Circulation In a closed circulatory system, blood is not free in a cavity; it iscontained within blood vessels. Valves prevent the backflow of bloodwithin the blood vessels. Wide group of animals that have closed circulatory system areNemerteans, Annelids, Fish, Reptiles, Amphibians, Birds, Mammals.
  79. 79. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Closed CirculationFishFish have a two-chambered heartwith one atrium (A) and one ventricle(V).The gills contain many capillaries forgas exchange, so the bloodpressure is low after going throughthe gills. Low-pressure blood fromthe gills then goes directly to thebody, which also has a large numberof capillaries. The activity level offish is limited due to the low rate ofblood flow to the body.
  80. 80. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Closed CirculationAmphibiansAmphibians have a 3-chamberedheart with two atria and oneventricle.Blood from the lungs (pulmonaryflow) goes to the left atrium. Bloodfrom the body (systemic flow) goesto the right atrium. Both atria emptyinto the ventricle where some mixingoccurs.The advantage of this system is thatthere is high pressure in vessels thatlead to both the lungs and body.
  81. 81. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Closed CirculationReptilesIn most reptiles, the ventricle ispartially divided.This reduces mixing of oxygenatedand unoxygenated blood in theventricle. The partial division of theventricle is represented by a dashedline.
  82. 82. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Closed CirculationBirds, Mammals, CrocodiliansBirds and mammals(also crocodilians) have a four-chambered heart which acts as twoseparate pumps.After passing through thebody, blood is pumped under highpressure to the lungs. Uponreturning from the lungs, it ispumped under high pressure to thebody. The high rate of oxygen-richblood flow through the body enablesbirds and mammals to maintain highactivity levels.
  83. 83. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pathways: Closed Circulation
  84. 84. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H. Upload this important animations  http://www.4shared.com/rar/13zOoh6I/animal_physio_reports_ppt.html And also visit the site http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/pharm/hyper_heart1.html
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