Organization Of The Brain

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  • 1.  Thecentral nervous system includes the brain and the spinal cord. We will learn about a lot of structures that are part of the brain and spinal cord in this section.
  • 2.  Theperipheral nervous system is the part of the nervous system that is outside of the brain and spinal cord. It is divided into two parts: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system is responsible for conveying messages from the sense organs to the central nervous system and from the central nervous system to the muscles. The autonomic nervous system controls the heart, the intestines, and other body organs.
  • 3.  The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system that is in the spinal column and communicates with the sense organs and muscles below the head. The spinal cord is made up of segments, and each segment has particular components. These include a bundle of axons that carry sensory information to the spinal cord and a cluster of neurons that carry information to the muscles. There are two sensory axons and two clusters of motor neurons on each side of each segment of the spinal cord. Each segment of the spinal cord sends sensory information to the brain and receives motor commands from the brain
  • 4.  Thespinal cord is made up of two kinds of matter: gray matter and white matter. The gray matter is in the center of each segment of the spinal cord and has a lot of cell bodies and dendrites. The white matter is toward the outside of each segment of the spinal cord and is made up of myelinated axons.
  • 5.  Ifthe spinal cord is cut, then the brain loses its ability to feel from that segment of the spinal cord where the cut occurred and all the segments below it, and the brain loses motor control over all parts of the body served by that A single segment of the spinal  cord with the gray matter, segment of the white matter, motor nerve and spinal cord and all sensory nerve indicated. segments below it.
  • 6.  Theautonomic nervous system is made up of neurons that receive information from the heart, intestines, and other organs and send commands to these organs. The autonomic nervous system is composed of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
  • 7.  Thesympathetic nervous system prepares the body for activity and causes your body’s organs to rev up for the action. For example, if you had to try and catch a baseball or run in a race, the sympathetic nervous system would prepare your body for these activities. The parasympathetic nervous system prepares the body for rest and relaxation. After a hard day at school, if you are just sitting around watching TV, your parasympathetic nervous system is causing your body’s organs to relax.
  • 8. Autonomic nervous system showing the sympathetic nervous system (left) and  the parasympathetic nervous system (right).