• Like
  • Save
The Collaborative Mind: Neuroplasticity and Cybernetic Social Cognition
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

The Collaborative Mind: Neuroplasticity and Cybernetic Social Cognition

  • 2,730 views
Published

“With the advent of multi-level findings demonstrating neuroplasticity in the adult brain, neuroscience is currently undergoing a decisive paradigm change. Although Ramón y Cajal, the father of the …

“With the advent of multi-level findings demonstrating neuroplasticity in the adult brain, neuroscience is currently undergoing a decisive paradigm change. Although Ramón y Cajal, the father of the neuron doctrine, first speculated that synaptic neuroplasticity might be the fundamental mechanism of learning, neurogenesis has remained a controversial hypothesis. Recent multi-method research has overturned this dogma, finding dramatic plasticity at cellular, cognitive, developmental, and axonal levels. I review these findings, arguing that neuroplasticity challenges traditional understandings of the mind and cognition while presenting an upcoming fMRI project investigating social-media, cognitive augmentation, and neuroplasticity.”

Published in Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,730
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
12

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Bottom right: London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis, Maguire Et al, 2004
    Bottom Left: Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood, Gogtay et al, 2004
    Top center: Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex, Stettler et al, 2006
  • Bottom right: London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis, Maguire Et al, 2004
    Bottom Left: Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood, Gogtay et al, 2004
    Top center: Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex, Stettler et al, 2006
  • Bottom right: London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis, Maguire Et al, 2004
    Bottom Left: Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood, Gogtay et al, 2004
    Top center: Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex, Stettler et al, 2006
  • Bottom right: London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis, Maguire Et al, 2004
    Bottom Left: Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood, Gogtay et al, 2004
    Top center: Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex, Stettler et al, 2006
  • Bottom right: London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis, Maguire Et al, 2004
    Bottom Left: Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood, Gogtay et al, 2004
    Top center: Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex, Stettler et al, 2006
  • Bottom right: London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis, Maguire Et al, 2004
    Bottom Left: Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood, Gogtay et al, 2004
    Top center: Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex, Stettler et al, 2006
  • Bottom right: London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis, Maguire Et al, 2004
    Bottom Left: Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood, Gogtay et al, 2004
    Top center: Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex, Stettler et al, 2006
  • Reelin, lipoprotein receptors and synaptic plasticity, Herz & Chen, 2006 Nat Rev Neuro
    Keywords: memory, LTP, LTD, NMDA,
  • Reelin, lipoprotein receptors and synaptic plasticity, Herz & Chen, 2006 Nat Rev Neuro
    Keywords: memory, LTP, LTD, NMDA,
  • Reelin, lipoprotein receptors and synaptic plasticity, Herz & Chen, 2006 Nat Rev Neuro
    Keywords: memory, LTP, LTD, NMDA,
  • Reelin, lipoprotein receptors and synaptic plasticity, Herz & Chen, 2006 Nat Rev Neuro
    Keywords: memory, LTP, LTD, NMDA,
  • Reelin, lipoprotein receptors and synaptic plasticity, Herz & Chen, 2006 Nat Rev Neuro
    Keywords: memory, LTP, LTD, NMDA,
  • Reelin, lipoprotein receptors and synaptic plasticity, Herz & Chen, 2006 Nat Rev Neuro
    Keywords: memory, LTP, LTD, NMDA,
  • Wandell & Smirnakis, 2009
    -This relates to something we’ll talk about in a minute- functional versus structural plasticity- where many studies have show that functional activation patterns can change quite quickly
  • While recent studies of synaptic stability in adult cerebral cortex have focused on dendrites, how much axons change is unknown. We have used advances in axon labeling by viruses and in vivo two-photon microscopy to investigate axon branching and bouton dynamics in primary visual cortex (V1) of adult Macaque monkeys. A nonreplicative adeno-associated virus bearing the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (AAV.EGFP) provided persistent labeling of axons, and a custom-designed two-photon microscope enabled repeated imaging of the intact brain over several weeks. We found that large-scale branching patterns were stable but that a subset of small branches associated with terminaux boutons, as well as a subset of en passant boutons, appeared and disappeared every week. Bouton losses and gains were both approximately 7% of the total population per week, with no net change in the overall density. These results suggest ongoing processes of synaptogenesis and elimination in adult V1.
  • While recent studies of synaptic stability in adult cerebral cortex have focused on dendrites, how much axons change is unknown. We have used advances in axon labeling by viruses and in vivo two-photon microscopy to investigate axon branching and bouton dynamics in primary visual cortex (V1) of adult Macaque monkeys. A nonreplicative adeno-associated virus bearing the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (AAV.EGFP) provided persistent labeling of axons, and a custom-designed two-photon microscope enabled repeated imaging of the intact brain over several weeks. We found that large-scale branching patterns were stable but that a subset of small branches associated with terminaux boutons, as well as a subset of en passant boutons, appeared and disappeared every week. Bouton losses and gains were both approximately 7% of the total population per week, with no net change in the overall density. These results suggest ongoing processes of synaptogenesis and elimination in adult V1.
  • While recent studies of synaptic stability in adult cerebral cortex have focused on dendrites, how much axons change is unknown. We have used advances in axon labeling by viruses and in vivo two-photon microscopy to investigate axon branching and bouton dynamics in primary visual cortex (V1) of adult Macaque monkeys. A nonreplicative adeno-associated virus bearing the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (AAV.EGFP) provided persistent labeling of axons, and a custom-designed two-photon microscope enabled repeated imaging of the intact brain over several weeks. We found that large-scale branching patterns were stable but that a subset of small branches associated with terminaux boutons, as well as a subset of en passant boutons, appeared and disappeared every week. Bouton losses and gains were both approximately 7% of the total population per week, with no net change in the overall density. These results suggest ongoing processes of synaptogenesis and elimination in adult V1.
  • From phantom limbs and neural plasticity 2000, Ramachandran
  • From phantom limbs and neural plasticity 2000, Ramachandran
  • From phantom limbs and neural plasticity 2000, Ramachandran
  • From phantom limbs and neural plasticity 2000, Ramachandran
  • From phantom limbs and neural plasticity 2000, Ramachandran
  • From phantom limbs and neural plasticity 2000, Ramachandran
  • From phantom limbs and neural plasticity 2000, Ramachandran
  • Figure 2. Meditation modulates right insula response to emotional sounds: A. Voxel-wise analysis of the Group by State by Valence (negative versus positive sounds) interaction in insula (Ins.) (z = 2, corrected, colors code: orange, p,5.10 ˆ -2, yellow, p,2.10 ˆ -2, 15 experts (red) and 15 novices (blue)). B. Average response in Ins. from rest to compassion for experts (red) and novices (blue) for negative and positive sounds. C–D. Voxel-wise analysis of BOLD response to emotional sounds during during poor vs. good blocks of compassion, as verbally reported. C. Main effect for verbal report in insula (Ins.) (z=13, corrected, colors: orange, p,10ˆ-3, yellow, p,5.10ˆ-4, 12 experts and 10 novices). D. Average response in (Ins.) for experts (red) and novices (blue).

    Fifteen Vipassana meditators (mean practice: 7.9 years, 2 h daily) and fifteen non-meditators, matched for sex, age, education, and handedness, participated in a block-design fMRI study that included mindfulness of breathing and mental arithmetic conditions.
  • Figure 2. Meditation modulates right insula response to emotional sounds: A. Voxel-wise analysis of the Group by State by Valence (negative versus positive sounds) interaction in insula (Ins.) (z = 2, corrected, colors code: orange, p,5.10 ˆ -2, yellow, p,2.10 ˆ -2, 15 experts (red) and 15 novices (blue)). B. Average response in Ins. from rest to compassion for experts (red) and novices (blue) for negative and positive sounds. C–D. Voxel-wise analysis of BOLD response to emotional sounds during during poor vs. good blocks of compassion, as verbally reported. C. Main effect for verbal report in insula (Ins.) (z=13, corrected, colors: orange, p,10ˆ-3, yellow, p,5.10ˆ-4, 12 experts and 10 novices). D. Average response in (Ins.) for experts (red) and novices (blue).

    Fifteen Vipassana meditators (mean practice: 7.9 years, 2 h daily) and fifteen non-meditators, matched for sex, age, education, and handedness, participated in a block-design fMRI study that included mindfulness of breathing and mental arithmetic conditions.
  • We found no apparent overlap between structural and functional findings to support the site-specific hypothesis. Interpreting fMRI data has important limitations. For example, the BOLD signal reflects neuronal mass activity. It does not distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory activity, and a marked change in processing strategies involving an anatomical area does not necessitate a change in BOLD [24]. It is possible that practiced-subjects developed a more sophisticated approach, but if this did not invoke novel brain areas, it might not be detectable using fMRI.

Transcript

  • 1. The Collaborative Mind Neuroplasticity and Cybernetic Social Cognition. December 5th, 2009 Micah Allen, PhD Student: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 2. Overview
  • 3. Overview ✤ Part 1: Defining Neuroplasticity: Limitations and Possibilities
  • 4. Overview ✤ Part 1: Defining Neuroplasticity: Limitations and Possibilities ✤ What is Neuroplasticity? ✤ Neurobiology ✤ Development ✤ Cognitive-Behavioral Learning
  • 5. Overview ✤ Part 1: Defining Neuroplasticity: Limitations and Possibilities ✤ What is Neuroplasticity? ✤ Neurobiology ✤ Development ✤ Cognitive-Behavioral Learning ✤ Part 2: Cyborg Cognition: The Mind Extended and Interacted ✤ Relevant Research ✤ Neuroplasticity and Cyborg Cognition ✤ Social Cognition and Social Media
  • 6. Defining Neuroplasticity
  • 7. Defining Neuroplasticity ✤ Three complementary ways to discuss and investigate neuroplasticity:
  • 8. Defining Neuroplasticity ✤ Three complementary ways to discuss and investigate neuroplasticity: ✤ Neurobiology ✤ Development ✤ Cognition and Learning
  • 9. Neurobiological Plasticity LTP and LTD at the Synapse Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 10. Neurobiological Plasticity LTP and LTD at the Synapse Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 11. Neurobiological Plasticity LTP and LTD at the Synapse Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 12. Neurobiological Plasticity LTP and LTD at the Synapse Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 13. Neurobiological Plasticity System level impacts on single cells ✤ Neuroplasticity often depends on interactions between brain regions. ✤ Motivation and Reward ✤ “There is a wealth of evidence in the neurophysiology literature demonstrating that the brain systems thought to convey the utility of reward, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus basilis (NB), play a large role in producing plastic changes in sensory areas. In particular, when specific auditory tones are paired with stimulation of either the VTA (dopaminergic) or the NB (cholinergic), the area of primary auditory cortex that represents the given tone increases dramatically (Green & Bavelier, 2008)” ✤ LTP more common in areas that mediate learning and forgetting; neural association requires statistically flexible models (i.e. hippocampus and cerebellum). Deeper cross-network physiological processes (i.e. depth perception, motion detection, or object identification) require encapsulation from plasticity (Wandell & Smirnakis, 2009). Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 14. Neurobiological Plasticity Adapation vs Plasticity ✤ Not all changes are long term- a neuron (or neural network) can change it’s processing of an input without any long-term alteration of structure ✤ “A prototypical example is the change in the cone photocurrent after exposure to a bright light (light adaptation). This change reverses in minutes after some time in the dark (dark adaptation). In this case, it is not thought that the neural circuits are transformed by the light or dark exposures (Wandell & Smirnakis, 2009). ” Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 15. Neurobiological Plasticity Adapation vs Plasticity ✤ Not all changes are long term- a neuron (or neural network) can change it’s processing of an input without any long-term alteration of structure ✤ “A prototypical example is the change in the cone photocurrent after exposure to a bright light (light adaptation). This change reverses in minutes after some time in the dark (dark adaptation). In this case, it is not thought that the neural circuits are transformed by the light or dark exposures (Wandell & Smirnakis, 2009). ” Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 16. Neurobiological Plasticity Dendritic and Axonal Turn-Over ✤ While recent studies of synaptic stability in adult cerebral cortex have focused on dendrites, how much axons change is unknown. We have used advances in axon labeling by viruses and in vivo two-photon microscopy to investigate axon branching and bouton dynamics in primary visual cortex (V1) of adult Macaque monkeys. A nonreplicative adeno-associated virus bearing the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (AAV.EGFP) provided persistent labeling of axons, and a custom-designed two-photon microscope enabled repeated imaging of the intact brain over several weeks. We found that large-scale branching patterns were stable but that a subset of small branches associated with terminaux boutons, as well as a subset of en passant boutons, appeared and disappeared every week. Bouton losses and gains were both approximately 7% of the total population per week, with no net change in the overall density. These results suggest ongoing processes of synaptogenesis and elimination in adult V1. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 17. Dendritic and Axonal Turn-Over Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 18. Dendritic and Axonal Turn-Over Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 19. Neurobiological Plasticity Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 20. Neurobiological Plasticity ✤ Bouton Dynamics in Adult Cortex “Depending on whether the population of boutons is homogeneous or not, the amount of bouton turnover (7% per week) has different implications for the stability of the synaptic connection network. If all boutons have the same replacement probability per unit time, synaptic connectivity would become largely remodeled after about 14 weeks.” “Alternatively, there may be a subpopulation of connections that are highly dynamic, with the rest remaining stable. The doubling of the total turnover observed with a doubling of the interval from 1 to 2 weeks is consistent with a uniform probability. However, so far only a limited number of boutons have been imaged at longer periods and more than two time points. Additional observations over longer periods and multiple time points will be necessary to resolve this issue conclusively.”
  • 21. Neurobiological Plasticity Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 22. Neurobiological Plasticity Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 23. Developmental Neuroplasticity ✤ Neurogenesis ✤ LTP ✤ Synaptic and Somatic Pruning and Growth
  • 24. Developmental Neuroplasticity Neurogenesis: The formation of new neurons (neural cell bodies, or somas). Neurogenesis results in increased gray matter and can be detected via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 25. Developmental Neuroplasticity
  • 26. Developmental Neuroplasticity ✤ Neurogenesis ✤ Primarily characterizes pre-natal neurodevelopment. ✤ Also occurs in developing (child and adolescent) brains ✤ Orderly- specific developmental and hormonal processes lead to site-specific neurogenesis. ✤ Example: Release of sex hormone in puberty results in sexual differentiation of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pre-frontal sexual regions.
  • 27. Developmental Neuroplasticity ✤ Neurogenesis ✤ Primarily characterizes pre-natal neurodevelopment. ✤ Also occurs in developing (child and adolescent) brains ✤ Orderly- specific developmental and hormonal processes lead to site-specific neurogenesis. ✤ Example: Release of sex hormone in puberty results in sexual differentiation of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pre-frontal sexual regions. ✤ New research indicates adult neurogenesis in areas responsible for memory and learning (hippocampus and cerebellum).
  • 28. Developmental Neuroplasticity ✤ Neurogenesis ✤ Primarily characterizes pre-natal neurodevelopment. ✤ Also occurs in developing (child and adolescent) brains ✤ Orderly- specific developmental and hormonal processes lead to site-specific neurogenesis. ✤ Example: Release of sex hormone in puberty results in sexual differentiation of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pre-frontal sexual regions. ✤ New research indicates adult neurogenesis in areas responsible for memory and learning (hippocampus and cerebellum). ✤ Adult neurogenesis remains controversial, however...
  • 29. Developmental Neuroplasticity
  • 30. Developmental Neuroplasticity ✤ LTP ✤ Functional and structural alterations of individual synapses change network weights, subserving memory and learning functions. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 31. Developmental Neuroplasticity ✤ LTP ✤ Functional and structural alterations of individual synapses change network weights, subserving memory and learning functions. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 32. Developmental Neuroplasticity
  • 33. Developmental Neuroplasticity ✤ Synaptic and Somatic Pruning ✤ Primary mechanism of 0-25 neurodevelopment ✤ Total number of neurons drops rapidly from birth onward- we start with billions more than we need
  • 34. Developmental Neuroplasticity ✤ Synaptic and Somatic Pruning ✤ Primary mechanism of 0-25 neurodevelopment ✤ Total number of neurons drops rapidly from birth onward- we start with billions more than we need ✤ Unused neurons self-eliminate via apoptosis ✤ Apoptosis prevented by neurotransmission; lack of activity leads to build up of signal chemicals that trigger neural suicide. ✤ Good for overall conductivity of neurons- leads to faster, more specialized neural networks.
  • 35. “The prefrontal cortex shows relatively late structural and metabolic maturation, and the prolonged phase of prefrontal cortical gain in the most intelligent might afford an even more extended ‘critical’ period for the development of high-level cognitive cortical circuits.” “‘Brainy’ children are not cleverer solely by virtue of having more or less grey matter at any one age. Rather, intelligence is related to dynamic properties of cortical maturation.”
  • 36. Cognition, Learning, and Plasticity ✤ Functional ✤ (A-B) > (B-A) following training. ✤ Network ✤ Alterations in cross-region connectivity. ✤ Structural ✤ Increases in gray or white matter following treatment. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 37. Cognition, Learning, and Plasticity ✤ Functional ✤ (A-B) > (B-A) following training. ✤ Network ✤ Alterations in cross-region connectivity. ✤ Structural ✤ Increases in gray or white matter following treatment. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 38. Cross-Modal Peripersonal Plasticity ✤ Ego-centric coding of arm position within somatosensory cortex remaps to include tools within moments ✤ Visual Receptive Fields in Macaque Monkeys expands when using tools to manipulate objects ✤ Peripersonal space dynamically alters; includes visual, tactile, and auditory modalities.
  • 39. Functional Plasticity in Self-Regulatory and Emotive Brain Networks Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 40. Functional Plasticity in Self-Regulatory and Emotive Brain Networks Brief training in meditation alters function in the fronto-limbic network Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 41. Plasticity in Network Connectivity Prior to meditation training, NF and EF networks exhibit strong connectivity; 8 weeks of meditation training not only alters area-specific activations, but decouples these networks, increasing functional individuation Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 42. Structural and Connective Plasticity in Adult Cognition -Recent studies demonstrate radical plasticity in the adult human brain. -High-impact findings have implicated; meditation, learning to juggle, playing tetris, stress, and others in the increase of grey and white matter. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 43. Driving a Taxi Findings: group differences, up and down regulations of task-specific brain areas, non-correlation with stress and anxiety indices. Raises the possibility of neural cannibalization. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 44. Playing Tetris “Using a 3 T MRI, we obtained structural and functional images in adolescent girls before and after practice on a visual-spatial problem- solving computer game, Tetris. After three months of practice, compared to the structural scans of controls, the group with Tetris practice showed thicker cortex, primarily in two areas: left BAs 6 and 22/38. “ “Based on fMRI BOLD signals, the Tetris group showed cortical activations throughout the brain while playing Tetris, but significant BOLD decreases, mostly in frontal areas, were observed after practice. None of these BOLD decreases, however, overlapped with the cortical thickness changes.” Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 45. Adept Contemplation Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 46. Ritalin: Social Cognitive Augmentation? Evidence from rats and humans reveals strong neuroplasticity in areas related to social cognition when under the influence of methylphenidate (ritalin) Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 47. Cyborgs and Social Cognition 2.0 Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 48. A thought experiment Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 49. Constrains on Cognitive Extension Three constraints for the parity principle 1. “...the resource must be available and typically invoked” (Clark, 2006).[Availability Criterion] The Parity Principle: 2. “...any information...retrieved from [the non-biological resource must] be more-or- “If, as we confront some task, a part of the world less automatically endorsed. It should not functions as a process which, were it to go on in usually be subject to critical scrutiny (unlike the opinions of other people, for example). the head, we would have no hesitation in It should be deemed about as trustworthy as recognizing as part of the cognitive process, then something retrieved clearly from biological that part of the world is (so we claim) part of the memory” (Clark, 2006). [Epistemic Criterion] cognitive process. Cognitive processes ain’t (all) in the head! (Clark and Chalmers 1998, p. 8)” 3. “...information contained in the resource should be easily accessible as and when required” (Clark, 2006). [Accessibility Criterion] (Smart et al, 2008) Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 50. Social Cognition Three primary views: Theory of Mind Mentalistic Schemas: (e.g. Frith & Frith, If you desire x, and believe Y, then ceteris paribus, you will Z. Blakemore, Meltzoff) ‘Embodied Resonance’: Simulation Theory If I desire X, then I (e.g. Gallese, Goldman, usually intend Y- you Gazzaniga) desire X, therefor you must intend Y Interaction Theory ‘Enactive Social Cognition’: (e.g. Gallagher, Hutto, Di Interaction and social Paolo, and Zahavi) cognition outside of the head Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 51. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 52. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 53. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 54. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 55. Cybernetic Social Cognition? We now know that the brain is highly plastic, adapting to culture and environment in a dynamic fashion. So what about Web 2.0? Further, we can understand the unique 2-way relationship between tool use and cognition Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 56. Social Cognition 2.0 Social media is "an umbrella term that defines the various activities that integrate technology, social interaction, and the construction of words, pictures, videos, and audio." - http://wikipedia.org Facts: 3/4 of Americans use social technology -Forrester, 2008 2/3 of the global internet population use social net works -Nielsen, 2009 Visiting SNSs is the 4th most popular online activity- more than email! -Nielsen, 2009 As of 12/2/2009 350,000,000 people use Facebook worldwide -Facebook.com Time spent on SNS is growing 3X the overall internet rate, accounting for roughly 10% of all internet time -Nielsen, 2009 “What the F**K is social media, Kagan 2009” Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 57. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 58. The social web provides expanded opportunities to flex our cognitive muscles Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 59. Social Cognition 2.0 Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 60. Dense streams of multi-modal data provide opportunities to enrich our mental representations, opening the window for prolonged social self-stimulation in ways that The web has thus become the transcend traditional dogma and ultimate social laboratory- a place social normativity. rich in intersubjective data providing endlessly inter-layered surveys of the opinions, beliefs, motivations and desires that make up our collective social fabric Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 61. Not only does social media potentially strengthen our inner Further, Web 2.0 extends the traditional social mechanisms; routines to this rich tapestry- like the notepad social media reshapes or calculator for arithmetic, I can now offload knowledge itself, my sense-making of others, objects, and establishing a variety events to the digital intersubjective. of collective, collaborative sense- making narratives. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 62. Social Cognition 2.0 This offloading to the collective democratizes information sharing, contextualizing events in ways that defy cultural and political boundaries. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 63. Social Cognition 2.0 Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 64. This is true extended cognition- the cognitive loop is completed in digitally mediated worlds- social technology makes information social- lending it immediacy, Accessibility, and distributed epistemic viability. Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 65. Social media extracts Turning this: the meaningful from the noise, increasing interdependency between information Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 66. Into this: Research 2.0 Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 67. But what about the brain? My hypothesis: Culture Mind Brain Technology Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 68. Testing the Hypothesis Digital Close Far Group R e Close +,+ +,- Hi a l Far -,+ -,- Lo “Brain’s adaptation to the emergence of collective identity: effects of Facebook proximity on ‘like me’ brain networks.” Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 69. Testing the Hypothesis Future studies using behavioral, functional, and anatomical methods: -Testing social cognition differences in high and low users -Longitudinal investigations to establish causality. -Specification of usage patterns; how do different social media strategies impact the brain, self, and mind? Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 70. Conclusion and Summary -Brain is highly plastic at all levels -Connectivity and Plasticity may be central for cognition, computation, and intelligence, rather than absolute features -Mind and Cognition are extensible- technology enhances and reshapes the brain-mind-culture loop Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk
  • 71. Thank you! Micah Allen: Micah@cfin.dk