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  • 1. AIM: Where did life originate from?
  • 2. “…sparked by just the right combination of physical events & chemical processes…” AIM: Where did life originate from?
  • 3. Bacteria Archae- Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia 0 Cenozoic bacteria Mesozoic Colonization of land Paleozoic by animals 500 Appearance of animals and land plants 1000 First multicellular PROTEROZOIC organisms 1500 Oldest definite fossils Millions of years ago of eukaryotes PRECAMBRIAN 2000 Appearance of oxygen in atmosphere 2500 Oldest definite fossils of prokaryotes ARCHEAN 3000 3500 Molten-hot surface of 4000 earth becomes cooler 4500 Formation of earth
  • 4. Bacteria Archae- Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia 0 Cenozoic bacteria Mesozoic Colonization of land Paleozoic by animals 500 Appearance of animals and land plants 1000 First multicellular PROTEROZOIC organisms 1500 Oldest definite fossils Millions of years ago of eukaryotes PRECAMBRIAN 2000 Appearance of oxygen in atmosphere 2500 Oldest definite fossils of prokaryotes ARCHEAN 3000 The evolutionary tree of 3500 life can be documented Molten-hot surface of earth becomes cooler with evidence. 4000 The Origin of Life on 4500 Formation of earth Earth is another story…
  • 5. What is Life?
  • 6. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE…
  • 7. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells
  • 8. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli
  • 9. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes
  • 10. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis
  • 11. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow
  • 12. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism
  • 13. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop
  • 14. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime
  • 15. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce
  • 16. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce § heredity
  • 17. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce § heredity w DNA / RNA
  • 18. What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce § heredity w DNA / RNA § adaptation & evolution
  • 19. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis
  • 20. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis
  • 21. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation
  • 22. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force?
  • 23. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable
  • 24. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin
  • 25. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth?
  • 26. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth
  • 27. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable
  • 28. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable § Spontaneous Abiotic Origin
  • 29. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable § Spontaneous Abiotic Origin u Did life evolve spontaneously from inorganic molecules?
  • 30. The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable § Spontaneous Abiotic Origin u Did life evolve spontaneously from inorganic molecules? u testable
  • 31. Origin of Organic Compounds
  • 32. Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds:
  • 33. Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds: § Hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean release chemicals, creating unusual chemical conditions
  • 34. Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds: § Hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean release chemicals, creating unusual chemical conditions § Extraterrestrial origin: Scientists have shown that organic compounds could have formed in cold interstellar space and then delivered to Earth by meteors or comets
  • 35. Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds: § Hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean release chemicals, creating unusual chemical conditions § Extraterrestrial origin: Scientists have shown that organic compounds could have formed in cold interstellar space and then delivered to Earth by meteors or comets § Chemical reactions in the atmosphere and in water, on the surface of the Earth
  • 36. Spontaneous Origin of Life
  • 37. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation”
  • 38. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation”
  • 39. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya
  • 40. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya
  • 41. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for
  • 42. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include:
  • 43. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide)
  • 44. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide)
  • 45. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides)
  • 46. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides)
  • 47. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides) 3. Formation of polymers that can self replicate to allow for the inheritance of characteristics
  • 48. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides) 3. Formation of polymers that can self replicate to allow for the inheritance of characteristics
  • 49. Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides) 3. Formation of polymers that can self replicate to allow for the inheritance of characteristics 4. Packaging of these molecules into membranes with an internal chemistry different from the
  • 50. Conditions on early Earth
  • 51. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere
  • 52. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S
  • 53. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  • 54. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  • 55. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron low O2 = organic molecules do not breakdown as quickly What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  • 56. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron u no free oxygen low O2 = organic molecules do not breakdown as quickly What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  • 57. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron u no free oxygen low O2 = organic molecules § Energy source do not breakdown as quickly What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  • 58. Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron u no free oxygen low O2 = organic molecules § Energy source do not breakdown u lightning, UV radiation, as quickly volcanic What’s missing from that atmosphere?
  • 59. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) CH4 Water vapor H2 NH3 Mixture of gases (quot;primitive Condenser atmospherequot;) Water Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  • 60. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis CH4 Water vapor H2 NH3 Mixture of gases (quot;primitive Condenser atmospherequot;) Water Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  • 61. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) Water Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  • 62. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  • 63. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis § formed organic compounds Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  • 64. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis § formed organic compounds Condensed w amino acids liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  • 65. Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis § formed organic compounds Condensed w amino acids liquid with complex, w adenine Heated water organic molecules (quot;oceanquot;)
  • 66. Stanley Miller University of Chicago produced -amino acids -hydrocarbons -nitrogen bases -other organics It’s ALIVE!
  • 67. Phospholipids
  • 68. Phospholipids § Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? u fatty acid tails = hydrophobic u PO4 = hydrophilic head u dual “personality”
  • 69. Phospholipids § Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? u fatty acid tails = hydrophobic u PO4 = hydrophilic head u dual “personality” interaction with H2O is complex & very important!
  • 70. Phospholipids § Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? u fatty acid tails = hydrophobic u PO4 = hydrophilic head u dual “personality” It likes water & also pushes it away! interaction with H2O is complex & very important!
  • 71. Phospholipids in water
  • 72. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O
  • 73. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O
  • 74. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles”
  • 75. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles” § can also form bilayer
  • 76. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles” § can also form bilayer bilayer
  • 77. Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles” § can also form bilayer § early evolutionary stage of cell? bilayer
  • 78. Origin of Cells (Protobionts) § Bubbles → separate inside from outside → metabolism & reproduction
  • 79. Origin of Cells (Protobionts) § Bubbles → separate inside from outside → metabolism & reproduction Bubbles… Tiny bubbles…
  • 80. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics
  • 81. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material
  • 82. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional
  • 83. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information
  • 84. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule
  • 85. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible
  • 86. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution
  • 87. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution u enzyme functions
  • 88. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution u enzyme functions u transport molecule
  • 89. Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution u enzyme functions u transport molecule § tRNA & mRNA
  • 90. Key Events in Origin of Life
  • 91. Key Events in Origin of Life § Key events in evolutionary history of life on Earth
  • 92. Key Events in Origin of Life § Key events in evolutionary history of life on Earth u life originated 3.5–4.0 bya
  • 93. Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya
  • 94. Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya
  • 95. Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya 3.5 billion year old fossil of bacteria
  • 96. Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya 3.5 billion year old fossil of bacteria modern bacteria chains of one-celled cyanobacteria
  • 97. Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies
  • 98. Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies
  • 99. Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies
  • 100. Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies
  • 101. Oxygen atmosphere
  • 102. Oxygen atmosphere
  • 103. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya
  • 104. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere
  • 105. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting
  • 106. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting § makes aerobic respiration possible
  • 107. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting § makes aerobic respiration possible u photosynthetic
  • 108. Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting § makes aerobic respiration possible u photosynthetic u algae)
  • 109. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope plasma membrane DNA cell wall plasma membrane
  • 110. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope plasma membrane DNA cell wall plasma membrane Prokaryotic cell
  • 111. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope infolding of the plasma plasma membrane membrane DNA cell wall plasma membrane Prokaryotic cell
  • 112. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope infolding of the plasma plasma membrane membrane DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic cell ancestor of eukaryotic cells
  • 113. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic cell ancestor of eukaryotic cells
  • 114. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic cell ancestor of eukaryotic cells
  • 115. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells
  • 116. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes § Development of internal membranes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells
  • 117. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes § Development of internal membranes u create internal micro-environments nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells
  • 118. ~2 bya First Eukaryotes § Development of internal membranes u create internal micro-environments u advantage: specialization = increase efficiency nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells
  • 119. Endosymbiosis internal membrane system Endosymbiosis
  • 120. Endosymbiosis internal membrane system Endosymbiosis
  • 121. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes internal membrane system Endosymbiosis
  • 122. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes internal membrane system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  • 123. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria internal membrane system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  • 124. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria internal membrane aerobic bacterium system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  • 125. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them internal membrane aerobic bacterium system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  • 126. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship internal membrane aerobic bacterium system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  • 127. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship internal membrane aerobic bacterium mitochondrion system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell
  • 128. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship internal membrane aerobic bacterium mitochondrion system Endosymbiosis Ancestral Eukaryotic cell eukaryotic cell with mitochondrion
  • 129. Endosymbiosis Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  • 130. Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  • 131. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  • 132. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  • 133. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts photosynthetic bacterium Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  • 134. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them photosynthetic bacterium Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  • 135. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship photosynthetic bacterium Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  • 136. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship photosynthetic bacterium chloroplast Endosymbiosis mitochondrion
  • 137. Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship photosynthetic bacterium chloroplast Endosymbiosis mitochondrion Eukaryotic cell with chloroplast & mitochondrion
  • 138. Theory of Endosymbiosis
  • 139. Theory of Endosymbiosis Lynn Margulis
  • 140. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence Lynn Margulis
  • 141. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural Lynn Margulis
  • 142. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure Lynn Margulis
  • 143. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis
  • 144. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria
  • 145. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria u functional
  • 146. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria u functional § mitochondria & chloroplasts move freely within the cell
  • 147. Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria u functional § mitochondria & chloroplasts move freely within the cell § mitochondria & chloroplasts reproduce independently from the cell